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Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, Githinji CG, Rukenya ZM. "Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich), a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya." Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2013; 2(6):41-45.
Kariuki DK, Kanui TI, Mbugua PM, Githinji CG. "Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of 9-Hexacosene and Stigmasterol isolated from Mondia whytei.". 2012. Abstractanalgesic.pdfWebsite

The aim of the study was to ascertain the analgesic properties of Mondia whytei
roots and to isolate and characterize the active constituents. Bioactivity guided
fractionation of the chloroform root extract yielded stigmasterol and 9-hexacosene.
Stigmasterol (15 mg/kg) and 9-hexacosene (30 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05)
inhibited chemical nociception induced by intraperitoneal acetic acid. Stigmasterol
(7.5, 15, 30 and 100 mg/kg) dose dependently reduced the time spent in pain behavior
in both the early and late phases of the formalin test. 9-hexacosene dose
dependently caused significant (p<0.001) antinociceptive effect on the late phase of
the formalin test. Co-administration of naloxone failed to antagonize the analgesic
activity of stigmasterol and 9-hexacosene in the formalin test. We concluded that
both stigmasterol and 9-hexacosene possess potential analgesic effects which are
most likely mediated by their anti-inflammatory activities rather than through
opioid receptor system.

K.Njunge, G.Muriuki, Mwangi JW, Kuria KAM. "Analgesic and antipsychotic effects of myrica salicifolia (Myricaceae)." Phytother Res. 2002;16:573-574.
Njung'e K, Muriuki G, Mwangi JW, Kuria KA. "Analgesic and antipyretic effects of Myrica salicifolia (Myricaceae).". 2002. AbstractWebsite

Myrica salicifolia Hoechst (Myricaceae) root extract was found to have analgesic activity in mice. In rats there was antipyretic but no antiinflammatory activity.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "Analgesic and antipyretic effects of Myrica salicifolia (Myricaceae). Njung'e K, Muriuki G, Mwangi JW, Kuria KA. Phytother Res. 2002 Mar;16 Suppl 1:S73-4.". In: Phytother Res. 2002 Mar;16 Suppl 1:S73-4. The Kenya Medical Association; 2002. Abstract
Myrica salicifolia Hoechst (Myricaceae) root extract was found to have analgesic activity in mice. In rats there was antipyretic but no antiinflammatory activity. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mutua FM, Zaki AF. "Analyses of Annual Droughts in Kenya Using an Objective Annual Rainfall Drought Index." Journal of Met and Related Sciences. 2010;4:21-23.
Kanduma EG, Mwacharo JM, Githaka NW, Kinyanjui PW, Njuguna JN, Kamau LM, Kariuki E, Mwaura S, Skilton RA, Bishop RP. "Analyses of mitochondrial genes reveal two sympatric but genetically divergent lineages of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2016;9:1-15. Abstract
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Opot. B, Osuna. F, Gachara. G, Wadegu. M, Achilla. R, Majanja. J, Wurapa. E, Bulimo. W. "Analyses of selection pressure on the Hemagglutinin gene of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses circulating in Kenya 2007-2011. .". In: 2nd Medical and Veterinary Virology Research -2 symposium. Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi.; 2012. Abstract
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DR DAVIDNYIKA. "Analyses of the Dynamic Performance of Photogrammetric and Cartographic Plotting Systems. .". In: Department of Surveying; University of Nairobi. Nairobi.; 1986.
Aketch ON, Lee L, Chou J, Huang S, Chang S, Wu Y, et al. "Analyses of the ISUAL Dancing Sprites and Secondary Sprites." American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2013. 2013. AbstractFull Text

From July 2004 to May 2012, about 1,700 sprites were recorded by ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning). Most of them were singly occurring sprites that were not followed by other sprites; while about 7% of them were multi-sprites, which typically start with a sprite and then followed by another sprite that showed a spatial displacement relative to the preceding sprites. Almost all of these events show horizontal shifts between the preceding sprites and the follow-up ones, which previously have been called the dancing sprites. In contrast to the majority cases of dancing sprites with horizontal displacements, three follow-up sprites were found to exhibit a vertical displacement relative to the preceding sprites, which are termed as the secondary sprites in in this report. These three secondary sprites exhibit similar occurring sequences and characteristics; with the preceding clustering sprite spanning the altitudes of ~60-85 km, and then 30 ms or more later, a secondary sprite appears at ~40-65 km altitudes and seems to be connected to the dimming channels of the preceding sprite. From analyzing the spectral and the ULF data, possible generating mechanisms for dancing sprites and secondary sprites are proposed in this report. Several researches [Lyons, 1994; Lyons, 1996; Lu et al., 2012] had indicated that the successive sprite production in the dancing sprites aligned with the lateral leader propagation direction of lightning. We consider that the successively occurring dancing sprites and the secondary sprites are related to the extending leaders of the cloud-to-ground lightning, which are often followed by a continuing current or even a second stroke. The dancing sprites may be induced by the subsequent leaders in the cloud extending mainly in the horizontal direction, while the secondary sprites may be triggered by the leaders extending primarily in the vertical direction. In addition, a numerical quasi-electrostatic (QE) field model is developed with the aim to validate the occurring scenario of the secondary sprites. Based on the information inferred from the associate ULF data of a secondary sprite, salient parameters, including the charge, the charge height, and the discharging time constant, are estimated and used in the QE model calculations. Through performing QE modeling with the ULF inferred parameters, we find that the electric field in the region below the preceding sprites could be enhanced by the continuing current.

Boon TRE;, Lund DH;, Buttoud G;, Kouplevatskaya I. Analysis along procedural elements.; 2008.Website
Boon TRE;, Nathan I;, Buttoud G;, Kouplevatskaya I, Lund DH;. Analysis along procedural elements.; 1998.Website
J B, B N, O G, E N, C N. "Analysis and evaluation of poverty in Kenya.". In: Poverty Revisited: Analysis and Strategies towards Poverty Eradication in Kenya. Nairobi: Ruaraka Printing Press; 1998.
MUSEMBI PROFNGANDABENJAMIN. "Analysis and Evaluation of Poverty in Kenya, in conjunction with others, Chapter 1, in J. Bahemuka, Benjamin Nganda and Charles Nzioka (ed), Poverty Revisited. February.". In: international Institute for Development Studies. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Analysis and Evaluation of Poverty in Kenya." CH. 1 pp. 1-36. Co-authored with Bahemuka et al. In Bahemuka J. et al. Poverty Revisited: Analysis and Strategies Towards Poverty Eradication in Kenya. Nairobi:.". In: Ruaraka Printing Press Ltd. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Raphael G Wahome, Karatu K. "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5(3):104-110.
Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Wahome RG,... "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." … Pollution and Human …. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Clean air is important for human health and well-being, air pollution has increased in many parts worldwide and thus posing a significant threat people's health. In Kenya, the traffic police officers who constantly un covered stand on road junctions continuously expose …

Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Raphael G Wahome, Karatu K, Michael Gatari. "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5:104-110. Abstract
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Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Raphael G Wahome, Karatu K, Michael Gatari. "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5(3):104-110.
Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Analysis and Spectral Imaging Approaches to Disease Diagnostics: Forays into Malaria and Cancer.". In: LAM 10 International Workshop: Optics Photonics and Lasers in Science and Technology for Sustainable Development. 13-18 January 2014, Dakar, Senegal; 2014. Abstract
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WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. ""Analysis Characterizations of Female Gender in Selected Fictions and Textbooks in Contemporary Kenya" Adult Educator, The Kenya Adult Educator Vol. 5 No. 2, 2001.". In: The Kenya Adult Educator Vol. 5 No. 2, 2001. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2001. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
SAMSON DROMBONGIKENNETH. "An analysis of 1997 Elections', a paper presented at a seminar on 'the 1997 Elections and Democratisation Process in Kenya in the African Studies Centre.". In: Transactions of the Royal society of Tropical and Hygiene, Vol. 92, 1998, pp 685-686. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1998. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
Abubakar LU, Bulimo WD, Masiga D, Mulaa FJ, Osir EO. Analysis of a serine protease gene expressed in midgut of African trypanosome vector, glossina fuscipes fuscipes.. University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2004. Abstract

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George. G, Samuel. S, John. M, Japheth. M, Wallace. B. "Analysis of Antigenic Drift in the Neuraminidase (NA) gene of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Kenya. .". In: 3rd Annual African Network for Influenza Surveillance and Epidemiology Meeting. Crowne plaza, Nairobi.; 2012. Abstract
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DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD, DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD, DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Analysis of arthropod blood meals using molecular genetic markers.". In: Trends in Parasitology. 18, 505-509. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
Mukabana, W.R., Takken W, Knols, B.G.J. "Analysis of arthropod blood meals using molecular genetic markers." Trends in Parasitology. 2002;18:505-509.
Maina J, Wandiga S, Gyampoh B, KK GC. "Analysis of Average Annual Rainfall and Average Maximum Annual Temperature for a Period of 30 years to Establish Trends in Kieni, Central." Journal of Climatol Weather Forecasting. 2019;7:249. Abstractwww.longdom.org

The aim of the study was to analyze average annual rainfall and average maximum annual temperature records for
30 years in the study area to establish trends hence confirm the presence or absence of climate change. The analysis
was accomplished with the use of MS Excel spreadsheets. The meteorological datasets were 1984-2013 records for
rainfall and 1981-2012 for temperature. The rainfall climatological standard normal was computed for a 25-year
period between 1989 and 2012 which was used to compute the average annual rainfall anomaly. The temperature
provisional normal was computed for a period of 10 years due to lack of adequate data. The average annual rainfall
anomaly for 1984-2013 periods was -8.8 mm an indication of a declining rainfall trend while the annual maximum
temperature for 1981-2012 period was 0.5°C a positive trend showing that the annual maximum temperatures
are rising in the study area. Therefore, the declining average annual rainfall accompanied with rising maximum
temperatures were indicators of the presence of climate change.

Keywords: Average annual rainfall; Average maximum temperature; Trends; Climatological standard normal;
Datasets; Climate change

Kibiego MB;, Odhiambo MO;, Kimani PM. "Analysis of bean marketing system in urban areas of Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

The beans industry in Kenya is faced with several problems, most especially shortage, seasonal fluctuations in supply of beans and lack of reliable statistical information. This study was conducted to determine the structure and performance of the beans marketing system in Nairobi metropolitan area in Kenya. Primary and secondary data were used. Primary data were generated from a survey of 102 beans traders using cluster and systematic sampling methods. Majority of the traders were women (60.8 %). ‘Rosecoco GLP 2’ (Nyayo) wariety was the most prefered variety. Other varieties on sale were red haricot, Canadian wonder and mwitemania among others. Bean marketing structure approached that of pure competition but lack of capital was a barrier to entry into the wholesale/retail trade. There were no cohesive tactics against established rivals or potential entrants. Stiff competition has resulted in marketing margins that closely approximate the actual marketing costs. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller test (ADFs) showed no significant co-integration for several pairs of markets. Thus market integration had not been fully realized in Nairobi bean markets. This is due to inadequate flow of market information and risk.

MUTUKU AK. Analysis of birth intervals in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2001.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "An analysis of blood and body fluid exposures sustained by house officers, medical students, and nursing personnel on acute-care general medical wards: a prospective study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1991 Oct;12(10):583-90.". In: Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1991 Oct;12(10):583-90. uon press; 1991. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the epidemiology of blood and body fluid exposures sustained by medicine housestaff, medical school students, registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), and nurses' aides (NAs) on general medicine wards and to define problem areas that may be amenable to change.
DESIGN: Daily data collection during 9 months using a self-reporting questionnaire.
SETTING: General medical wards in 2 tertiary referral hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Medicine housestaff/students and nursing personnel. RESULTS: Physicians reported 644 exposures, of which 98 (15.2%), 296 (46.0%), and 250 (38.8%) were sustained by medicine residents, interns, and students, respectively. Blood contact occurred with 591 (91.8%) exposures. For physicians, 575 (89.3%) exposures occurred during venipuncture, intravenous catheter manipulation, and arterial punctures. Interns and students most commonly incurred exposures during venipunctures and intravenous manipulations; residents commonly were exposed during emergent intravenous catheter placements. Five-hundred-twenty-two (81%) exposures occurred between 7 A.M. and 7 P.M. During 524 (81.4%) exposures, physicians were not using barrier devices. Nurses reported 235 exposures, of which 140 (59.6%), 23 (9.8%), and 72 (30.6%) were sustained by RNs, LPNs, and NAs, respectively. RN exposures commonly occurred during intravenous manipulations and glucometer fingersticks. LPNs and NAs incurred a higher percentage of exposures during nonprocedural patient care. Blood contact and wound drainage accounted for 167 (71.1%) and 31 (13.2%) exposures, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Exposures to blood and body fluids frequently are incurred by healthcare workers on general medical wards. Efforts to reduce these exposures should be directed not only at improving procedural skills of healthcare workers for venipunctures, intravenous catheter insertions, and glucometer fingersticks, but also in increasing barrier use during procedural and nonprocedural tasks.

Mwaniki JM, Mwazighe FM, Kamau GN. "Analysis of Blue Chamomile Essential Oil produced by multi-solvent Solvent Extraction Clevenger Distillation Method." African Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;2(1):1-10. Abstract

Blue colored essential oil samples were obtained from chamomile flowers
by a Solvent Extraction Clevenger Distillation (SECD) method and by the
standard Clevenger distillation of Chamomile flowers. The solvents used
were hexane, acetone, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and
methanol. The solvents were evaluated in terms of the yield of extract, and
the quality of extract (determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass
Spectrometry). Of all the SECD extracts, the DCM extract gave the highest
yield of the essential oil while the hexane extract gave the lowest yield of
the blue essential oil.

Mwaniki JM, Mwazighe FM, Kamau GN. "Analysis of Blue Chamomile Essential Oil produced by multi-solvent Solvent Extraction Clevenger Distillation Method." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;Vol 2(1):1-10. AbstractWebsite

Blue colored essential oil samples were obtained from chamomile flowers by a Solvent Extraction Clevenger Distillation (SECD) method and by the standard Clevenger distillation of Chamomile flowers. The solvents used were hexane, acetone, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and methanol. The solvents were evaluated in terms of the yield of extract, and the quality of extract (determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). Of all the SECD extracts, the DCM extract gave the highest yield of the essential oil while the hexane extract gave the lowest yield of the blue essential oil

Maina EN, Webb T, Soni S, Whittington J, Boer H, Clarke D, Holland A. "Analysis of candidate imprinted genes in PWS subjects with atypical genetics: a possible inactivating mutation in the SNURF/SNRPN minimal promoter." Journal of human genetics. 2007;52:297-307. Abstract
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Maina EN, Webb T, Soni S, Whittington J, Boer H, Clarke D, Holland A. "Analysis of candidate imprinted genes in PWS subjects with atypical genetics: a possible inactivating mutation in the SNURF/SNRPN minimal promoter." J. Hum. Genet.. 2007;52(4):297-307. AbstractWebsite

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with abnormalities of chromosome 15q11q13. The majority of cases result either from a deletion approximately 4 Mb in size, affecting chromosome 15 of paternal origin or from UPD(15)mat; these account for approximately 70 and approximately 20-25% of PWS cases, respectively. In the remaining 3-5% of PWS cases where neither the deletion nor UPD is detectable, PWS is thought to be caused either by a defect in the imprinting centre resulting in a failure to reset the paternally inherited chromosome 15 derived from the paternal grandmother or, very occasionally, from a balanced translocation involving a breakpoint in 15q11q13. Nine probands with a firm clinical diagnosis of PWS but who had neither a typical deletion in the PWS region nor UPD(15)mat were investigated for inactivating mutations in 11 genes located in the PWS region, including SNURF and SNRPN, which are associated with the imprinting centre. Other genes studied for mutations included MKRN3, NDN, IPW, HBII-85, HBII-13, HBII-436, HBII-438a, PAR1 and PAR5. A possibly inactivating mutation in the SNRPN minimal promoter region was identified. No other inactivating mutations were found in the remainder of our panel of PWS subjects with atypical genetics. Expression levels of several of the candidate genes for PWS were also investigated in this series of probands. The results indicate that PWS may result from a stochastic partial inactivation of important genes.

L.D.E. I. "Analysis of Census Data taking into consideration Gender Dimensions’.". In: Kenya National Seminar on Census Data Analysis,. Panafric Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Richu SW. "Analysis of Challenges in the Implementation of Operations Research Techniques for Value Addition in the Logistics Industry in Kenya: A Survey of selected Nakuru County-Based Logistics Firms.". In: ORSEA. Uganda; 2013. Abstractanalysis_of_challenges_in_the_implementation_of_operations_r.pdf

In National and International Supply Chain Management Systems, developing ideas that add value and solve logistics problems successfully when implemented is an important determinant of economic growth and competitiveness of business organizations. The development and the deployment of scientific yet business techniques in the field of Management Science that simplify processes will enhance the expansion of markets through the efficiency and effectiveness realized in the costs involved. This study sought to analyze challenges in the implementation of Operations Research techniques on value addition in the logistics industry in Kenya; A survey of Nakuru County-Based logistics Service providers. The study covered 92 respondents drawn from a population of 100 (staff and customers). Questionnaire was used to collect data after which descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data.. The study concluded that the use of Operations Research techniques have been used but yet to be fully utilized by business firms involved in the logistics service provision in order to bring about value addition in their course of delivery of goods works and services. Inadequate Human Capital in Operations Research, absence of qualified Human Capital in Operations Research, lack of professional input, insufficient platform to develop and train professionals in the field of Operations Research and absence of motivation and recognition were some of the key challenges that deterred the implementation of operations research techniques as well as the absence of integration between the use of Operations Research techniques and organization's in value addition. The study recommends that organizations engaged in the logistics service provision should invest in the qualified and competent human capital in the area of management science (operations research) in order to attain optimization and meet customer requirements by way of value addition.
Keywords: Operations Research, Supply Chain Network, Supply Chain Management, Logistics, Value Addition, Human Capital, Organization Policy, Information Technology.

Wandiga SO. "Analysis of Chemical Pollution in Some Kenya Water Systems with Special Reference to Lake Nakuru.". In: in the Role of Water Resources in Development, Proceedings of the 13th Annual Symposium of the East African Academy, September 1977, p.120. Kenya National Academy : Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1977. Abstract

Analysis of pesticides residues in Lake Nakuru fish and algae has been undertaken and is reported . The half- life of DDT in the Lake Nakuru area was found to be 120 days in the open field and about 200 days in the half- shaded field. This is possibly the shortest half-life time known. Chemical pollutants in the coast area, Kerio Valley and River Nzoia are reviewed.

Njiru EN;, Kironchi, G; Mbuvi NJP; S, Kironchi G;, Mbuvi JP;, Nguluu S. "Analysis of climate data and the associated risks to maize production in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya."; 2010.
Njiru, E N; Kironchi MNG; JP;, Kironchi G;, Mbuvi JP;, Nguluu S. "Analysis of climate data and the associated risks to maize production in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya."; 2010.
Yala AJ, Okello OW, Ongisa OG, Orungo OJ, Oyieke OS. "Analysis of Climate Trends and Livestock Disease Occurrence in Kajiado County." Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2020;6(1):1-15.
Adolwa IS, Okoth PF, Mulwa RM, Esilaba AO, Mairura FS, Nambiro E. "Analysis of Communication and Dissemination Channels Influencing the Adoption of Integrated Soil Fertility Management in Western Kenya." The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. 2012;18(1):71-86.
Mogambi, H., Nzonzo, D. "Analysis of Communication and Information Communication Technologies Adoption in Irrigated Rice Production in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2016;Vol. 4 ( No. 12):295-316.
Otieno D, Nyikal R. "Analysis of Consumer Preferences for Quality and Safety Attributes in Artisanal Fruit Juices in Kenya." Journal of Food Products Marketing. 2016. AbstractWebsite

This study used choice experiment survey data from a random sample of 374 respondents to analyze consumer preferences for quality and safety attributes of artisanal fruit juices in Kenya. Results show that consumers had a positive and significant preference for single fruit juices compared to fruit mixtures, private rather than public inspection of the juices, traceability of fruit origin, and vendor’s health. Additives such as colorants, flavors, and preservatives were not preferred. Consumers were willing to pay premiums of up to 200% for artisanal juices that contain single fruits, lack additives, and are inspected by private agencies. These insights should be incorporated in ensuring that artisanal fruit juice designs comply with food quality and safety requirements. Further, there is a need to license and regulate the artisanal juice preparation and handling and to provide training to the handlers on safety and quality requirements.

Musita CP, Ariga E. "Analysis of Determinants in Nutritional Care of Vulnerable Children Nutritional Care and Support of Children.". In: Analysis of Determinants in Nutritional Care of Vulnerable Children Nutritional Care and Support of Children. London: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ; 2012. Abstractbook_cover_and_abstract_nutrition_care_and_support_musita_and_ariga_detailed.pdf

The impact of Human Immune Deficiency/Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is evident in the rising numbers of those orphaned by HIV/AIDS. Apart from death, millions of children live in households with sick and dying members. These Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) affected by HIV/AIDS are stigmatized, isolated, discriminated against, disinherited and often deprived of basic education and care. This study was carried out in Kadibo Division, Kisumu District. Systematic random sampling was used. The sampling frame consisted of all the households with OVCs supported by various Community Based Organizations (CBOs) . A total of 111 households were interviewed and nutritional assessment for 322 children was done. The study was designed to assist CBOs improve their effectiveness in provision of optimal nutritional care for OVCs. Data collection applied both quantitative and qualitative methods. Pearson’s product correlation moment was applied to determine the strength of association between independent and dependent variables. Probit regression model was developed from the independent and dependent dichotomous variables.

Roberts LC, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "An analysis of determinants of access to and use of credit by smallholder farmers in Suakoko district, Liberia." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR). 2017;12(24)(ISSN – 1991-637x):2093-2100.
Roberts LC, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "An analysis of determinants of access to and use of credit by smallholder farmers in Suakoko District, Liberia." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;12(24): 2093-2100. AbstractWebsite

Agricultural credit has been argued to be very important for sustainable agricultural development and poverty reduction in rural areas. This study seeks to identify and to analyze the determinants of smallholder farmers’ access to and use of credit in Suakoko district, Bong County, Liberia. This research is quantitative using a survey questionnaire distributed to 105 smallholder farmers. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and causal analysis was performed using a binary Logit regression model. Results from regression indicate that 39% of the farmers were credit users. The marginal effects of bank account and other sources of income show significant and positive effects on access to credit. However, education, occupation and group membership are significant but have negative effects on access to credit by smallholder farmers. The results also show that 38% of credit users applied credit received for agricultural activities, while the rest utilized it for non-agricultural activities. It is recommended that a policy should be established to ensure older farmers gets adult literacy while younger farmers get formal education. Moreover, the government should issue a policy aimed at increasing opportunities for off-farm activities through creation of jobs and motivating self-employment. Finally, the government should promote the creation of development groups geared towards providing collateral support for members and also serve as guarantors for farmers to receive banks credit/loans in order to increase agricultural productivity in the study area.

Key words: Credit access, rural, farmers, smallholder, Suakoko district, Liberia.

Menjo DK, Okeyo AM, Ojango JM. "Analysis of early survival of Holstein-Friesian heifers of diverse sire origins on commercial dairy farms in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

The use of imported semen within the Holstein-Friesian cattle population in Kenya has contributed to increased milk production per cow, however, information on how this has impacted on functional traits, particularly early life survival and reproductive performance is scarce. This study evaluated age at first calving (AFC), survival to age at first calving, and survival to four years of age using survival analyses techniques, in Holstein-Friesian cattle on four dairy farms in Kenya. The heritability estimate obtained for AFC was 0.15 +/- 0.06 for an average AFC of 1058 days. Animals sired by New Zealand and Australian born bulls had the earliest average AFC (907 days). On average, 25% of all the heifers born were culled prior to attaining a first calving, while 34% were culled prior to four years of age. Though the highest proportion of losses was due to unspecified reasons, the relative risk of being culled was highest when an animal had a specific disease, and the first 60 days of life were the most critical for survival. Daughters of sires from South-Africa and Israel tended to have better survival rates than those sired by bulls originating from other regions. Unfavourable selection towards animals sired by Kenyan born bulls was evident. The economic implications of the high rate of early mortality need to be evaluated in order to assist livestock producers make informed decisions on choice of sires for breeding.

Mburu, Ackello-Ogutu, C., Mulwa, M R. "Analysis of Economic Efficiency and Farm Size: A Case Study of Wheat Farmers in Nakuru District, Kenya." Economics Research International. 2014;2014:1-10.
"Analysis of Economic Efficiency in Smallholder Maize Production in Northwestern Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

This study investigated the contribution of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) to economic efficiency in smallholder maize-based farming system of Northwestern Kenya. Farm-household data were used to: i) evaluate differences in economic efficiency, and ii) establish factors determining variations in economic efficiency. Stochastic production and cost frontier models were estimated using cross-sectional data from a stratified sample of 373 farmers in Trans Nzoia and Lugari districts. The results indicate that average economic efficiency was only 49%. Farmers who applied ISFM practices in maize production operated closer to their efficient frontiers than those who used inorganic fertilisers alone. Extrapolation of efficiency gains in the study area showed that enhanced technical efficiency had potential to improve maize yields by about 1.5 t/ha while better allocative efficiency could reduce production costs by KES 6,141 per hectare. It was established that in addition to ISFM, other significant factors included extension contacts, and access to credit and market. Policy interventions to improve upon economic efficiency should therefore consider these factors.

Nyaory GM, K’Onditi DBO, Ouma HA, Musyoki S. "Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Radiation from a Rectangular Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna Using ADI-FDTD Method." Journal Of Information Engineering and Applications . 2012;2(No. 8):1-8. Abstract

In this paper, a rectangular Cavity Backed Slot Antenna (CBSA) Model excited by a probe is investigated.
The analysis is carried out using the Alternating Direction Implicit - Finite Difference Time Domain (ADIFDTD)
Method which is applied to investigate its characteristics in terms of radiation patterns and power.
This is because the method is capable of providing a more accurate definition of the electromagnetic fields
within the rectangular apertures, while eliminating the Courant-Friedrich-Levy (CFL) stability condition
which is present in the regular Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. A cavity-backed slot
antenna structure with dimensions of 14cm×22cm×30cm is analyzed with the slot and aperture
measurements done at 3GHz. Results showing current distribution on the material surrounding the
apertures are presented and a discussion on the physical aspects of the aperture radiation phenomenon is
also presented.

**This research was sponsored by The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)**

Abungu NO, Konditi DB, Otieno AV. "Analysis of Electromagnetic Transmission through dielectric filled Apertures of Arbitrary Shape in a Thick Conducting Screen." World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS). 2005. AbstractWebsite

The paper deals with an extension of the previous work appearing in a past issue of this transaction by the authors on hybrid FEM/MOM technique for analyzing transmission properties of arbitrarily shaped apertures on a thick conducting screen. In the present work, the effect of placing different dielectric material slabs in the conducting screen cavity on the electromagnetic transmission parameters is first analyzed and, then, the effect of interchanging the positions of these dielectric slabs relative to the incident field. Validation results for rectangular and cross-shaped slots are presented. Close agreement between our data and published data is observed.  Further data has been generated for rectangular, circular, diamond-shaped and cross-shaped apertures.

Oribu WS, Agwata DJF, George GE. "Analysis of Environmental Initiatives on Business Performance Sustainability at the Lake Naivasha Ecosystem, Kenya." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2014;Vol.4, No.2. Abstractanalysis_of_environmental_initiatives_on_business_performance_sustainability_at_the_lake_naivasha_ecosystem.pdf

Increasing degradation of the natural environment is one of the main threats to human survival in the long term.
Business enterprises’ environmental commitment has, therefore, become an important variable in most of
today’s competitive business environment. Activities of most enterprises are the main causes of environmental
degradation which in turn impact on their performance. This study therefore looks at the specific business
environmental initiatives and how they impact on their performance. The overall objective of the study was to
establish the impact of environmental initiatives on business performance sustainability around Lake Naivasha.
In order to achieve this objective, the research was guided by various specific objectives which included
examining forms of environmental degradation, examining environmental initiatives put in place to mitigate on
degradation, and examining effects of environmental initiatives of various business operations on social capital.
Both primary and secondary data were collected for the purposes of the study. Primary data was collected
through various instruments including questionnaires administered to individual respondents, focus group
discussions, in depth interviews and observation schedules. Secondary data was obtained from previous study
reports, articles, professional journals, various businesses’ monitoring records, annual sales reports and any other
relevant literature that the researcher came across in the course of the study. The collected data was interpreted
and analysed using discriminant analysis. The Scientific Package for Social Studies (SPSS) was used for the
analysis. The study design was descriptive survey in order to pick behaviours which needed to be mitigated for
purposes of enterprise performance sustainability. Purposive random sampling was used from the target
population which comprised of farming, hospitality and fishing sectors. For purposes of establishing the views of
the stakeholders, the officials of various organisations that have interests on the Lake Naivasha ecosystem were
incorporated into a focus group and their views were sought through group discussions. The key findings of the
study were that; the main forms of environmental degradation are nutrients discharge to the lake, water
abstraction, cutting of trees, overgrazing and green house gases effects. The implication of the findings is that
unless businesses concerned address environmental issues their performance sustainability may not be assured
going forward. The study recommends that an evaluative criteria defining the impacts that are acceptable to the
society be determined, policy bundles that are currently in place be reviewed to achieve diverse societal
objectives, strategic decisions made by organisations operating in the area be assessed in light of the actors
involved and investment in better information monitoring and enforcement of rules and regulations be
undertaken. Lastly, since specific organisational sustainability outcomes seem to consistently fail to meet broad
societal expectation, the articulation of stakeholder interests need to be considered by involving all actors in the
environmental governance process.

Maranga IO, Hampson L, Oliver AW, Gamal A, P G, Opiyo A, Holland1 CA, IN H. "Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Low Survival of Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy in Kenya. ." PLoS ONE . 2013;8(10):e78411. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078411.
Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A, Onywera VO. "Analysis of Factors that affect the standard of soccer in Africa. The case of East African countries." Journal of Physical Education and Sport (JPES). 2012;12(1):135-139.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Analysis of false positive HIV-1 serologic testing in Kenya. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis . 1988 Mar; 9 ( 3 ): 179-85 . PMID: 2840237 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Kuhls TL, Nishanian PG, Cherry JD, Shen JP, Neumann CG, Stiehm ER, Ettenger RB, Bwibo NO, Ko.". In: Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis . 1988 Mar; 9 ( 3 ): 179-85 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1988. Abstract

Department of Pediatrics, UCLA School of Medicine.

Sera of 95 mothers and 129 children from Nairobi, Kenya, collected in 1976, and of 466 adults and 193 children of Embu District, Kenya, collected in 1984 and 1985, were analyzed for the presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies. Although no HIV-1 seropositivity was demonstrated by western blot analysis in both study groups, 7% of Nairobi mothers and 10% of adult females from Embu District had false positive results by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) compared with less than 1% seroreactivity rates observed in adult males and children. False positive results were not due to simian T lymphotropic virus type III (STLV-IIIAGM)/human T lymphotropic virus type IV (HTLV-IV) seropositivity. Sixty-one percent of the HIV-1 EIA reactive sera could not be explained by cytotoxic activity to lymphocytes bearing the HLA-DR4 or HLA-DQw3 phenotype. We conclude that false positive HIV EIA tests are frequently encountered in East Africa. Seroprevalence rates in rural Africa must be interpreted with caution due to the decreased specificity of HIV EIAs.

PMID: 2840237 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno AA. "Analysis of Family Building Patterns in Kenya when Fertility has stalled." African Population studies . 2008;23(2):141-154.
Agwanda A. "Analysis of family building patterns when fertility has stalled in Kenya.". In: the 5th African Population Conference . Arusha International Conference centre ; 2007.
Prakash, Teluve Nagarajarao; Mburu J;, Chandrashekar H;, Abebaw D. Analysis of Farmers' Willingness to Conserve Traditional Rice Varieties in the Western Ghats of South India.; 2013. Abstract

Conservation of crop genetic resources is a major preoccupation of the Indian government in particular and the international community at large. Drawing on a random sample of 228 farm households from two regions in the Western Ghats of Southern India, this study reports the main factors influencing farmers' willingness to conserve traditional rice varieties of different levels of survival ability (survivability). Estimated results of a logit model indicate that factors influencing decisions to conserve the varieties on-farm depend mainly on farmers' socio-economic characteristics, and vary between the two regions and among incentive or policy scenarios assumed. The factors do not however vary so much from the perspective of the survivability of the traditional rice varieties. Therefore, the study concludes that on-farm conservation in the two study areas requires a mix of different conservation strategies and policy incentives which may not be dependent on the levels of survivability of the traditional rice varieties.

Mbuya TO, Sinclair I, Moffat AJ, Reed PAS. "Analysis of fatigue crack initiation and S–N response of model cast aluminium piston alloys." Materials Science and Engineering: A. 2011;528(24):7331-7340. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2011.06.007

Fatigue crack initiation and S–N fatigue behaviour of hipped model Al7Si–Sr and Al0.7Si piston alloys have been investigated after overaging at 260 °C for 100 h to provide a practical simulation of in-service conditions. The results show that hipping did not affect the S–N behaviour of Al7Si–Sr. This is attributed to the lack of significant change in porosity distribution in this alloy because of its low porosity levels even in the unhipped state. However, hipping profoundly improved the fatigue performance of alloy Al0.7Si due to the significant reduction in porosity. In this investigation, it was observed that porosity was rendered impotent as a fatigue crack initiator in both hipped alloys. Instead, fatigue cracks were observed to originate mainly from intermetallic particles (particularly the Al9FeNi phase) in both alloys and sometimes from oxide particles in Al0.7Si alloy. Fatigue cracking was also frequently observed at intermetallic clusters in hipped Al0.7Si. The observed scatter in fatigue life is discussed in terms of the size of fatigue crack initiating particles and the overall particle size distribution which follows a power law distribution function.

N PROFKARIUKIDAVID, W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Analysis of fluoride in locally available beverages: Comparison of direct, oven diffusion and hexamethyldisiloxane diffusion methods.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, 13: 30 -35, 2004. UoN; 2004. Abstract

Analysis of fluoride in a variety of beverages was carried out using three different methods inconjunction with a fluoride ion selective electrode. The three methods gave comparable results for 26samples of fruit juices. However, 68% of the juices were found to contain fluoride levels higher than theWHO recommended limits (0.6 - 1.0 mgl-1). Soft drinks (sodas) and beers were found to contain values lower than 0.6 mgl-1. The amount of fluoride in tea infusion was found to increase both with increase inboiling time and amount of tea leaves used. Chocolate and coffee infusions were found to contain 4.3 mgl-1and 4.0 mgl-1fluoride, respectively.

Ouma OE. ANALYSIS OF FODDER PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN THE RANGELANDS OF SOUTHERN KENYA. Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology (LARMAT ; 2017. Abstract
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S G, M. NL, Motuka JM, M. MK. "Analysis of Gender Equity in Secondary Schools in Mandera East District, Mandera County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Studies . 2014;3(3):480-492.
Nunow A, Nzioka JM, Kinama JM. "Analysis of gender parity in climate change adaptation actions within Kajiado and Kiambu counties, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;1(2).
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD, DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Analysis of genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae using microsatelite loci.". In: Insect Molecular Biology, 8, 287-297. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
Kamau, L., Mukabana, W.R., Hawley, W.A., Lehmann, T., Irungu, L.W., Orago AA, Collins, F.H. "Analysis of genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae using microsatelite loci. ." Insect Molecular Biology. 1999;8:287-297.
L K, WR M, WA H, T L, LW I, Orago AA, FH C. "Analysis of genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae using microsatellite loci." Insect molecular biology. 1999;8(2):287-297. AbstractPubMed link

We analysed genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae populations using microsatellite loci to determine whether the Rift Valley restricts the flow of genes. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were significant, and were most likely to be due to the high frequency of null alleles observed. An. arabiensis populations occurring between 40 and 700 km apart across the Eastern arm of the Rift Valley were not differentiated (pair-wise F(ST) range: 0.0033-0.0265, P > 0.05). Neither were An. gambiae populations from Asembo Bay and Ghana (F(ST): 0.0063, P > 0.05) despite a geographical separation of about 5000 km. In contrast, significant differentiation was observed between An. gambiae populations from Asembo Bay and Kilifi (about 700 km apart; F(ST) = 0.1249, P < 0.01), suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow.

Nzuve F. "Analysis of Genotype x Environment Interaction for Grain Yield in Maize Hybrids." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2013;5(11):75-85.
Oleche OM, Kiriti-Nganga TW. "The Analysis of Health Expenditures on Key Health Indicators in Kenya." International Journal of Afro - Asian Studies. 2008;8(2):7-24.
imsop SJ, Kamau GN, Karuu SP. Analysis of Heavy Metal Pollutants along Nairobi River..; 2002.
Susan Gachau, Nelson Owuor, NJAGI EDMUNDNJERU, Ayieko P, English M. "Analysis of Hierarchical Routine Data With Covariate Missingness: Effects of Audit & Feedback on Clinicians' Prescribed Pediatric Pneumonia Care in Kenyan Hospitals." Frontiers in public health. 2019;7( ):198. AbstractWebsite

Background:
Routine clinical data are widely used in many countries to monitor quality of care. A limitation of routine data is missing information which occur due to lack of documentation of care processes by health care providers, poor record keeping or limited health care technology at facility level. Our objective was to address missing covariates while properly accounting for hierarchical structure in routine paediatric pneumonia care.
Methods:
We analysed routine data collected during a cluster randomized trial to investigating the effect of audit and feedback (A&F) over time on inpatient pneumonia care among children admitted in 12 Kenyan hospitals between March and November 2016. Six hospitals in the intervention arm received enhance A&F on classification and treatment of pneumonia cases in addition to a standard A&F report on general inpatient paediatric care. The remaining six in control arm received standard A&F alone. We derived and analysed a composite outcome known as Paediatric Admission Quality of Care (PAQC) score. In our analysis, we adjusted for patients, clinician and hospital level factors. Missing data occurred in patient and clinician level variables. We did multiple imputation of missing covariates within the joint model imputation framework. We fitted proportion odds random effects model and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to the data before and after multilevel multiple imputation.

Wanjala G. "An analysis of How Post-colonial Educational Policy Implementation in Higher Education has contributed to Socio-economic Transformation of Kenya." The Fountain , Journal of the Faculty of Education.. 2002;1(1):46-52. Abstract

Planners attempting to influence the course of a country's educational development can expect to confront a wide variety of problems which are sometimes difficult to formalize. Many of these challenges involve the most significant decisions in determining an effective sectoral growth strategy. Examples that come readily to mind for higher education include an assessment of the optimal level of resources to be devoted to research and extension activities , estimated rates of return , demand-adapted education policies , employment promotion of programmes as well as fostering marketable occupational capacities particularly of young people.
This paper tries to describe and analyze educational policy formation , planning and implementation in higher education showing its contribution to the socio-economic transformation of Kenya. The central proposition in this paper is that educational endeavour - whether conceived as an activity of colonizing powers or as the unfolding of the aspirations of the African peoples - has shown itself as an important vehicle for the transformation of society. Thus , the process of educational policy formation is necessarily an exercise in social learning whereby technical expertise is required to establish information requirements and the parameters of reasonable choice. Nevertheless , this analysis must be embedded in a process of social dialogue , negotiation and learning.

Marete AG, Jung’a JO, Mosi RO. "An analysis of inbreeding levels and factors affecting growth and reproductive traits in the Kenya Alpine dairy goat.". 2011. Abstract

The level of inbreeding of the Kenya Alpine dairy goat was investigated by use of Brian Kinghorn’s Pedigree viewer© software. From 1,067 doe records, data on parentage was extracted and this resulted to 3,516 individual records that were used for calculating individual inbreeding coefficients for the period 1999 to 2009. The rate of inbreeding (ΔF) was estimated as the difference between the individual inbreeding (Ft) and the inbreeding of the parents (Ft-1) divided by (1-Ft-1). The proportion of animals that was inbred increased from 0.00 (average F = 0) in 1990 to 0.38 in 2009 (average F = 0.012). Inbreeding depression on body weight was significant (P<0.05). In general the level of inbreeding in this population was very low. Further investigation on the birth weight and weaning weight was carried out. Regression analysis indicated that birth weight (p<0.05) and weaning weight (p<0.01) had improved in inbreds. The decrease in weight at first service and at first kidding was statistically insignificant. Kidding interval increased (p<0.01) due to inbreeding. Rate of decline in weight at first service and at first kidding, was different from zero (p<0.01). Effect of inbreeding on growth and reproductive traits in Kenya Alpine goats was not very pronounced in the flock.

Kaua, CG., Thenya, Mutune JM. "Analysis of Informal Microfinance Institutions Structures in Relation to Performance in Tharaka South Subcounty, Kenya. ." European Journal of Sustainable Development . 2020;9(3):457-475.
Makumbi L, Miriti EK, Kahonge AM. "An Analysis of Information Technology (IT) SecurityPractices: A Case Study of Kenyan Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the." International Journal of Computer Applications. 2012;57(18):975-8887.securiy_practices_in_smes.pdf
KANINI MRMBWESAJOYCE. "Analysis Of Instructional Effectiveness Of Asynchronous E-Learning Environments In Kenya. Paper presented at Winners Of The Sabbatical, Postdoctoral Fellowship And Hiv/Aids Challenge In Africa Research Grants 20-21 December,2004 Axum Hall, Addis Ababa Hil.". In: at Winners Of The Sabbatical, Postdoctoral Fellowship And Hiv/Aids Challenge In Africa Research Grants 20-21 December,2004 Axum Hall, Addis Ababa Hilton Hotel Addis Ababa,Ethiopia. au-ibar; 2004. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
and I DKECM. "An Analysis of Internal Efficiency in Primary School Education in Western Equatoria State of South Sudan between 2009 and 2013." International Journal of Educational Science and Research (IJESR). 2019;9(1).
R.Birithia, S.Subramanian, H.R.Pappu, Muthomi J, R.D.NARLA. "Analysis of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV, genus Tospovirus) replication in vector and non-vector thrips species." Plant Pathology . 2013;(12057).
Opinya GN, Pameijer CH, Gron P. "Analysis of Kenyan drinking water.". 1987.Website
Kibui AW. "An Analysis of Kenyan Learners’ proficiency in English Based on Reading." JOURNAL OF NELTA. 2012;Vol 17 No. :1-2.
J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "Analysis of Local mineral and tap waters samples using Total Reflection(TXRF) for Heavy metal content.". In: 9th International Symposium on Radiation Physics, Protea Hotel President, Cape Town. University of Nairobi.; 2003.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Analysis of Mercury in Soils around Lake Naivasha," J. Biochemiphysics, 4 (1995) 27.". In: Proceedings, Biochemical Society, Nairobi, Sept. 1996. Survey Review; 1995. Abstract
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Dharmadhikary VM. Analysis of microstrip-patch antennas incorporating arbitrarily-shaped apertures.; 2012. Abstract

Microstrip antennas have received extensive attention as they have many attractive features, such as lightweight, small size, low profile and ease of fabrication. One of the inherent limitations when using these antennas is their limited bandwidth. Aperture coupling has proven to be a reliable and a robust feeding technique for these antennas as they are suitable for wide-bandwidth designs. A microstrip patch antenna that is coupled to a Microstrip-line by an aperture in the intervening ground plane has been designed and implemented in this work. Arbitrarily shaped coupling slots have been considered by investigating their contributing effect on the radiation characteristics of the antenna. Aperture shape and size are the crucial parameters that are considered for the aperture-coupled microstrip antennas. Our publications [109-110] have been based on a hybrid formulation combining the Method of Moments (MOM) and the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) for which, as a student, I take credit. It should also be taken as a contribution that the ingenuity of interfacing one kind of basis functions, Rao- Glitton-Wilson (RWG) for the surface with another type, the volume function for FDTD for the cavity. The aim of this work was to look for an aperture shape that gives significantly improved coupling of the radiated power from the feed-line to the resonant patch element and at the same time giving lower back-lobe radiation level from the slot. Rectangular, Circular, Bowtie and H-shaped apertures were of Micros investigated and it was found that the H-shaped aperture coupled antennas provide higher coupling and reduced backward radiation levels as compared to the other aperture shapes. The numerical analysis carried out employed the Electric Field Integral Equation technique with the Moment Method using the software called FEKOᆴ, which employs the triangular patch modelling scheme as the basis function. The antenna characteristics such as the radiation pattern, S-parameters, and input impedance were simulated for the various shapes of coupling apertures. The antenna prototypes utilizing each of these aperture shapes were constructed and tested in the laboratory and the experimental results compared with the simulated ones. The obtained results were found to be in good correlation.

Staal S, McDermott JJ, Kang'ethe EK, Arimi SM. "Analysis of milk-borne public health risks in milk markets in Kenya.". 2002. Abstract

The major role played by informal milk markets in Kenya and the benefits to those associated with it are now widely acknowledged. The benefits include higher prices for farmers, income generation for the market agents and convenient delivery and lower prices for poor consumers. However, in spite of these benefits, regulations governing informal marketing of milk continue to be unfavourable and do not reflect local realities of milk marketing, having been based on models derived from industrialised countries where virtually all milk destined for the market is pasteurised and packaged. Results of risk assessment, including HACCP analysis, of milk quality and handling practices of informal milk market agents and consumers in central and southern Kenya show variable apparent prevalence of zoonotic health hazards in marketed milk, high bacterial counts especially in outlets associated with longer market chains. Notably, the ineffectiveness of current regulations was reflected in the lack of difference in the quality of milk sold by licensed and non-licensed traders. The study shows that health risks from the bacterial hazards identified are mitigated by the common consumer practice of boiling milk before consumption. The most important health risks were judged to be from two main sources: (i) anti-microbial residues found in up to 15% of milk samples tested and (ii) consumption of naturally fermented milk. Proposals for management of these health risks and the engagement of stakeholders and key players in the process to achieve more favourable policy environment policy are presented and discussed.

Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. "Analysis of multipurpose uses and management of Zizphus spina-christi (L.) desf. in semi-arid Ethiopia: Implications for food security." Second RUFORUM Biennial Meeting . 2010. Abstract

Quantitative ethnobotanical study of Ziziphus spina-christi
was undertaken in six areas of east Shewa, Ethiopia. Both
structured questionnaire and focus-group interviews were
conducted with about 200 households. Arable land cultivation,
and increased frequencies of drought are reducing areas under
Z. spina-christi. The multi-purpose tree is highly nutritious,
helps main soil fertility, and is an important source of income in
the region. Research and policy support are needed to exploit
the potential of this agroforestry tree species.
Key words: East Shewa, food security, nutrition, wild fruits,
Ziziphus spina-christi

and D O Mbuge GRLGO. "Analysis of Natural Degradation of HDPE Lining Using Time-Dependent Properties." Polymer Engineering and Science. 2011;51(6):1198-1205.
Thuo AK, Kimenju JW, Kariuki GM, Karuku GN, Wendot PK, Melakeberhan H. Analysis of nematode assemblage in Kenyan Vertisol, Cambisol and Arenosol soil groups: II- Diversity, abundance and seasonal variations-a. Cape Town- South Africa on May 2014 ; 2014.
Thuo AK, Kimenju JW, Kariuki GM, Karuku GN, Wendot PK, Melakeberhan H. Analysis of nematode assemblage in Kenyan Vertisol, Cambisol and Arenosol soil groups: II- Edaphic factors influencing nematode communities-b. CAPE TOWN ON MAY 2014 ; 2014.
Madadi VO, Wandiga SO, Ndunda EN, Mavuti KM. "Analysis of Organochlorine Pesticides in Lake Naivasha Catchment." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):139-149.
Mukolwe LD, Odongo DO, Byaruhanga C, Snyman LP, Sibeko-Matjila KP. "Analysis of p67 allelic sequences reveals a subtype of allele type 1 unique to buffalo-derived Theileria parva parasites from southern Africa." PLoS One. 2020;15(6):e0231434. Abstract

East Coast fever (ECF) and Corridor disease (CD) caused by cattle- and buffalo-derived T. parva respectively are the most economically important tick-borne diseases of cattle in the affected African countries. The p67 gene has been evaluated as a recombinant subunit vaccine against ECF, and for discrimination of T. parva parasites causing ECF and Corridor disease. The p67 allele type 1 was first identified in cattle-derived T. parva parasites from East Africa, where parasites possessing this allele type have been associated with ECF. Subsequent characterization of buffalo-derived T. parva parasites from South Africa where ECF was eradicated, revealed the presence of a similar allele type, raising concerns as to whether or not allele type 1 from parasites from the two regions is identical. A 900 bp central fragment of the gene encoding p67 was PCR amplified from T. parva DNA extracted from blood collected from cattle and buffalo in South Africa, Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, followed by DNA sequence analysis. Four p67 allele types previously described were identified. A subtype of p67 allele type 1 was identified in parasites from clinical cases of CD and buffalo from southern Africa. Notably, p67 allele type 1 sequences from parasites associated with ECF in East Africa and CD in Kenya were identical. Analysis of two p67 B-cell epitopes (TpM12 and AR22.7) revealed amino acid substitutions in allele type 1 from buffalo-derived T. parva parasites from southern Africa. However, both epitopes were conserved in allele type 1 from cattle- and buffalo-derived T. parva parasites from East Africa. These findings reveal detection of a subtype of p67 allele type 1 associated with T. parva parasites transmissible from buffalo to cattle in southern Africa.

Nwaka S, Ochem A, Besson D, Ramirez B, Fakorede F, Botros S, Inyang U, Mgone C, Adae-Mensah I, Konde V, Nyasse B, Okole B, Guantai A, Loots G, Atadja P, Ndumbe P, Sanou I, Olesen O, Ridley R, Ilunga T. "Analysis of pan-African Centres of excellence in health innovation highlights opportunities and challenges for local innovation and financing in the continent." 12. 2012;11(12):2-15.analysis_of_pan-african_centres_of_excellence_in_health_innovation_highlights_opportunities_and_challenges_for_local_innovation_and_in.pdf
Abdilatif MH, Onono JO, Onono JO. "Analysis of pastoralists’ perception on challenges and opportunities for sheep and goat production in Northern Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2018:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1613-8.
Kiai W. An Analysis of Planning and Implementation of HIV and AIDS Communication Interventions by NGOs in Kenya. Prof. Siimiy Wandibba PIN, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2009.abstract.doc
Ochanda H. "Analysis of post-mortem diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle.". In: Online Journal of Veterinary Research 1, 1-9. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract

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Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Zessin KH, N.M. K, Baumann MPO, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Analysis of post-mortem diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle. ." Online Journal of Veterinary Research . 2002;1:1-9.
Mwisukha A, E.R. G, Njororai WWS. "Analysis of Postgraduate Research in the department of Physical Education, Kenyatta University, Kenya. ." African Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology and Sports Facilitation. 2004;6:81-86.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Analysis of Power Output Curves from Five Wind Energy Converters at the wind farm in Norden, Germany.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Oldenburg, Germany. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1989.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Analysis of Present State of Kenyan Economy.". In: Africa Quarterly, Vol.34 No.4 pp 85-94. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1994. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
Kang'ethe EK, Arimi SM, MacDermott JJ, Omore AO. "Analysis of Public Health Risks From Consumption of Informally Marketed Milk in Kenya.". 2004. Abstract

Despite an unfavorable policy environment against informal milk markets, these market account for most milk sales in Kenya. Convenient delivery and lower prices are the principal benefits for poor consumers. Current milk handling and safety regulations in Kenya are derived from models in industrialized countries. These may not be appropriate for local market conditions. An important step in targeting policies better is to collect quantitative and qualitative information about milk-borne health risk under different market situations. Preliminary results of assessments of milk quality and handling practices of informal milk market agents and consumers in central Kenya show very low apparent prevalence of zoonotic health hazards in milk from smallholder herds o[that contribute most marketed milk. Higher bacterial counts were associated with longer market chains and distance to urban areas. Most (up to 80%) of samples did not meet national bacterial quality standards. Over 96% of consumes boiled milk before consumption mainly to lengthen shelf life but also for health reasons. The most important health risks were judged to be from antimicrobial residues found in up to 16% of milk samples tested.

Ouma EA, Kang'ethe EK, Arimi SM, Staal S, McDermott JJ, Omore AO. "Analysis of public health risks from consumption of informally marketed milk in sub-Saharan African countries.". 2000. Abstract

Despite policies to discourage them, informal milk markets account for over 80% of milk sales in most sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Informal milk market agents include farmer dairy co-operatives, small traders using bicycles and public or private transport and small retail outlets, such as dairy kiosks, and shops. Studies conducted by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and national collaborators (e.g., in Kenya1) show that convenient delivery and lower prices (reflecting lower handling and processing costs) are the principal benefits for consumers. Current milk handling and safety regulations in most SSA countries are derived from models in industrialised countries. These may not be appropriate for local market conditions where such regulations may unnecessarily inhibit efficient milk marketing. An important step in developing targeted policies more supportive of market participation of the majority is to collect quantitative and qualitative information about milk-borne health risks under different production and marketing situations. This paper gives an over-view of on-going activities in central Kenya aimed at assessing public health risks from informally marketed milk and presents preliminary results of milk quality and handling practices of informal milk market agents and consumers

Mbaria JM, Class TJ, Backer R, Mitema ES, Maitho TE. "Analysis of Pyrethroids in Air using Commercial XAD Sampling Cartridges and Gas Chromatography." . The Kenya Veterinarian . 2005;29: 81-84.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Analysis of quantitative data in participatory breeding experiments.". In: Participatory breeding workshop, 17-25 May 2004, Kakamega, Kenya. Pan African Bean Research Alliance, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Analysis of Quantitative data in participatory plant breeding experiments.". In: Presented at Participatory Breeding Training Workshop, 12-15 May, Kakamega, Kenya. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Obaga IM, Omido DK, Garashi HM, Odera O, Ogutu PM. "Analysis of retail marketing strategies on Organizational competitiveness." International Journal of Management & Information Technology. 2013;3(2). Abstractanalysis_of_retail_marketing_strategies_on_organizational_competitiveness.pdf

The purpose of this study was to analyze retail marketing strategies on organizational competitiveness. The study attempted to examine the strategies that have been applied and adopted by the retail companies elsewhere in attempt to understand how retailing functions. A descriptive research design was employed in this study. The population was marketing executives in the selected bottling companies in Kenya. Primary data was collected using closed questionnaire. The data collected was organized and presented using descriptive statistics. Correlation analysis was also utilized for data analysis. Findings indicate that the most pursued retail marketing strategies were; marketing segmentation, product strategies, distribution, pricing, marketing relationship and promotions. The findings also suggest that bottling companies rely on combination of strategies as different market segments respond differently hence need for product-specific marketing strategy.
Keywords: Retail marketing strategies, organizational competitiveness, Kenya

Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, Korir AK, Odhiambo GO,... "Analysis of river Kamiti water samples." Unpublished results. 1997. Abstract
n/a
Kipchirchir IC. "An Analysis of Sequential Sampling Strategy in Pest Control Based on Negative Binomial Distribution." ICASTOR Journal of Mathematical Sciences. 2011;5(2):217-228.
and Kihu S.M J.M. Njenga WRG, J.M. Gachohi, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Wairire GG, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG. "Analysis of small ruminants’ pastoral management practices as risk factors of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) spread in Turkana District, Kenya." Res. Opin. Anim. Vet. Sci.. 2013;3(9):303-314.
S.M.Kihu, Gachohi JM, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG. "Analysis of small ruminants’ pastoral management practices as risk factors of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) spread in Turkana District, Kenya." Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences. 2013;3(9):304-313.pub_2_kihu_et_al_303-314.pdf
JI Adungo, Mutispo VM, Ngugi M, Khainga S, A Mouki, Kimeu M. "Analysis of Soft Tissue Injuries and Scarring Following Terrorist Bomb Explosion at the American Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2015.Website
MANGALA MJ. "Analysis of soil for trace elements along two highways of Kenya." East African Journal of Science. 1998. AbstractWebsite

Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique has been used to study the levels of lead and other toxic trace elements in the soil samples collected along two major highways (Mombasa and Thika) of Kenya at the various distances off the road. The soil samples from …

Park K-A, Oh SY. "Analysis of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in preterm children: retinal layer thickness and choroidal thickness profiles." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2012;53:7201-7207. Abstract

{PURPOSE To compare retinal layer thickness and choroidal thickness profiles in preterm and full-term children using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS We performed horizontal and vertical SD-OCT crosshair scans through the fovea with and without an enhanced depth technique in 31 premature and 30 full-term children. Retinal layer and choroidal thicknesses were measured at various locations including the fovea and 1.0 and 3.0 mm nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior to the fovea. After adjusting for age and the child's axial length, we compared retinal layer and choroidal thicknesses at the measurement points. RESULTS Total retinal thickness and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness at the foveal center in preterm children (256.00 ± 30.71 μm, 141.87 ± 28.75 μm, respectively) were larger than those in full-term children (217.57 ± 10.64 μm, 101.22 ± 10.90 μm, respectively, P {\textless} 0.001). Gestational age at birth was inversely correlated with both total retinal and ONL thicknesses (P {\textless} 0.001). Choroidal thickness 3.0 mm temporal to the fovea in preterm children (283.75 ± 60.47 μm) was significantly less than that in full-term children (339.89 ± 90.32

Mburu J;, Maundu P. "Analysis Of Stakeholder Organizations Involved In On-farm Conservation Of Indigenous Leafy Vegetables In Western Kenyatype Or Paste Your Content Here."; 2003. Abstract

This paper analyses the various stakeholders involved in promoting the utilization of indigenous vegetables in Western Kenya and classifies them into stakeholder organizations depending on how they related with the farmers. It aims at determining the kinds of stakeholders organizations involved in in-situ conservation of indigenous vegetables, the different kinds of strategies employed to enhance conservation and the driving factor leading to the emergence of these different strategies. The paper concludes by outlining several policy implications for promoting on-farm conservation of indigenous vegetables in the case study areas.

M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Analysis of structure, conduct and performance of bean marketing in Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the Sixth Afr. Crop Science Conference, 12-17 Oct 2003, Nairobi, Kenya. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Mbuthia EM. "An Analysis of Stylistic Trends in Published Kiswahili Short Story Genre." Journal of Education and Practice . 2014;5(8):32-42.
Gichure M, Onono J, Wahome R, Gathura P. "Analysis of the benefits and production challenges of working donkeys in smallholder farming systems in Kenya." Veterinary World. 2021;13(11):2346.
Gichure M, Onono J, Wahome R, Gathura P. "Analysis of the benefits and production challenges of working donkeys in smallholder farming systems in Kenya, Veterinary World." Veterinary World. 2020;13(1):2346-2352.
Gichure M, Onono J, Wahome R, Gathura P. "Analysis of the benefits and production challenges of working donkeys in smallholder farming systems in Kenya." Veterinary World. 2020;13(11).
DR DAVIDNYIKA. "An Analysis of the Causes of Failures in the Implementation of Projects in Kenya. ." African Habitat Review.. 2012;6(2012).
Mwimali MI, Kitaa JMA, Osoro LN, others. "An analysis of the causes of poultry condemnations at a Nairobi slaughter house, Kenya (2011-2014)." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2018;7:121-126. Abstract
n/a
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Analysis of the Design As A Fundamental Human and Social Need.". In: African Habitat Review. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Indiatsy C, K' Obonyo P, Muindi F, M M. "An Analysis of the Effect of Employees Age on Employee Performance in Kenya State Corportations. ." Journal of Business and Social Science Review . 2020;1(11).
Indiatsy C, P OK', Muindi F, M M. "Analysis Of The Effect of Employees Age, HRM Practices, and Competence on Employee Performance." European Journal of Business and Management . 2019;22(30).
"Analysis of the Effect of Land Tenure on Technical Efficiency in Smallholder Crop Production in Kenya."; 2008. Abstract

Agriculture is the backbone of the Kenyan economy contributing 26% to GDP and 70% to employment. Majority of the farmers in Kenya are smallholder farmers possessing less than 3 acres of land. The agricultural sector in Kenya has been facing several challenges among them declining yields. While the decline in yields could be associated with several other factors, it could also be as a result of the effect of insecure land tenure systems which are little understood. This study examines the technical efficiency of alternative land tenure systems among smallholder farmers and identifying the determinants of inefficiency with the objective of exploring land tenure policies that would enhance efficiency in production. The study is based on the understanding that land tenure alone will not be enough to indicate the levels of efficiency of individual farms, other socio economic factors such as gender, education and farm size would also be expected to be important determinants of efficiency. A stochastic frontier was used to estimate technical efficiency and relate it to land tenure and socio economic factors using data from 22 districts from the main agro–ecological zones. The study found that parcels with land titles have a higher efficiency level. Other factors such as education status of head, access to fertilizers, and group participation were also found to significantly influence technical efficiency. The study recommends that the process of land registration should be extended to other regions of the country but at the same time other factors such as access to inputs and improvement of education status should also be addressed.

Kariuki DK;, Ritho CN;, Munei K. "Analysis of the Effect of Land Tenure on Technical Efficiency in Smallholder Crop Production in Kenya."; 2008. Abstract

Agriculture is the backbone of the Kenyan economy contributing 26% to GDP and 70% to employment. Majority of the farmers in Kenya are smallholder farmers possessing less than 3 acres of land. The agricultural sector in Kenya has been facing several challenges among them declining yields. While the decline in yields could be associated with several other factors, it could also be as a result of the effect of insecure land tenure systems which are little understood. This study examines the technical efficiency of alternative land tenure systems among smallholder farmers and identifying the determinants of inefficiency with the objective of exploring land tenure policies that would enhance efficiency in production. The study is based on the understanding that land tenure alone will not be enough to indicate the levels of efficiency of individual farms, other socio economic factors such as gender, education and farm size would also be expected to be important determinants of efficiency. A stochastic frontier was used to estimate technical efficiency and relate it to land tenure and socio economic factors using data from 22 districts from the main agro–ecological zones. The study found that parcels with land titles have a higher efficiency level. Other factors such as education status of head, access to fertilizers, and group participation were also found to significantly influence technical efficiency. The study recommends that the process of land registration should be extended to other regions of the country but at the same time other factors such as access to inputs and improvement of education status should also be addressed.

Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Gikunju JK, Mbuthia PG, Madadi VO. "Analysis of the efficacy of commercially available antivenoms in Bitis arientans venom- induced dermonecrosis.". In: PSK 2022 annual scientific conference . Diani reef Hotel, Diani Mombasa ; 2022.
Ngugi RW, Sifunjo EK, Wainaina G, Pokhariyal G. "An analysis of the efficiency of foreign exchange market in Kenya." Economic Bulletin. 2008.
SIFUNJO MRKISAKAERASTUS. "An Analysis of the Efficiency of the Foreign Exchange Market in Kenya.". In: Economic Bulletin, Vol. 14, No.2, pp. 1 . BEP Electronic Press; 2008. Abstract
This study examined the RWH using the run tests, Ljung-Box statistics, and the unit root tests. The data covered the period starting January 1994 to June 2007 for the daily closing prices of the Ksh/UD dollar spot rate. The main finding of this study is that the RWH is strongly rejected at the 5% significance level. The results indicate that the rejections are due to autocorrelation in currency returns. The exchange rate tends to appreciate most of the time over the sample period. Therefore failure of the EMH could be due to exchange rate undershooting and overshooting phenomena. The unit root tests showed that the exchange rate data is non-stationary while returns are stationary. Therefore the evidence strongly suggested that the foreign exchange market is not efficient.
Gituro W, Kisaka SE, Ngugi RW, Pokhariyal G. "An analysis of the efficiency of the foreign exchange market in Kenya." Economics Bullletin. 2008. Abstractan_analysis_of_the_efficiency_of_the_foreign_exchange_market_in_kenya.pdf

This study examined the Efficiency Market hypothesis in its weak form using run tests, unit root tests and the Ljung-Box Q-statistics. The motivation was to determine whether foreign exchange rate returns follow a random walk. The data covered the period starting January 1994 to June 2007 for the daily closing spot price of the Kenya shillings per US dollar exchange rate. The main finding of this study is that the foreign exchange rate market is not efficient. The results showed that most of the rejections are due to significant patterns, trend stationarity and autocorrelation in foreign exchange returns. This is attributed to both
exchange rate undershooting and overshooting phenomena.

Mutua F, Balint Z. Analysis of the general climatic conditions to support drought monitoring in Somalia. Nairobi, Kenya: FAO and Somalia Water and Land Information Management (SWALIM) Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.
Odhiambo M, Kiriti-Nganga TW. "Analysis of the Health Impact of Health Expenditures on Key Health Indicators in Kenya." International Journal of Afro - Asian Studies. 2008;1(2):7-24.
Otieno AC, Carter AB, Hedges DJ, Walker JA, Ray DA, Garber R, Anders BA, Stoilova N, Laborde ME, Fowlkes JD, Huang CH, and B. Perodeau, Batzer MA. "Analysis of the human Alu Ya-lineage." Journal of Molecular Biology. 2004;342:109-118.
Otieno CA. "Analysis of the human Alu Ya-lineage.". In: 15th International Symposium on Human Identification. Phoenix , Arizona; 2004.
Otieno CA. "Analysis of the human Alu Ya-lineage .". In: 6th Annual Biological Sciences Symposium. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana; 2004.
MBWESA JOYCEKANINI. "Analysis Of The Instructional Effectiveness Of Asynchronous E-Learning Environments In Kenya: A Case Study Of The Wedusoft Platform, University Of Nairobi." Journal Of Continuing , Open And Distance Education. 2011;Vol. 1 (Issue 2 June ).
Onyango CM, Kahiu EN. "Analysis of the Molecular Diversity of Kenyan Sorghum Germplasm Using Microsatellites.". In: Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2012. Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate the extent of the genetic diversity present in sorghum germplasm grown in Kenya using simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 139 accessions were genotyped using 11 microsatellite markers or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and the genetic diversity was estimated. The markers showed a wide range of differences in quality index from 0.005 to 0.39. The average Polymorphic Information Content value observed was 0.6241 indicating a high level of diversity. The gene diversity index ranged between 0.2419 and 0.9313 with a mean of 0.6627 per locus. A total of 105 alleles were observed with an average of 10.4 alleles per locus. The average heterozygosity level per locus was low at 0.1717. The variability within accessions among the populations was 74.85% and within individual accessions was 18.67%. The results showed that genetic diversity within Kenyan sorghum germplasm accessions is higher than that between the different populations. It is implied that such genetic diversity can be exploited as such or in hybridization programs to improve sorghum varieties currently grown by subsistence farmers in Kenya.

Onyango CM;, Harbinson J;, Imungi, J K; Kooten O, Imungi, J K; Kooten O. "Analysis of the molecular diversity of Kenyan sorghum germplasm using microsatellites."; 2011. Abstract

Vegetable amaranth is a leafy vegetable traditionally grown in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia where it is the most consumed traditional vegetable. It is considered to have high nutritional quality, containing relatively large amounts of vitamins A and C. We have assessed the influence of the maturity of the vegetable and soil nutrition on the visual and nutritional quality of amaranth. We found that leaf ascorbic acid content is strongly influenced by both maturity and soil nutrition, with leaves of seven week old matured plants having the highest content. β-carotene increased with increasing amount of soil nitrogen and with increasing plant age. The loss of both visual and nutritional quality during storage was influenced more by maturity at harvest and the temperature of storage than the soil nutrition.

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