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IRIBEMWANGI PI, Kabwana I. Alfa na Omega (Play). Nairobi: Oxford University Press; Submitted. Abstract

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CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Algebra 1 and 11 (O.D.L Lecture Notes).". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
Katende J. Algebra I Lecture Notes (ODL).; 2012.
"An algorithm for a discretized constrained, continuous Quadratic Contol Problem." Journal of Mathematical Sciences. 2011;2(22):83-93.
DN Kareithi, Salifu D, N Owuor, Subramanian S, Tonnang EZH. "An algorithm for data reconstruction from published articles–Application on insect life tables." Cogent Mathematics & Statistics. 2019;6(1):1701377. AbstractWebsite

Data collection in life table experiments is generally time-consuming and costly such that data reconstruction of published information provides an avenue to access the original data for purposes of further investigation. In this paper, we present an algorithm that reconstructs life table raw data using a summary of results from published articles. We present the steps of the development and implementation (in the R computer language) of the algorithm, its scope of application, assumptions, and limitations. Statistical background of the algorithm is also presented. The developed algorithm was then applied to reconstruction of life table data of two insect species, Chilo partellus and Busseola fusca, from published information. Welch’s two-sample t-test was applied to test the difference between the original and reconstructed data of the insect life stages. C. Partellus results were not significantly different, but, for B. fusca, pupa development time, and larva and pupa development rate were significantly different at the 95% confidence level. It is concluded that the algorithm could be used to reconstruct original data sets from cohort life table data sets of insects, given published information and sample sizes.

Banerjee R, Isaac KM. "An algorithm to determine the mass transfer rate from a pure liquid surface using the volume of fluid multiphase model.". 2004. AbstractWebsite

An algorithm to determine the mass transfer rate from the surface of a pure liquid in conjunction with the volume of fluid (VOF) was developed. The algorithm determines the liquid/gas interface by using information of the volume fractions of individual phases in the flow field obtained from the VOF method. It then solves the species equation in the gas phase. It is assumed that the carrier gas at the liquid/gas interface is saturated with vapour. Four test cases were designed to evaluate the algorithm. Concentration profiles obtained from these test cases were compared with results from available analytical solutions. The algorithm was then implemented to determine vapour emission from a two-phase stratified flow inside an axisymmetric funnel representative of an automotive fuel filler pipe.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Alibhai ZA, Matee MI, Chindia ML, Moshy J.Presentation and management of chronic osteomyelitis in an African patient with pycnodysostosis.Oral Dis. 1999 Jan;5(1):87-9.". In: Oral Dis. 1999 Jan;5(1):87-9. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1999. Abstract
A case is reported of pycnodysostosis (PCD) with chronic osteomyelitis in the mandible. The clinical and radiological features and the problems of management and follow-up are discussed.
Amiri S. "Alidhani kapata.". In: Alidhani Kapata na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: EAEP; 2007.
Ndunda B, Langat MK, Wanjohi JM, Midiwo JO, Kerubo LO. "Alienusolin, a new 4α-deoxyphorbol ester derivative, and crotonimide C, a new glutarimide alkaloid from the Kenyan Croton alienus." Planta medica. 2013;79(18):1762-1766. Abstract

Description
Two novel compounds, alienusolin, a 4α-deoxyphorbol ester (1), crotonimide C, a glutarimide alkaloid derivative (2), and ten known compounds, julocrotine (3), crotepoxide (4), monodeacetyl crotepoxide (5), dideacetylcrotepoxide, (6), β-senepoxide (7), α-senepoxide (8), (+)-(2S,3R-diacetoxy-1-benzoyloxymethylenecyclohex-4,6-diene (9), benzyl benzoate (10), acetyl aleuritolic (11), and 24-ethylcholesta-4,22-dien-3-one (12) were isolated from the Kenyan Croton alienus. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, GCMS, and HRESIMS studies.

Ebrahim Y. "Aligning nature with buildings." The Standard Newspaper, July 20, 2023:pp.25-26.
Ebrahim YH, Ithula M. "Aligning nature with buildings." Standard Newspaper, November 15, 0200:26.
(eds.) OCO, et al. "Aligning Sectoral Wildlife Law to the Framework Environmental Law.". In: Environmental Governance in Kenya: Implementing the Framework Law. NAIROBI: East African Education Publishers; 2008.
MARY DROMOSA. "Alila, P.O. & M. Omosa (1999) Rural Development Policies in Kenya. In: N. Ng.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1999. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "AliMohamed F, Lule GN, Nyong'o A, Bwayo J, Rana FS.Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and endoscopic findings in HIV seropositive patients with upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):226-.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):226-31. test; 2002. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients frequently experience upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) symptoms that cause considerable morbidity and are due to multiple aetiologies. The role of Helicobacter pylori gastric mucosal infection in HIV related upper GIT morbidity is unclear. No data exist on the prevalence of H. pylori gastric mucosal infection and upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings in HIV seropositive patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of H. pylori gastric mucosal infection and the pattern of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings in HIV seropositive patients. DESIGN: A hospital-based prospective case-control study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Endoscopy Unit. SUBJECTS: Fifty two HIV seropositive patients with upper GIT symptoms were recruited (as well as 52 HIV seronegative age and gender matched controls). INTERVENTION: Both cases and control subjects underwent upper GIT endoscopy and biopsies were taken according to a standard protocol. H. pylori detection was done by the rapid urease test and histology, and H. pylori gastric mucosal infection was considered to be present in the presence of a positive detection by both tests; biopsies were also taken for tissue diagnosis and CD4+ peripheral lymphocyte counts were determined using flow cytometry. RESULTS: H. pylori prevalence was 73.1% [95% CI 59.9-83.8] in HIV positive subjects and 84.6% [95% CI 72.9-92.6] in HIV negative controls (p=0.230). Prevalence of H. pylori decreased with decreasing peripheral CD4+ lymphocyte counts. Median CD4+ lymphocyte count was 67 cells per cubic millimetre in HIV positive patients. On endoscopy, the most common lesion in HIV positive patients was oesophageal candidiasis (occurring in 51.9%), which was often associated with presence of oral candidiasis and, together with erosions, ulcers and nodules in the oesophagus, occurred exclusively in these patients. A few cases of cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex oesophagitis were seen, as were cases of upper GIT Kaposi's sarcoma, and one gastric lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori prevalence was not significantly different between HIV positive and HIV negative subjects, and decreased in HIV positive subjects with decreasing CD4+ cell counts. Oesophageal candidiasis was the most important endoscopic finding in HIV positive patients and was often associated with oral thrush.

Alionja Asali na Hadithi Nyingine . Nairobi: Focus publishers; 2019.
Roseleur OJ, van Gent CM. "Alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis of conjugated bile acids." Clin. Chim. Acta. 1976;66(2):269-72.
OLUOCH KEVINRAYMOND. Alkaline-active enzymes from Bacillus halodurans LBK 261 with potential applications in the textile industry. Mattiasson PB, Hatti-Kaul PR, Mulaa PFJ, eds. Lund, Sweden: Lund University; 2006.
Yenesew A., Dagne E. "Alkaloids of Teclea nobilis." Phytochemistry . 1988;27: 651-653. Abstractpaper_3_yenesew_et_al_phyto_1988.pdf

A new furoquinoline alkaloid to which we have assigned the trivial name nobiline, and seven other quinonline alkaloids were isolated and identified from the leaves and fruits of Teclea nobilis, an African medicinal plant.

Babiaka SB, Simoben CV, Abuga KO, Mbah JA, Karpoormath R, Ongarora D, Mugo H, Monya E, Cho-Ngwa F, Sippl W, Loveridge JE, Ntie-Kang F. "Alkaloids with Anti-Onchocercal Activity from Voacanga africana Stapf (Apocynaceae): Identification and Molecular Modeling." Molecules. 2021;26(1):70. Abstract

A new iboga-vobasine-type isomeric bisindole alkaloid named voacamine A (1), along with eight known compounds—voacangine (2), voacristine (3), coronaridine (4), tabernanthine (5), ibox-ygaine (6), voacamine (7), voacorine (8) and conoduramine (9)—were isolated from the stem bark of Voacanga africana. The structures of the compounds were determined by comprehensive spec-troscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were found to inhibit the motility of both the microfilariae (Mf) and adult male worms of Onchocerca ochengi, in a dose-dependent manner, but were only moderately active on the adult female worms upon biochemical assessment at 30 μM drug concentrations. The IC50 values of the isolates are 2.49–5.49 µM for microfilariae and 3.45–17.87 µM for adult males. Homology modeling was used to generate a 3D model of the O. ochengi thioredoxin reductase target and docking simulation, followed by molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculations attempted to offer an explanation of the anti-onchocercal struc-ture–activity relationship (SAR) of the isolated compounds. These alkaloids are new potential leads for the development of antifilarial drugs. The results of this study validate the traditional use of V. africana in the treatment of human onchocerciasis.

Derese S. "Alkenyl cyclohexanone derivatives from Lannea rivae and Lannea schweinfurthii." Phytochemistry Letters. 2018;23:141-148. Abstractalkenyl_cyclohexanone_derivatives_from_lannea_rivae_and_lannea.pdfWebsite

Phytochemical investigation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Lannea rivae (Chiov) Sacleux (Anacardiaceae) led to the isolation of a new alkenyl cyclohexenone derivative: (4R,6S)-4,6-dihydroxy-6-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohex-2-en-1-one (1), and a new alkenyl cyclohexanol derivative: (2S*,4R*,5S*)-2,4,5-trihydroxy-2-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohexanone (2) along with four known compounds, namely epicatechin gallate, taraxerol, taraxerone and β-sitosterol; while the stem bark afforded two known compounds, daucosterol and lupeol. Similar investigation of the roots of Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. led to the isolation of four known compounds: 3-((E)-nonadec-16′-enyl)phenol, 1-((E)-heptadec-14′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol, catechin, and 1-((E)-pentadec-12′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was established by quantum chemical ECD calculations. In an antibacterial activity assay using the microbroth kinetic method, compound 1 showed moderate activity against Escherichia coli while compound 2 exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Compound 1 also showed moderate activity against E. coli using the disc diffusion method. The roots extract of L. rivae was notably cytotoxic against both the DU-145 prostate cancer cell line and the Vero mammalian cell line (CC50 = 5.24 and 5.20 μg/mL, respectively). Compound 1 was also strongly cytotoxic against the DU-145 cell line (CC50 = 0.55 μg/mL) but showed no observable cytotoxicity (CC50 > 100 μg/mL) against the Vero cell line. The roots extract of L. rivae and L. schweinfurthii, epicatechin gallate as well as compound 1 exhibited inhibition of carageenan-induced inflammation.

Yaouba S, Koch A, Guantai EM, Derese S, Irungu B, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A. "Alkenyl cyclohexanone derivatives from Lannea rivae and Lannea schweinfurthii." Phytochemistry letters. 2018;23:141-148. AbstractJornal article

Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Lannea rivae (Chiov) Sacleux (Anacardiaceae) led to the isolation of a new alkenyl cyclohexenone derivative: (4R,6S)-4,6-dihydroxy-6-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohex-2-en-1-one (1), and a new alkenyl cyclohexanol derivative: (2S*,4R*,5S*)-2,4,5-trihydroxy-2-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohexanone (2) along with four known compounds, namely epicatechin gallate, taraxerol, taraxerone and β-sitosterol; while the stem bark afforded two known compounds, daucosterol and lupeol. Similar investigation of the roots of Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. led to the isolation of four known compounds: 3-((E)-nonadec-16′-enyl)phenol, 1-((E)-heptadec-14′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol, catechin, and 1-((E)-pentadec-12′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was established by quantum chemical ECD calculations. In an antibacterial activity assay using the microbroth kinetic method, compound 1 showed moderate activity against Escherichia coli while compound 2 exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Compound 1 also showed moderate activity against E. coli using the disc diffusion method. The roots extract of L. rivae was notably cytotoxic against both the DU-145 prostate cancer cell line and the Vero mammalian cell line (CC50 = 5.24 and 5.20 μg/mL, respectively). Compound 1 was also strongly cytotoxic against the DU-145 cell line (CC50 = 0.55 μg/mL) but showed no observable cytotoxicity (CC50 > 100 μg/mL) against the Vero cell line. The roots extract of L. rivae and L. schweinfurthii, epicatechin gallate as well as compound 1 exhibited inhibition of carageenan-induced inflammation.

Graphical abstract

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""All Expenditures must be properly authorized." Continuing on the theme of planning and management control, this article delineates and discusses some of the most effective financial control mechanisms. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 9-10). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""All Expenditures must be properly authorized." Continuing on the theme of planning and management control, this article delineates and discusses some of the most effective financial control mechanisms. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 9-10).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

Inyega HN, Inyega JO. All teachers teaching reading all children reading: a pedagogical shift in teacher education in Kenya. Nairobi: Jo-Vansallen Publishing Company ; 2017.
Kiamba A. "All the rage in Kenyan Politics.". In: Trendy tribal and politically correct ethnic identity’ Paper presented in the National Symposium on Post-Election Peace-building . Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi; 2009.
Ariga E. "Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of some weeds on germination, root and shoot growth of selected crops.". In: 16th Biennial Weed Science Society Conference for Eastern Africa. Kampala, Uganda; 1997.
Maina SM. "Alleviating Gaia’s Poly-mess;.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The deplorable state of the environment has lately become a major issue nationally and internationally. A major contributor to this sorry state is polythene (plastics). Towards better understanding of this issue, this paper cites myriad existing literature that decries the effects of polythene waste and its innumerable effects on health, habitat and future generations. The paper further apportions currently available methods of assimilating environmental aspects into product design and the product life cycle. On the Kenyan situation, the paper cites the incapacity and apathy in dealing with environmental issues and documents the growing crisis of haphazard heaps of solid waste, especially plastic waste. Using a multiple case study approach, a study whose objective was to evaluate the design process with the aim of investigating the level of incorporation of eco-ethical consideration in design of product designers was carried out. Qualitative and quantitative data was collected from primary and sources and analysed. Results revealed designer omission of eco-ethical strategies in the design process, a ruined environmental living dispensation and apathy and ignorance of eco-aspects. Based on these findings this paper recommends integration of eco-ethical aspects all along the product design process

and Gitau AN, Gumbe LO. "Alleviating hard pan formation in the semi-arid Kenya soils for conservation farming. .". In: Regional Workshop on Conservation Agriculture and Rainwater Harvesting. Adidas Ababa, Ethiopia.; 2004.
Mugo SN, Njoroge K. "Alleviating the effects of drought on maize production in the moisture stress areas of Kenya through escape and tolerance." Symposium on developing drought and low nitrogen tolerant maize, El-Batan, Mexico. CIMMYT. 1996:35-38.
Oluoch-Kosura W, Kilungo JK, McDermott JJ. "Allocative efficiency in smallholder dairy production in Kenya."; 1999. Abstract

This study is aimed at analyzing the economics of smallholder dairy production in the Kiambu District, Kenya. The main objective was to “test for allocative efficiency” of the sample farms. The source of data was from randomly selected dairy farms in Kiambu. An analysis using a Cobb-Douglas form of production function was performed for the major inputs farmers used on their dairy animals. Results revealed that concentrates were being used inefficiently. This implied that there were potential gains which could accrue from reallocation of this resource. However, it was noted that there was efficiency in the use of operating capital, hired and family labour and farm by-products. This implies that, for those inputs used efficiently, further development in agriculture can be achieved only through the introduction of more modern technologies than those currently used. These could include new inputs, apicultural education, special skills and techniques, and competent guidance in farm planning.

Alexander RMN, Jayes AS, Maloiy GMO, Wathuta EM. "Allometry of the leg muscles of mammals.". 2010. Abstract

Measurements have been made of the leg muscles of mammals ranging from shrews Sorex to an elephant Loxodonta. Allometric equations based on body mass have been calculated for muscle masses, fibre lengths and moment arms and the thickness of a tendon, in several groups of mammals. Departures from geometric similarity in mammals in general (excluding bipedal hoppers) are noted and discussed. Differences between primates; fissipedes, bovids and bipedal hoppers are also demonstrated.

Maloiy GMO, Alexander, McN; R, Njau R, Jayes AS. "Allometry of the legs of running birds.". 2008. Abstract

The principal bones, muscles and tendons of the legs have been measured in a selection of running birds, ranging in size from 0–1 kg quail to 40 kg ostrich. Maximum stride frequencies of the same species have been determined from films. Allometric equations have been derived. Most of the exponents agree well with McMahon's (1973, 1975a) theory of elastic similarity, which is discussed.

Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W., Killeen GF, Knols, B.G.J. "Allomonal effect of breath contributes to differential attractiveness of humans to the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae." Malaria Journal. 2004;3:1.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD, DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Allomonal effect of breath contributes to differential attractiveness of humans to the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.". In: Malaria Journal, 3, 1. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
MWANGI DRMUCHEMIG. "Allsopp, B.A. MacPherson, C.N.L., Jones, A. and Muchemi, G.K. 1984. Techniques for the identification of gastrointestinal helminths obtained from carnivores in Kenya. Proceedings of the KEMRI/KETRI Conference. Feb 1984. Nairobi, Kenya.". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. Four hundred and thirty six pupils in two primary schools in Kibwezi, Kenya aged between seven and sixteen years and positive for S. mansoni were treated as follows: 320 pupils with a single dose of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg body weight and 116 controls with a placebo. Immediate and delayed side effects of praziquantel were observed. The main side-effects were abdominal pain (36.3%), headache (35.3%) and nausea (13.1%). There was correlation between frequencies of these side-effects and intensity of infection measured as eggs per gram of faeces. Other side-effects included dizziness (9.7%), fever (7.8%), urticaria and bloody diarrhoea. Overall, the side-effects of praziquantel were mild and transient, and did not require any intervention. For ethical reasons, all pupils who served as controls were treated with praziquantel after the study. PMID: 8898462 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Aloo, P.A., Okelo, R.O. and M.J. Ntiba. Helminth fauna of Oreochromis leucostictus (Trewavas) (Pisces: Chiclidae) from a tropical lake, Lake Naivasha, Kenya.". In: The Afri. J. Trop. Hydrobio. Fish.: 7, 1&2: 7-16. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "Alpha Vs Non-alpha: Some Observations on the Position of the Semantic Functions on the Sematic Function Hierarchy.' In S.C. Dik (ed.) Advances in Functional Grammer. Dordrecht Holland: Foris Publications.". In: A book review in Journal of African Languages and Linguistics Vol. 15 - 1, 80-85. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1983. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
Kamau SM. "Alpha-Lactalbumin: Its Production Technologies and Bioactive Peptides.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Alpha-lactalbumin (α-La), a globular protein found in all mammalian milk, has been used as an ingredient in infant formulas. The protein can be isolated from milk using chromatography/gel filtration, membrane separation, enzyme hydrolysis, and precipitation/aggregation technologies. α-La is appreciated as a source of peptides with antitumor and apoptosis, antiulcerative, immune modulating, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, opioid, mineral binding, and antioxidative bioactivities, which may be utilized in the production of functional foods. Nanotubes formed by the protein could find applications in foods and pharmaceuticals, and understanding its amyloid fibrils is important in drawing strategies for controlling amyloidal diseases. Bioactive peptides in α-La are released during the fermentation or ripening of dairy products by starter and nonstarter microorganisms and during digestion by gastric enzymes. Bioactive peptides are also produced by deliberate hydrolysis of α-La using animal, microbial, or plant proteases. The occurrence, structure, and production technologies of α-La and its bioactive peptides are reviewed.

Abubaker AS;, Abukanesha FF;, Anyango JJ;, Baruni A;, Bin-Taher AH;, Boinnet KJK;, Singh B;, Mutitu EW. "ALPHABETICAL LIST OF AUTHORS."; 1988.
Kokwaro JO, et al. "Alpine plant communities of Mount Elgon, An altitudinal transect along the Koitoboss Route." Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society. 1988;75 (190):12.
Redher H, Beck E, Kokwaro JO. "The alpine plant communities of Mount Kenya." Phytocoenologia. 1988;16 (4):433-463.
Kimelberg HK. "Alterations in phospholipid-dependent (Na+ +K+)-ATPase activity due to lipid fluidity. Effects of cholesterol and Mg2+." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;413(1):143-56. Abstract

The (Na+ +K+)-activated, Mg2+-dependent ATPase from rabbit kidney outer medulla was prepared in a partially inactivated, soluble form depleted of endogenous phospholipids, using deoxycholate. This preparation was reactivated 10 to 50-fold by sonicated liposomes of phosphatidylserine, but not by non-sonicated phosphatidylserine liposomes or sonicated phosphatidylcholine liposomes. The reconstituted enzyme resembled native membrane preparations of (Na+ +K+)-ATPase in its pH optimum being around 7.0, showing optimal activity at Mg2+:ATP mol ratios of approximately 1 and a Km value for ATP of 0.4 mM. Arrhenius plots of this reactivated activity at a constant pH of 7.0 and an Mg2+: ATP mol ratio of 1:1 showed a discontinuity (sharp change of slope) at 17 degrees C, with activation energy (Ea) values of 13-15 kcal/mol above this temperature and 30-35 kcal below it. A further discontinuity was also found at 8.0 degrees C and the Ea below this was very high (greater than 100 kcal/mol). Increased Mg2+ concentrations at Mg2+:ATP ratios in excess of 1:1 inhibited the (Na+ +K+)-ATPase activity and also abolished the discontinuities in the Arrhenius plots. The addition of cholesterol to phosphatidylserine at a 1:1 mol ratio partially inhibited (Na+ +K+)-ATPase reactivation. Arrhenius plots under these conditions showed a single discontinuity at 20 degrees C and Ea values of 22 and 68 kcal/mol above and below this temperature respectively. The ouabain-insensitive Mg2+-ATPase normally showed a linear Arrhenius plot with an Ea of 8 kcal/mol. The cholesterol-phosphatidylserine mixed liposomes stimulated the Mg2+-ATPase activity, which now also showed a discontinuity at 20 degrees C with, however, an increased value of 14 kcal/mol above this temperature and 6 kcal/mol below. Kinetic studies showed that cholesterol had no significant effect on the Km values for ATP. Since both cholesterol and Mg2+ are known to alter the effects of temperature on the fluidity of phospholipids, the above results are discussed in this context.

Leucci E, Cocco M, Cleef PV, Bellan C, Rijik AV, Falco GD, Onnis A, Joshua Nyagol, Byakika B, Lazzi S, Tosi P, Kricken HV, Leoncini L. "Altered expression of mirnas in c-MYC negative Burkitt lymphoma cases." Virchows Archives. 2007;451(2):119.
Garcia-Knight MA, Nduati E, Hassan AS, Gambo F, Odera D, Etyang TJ, Hajj NJ, Berkley JA, Urban BC, Rowland-Jones SL. "Altered Memory T-Cell Responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination and Altered Cytokine Responses to Polyclonal Stimulation in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Kenyan Infants." PLoS ONE. 2015;10(11):e0143043. Abstract

Implementation of successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategies has resulted in an increased population of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. HEU infants have higher rates of morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed (HU) infants. Numerous factors may contribute to poor health in HEU infants including immunological alterations. The present study assessed T-cell phenotype and function in HEU infants with a focus on memory Th1 responses to vaccination. We compared cross-sectionally selected parameters at 3 and 12 months of age in HIV-exposed (n = 42) and HU (n = 28) Kenyan infants. We measured ex vivo activated and bulk memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells and regulatory T-cells by flow cytometry. In addition, we measured the magnitude, quality and memory phenotype of antigen-specific T-cell responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid vaccine antigens, and the magnitude and quality of the T cell response following polyclonal stimulation with staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Finally, the influence of maternal disease markers on the immunological parameters measured was assessed in HEU infants. Few perturbations were detected in ex vivo T-cell subsets, though amongst HEU infants maternal HIV viral load positively correlated with CD8 T cell immune activation at 12 months. Conversely, we observed age-dependent differences in the magnitude and polyfunctionality of IL-2 and TNF-α responses to vaccine antigens particularly in Th1 cells. These changes mirrored those seen following polyclonal stimulation, where at 3 months, cytokine responses were higher in HEU infants compared to HU infants, and at 12 months, HEU infant cytokine responses were consistently lower than those seen in HU infants. Finally, reduced effector memory Th1 responses to vaccine antigens were observed in HEU infants at 3 and 12 months and higher central memory Th1 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens were observed at 3 months only. Long-term monitoring of vaccine efficacy and T-cell immunity in this vulnerable population is warranted.

Powner D, Snyder JV, Grenvik A. "Altered pulmonary capillary permeability complicating recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis." Chest. 1975;68:253-256. Abstract

Self-limited noncardiogenic interstitial pulmonary edema probably reflecting altered permeability of the pulmonary capillary membrane is reported in a patient being treated for severe diabetic ketoacidosis. The possible etiology, associated findings, and therapy with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by facemask are discussed.

Kamau G, James K, Jones M, Benedict M. Alternative Approach to Mining of Heavy Minerals in Kenya.; 2002.
Ogana W. "An alternative approach to the transonic flow problem, in S.O. Fatulna (ed).". In: Computational Mathematics I. Dublin: Boole Press Limited; 1985.
Ndunda EN, Madadi VO, Mizaikoff B. "An alternative clean-up column for Polychlorinated Biphenyls in solid matrices." Environmental Science. Processes and Impacts, Royal Society of Chemistry. 2015;17(12):2101-2109,.
Wahome A, Ngunjiri GMN, Shitanda D, Ogola WO. "Alternative Diesel Engine Fuel From Kenyan Pishori Rice Bran." International Journal of Engineering Science Invention. 2013;2(8):75-79.journal_paper__-_aug_2013.pdf
DR.KARIUKI, DAVID MUIGUA. "Alternative Dispute Resolution and Article 159 of the Constitution.". In: Legal Resource Foundation Trust, Programme for Judges and Magistrates Training. Lake Baringo Soi Lodge; 2012.
Okeyo MP, Rambo CM, NYONJE RO. "Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanism and Resolution of Contractual Disputes in Construction Industry: the case of Road Construction Projects in Kenya. ." American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) . 2021;10(2):61-70 .
and D.K.Kariuki, J.M.Ndolo IOJDROR. "Alternative Energy Resources in Kenya: A Case Study for Coal.". 2008.
K DRKARIUKIDAVID. "Alternative Energy Sources in Kenya, A Case of Coal.". In: Journal of Coal Science. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2005. Abstract

While Diagnostic Radiology has become increasingly indispensible in sound clinical patient management the cost and maintenance of radiological equipment has continued to soar, reaching almost unaffordable levels in developing countries. As an attempt to provide some measure of remedy to the above problem, the World Health Organization in the early 80's introduced the basic radiological system (BRS) concept. The BRS is supposed to meet such criteria as being relatively cheap, of low maintenance cost easy operability and suitable in rural areas where electrical power supply may not be constant. In addition it should be able to perform 80% of all conventional radiological examinations. In this paper the author gives a critical account of the BRS experience in Kenya. Proposals for possible future considerations and modifications in order to achieve near ideal BRS X-ray machine are also advanced.

Mutembei H, Tsuma V, Kios D. "Alternative Follicle Stimulating Hormone Dose Rate for Embryo Production in Dairy Cattle." Journal of Dairy & Veterinary Sciences. 2019;10(3):1-7.mutembei-kios_2019.pdf
Lund JF;, Carlsen K;, Thorsen BJ. "Alternative indkomster til skovbruget på Vallø Stift.". 2009. Abstract

Denne arbejdsrapport er et af produkterne fra projektet ”Alternative indkomster til skovbruget: Case- og feasibility-studier”. Projektet er finansieret af Skov- og Naturstyrelsen og bliver realiseret af Skov & Landskab, Københavns Universitet, i samarbejde med Centre for Tourism and Culture Management, Handelshøjskolen København. Vallø Stift er en af projektets case-ejendomme og nærværende rapport er et resultat bl.a. af et tæt produktudviklingssamarbejde mellem Vallø Stift, Skov & Landskab og Centre for Tourism and Culture Management. Der blev i Juni 2008 afholdt en temadag på Vallø Stift for at give et praktisk eksempel på en oplevelsesøkonomisk produktudviklingsproces. Vallø Stift har en særlig historie som Kongeligt Frøkenstift for ugifte døtre af dansk adel og med Dronning Margrethe II som nuværende protektor. Vallø Slot kan som ejendom dateres tilbage til 1200-tallet, og det nuværende slot og omkringliggende bygninger kan dateres tilbage til 1700 tallet. Med et jordtilliggende på 4 200 ha er Vallø Stift blandt landets største godser. Ejendommens primære produktion er landbrug og skovbrug. Den sekundære produktion indbefatter bl.a. salg af fødevareprodukter med et særligt Vallø brand, som indbefatter garanti for dyreetisk forsvarlige produktionsmetoder og høj kvalitet. Ejendommen ligger umiddelbart Syd for Køge, skovene har et højt besøgstal, parken, slottet og bygningerne heromkring har en række æstetiske og landskabelige kvaliteter og en spændende historie. Disse egenskaber giver mulighed for at udbyde en række oplevelser, som er særlige for Vallø Stift. Der udbydes allerede nu en række oplevelsesrelaterede produkter på ejendommen. De inkluderer udlejning af jagt, udlejning af arealer til campingplads, tilladelse til fotografering og filmoptagelser omkring hovedbygningen, større selskaber og events i parken, absolut eksklusive arrangementer på slottet, udstedelse af ridekort til skovene samt mulighed for benyttelse af betalingshundeskov. I forbindelse med dette projekt er yderligere muligheder for oplevelsesrelaterede produkter blevet analyseret og i enkelte tilfælde allerede afprøvet. Hen gengives kort en samlet konklusion for de analyserede produkter: - Sæsonmarked: Vallø Stift’s produktion og afsætning af udvalgte kvalitetsfødevarer er allerede i god gænge. Med udgangspunkt i erfaringer indsamlet i dette projekt, fx fra Løndal, vurderes det at det på sigt kan danne rygraden i fx et påskemarked (æg og lam) med fokus på kvalitetsmadvarer - Tematiserede børnefødselsdage: Vallø Stift’s beliggenhed, opland, historie og slottets og skovenes æstetiske kvaliteter er et godt grundlag for denne ydelse. Det vurderes dog, at skal det lønne sig for alvor skal der satses på ret eksklusive versioner og etableres velfungerende samarbejder med en guide/instruktør. - Hundeskove har allerede her under projektet vist sig interessante som nye betalingsydelser målrettet specielle grupper af hundeejere. Det vurderes, at kan man fastholde det gode samarbejde kan der være grundlag for udvidelser både rettet mod almindelige hundeluftere såvel som hundesportsfolk. 3 - Live Rollespil er en mulig udnyttelse af de to pladser i Skovhusvænge. Det vurderes dog, at beliggenhed og rollerspillernes efterspørgsel gør, at en rentabel brug nok primært vil kunne lade sig gøre ved at udleje arealet til enkeltstående lejre og spil. - Mountainbikere anvender ganske ofte Skovhusvænge. Størstedelen af brugerne er ikke organiserede og ikke bosiddende i det umiddelbare opland. Det betyder manglende ejerskabsfølelse og ansvar for lokaliteterne på Vallø, og mulighederne for konstruktive aftaler med og selvjustits blandt brugerne begrænsede. Det vurderes derfor der p.t. ikke er basis for rentable samarbejdsaftaler med de mountainbikere, der bruger området. Muligheden for mountainbikerute kan overvejes når/hvis mountainbikere i/omkring Køge organiserer sig. - Træklatring er en lille niche-sportsgren, der potentielt kan vokse sig større og Skovhusvænge er igen et interessant område. På grund af de store krav til sikkerhed mv. vurderes det, at aktiviteter på dette område alene kan gøres rentable gennem samarbejde med professionelle specialister, som lejer adgang til skovparten. - Eventarrangementer er en mulig videreudvikling af de eksklusive selskabsarrangementer Vallø Stift allerede har. Det vurderes dog at muligheden skal anvendes med omtanke for fortsat at sikre betalingsvilje for netop det eksklusive brand. - Nye aktiviteter omkring campingpladsen kan være med til at øge dens værdi og dermed forpagtningsindtægterne. Skovlegepladser, trætophytter og andre ting er mulige måder at differentiere campingpladsen fra andre, men det vurderes som en risikabel investering umiddelbart.

Mwangi JW, P. K. Gathumbi, Kibwage IO, Thoithi GN, Oketch-Rabah HA. "Alternative medicines and prostate enlargement-Prunus africana emphasis." Pharm. J. Kenya. 2001;(March):26-31.
J.W. M, Gathumbi PK, Kibwage IO, et al. "Alternative medicines and prostate enlargement-Prunus africana emphasis." Pharmaceutical J. Kenya. 2000;12(1):26-30.
Gichuhi L. "Alternative methods of financing higher education in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2015.
Odhiambo T. "Alternative Moral Economies, Crime and Violence in Kenyan Popular Fiction.". In: Urban Legends, Colonial Myths: Popular Culture and Literature in East Africa. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press; 2007.
Amolo AEJ, Charles Mallans Rambo, Wafula CM. "Alternative Risk Transfer and Performance of Power Projects in Kenya." International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI). 2021;8(12).
Cruickshank DL, Y. Y, Njuguna NM, Ongarora DSB, Chibale K, Caira MR. "Alternative solid-state forms of a potent antimalarial aminopyridine: X-ray crystallographic, thermal and solubility aspects." CrystEngComm. 2014;16:5781-5792.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Alternative Visions and Movements of Women in Africa.". In: Paper presented at the DAWN Interregional Meeting, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, May.; 1990. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

Opiyo R, Olale P. Alternatives to Eviction: Scenarios for Access to Land by the Urban Poor in Kiandutu Informal Settlement Thika, Kenya. Nairobi: Centre for Urban Research and Innovations ; 2017.
Olale P, Makau J, Antonio D, Ochong R, Mkumbwa S. "Alternatives to Eviction: Scenarios for Access to Land by the Urban Poor in Kiandutu Informal Settlement, Kenya .". In: 2016 World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. Washington DC; 2016.
RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Alternatives to Imprisonment in Kenya, 6(1) Criminal Law Forum, Rutgers University School of Law, U.S.A., 73-102.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1995. Abstract
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"Altitude {Illness} - {Cerebral} {Syndromes}.". 2014. AbstractWebsite

Altitude Illness - Cerebral Syndromes. Altitude illness refers to a group of syndromes that result from hypoxia.

"Altmetrics: Alternative way of measuring impact of scholarly content in digital repositories in Kenya.". In: Emerging Trends in Information and Knowledge Management. Nairobi: Moi University Press; 2016.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Alumina and Silica gel catalysed rearrangement of 2,2 Diaryl Oxiranes to 2,2 -Diarylacetaldehydes" J.Sci. Technol.". In: Kenya. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1983. Abstract
   
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Aluminium exporsure from vegetables and fresh raw vegetable juices in Kenya.". In: 18th International Congress of Nutrition, Durban, South Africa . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Drinking of fresh vegetable raw juices for both cleansing and cure therapy has become very common in Kenya. Fresh raw vegetable juices have been recommended because they can boost the required minerals and vitamins in the body. This work was carried out to evaluate the amount of labile aluminium content in fresh raw vegetable juices and compare it with the total aluminium in vegetables. In addition, another objective was to determine the amount of aluminium leached out from aluminium pots during cooking. Out of 18 different vegetables analyzed, total alminium ranged from 0.096 mg g-1 to 1.06. mg kg-1; carrots contained the lowest values while parsely contained the highest values. Labile aluminium in fresh raw vegetable juice ranged from 0.003 mg ml-1 to 0.181 mg ml-1 and this gave 1 to 30% of the total aluminium. The amount taken per day during juice therapy, either as a detoxifier or a cure, ranged from 0.95 mg day-1 to as high as 40.22 mg day-1. But levels as high as 321.78 mg can be consumed depending on the volume of the juice consumed per day. The total aluminium consumed during juice therapy was found to be higher than that recommended by WHO. Aluminium pots were found to leach out some aluminium and the amount leached out was found to depend on the storage time and the age of the pot. Key words: Aluminium in vegetables, Nairobi, Kenya, vegetable juices, total and labile aluminium.
Njenga LW, Maina DM, Kariuki DN, Mwangi FK. Aluminium exposure from vegetables and fresh raw vegetable juices in Kenya.; 2007.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Alusala DN, Estambale BB, Magnussen P, Friis H, Luoba AI, Mwaniki D.Predictors of serum ferritin and haemoglobin during pregnancy, in a malaria-endemic area of western Kenya.Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008 Jun;102(4):297-308.". In: Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008 Jun;102(4):297-308. Taylor & Francis; 2008. Abstract
Between 2000 and 2004, a cross-sectional survey was conducted, as part of a prospective cohort study, among the women attending antenatal-care clinics in Bondo district, a malaria-endemic area of western Kenya. The aim was to assess the prevalence of iron deficiency and determine the predictors of haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations in the women who had a gestational age between 14 and 24 weeks. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect and store the relevant bio-data for the study. Haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations were evaluated, sickle-cell status was determined, and malarial parasitaemias were detected and evaluated, using blood samples collected at enrollment. Multiple regression analysis was then used to test for significant predictors of the haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations. Although 842 women were enrolled in the prospective cohort study, haemoglobin concentrations were evaluated for only 828 of them, serum ferritin levels for 621, and levels of parasitaemia for 812. The mean haemoglobin concentration recorded was 10.9 g/dl. Although 37.9% of the subjects had mild-moderate anaemia (7.0-10.5 g haemoglobin/dl), only 0.5% were severely anaemic (<7.0 g haemoglobin/dl). The geometric mean serum ferritin concentration recorded was 18.9 microg/litre, and 32.3% of the subjects evaluated had low serum concentrations of ferritin (<12 microg/litre). Among the parasitaemic primigravidae (but not the parasitaemic multigravidae), those found positive for sickle-cell trait had significantly lower haemoglobin concentrations than those found negative in a sickling test (P=0.01). Among the pregnant women of Bondo district, gravidity, malarial infection and sickle cell appear to be key predictors of haemoglobin concentration.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Alusala DN, Estambale BB, Magnussen P, Friis H, Luoba AI, Mwaniki D.Predictors of serum ferritin and haemoglobin during pregnancy, in a malaria-endemic area of western Kenya.Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008 Jun;102(4):297-308.". In: Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008 Jun;102(4):297-308. Taylor & Francis; 2008. Abstract
Between 2000 and 2004, a cross-sectional survey was conducted, as part of a prospective cohort study, among the women attending antenatal-care clinics in Bondo district, a malaria-endemic area of western Kenya. The aim was to assess the prevalence of iron deficiency and determine the predictors of haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations in the women who had a gestational age between 14 and 24 weeks. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect and store the relevant bio-data for the study. Haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations were evaluated, sickle-cell status was determined, and malarial parasitaemias were detected and evaluated, using blood samples collected at enrollment. Multiple regression analysis was then used to test for significant predictors of the haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations. Although 842 women were enrolled in the prospective cohort study, haemoglobin concentrations were evaluated for only 828 of them, serum ferritin levels for 621, and levels of parasitaemia for 812. The mean haemoglobin concentration recorded was 10.9 g/dl. Although 37.9% of the subjects had mild-moderate anaemia (7.0-10.5 g haemoglobin/dl), only 0.5% were severely anaemic (<7.0 g haemoglobin/dl). The geometric mean serum ferritin concentration recorded was 18.9 microg/litre, and 32.3% of the subjects evaluated had low serum concentrations of ferritin (<12 microg/litre). Among the parasitaemic primigravidae (but not the parasitaemic multigravidae), those found positive for sickle-cell trait had significantly lower haemoglobin concentrations than those found negative in a sickling test (P=0.01). Among the pregnant women of Bondo district, gravidity, malarial infection and sickle cell appear to be key predictors of haemoglobin concentration.
P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER, J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Aluvaala, E.K, Tsuma, L.M Wambua.P.P, Bulimo.W.D, and Mulaa F.J. Identification of Glycosyl Hydrolase producing Extremophilic bacterium using ribosomal DNA sequence. Sequence deposited at Gene Bank under accession number DQ 341411. (2006).". In: Gene Bank under accession number DQ 341411. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 2006. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
MBOGANIE DRMWANGIALICE. "AM Mwangi and DWJ Foeken, 1996. .". In: Hydrobiologia 316: 225-237. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 1996.
Kolb H. "Amacrine cells of the mammalian retina: neurocircuitry and functional roles." Eye (London, England). 1997;11 ( Pt 6):904-923. Abstract

Since amacrine cells are important interneurons of the inner retina and their activity may be detected in certain waveforms of the electroretinogram, this paper reviews their morphologies, classification, mosaics, neurotransmitter content, neural circuitry and physiological responses to light. Nine different amacrine cell types of cat, rabbit and human retinas are presently quite well studied in terms of the aforementioned aspects and are described in detail in this paper.

Kolb H. "Amacrine cells of the mammalian retina: neurocircuitry and functional roles." Eye (London, England). 1996;11 ( Pt 6):904-923. AbstractWebsite

Europe PubMed Central (Europe PMC) is an archive of life sciences journal literature.

James Mundia, Maina SM. "Amalgamation of a bookshop and a bookstore to meet contemporary readership needs in Kenya, Creativity and innovation ." CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION JOURNAL REVISTA CREATIVITATE ŞI INOVARE/. 2018;12 (2):250-279.
MR. MUTISO PATRICKCHALOB. "Amanda Koch, Sorjarto Djaja D, Mutiso Patrick Chalo et al., 2005; Antimalarial Abietane ditetane diterpene from Fuerstia africana T.C.E Fries.". In: Jour. Biochemical Systematic & Ecology pg 270. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2005. Abstract
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Otieno SP. Amani. Otieno SP, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2008.
Amani Mtoto wa Imani. ( Reader-children ) . Kenya Literature Bureau; Forthcoming.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Amayo E. O, Kwasa T. O, Musau C. K, Mugo G, Wambani. J. Primary intracerebral hemorrhage complicated by cerebral abscess: Case report and review of literature East African Medical Journal 2002.Vol 79,3;163-164.". In: East African Medical Journal 2002.Vol 79,3;163-164. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
A case of primary intracerebral haemorrhage complicated by cerebral abscess is presented with a review of the literature.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS, FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Amayo E. O, Kwasa T. O, Otieno C. F Herpes zoster myelitis: report of two cases East African Medical Journal 2002: Vol.79,5,;279-280.". In: East African Medical Journal 2002: Vol.79,5,;279-280. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients aged 40 and 45 years with HIV infection and paraplegia are presented. The two had sub-acute onset paraplegia with a sensory level, which developed 10 days after herpes zoster dermatomal rash. They both had asymmetrically involvement of the lower limbs. Investigation including imaging of the spinal cord did not reveal any other cause of the neurological deficit. The two responded very well to treatment with acyclovir. Herpes zoster myelitis is a condition likely to rise with the upsurge of HIV infection and there is a need to identify the condition early. We also review the literature on the subject.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS, FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Amayo E. O, Kwasa T. O, Otieno C. F Herpes zoster myelitis: report of two cases East African Medical Journal 2002: Vol.79,5,;279-280.". In: East African Medical Journal 2002: Vol.79,5,;279-280. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients aged 40 and 45 years with HIV infection and paraplegia are presented. The two had sub-acute onset paraplegia with a sensory level, which developed 10 days after herpes zoster dermatomal rash. They both had asymmetrically involvement of the lower limbs. Investigation including imaging of the spinal cord did not reveal any other cause of the neurological deficit. The two responded very well to treatment with acyclovir. Herpes zoster myelitis is a condition likely to rise with the upsurge of HIV infection and there is a need to identify the condition early. We also review the literature on the subject.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Amayo E.O., Kayima J.K., McLigeyo S.O. and Kioy P.G. Autonomic nervous function in patients with chronic renal failure at the Kenyatta National Hospital. East African Medical Journal, 71(4): 253-5; 1994.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 1(4): 185-191, 1994. East African Medical Journal.71(4): 253-5; 1994.; 1994. Abstract
Persistent microcytosis was noted among a number of post renal transplant patients attending the transplant clinic at the Western General Hospital Edinburgh. We retrospectively looked at the pattern of recovery of the anaemia of chronic renal failure following successful renal transplantation with good graft function (Creatinine less than 250 (mol/l). Comparisons were made between those patients with persistent microcytosis and those with normal mean cell volume (MCV). Patients with microcytosis tended to have a slower recovery compared to those with normal MCV especially from week 12 to 21 after transplantation with corresponding Hb changes of 108+ 20 to 126+/-20 g/l vs 128+ 17 to 144+/-19 g/l ([P < 0.05], 95% confidence limits). The microcytic groups also tended to have had poorer graft function with serum creatinines significantly higher than those with normal MCV from week 8 to 21, 182+/- 62 to 173+/- 51 (mol/1 vs 139+/- 40 to 149+/- 38 (mo1/L ([P < 0.05] 95% confidence limits). In both groups haemoglobin concentration was negatively correlated to serum creatinine. (r=-0.54, [P < 0.05]). Body iron status studies had not been done in these patients. Persistent microcytosis though a non sensitive marker of iron deficiency may be a marker of disordered iron metabolism in patients with poorer graft functions.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Amayo EO, Jowi JO, Njeru EK. Migraine headaches in a group of medical students at the Kenyatta National Hospital Nairobi East African Medical Journal 1996: Vol 73;594-597.". In: East African Medical Journal 1996: Vol 73;594-597. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
A survey was carried out on 711 medical students from both the medical school and the Kenya Medical Training Centre on headaches using a closed ended questionnaire. Six hundred and twenty five (88%) of the students reported to have at least one episode of headache in the last six months. Two hundred and forty (33.8%) of these were classified as migraine using the International Headache Society case definition. Seventy (29%) had migraine with aura, the rest being migraine without aura. The mean age was 22.7 +/- 5 years with a male to female ratio of 1:1.3. The majority of the respondents (43%) had an average of two to three headache episodes per month. The major triggering factors for the headache were physical activities, emotional disturbance and studying, each occurring in 21% of the student respondents. It was reported by 43.6% of the respondents that there was a member of their nucleus family with a similar headache. Only 40% of the respondents had sought medical attention for their headache in the last one year. The main reason for not seeking medical services was self medication in 56% of those who did not attend medical services. Only 27 (11%) of the respondents were currently on medication which consisted of simple analgesics and antimalarials. There were only two students who were on specific drugs for migraine. The majority of the respondents continued to be inadequately treated despite the development of wide range of effective treatment.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Amayo EO, Jowi JO, Njeru EK.Headache associated disability in Medical students at the Kenyatta National Hospital East African Medical Journal 2002 Vol. 79,10,519-523.". In: East African Medical Journal 2002 Vol. 79,10,519-523. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study headache associated disability in a group of medical students at the Kenyatta National Hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. RESULTS: Between October 1994 and January 1995 we conducted a survey on headache characteristics on medical students at both the Kenya Medical Training Centre and the Medical School of the University of Nairobi. Six hundred and twenty-five (87%) of the 711 students surveyed admitted having had at least one episode of headache in the last six months. Using the International headache society (IHS) case criteria 314 students (50%) had tension type headache, 240 (38%) migraine headache and 71(12%) unclassified headache. Eighty-six percent of the students with headache had their working ability disturbed to various degrees. Eighty-five percent of the students reported that their social activities were interfered with by headache. Migraine headaches had the greatest impact on both the working and social activities at a p-value of 0.0005 and 0.0004 respectively. One hundred and forty-one students (23.6%) had missed at least one day of work or school in the last one-year as a direct result of the headache. There was an association between headache severity with working ability and social effect. There was no association between the days students missed work or classes with the severity of the headache. No gender difference was found in the headache associated disability. CONCLUSION: Headache is a prevalent condition with disability both in working and social activities
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Amayo EO, Jowi JO, Njeru EK.Headache associated disability in medical students at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):519-23.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):519-23. Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study headache associated disability in a group of medical students at the Kenyatta National Hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. RESULTS: Between October 1994 and January 1995 we conducted a survey on headache characteristics on medical students at both the Kenya Medical Training Centre and the Medical School of the University of Nairobi. Six hundred and twenty-five (87%) of the 711 students surveyed admitted having had at least one episode of headache in the last six months. Using the International headache society (IHS) case criteria 314 students (50%) had tension type headache, 240 (38%) migraine headache and 71(12%) unclassified headache. Eighty-six percent of the students with headache had their working ability disturbed to various degrees. Eighty-five percent of the students reported that their social activities were interfered with by headache. Migraine headaches had the greatest impact on both the working and social activities at a p-value of 0.0005 and 0.0004 respectively. One hundred and forty-one students (23.6%) had missed at least one day of work or school in the last one-year as a direct result of the headache. There was an association between headache severity with working ability and social effect. There was no association between the days students missed work or classes with the severity of the headache. No gender difference was found in the headache associated disability. CONCLUSION: Headache is a prevalent condition with disability both in working and social activities.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Amayo EO, Jowi JO, Njeru EK.Migraine headaches in a group of medical students at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1996 Sep;73(9):594-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Sep;73(9):594-7. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract
A survey was carried out on 711 medical students from both the medical school and the Kenya Medical Training Centre on headaches using a closed ended questionnaire. Six hundred and twenty five (88%) of the students reported to have at least one episode of headache in the last six months. Two hundred and forty (33.8%) of these were classified as migraine using the International Headache Society case definition. Seventy (29%) had migraine with aura, the rest being migraine without aura. The mean age was 22.7 +/- 5 years with a male to female ratio of 1:1.3. The majority of the respondents (43%) had an average of two to three headache episodes per month. The major triggering factors for the headache were physical activities, emotional disturbance and studying, each occurring in 21% of the student respondents. It was reported by 43.6% of the respondents that there was a member of their nucleus family with a similar headache. Only 40% of the respondents had sought medical attention for their headache in the last one year. The main reason for not seeking medical services was self medication in 56% of those who did not attend medical services. Only 27 (11%) of the respondents were currently on medication which consisted of simple analgesics and antimalarials. There were only two students who were on specific drugs for migraine. The majority of the respondents continued to be inadequately treated despite the development of wide range of effective treatment.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Amayo EO, Kayima J, McLigeyo SO, Kioy PG.Autonomic dysfunction in patients with chronic renal failure.East Afr Med J. 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Autonomic nervous function was assessed in twenty two patients (16 males and 6 females) with chronic renal failure on conservative management. The presenting symptoms were postural dizziness in 10(45%), impotence in 4(18%) patients and 1 patient each with diplopia, urinary urgency and nocturnal diarrhoea. The following autonomic function tests were performed; valsalva manoeuvre, heart rate response to deep breathing, heart rate response to posture and postural change in blood pressure. Fifteen (68%) patients had abnormal autonomic function tests. Out of these patients, 14(93%) had abnormalities of the parasympathetic system and only one had abnormalities in the sympathetic system. There was a negative correlation between the creatinine levels and the following; valsalva ratio (r = -0.72 p < 0.001), heart rate response to standing (r = -0.56 p < 0.01) and heart rate response to deep breathing (r = -0.45 p < 0.05).
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Amayo EO, Kayima J, McLigeyo SO, Kioy PG.Autonomic nervous function in patients with chronic renal failure at the Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 1(5):129-132, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
Autonomic nervous function was assessed in twenty two patients (16 males and 6 females) with chronic renal failure on conservative management. The presenting symptoms were postural dizziness in 10(45%), impotence in 4(18%) patients and 1 patient each with diplopia, urinary urgency and nocturnal diarrhoea. The following autonomic function tests were performed; valsalva manoeuvre, heart rate response to deep breathing, heart rate response to posture and postural change in blood pressure. Fifteen (68%) patients had abnormal autonomic function tests. Out of these patients, 14(93%) had abnormalities of the parasympathetic system and only one had abnormalities in the sympathetic system. There was a negative correlation between the creatinine levels and the following; valsalva ratio (r = -0.72 p < 0.001), heart rate response to standing (r = -0.56 p < 0.01) and heart rate response to deep breathing (r = -0.45 p < 0.05).
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Amayo EO, Kayima JK, Amayo AA. Transient Focal neurological deficits in patients with hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia; report of 4 cases East African Medical Journal 1998:Vol.75;53-54.". In: East African Medical Journal 1998:Vol.75;53-54. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
A case of hypoglycaemia and three cases of hyperglycaemia presenting with focal neurological deficits are presented. The focal presentations were hemiparesis and focal convulsion that returned to normal upon correction of the blood sugar. Elderly patients not uncommonly present with transient focal neurologic deficits related to abnormalities in blood sugar levels. In these patients correction of blood sugar levels per se may ameliorate symptoms and signs making it unnecessary to investigate for cerebrovascular disease. In diabetic patients on insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agents focal neurologic deficit should alert the clinician on the possibility of hypoglycaemia.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Amayo EO, Kayima JK, Amayo AA.Transient focal neurological deficits in patients with hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia: report of four cases. East Afr Med J. 1998 Jan;75(1):53-4. Review.". In: East African Medical Journal, 75: 30-34; 1998. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1998. Abstract
A case of hypoglycaemia and three cases of hyperglycaemia presenting with focal neurological deficits are presented. The focal presentations were hemiparesis and focal convulsion that returned to normal upon correction of the blood sugar. Elderly patients not uncommonly present with transient focal neurologic deficits related to abnormalities in blood sugar levels. In these patients correction of blood sugar levels per se may ameliorate symptoms and signs making it unnecessary to investigate for cerebrovascular disease. In diabetic patients on insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agents focal neurologic deficit should alert the clinician on the possibility of hypoglycaemia.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Amayo EO, Kayima JK, Joshi MD.OBJECTIVE: Platelet functions in patients with meningococcal meningitis at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Aug;79(8):405-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Aug;79(8):405-7. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine platelet abnormalities in patients with menigococcal meningitis. DESIGN: Case control study. SUBJECTS: Fifty seven cases of mennigococcal meningitis based on a cerebrospinal fluid gram stain for gram negative diplococcus or positive culture were recruited. Fifty-seven controls matched for age and sex were also recruited. The following platelet functions tests were performed; platelet counts, platelet adhesiveness, platelet aggregation and clot retraction. RESULTS: Fifty seven patients (41 males and 16 females) with meningococcal meningitis were studied. Their mean age was 25.5 +/- 8.32 years with a range of 15 to 45 years. Five patients had purpura, four peripheral gangrene, eight conjunctival haemorrhages and one was in shock. There was a statistical significant difference in the platelet aggregation and clot retraction between the patients and controls at p-values of 0.0001 and 0.0002 respectively. There was no significant difference in the platelet count and adhesiveness between the patients and the controls at a p-value of 0.203 and 0.22 respectively. No association was found between the platelet functions and the clinical presentations. CONCLUSION: Patients with meningococcal meningitis have abnormalities in the platelet functions mainly in aggregation and adhesiveness
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Amayo EO, Kayima JK, Joshi MD.Platelet functions in patients with meningococcal meningitis at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Aug;79(8):405-7.". In: East African Medical Journal, 79(7): 390-393; 2002. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine platelet abnormalities in patients with menigococcal meningitis. DESIGN: Case control study. SUBJECTS: Fifty seven cases of mennigococcal meningitis based on a cerebrospinal fluid gram stain for gram negative diplococcus or positive culture were recruited. Fifty-seven controls matched for age and sex were also recruited. The following platelet functions tests were performed; platelet counts, platelet adhesiveness, platelet aggregation and clot retraction. RESULTS: Fifty seven patients (41 males and 16 females) with meningococcal meningitis were studied. Their mean age was 25.5 +/- 8.32 years with a range of 15 to 45 years. Five patients had purpura, four peripheral gangrene, eight conjunctival haemorrhages and one was in shock. There was a statistical significant difference in the platelet aggregation and clot retraction between the patients and controls at p-values of 0.0001 and 0.0002 respectively. There was no significant difference in the platelet count and adhesiveness between the patients and the controls at a p-value of 0.203 and 0.22 respectively. No association was found between the platelet functions and the clinical presentations. CONCLUSION: Patients with meningococcal meningitis have abnormalities in the platelet functions mainly in aggregation and adhesiveness.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS, O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Amayo EO, Kwasa TO, Musau CK, Mugo N, Wambani J. Primary intracerebral haemorrhage complicated by cerebral abscess: case report. East Afr Med J. 2002 Mar;79(3):163-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Mar;79(3):163-4. uon; 2002. Abstract
A case of primary intracerebral haemorrhage complicated by cerebral abscess is presented with a review of the literature.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS, O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Amayo EO, Kwasa TO, Musau CK, Mugo N, Wambani J. Primary intracerebral haemorrhage complicated by cerebral abscess: case report. East Afr Med J. 2002 Mar;79(3):163-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Mar;79(3):163-4. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
A case of primary intracerebral haemorrhage complicated by cerebral abscess is presented with a review of the literature.
K DRMUSAUCHRISTOPHER. "Amayo EO, Kwasa TO, Musau CK, Mugo N, Wambani J.Primary intracerebral haemorrhage complicated by cerebral abscess: case report.East Afr Med J. 2002 Mar;79(3):163-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Mar;79(3):163-4. uon press; 2002. Abstract
A case of primary intracerebral haemorrhage complicated by cerebral abscess is presented with a review of the literature.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Amayo EO, Kwasa TO, Otieno CF. Herpes zoster myelitis: report of two cases. East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):279-80.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):279-80. uon; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients aged 40 and 45 years with HIV infection and paraplegia are presented. The two had sub-acute onset paraplegia with a sensory level, which developed 10 days after herpes zoster dermatomal rash. They both had asymmetrically involvement of the lower limbs. Investigation including imaging of the spinal cord did not reveal any other cause of the neurological deficit. The two responded very well to treatment with acyclovir. Herpes zoster myelitis is a condition likely to rise with the upsurge of HIV infection and there is a need to identify the condition early. We also review the literature on the subject.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS, O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Amayo EO, Kwasa TO.HIV and acute peripheral facial nerve palsy.East Afr Med J. 1991 Dec;68(12):948-51.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Dec;68(12):948-51. uon; 1991. Abstract
Between April and December 1989, 32 consecutive patients referred to the neurology clinic with acute peripheral facial paralysis were studied. Patients with traumatic facial palsy, parotid gland disease, otitis media and meningitis were excluded. Each of the patients selected had HIV test done by ELISA and the positive ones confirmed by Western blot. 8 (25%) of the patients tested positive for HIV antibodies. Their mean age was 34 +/- 13 years with an age range of 15-53 years. 4 (50%) of the 8 seropositive patients had generalized lymphadenopathy, one herpes zoster, one generalized pruritic rash, two of the patients were asymptomatic. The seroprevalence of HIV antibodies in patients with acute peripheral facial paralysis is much lower than that reported in other African countries. PIP: Between April-December 1989, physicians at the neurology clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya recruited 32 patients who exhibited facial nerve palsy of lower motor neuron type and who did not have any trauma, inflammation of the middle ear, surgery, or disease of the parotid gland. 8 (25%) of the patients were HIV seropositive. Researchers did not retest any of the seronegative patients for HIV. 6 of the HIV seropositive cases had symptoms of early HIV infection: 4 generalized lymphadenopathy, 1 herpes zoster, and 1 generalized pruritic rash. The 2 other HIV seropositive patients did not have any symptoms other than facial paralysis. Several other studies have demonstrated an association between HIV infection and acute peripheral facial paralysis, especially in asymptomatic or AIDS related complex patients. In a study in Bangui, Central African Republic, HIV seroprevalence among patients with acute peripheral facial paralysis was 69%. The researchers could not identify the reason for the difference between the HIV seroprevalences of the 2 studies. Nevertheless physicians should expect to treat more cases of acute peripheral facial paralysis as the prevalence of HIV increases
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS, O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Amayo EO, Kwasa TO.HIV and acute peripheral facial nerve palsy.East Afr Med J. 1991 Dec;68(12):948-51.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Dec;68(12):948-51. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
Between April and December 1989, 32 consecutive patients referred to the neurology clinic with acute peripheral facial paralysis were studied. Patients with traumatic facial palsy, parotid gland disease, otitis media and meningitis were excluded. Each of the patients selected had HIV test done by ELISA and the positive ones confirmed by Western blot. 8 (25%) of the patients tested positive for HIV antibodies. Their mean age was 34 +/- 13 years with an age range of 15-53 years. 4 (50%) of the 8 seropositive patients had generalized lymphadenopathy, one herpes zoster, one generalized pruritic rash, two of the patients were asymptomatic. The seroprevalence of HIV antibodies in patients with acute peripheral facial paralysis is much lower than that reported in other African countries. PIP: Between April-December 1989, physicians at the neurology clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya recruited 32 patients who exhibited facial nerve palsy of lower motor neuron type and who did not have any trauma, inflammation of the middle ear, surgery, or disease of the parotid gland. 8 (25%) of the patients were HIV seropositive. Researchers did not retest any of the seronegative patients for HIV. 6 of the HIV seropositive cases had symptoms of early HIV infection: 4 generalized lymphadenopathy, 1 herpes zoster, and 1 generalized pruritic rash. The 2 other HIV seropositive patients did not have any symptoms other than facial paralysis. Several other studies have demonstrated an association between HIV infection and acute peripheral facial paralysis, especially in asymptomatic or AIDS related complex patients. In a study in Bangui, Central African Republic, HIV seroprevalence among patients with acute peripheral facial paralysis was 69%. The researchers could not identify the reason for the difference between the HIV seroprevalences of the 2 studies. Nevertheless physicians should expect to treat more cases of acute peripheral facial paralysis as the prevalence of HIV increases
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Amayo EO, Owade JN, Aluoch JR, Njeru EK. Neurological complications of Sickle Cell Anaemia at the Kenyatta National Hospital : A 5 year retrospective study East African Medical Journal 1992: 69,660.". In: East African Medical Journal 1992: 69,660. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1992. Abstract
In a five year retrospective study of 360 patients with homozygous (SS) sickle cell disease, eighteen (5%) were found to have neurological complications. Their ages ranged from 7 months to 21 years with a mean of 11.1 +/- 6 years. Of those with neurological complications, twelve (67%) of the patients had cerebrovascular accident, six (33.3%) convulsions, three visual disturbance; one sensorineural deafness, one cerebellar degeneration and the last one confusion and hallucinations. Four of the patients had multiple neurological complications. There was only one patient with recurrence of neurological complications. Two patients were hypertransfused and up to the end of the study period none of them had any recurrence. The pattern of neurological complications are similar to that observed in other studies. However, in this study, there were fewer recurrences of neurological complications.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Amayo EO, Riyat MS, Okelo GB, Adam AM, Toroitich K.Disseminated histoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): a case report. East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):61-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):61-2. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
A 27 year old female with AIDS and disseminated histoplasmosis is presented. The clinical features include fever, weight loss, productive cough, splenomegaly and moderate pallor. The initial working diagnosis was pulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis was made terminally from bone marrow aspirate examination. Disseminated histoplasmosis with its varied clinical picture is likely to be missed in a patient with AIDS, and therefore a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis. PIP: A 27-year old female from Nairobi was admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital in May 1991. She presented with a 4-week history of productive cough, fever, weight loss, and night sweats. She acknowledged a history of contact with a patient known to have pulmonary tuberculosis. She has never received a blood transfusion. She was single and para 3 + 0. Examination revealed a sick patient, with moderate pallor, fever of 38 degrees Celsius, and who was wasted with moderate dehydration and oral thrush. There was no finger clubbing, lymphadenopathy, or pedal edema. Chest examination revealed bilateral basal pneumonia. The spleen was palpable 4 cm below the costal margin; the liver was not enlarged. The rest of the examination was normal. On admission, complete blood count showed a haemoglobin of 5.4 g/dl, total white cells were 12.5 x 10-9/L, with 82% polymorphonuclear cells and 18% lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was 85 mm/hour, and platelet count was normal. The anemia was normocytic, normochromic, and no malaria parasites were seen. Urea and electrolytes and liver function tests were normal. Sputum showed no acid fast bacilli on Ziel-Neelson Stain. HIV-1 antibodies were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Bone marrow aspirate revealed a hypercellular marrow with reversed M:E ration, dyserythropoesis, reticulum cell hyperplasia, plentiful golden yellow pigment, and clumps of Histoplasma capsulatum. Chest X-ray showed bilateral basal pneumonia. She was treated with antibiotics and intravenous fluids, but she remained febrile, her general condition progressively deteriorated, and she died a week after admission. Treatment for histoplasmosis had not been commenced, and no postmortem examination was carried out.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Amayo, E.O., Owade, J.N., Aluoch, J.R., Njeru, E.K. Neurological Complications of Sickle Cell Disease at Kenyatta National Hospital. A five-year Retrospective Study. East Afr. Med. J. 1992; 69:660-2.". In: East Afr. Med. J. 1992; 69:660-2. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
In a five year retrospective study of 360 patients with homozygous (SS) sickle cell disease, eighteen (5%) were found to have neurological complications. Their ages ranged from 7 months to 21 years with a mean of 11.1 +/- 6 years. Of those with neurological complications, twelve (67%) of the patients had cerebrovascular accident, six (33.3%) convulsions, three visual disturbance; one sensorineural deafness, one cerebellar degeneration and the last one confusion and hallucinations. Four of the patients had multiple neurological complications. There was only one patient with recurrence of neurological complications. Two patients were hypertransfused and up to the end of the study period none of them had any recurrence. The pattern of neurological complications are similar to that observed in other studies. However, in this study, there were fewer recurrences of neurological complications.
Mwendia SN, Wagacha PW, Oboko R. "Ambient Learning Conceptual Framework for Bridging Digital Divide in Higher Education." IGI Global. 2016;4:179. AbstractFull Text

According to ITU (2012), digital divide is the difference between countries in
terms of levels of ICT development. This difference remains significant. In 2011, the ICT
Development Index (IDI) value of developed countries (6.52) was twice as high as that of
developing countries (3.24). The need to link the digital divide for universal broadband
Internet access is within the key international development goals, which include World
Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) goals and Millennium Development Goals

Njenga MJ, Wabacha JK, Abuom TO, Ndurumo SM, Gitonga PN, Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004. .". In: Presented at Annual Scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association. University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2004.
Njenga MJ;, Wabacha JK;, Ndurumo SM;, Gitonga PN;, Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.".; 2004.
Njenga MJ;, Wabacha JK;, Ndurumo SM;, Gitonga, PN; Kirui G, Gitonga, PN; Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.".; 2004.
Njenga MJ;, Wabacha JK;, Ndurumo SM;, Gitonga PN;, Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.".; 2004.
Njenga MJ;, Wabacha JK;, Ndurumo SM;, Gitonga PN;, Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.".; 2004.
GT AROTIBA, J HILLE, Guthua SW, H ADEOLA, W ODHIAMBO. "Ameloblastoma in Black Africans the Need for Multi-National Collaborative Research." JSM Dent Surg. 2017;2(2):10-14.
Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Onyango JF, Dimba E, Chindia ML. "Ameloblastoma of the jaws in Kenyan children – a review of seventy cases.". 2009.Website
Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Onyango JF, Dimba E, Chindia ML. "Ameloblastoma of the jaws in Kenyan children–a review of seventy cases.". 2009. Abstract
n/a
Osundwa TM, Chindia ML, W GS, Awange DO. "Amelogenesis imperfecta in Kenya.". 1999.Website
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Amenan A Yao; Carine Dortu; M Egounlety; C Pinto; E A Vinodh; M H Kostinek; Charles M A P Franz; W Holpzapfel; Samuel Mbugua; Moses Mengu and Phillipe Thonart 2009: Production of freeze-dried Lactic Acid Bacteria starter cultures for cassava fermentation .". In: African Journal of Biotechnology, vol 8 (19) pp 4996 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2009. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. "American Studies in Eastern Africa. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1993. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Ameyaw MM, Regateiro F, Li T, Liu X, Tariq M, Mobarek A, Thornton N, Folayan GO, Githang'a J, Indalo A, Ofori-Adjei D, Price-Evans DA, McLeod HL..MDR1 pharmacogenetics: frequency of the C3435T mutation in exon 26 is significantly influenced by ethnicity. .". In: Pharmacogenetics. 2001 Apr;11(3):217-21. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2001. Abstract
P-glycoprotein (PGP), the product of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), acts as an energy-dependent efflux pump that exports its substrates out of the cell. PGP expression is an important factor regulating absorption of a wide variety of medications. It has also been associated with intrinsic and acquired cross resistance to a number of structurally unrelated anticancer drugs. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 26 of the MDR1 gene, C3435T, was recently correlated with PGP protein levels and substrate uptake. Individuals homozygous for the T allele have more than four-fold lower PGP expression compared with CC individuals. As overexpression of PGP has been associated with altered drug absorption, therapy-resistant malignancies, and lower concentrations of HIV-1 protease inhibitors, this SNP may provide a useful approach to individualize therapy. To facilitate clinical application throughout the world, 1280 subjects from 10 different ethnic groups were evaluated for this SNP using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and the genotype and allele frequency for each group were ascertained. Marked differences in genotype and allele frequency were apparent between the African populations and the Caucasian/Asian populations (P < 0.0001). The Ghanaian, Kenyan, African American and Sudanese populations studied had frequencies of 83%, 83%, 84% and 73%, respectively, for the C allele. The British Caucasian, Portuguese, South-west Asian, Chinese, Filipino and Saudi populations had lower frequencies of the C allele compared to the African group (48%, 43%, 34%, 53%, 59%, and 55%, respectively). The high frequency of the C allele in the African group implies overexpression of PGP and may have important therapeutic and prognostic implications for use of PGP dependent drugs in individuals of African origin. PMID: 11337937 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
OLUOCH DRAMIMOJOSHUA. "Amimo J O 2007 Production and reproductive performance of the Kenyan Ayrshire cattle. MSc Thesis, Department of Animal Production, University of Nairobi, Kenya. pp 73.". In: MSc Thesis, Department of Animal Production, University of Nairobi, Kenya. pp 73. Tropical Animal Health and Production; 2007.
OLUOCH DRAMIMOJOSHUA. "Amimo J O, S Thumbi, B O Inyangala, J O Junga and R O Mosi (2011): Socio-economic characteristics and perceptions of cattle keepers and constraints to cattle production in Western Kenya.". In: Livestock Research for Rural Development 23 (6) 2011. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2011; 2011.
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "Amimo J.O, R. O. Mosi, J. W. Wakhungu and B.O. Inyangala. Genetic and phenotypic parameters and Trends of productive and Reproductive Traits in Kenyan Ayshire cattle.". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2006.
OLUOCH DRAMIMOJOSHUA. "Amimo JO, Vlasova AN and Saif LJ PREVALENCE AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF GROUP A AND NON-GROUP A PORCINE ROTAVIRUSES IN SELECTED FARMS IN THE US.". In: America Society of Virology conference. America Society of Virology; 2012. Abstract
Fecal samples collected in different seasons of 2004 and 2011 from diarrheic and healthy nursing piglets from 5 selected swine farms in the US were screened for group (Gp) A, B and C rotaviruses (RVs) using RT-PCR. RVs were identified in 27.4% (65/237) of the samples, with 7.6%, 1.3% and 21.5% positive for Gp A, B and C RVs, respectively. An increased prevalence of Gp A and C RVs was observed between 2004 (18%) and 2011 (37%), with the highest increase for Gp C (from 11.9% to 31.1%). Seasonal effects on the prevalence of Gp A and C RVs were observed within and between the 2 years with the highest in summer (35.2%) followed by winter (27.4%). The prevalence varied among the farms and since none of them used Gp A RV vaccines, we concluded that differences in management may influence RV prevalence. Partial sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the VP6 gene of selected Gp C RVs from different farms revealed high nucleotide sequence identity with reference human (82.5-86%) and porcine (86.2-97.2%) Gp C RVs. Historic (2004) and recent (2011) Gp C strains from two farms shared high nucleotide identity between each other (97.2-99.5%) and clustered (>92% identity) with recent Korean (2009, G6 serotype) and Brazilian strains, however, a recent Gp C RV strain from another farm was distant from Cowden, Brazilian and Korean strains or the strains from other farms. Our preliminary data on Gp A RV genotyping (VP7 gene) indicate that there are multiple genotypes of Gp A RVs currently circulating in US swine. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that infection with distinct Gp C RVs is more frequent among nursing piglets than Gp A and B RV infections.
MBATIAH PMWENDA. ""Amina Mwelekevu"- published in Professional Lady Magazine (Nov, & Dec. Issue).". In: Journal of the Kiswahili Department, University of Dar es Salaam.; 1993. Abstract
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Osuna. F, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Opot. B, Wadegu. M, Opanda. S, Mitei. K, Njiri. J, Nyambura. J, Mwangi. J, Majanja. J, Wurapa. E. "Amino acid changes at the hemagglutinin antigenic site amongst Kenyan Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses in 2009-2011.". In: 2nd Medical and Veterinary Virology Research -2 symposium. Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi Kenya.; 2012. Abstract
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Mureithi AW, Onyari JM, Wanyonyi WC, Mulaa FJ. "Amino acid Composition of Gelatin Extracted from the Scales of Different Marine Fish Species in Kenya.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Gelatin in this study was extracted by an enzymatic process from the scales of three marine fish species; Lutjanus
sebea (Red snapper), Lethrinus harak (Black spot emperor) and Scalus ghobban (Blue barred parrot fish).
Concentration of bacteria for mass production of enzyme was done in a fermentation medium using a bio reactor.
Scales were hydrolyzed at 500C and the pH maintained at 12. Complete hydrolysis took between 20 and 23 days for
all species. The yield for the dried gelatin was between 28.2% and 41.4% for the marine fish scales under study.
Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the presence of amide bands and two other additional absorption bands,
indicating the presence of amide bonds for all the three species. The amino acid composition analysis for the gelatin
of three species was then done showing the presence of 16 amino acids. Glycine was the most abundant for all the
three species with about 35% followed by Alanine both adding up to around 50% of the total amino acid
compositions. The amount of Proline was high for red snapper at over 14.2% compared to 11.1% and 11.6% for
blue barred parrot fish and black spot emperor respectively.

MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "The amino acid fatty acid composition of the thermo-stable lipoprotein (.". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
Gachara G, Symekher S, Mbithi J, James S, Ng’ayo M, Magana J, Bulimo W. "Amino acid sequence analysis and identification of mutations in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya." Virus Genes. 2011:1-6. AbstractWebsite

Although the important role of the nonstructural (NS) gene of influenza A virus in virulence and replication is well-established, the knowledge about the extent of variation in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) viruses in Kenya and Africa is scanty. This study analysed the NS gene of 31 isolates from Kenya in order to obtain a more detailed knowledge about the genetic variation of NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya. A comparison with the vaccine strain and viruses isolated elsewhere in Africa was also made. The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein, NS1 of the viruses from this study and the vaccine strain revealed 18 differences. Conversely, the nuclear export protein (NEP) of the isolates in this study had 11 differences from the vaccine strain. Analysis of the NS1 protein showed only one fixed amino acid change I123V which is one of the characteristics of clade 7 viruses. In the NEP, the amino acid at position 77 was the most mutable with 9 (39%) of all mutations seen in this protein. A mutation A115T which is a characteristic of clade 5 viruses was noted in the isolates from Lagos, Nigeria. The study shows a substantial number of mutations in the NS gene that has not been reported elsewhere and gives a glimpse of the evolution of this gene in the region.

George. G, Samuel. S, John. M, James. S, Musa. N’ayo, Wallace. B. Amino acid sequence analysis and identification of mutations in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya.. Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
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Ward CW. "Aminopeptidases in webbing clothes moth larvae. Properties and specificities of the enzymes of intermediate electrophoretic mobility." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(2):361-9. Abstract

The major group of aminopeptidases (EC 3.4.11.-) of intermediate electrophoretic mobility, from Tineola bisselliella larvae, hav been fractionated into six bands by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the properties of these fractions investigated. They resemble each other in their pH optima of 8.2, their molecular weight of 240 000, their responses to various active site inhibitors and metal cations, and their specificities towards seventeen L-amino-acyl-beta-naphthylamide substrates. The derivatives of methionine, leucine, alanine, lysine, arginine and glutamic acid were those most rapidly hydrolysed. They appear to be true aminopeptidases hydrolysing amino acid amides, dipeptides and oligopeptides from the N-terminal end.

WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Amniotic fluid embolism: case report and review. Wanyoike J G Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Vol 18 NO 1:1-66 May 2005.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Vol 18 NO 1:1-66 May 2005. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Amniotic fluid embolism: case report and review. Wanyoike J G Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Vol 18 NO 1:1-66 May 2005.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Vol 18 NO 1:1-66 May 2005. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on treatment outcome of laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis. METHODS: Women aged 18-40 years with laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis received antibiotic therapy that included cefotetan 2 g intravenously and doxycycline 100 mg orally every 12 hours and laparoscopically guided drainage of tuboovarian abscesses of 4 cm or more. Clinical investigators blinded to HIV-1 serostatus used predetermined clinical criteria, including calculation of a clinical severity score and a standard treatment protocol to assess response to therapy. RESULTS: Of the 140 women with laparoscopically confirmed acute salpingitis, 61 (44%) women had mild, 38 (27%) had moderate, and 41 (29%) had severe disease (ie, pyosalpinx, tuboovarian abscesses, or both). Fifty-three (38%) were HIV-1-infected. Severe disease was more common in HIV-1-infected in comparison with HIV-1-uninfected women (20 [38%] compared with 21 [24%]
Njage PMK, Dolci S, Jans C, Wangoh J, Lacroix C, Meile L. "Ampicillin Resistance And Extended Spectrum Β-lactamases In Enterobacteriaceae Isolated From Raw And Spontaneously Fermented Camel Milk.". 2012. Abstract

The prevalence of ampicillin resistance and extended-spectrum β-lactamases(ESBL)in the dominant Enterobacteriaceae from raw and spontaneously fermented camel milk (suusac) in Kenya and Somalia was characterized both phenotypically and genotypically. Globally important SHV and CTX-M-type extended spectrum β–lactamases (ESBLs)were tested. The Enterobacteriaceaebelonged to 15 species from 10 genera. Dominant isolates wereEscherichia coli (50), Klebsiellapneumoniasubsp.pneumoniae (35) and Enterobactersakazakii (20).Salmonella arizonae, Serratia odorifera and E. coli occurred at viable counts greater than 8 log cfu/ml. ESBL was studied f or 96 E. coli, K. pneumoniasubsp. pneumoniae andE.sakazakii. Total of 61 (63% )isolates consisting of 46 (48%) ofE. coli, 45 (46%)K.pneumonia subsp.Pneumoniaand 16 (7%) E.sakazakiiwere resistant to ampicillin.blaSHV ,blaCTX-M-3-like blaCTX-M-14-like genes were detectedin 37 (60%), 25 (40%) and 11 (18%) of theEnterobacteriaceae isolates respectively.K.pneumonia subsp.pneumoniae harbored majority of these bla genes (74%)with1 strain possessing all 3 genes and 13 harbouring both bla SHV and bla CTX-M-3-like genes. Thediversity ofEnterobacteriaceae in camel milk calls for improvedhandling of camel milk.The ESBLgenes intheisolates fromremotesemi-arid regions emphasises the global antimicrobial resistanceproblemamong Enterobacteriaceae

Babalola OO, Osir EO, Sanni AI, Odhiambo GD, Bulimo WD. "Amplification of 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic (ACC) deaminase from plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in Striga-infested soil." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2003;2:157-160. AbstractWebsite

Experiments were conducted in pots to determine the growth effect of different rhizobacteria on maize under Striga hermonthica infestation. Three bacteria were selected based on their plant growth promoting effects. Whole bacterial cells of the rhizobacteria were used to amplify 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Each bacterial inoculation increased agronomic characteristics of maize although not always to a statistically significant extent. The extent of growth enhancement differs between the isolates. Enterobacter sakazakii 8MR5 had the ability to stimulate plant growth, however in the PCR study, ACC deaminase was not amplified from this isolate, indicating that not all plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria contain the enzyme ACC deaminase. In contrast, an ACC deaminase specific product was amplified from Pseudomonas sp. 4MKS8 and Klebsiella oxytoca 10MKR7. This is the first report of ACC deaminase in K. oxytoca.

Babalola OO, Osir EO, Sanni AI, Odhiambo GD, Bulimo WD. "Amplification of 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic (ACC) deaminase from plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in Striga-infested soil." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2003;2:178-183. Abstract
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Ross N, Iwuoha EI, Ikpo CO, Baker P, Njomo N, Mailu SN, Masikini M, Matinise N, Tsegaye A, Mayedwa N, Waryo T, Ozoemena KI, Williams A. "Amplification of the discharge current density of lithium-ion batteries with spinel phase Li (PtAu) 0.02 Mn1. 98O4 nano-materials." Electrochimica Acta. 2014;128:178-183. AbstractElectrochimica Acta

Description
In this study the synergistic and catalytic properties of a novel nano-composite cathode material of nominal composition Li(M)xMn2-xO4 (M = Pt-Au; x # 0.2) has been explored. Li(PtAu)xMn2-xO4 nanomaterial for use in lithium-ion batteries (LIB) was synthesized by incorporation of the Pt-Au (1:1) nanoparticles onto the spinel phase LiMn2O4. Ultra-low scan rate (0.01 mV s−1) cyclic voltammetry of the cathode material in 1 M LiPF6 (in 1:1 EC:DMC), showed four sets of redox peaks, which reflect the typical redox process of the active material in the spinel structure due to lithium intercalation and deintercalation. The Li/Li(PtAu)0.02Mn1.98O4 cell had less polarization as it effectively accommodates the structural transformation during Li+ ion charge and discharge. The Li(PtAu)0.02Mn1.98O4 cathode showed an increase in discharge currents densities with an exchange current density, i0, value of 2.8 × 10−4 A cm−2 …

Kanyinga K. "Amusing game of corruption in Africa as the rule of law fails." Sunday Nation, March 24, 2018.
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. ""An Anatomy of Third world Literature: Northrop Frye's Theory of Modes in a post-colonial context to bothJAmes Curry (London) Making suggested revion.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
VASANT MRDHARMADHIKARY. ""An Ancient Indian Approach lor Prevention and Spread of AIDS" World Hindu Conference in Durban (S. Africa.) 7lh to 10"' July 1995.". In: International conference of IEEE at pune (Indian). Kioko UM; 1995.
A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""An Assessment of the Social Needs of Muslims in Kenya", a research consultancy project for Saad Yahya and Associated, September, 1986.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1986. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
Ondiek MA, Moturi CA. "An An assessment of the sustainability of Living Labs in Kenya." Innovation & Management Review. 2019;16(4):391-403. Abstract10-1108_inmr-08-2018-0058.pdf

Purpose – There has been a high rate of failure among the Living Labs in Kenya resulting in the expected
outcomes not fully realized. This paper aims to assess the sustainability of Living Labs in Kenya.
Design/methodology/approach – Based on the four capital method of sustainable development evaluation framework, data were collected through interviews and questionnaires from innovators, users and employees among the 25 living labs in Kenya.
Findings – The research found that some innovators are not familiar with the living labs, the living labs are innovative and prepared to survive in future, some labs have strategic plans on how to pursue future environment and have developed ways of choosing right people to incubate, inability to get enough funding from the host organizations and limited knowledge on the supervision level of the operations. A model is proposed that can be generalized to other living labs in developing countries.
Research limitations/implications – The study was done in Nairobi where most of the living labs are situated.
Practical implications – The study concludes by emphasizing on the user involvement during innovation process. There is need to expand the capacities of living labs to accommodate more people to ensure more innovations are supported at a time. The senior managers in charge of the living labs should increase the level of supervision to ensure that the labs are effective in their incubation efforts and institutionalize support of the host organization to the labs to ensure continued growth and expansion.
Originality/value – The findings of this study are of value to research community, the decision and policymakers as it seeks to document the current status of the living labs in the Kenya
Keywords Sustainableinnovation,Livinglabs,Innovationecosystem,Innovationlab, Innovation space, User-driven innovation

OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""An autonomous legal framework for the cooperative mobilisation of personal savings for development", a paper for the second Cooperative Commissioners Conference convened by the African Confederation of Cooperative Savings and Credit Associations (ACOSCA).". In: Paper for the Walter Rodney Seminar Series, African Studies Centre, Boston University, USA Decembe 8. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1986. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. ""An excrept from a long poem titled "TheVillage Bride" Published inMusings a Massey Univeristy literary journal.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. ""An Unholy Trinity", Kenya Historical Review, Vol 2 No. 2.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1974. Abstract
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PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Anacardiaceae (Mango family) of East African flora, London.". In: establishing quantitative criteria for consensus. Economic Botany, 44 (3): 369-381. University of Nairobi Press; 1986. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
KJ G, AM M, GO A’. "ANAEMIA AMONG BREASTFEEDING INFANTS (0-6 MONTHS) AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN A LOW INCOME URBAN SETTING OF KENYA." African Journal of Food , Agriculture,Nutrition and Development. 2019;19(2):14303-14319.
E.A O, P.G N, P.K N. "Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Water Hyacinth (E. crassipes) With Ruminal Slaughterhouse Waste for Biogas Production." Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development. 2019;8(3):253-259.
Lissens G, Rabay K, Waweru M, Verstraete W, Morgan-Sagastume F, Aiyuk S. "Anaerobic Digestion as a core technology in sustainable management of organic matter.". 2004.Website
Mwazighe FM, Kamau GN, Mwaniki JM. "Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Wastewaters with Sludge and Rumen Fluid." EIJST. 2014;3(6):61-66.
Mwazighe FM, Kamau GN, Mwaniki JM. "Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Wastewaters with Sludge and Rumen Fluid." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;Vol 3(6):61-66. Abstract

Anaerobic digestion was conducted at mesophilic (37oC) and thermophilic (55oC) conditions using sewage
wastewaters as the substrate and sludge and/or rumen fluid as the inoculum, with a view to optimize biogas
production. The substrate and inoculum were mixed in the ratios 1:1, 1:3, and 3:1 (volume by weight (where
sludge was used) or volume by volume (where rumen fluid was used).At mesophilic conditions for both
inocula, the 3:1 substrate/inoculum mixture produced the most biogas in a 24 hour period, with the rumen
mixture producing the highest yield (20 ml). At thermophilic conditions the 3:1 wastewater/sludge mixture
had the highest biogas yield (58 ml), whereas when rumen fluid was used as inoculum, the 1:3 mixture
produced the most biogas (66 ml). The thermophilic experiments using rumen as the inoculum were
repeated for a 10 day period and the 3:1 mixture achieved the maximum yield (140 ml) faster than the other
two (1:1 and 1:3 mixtures) indicating that the 3:1 substrate/inoculum ratio is the best.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Anaerobic Treatability of Sugarcane Mill Wastewater.". In: Paper submitted to Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice JCERP (under review awaiting publication). Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2004. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

Epiu I, Tindimwebwa JV, Tindimwebwa JV, Mijimbi C, Chokwe T, Lugazia E, Ndarugirire F, Twagirumugabe T, Dubowitz G. "Anaesthesia in Developing countries ." Value in Health . 2015;18(7):A679.
J. A N-M, P.M M. "Anaesthesia in urinary tract disease.". 1990. Abstract

Surgical management of renal patients is a fascinating challenge requiring a detailed knowledge of anaesthetic techniques and a careful selection of the technique most compatible with each patient's condition. A knowledge of many facets of physiology, biochemistry and med icine that are influenced by urinary tract obstruction and renal dysfunction is paramount (Deutsch 1973). The function of the basic systems involved in homeostasis is generally impaired by anaesthesia. Therefore the degree of depression of renal haemodynarnics is inevitably of concem, especially so in anaesthesia of patients with urinary tract obstruction, or renal dysfunction (Bastron and Deutsch 1976; Deutsch 1973; Mazze and Cousins 1981). This paper deals with physiological, biochemical and medical factors that influence the action of anaesthetics in urinary tract disease, and thus affect the patient negatively. An insight is given on how to overcome some of these factors.

Mogoa EGM;, Ndurumo S. "Anaesthesia Practices Among Kenyan Veterinarians:."; 2008.
"Anaesthetic management of carotid artery rupture: case report.". 1989. AbstractWebsite

The anaesthetic management of a case of carotic artery rupture is reported. The need for quick action in patient handling in all hospital departments and adequate monitoring during surgery are emphasized

E.N. PN. "Anal and dry sex in commercial sex work, and relation to risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Meru, Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

Anal and dry sex in commercial sex work, and relation to risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Meru, Kenya
M Schwandt, C Morris, A Ferguson, E Ngugi, and S Moses
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Abstract
Objective

To examine the practices of anal intercourse and dry sex within a cohort of female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya, focusing on the prevalence and perceived risk of the practices, demographic and behavioural correlates, and association with sexually transmitted infections (STI).
Methods

A survey was conducted among FSWs in Meru, Kenya, with 147 participants randomly sampled from an existing cohort of self identified FSWs.
Results

40.8% of participants reported ever practising anal intercourse and 36.1% reported ever practising dry sex. Although the majority of women surveyed believed anal intercourse and dry sex to be high risk practices for HIV infection compared with vaginal sex, about one third of women reported never or rarely using condoms during anal intercourse, and about 20% never or rarely using condoms during dry sex. Reported consistent condom use was lower with both of these practices than with penile‐vaginal intercourse. Anal intercourse was associated with experience of recent forced sexual intercourse, while dry sex was not. Anal intercourse was almost always initiated by clients, whereas dry sex was likely to be initiated by the women themselves. Sex workers reported charging higher fees for both practices than for vaginal intercourse. Both practices were associated with reported symptoms and diagnoses of STI.
Conclusions

Both anal intercourse and dry sex were common in this sample, and although perceived as high risk practices, were not adequately protected with condom use. Education and other interventions regarding these high risk sexual behaviours need to be translated into safer practices, particularly consistent condom use, even in the face of financial vulnerability.
Keywords: anal intercourse, dry sex, high risk practices, female sex workers, sexually transmitted infections, HIV, Kenya

Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Githinji CG, Rukenya ZM. "Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich) a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya for toothache." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2013;2(6):41-45.the_journal_of_phytopharamacology-onzago_paper.pdf
Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, D.W Gakuya, C.G. Githiji, Rukenya ZM. "Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich) a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya for toothache." The Journal of Phytopharmacology 2013; 2(6): 41-45. 2014. Abstractanalgesic_activity_of_aqueous_extract_of_vernonia_hymenolepis.pdf

The main aim of the study was to ascertain the analgesic properties of Vernonia hymenolepis leaves to validate its use for the treatment of toothache. The plant is widely used as a traditional herb by communities in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya for treatment of various infections including toothache. However its efficacy has not been established. Leaves of the plant were collected from Trans Nzoia County, Kenya and identified at University of Nairobi Herbarium. An aqueous extraction of leaves was prepared. Formalin test was carried out using 30 male albino wister mice to determine antinociceptive effect and the painful response at 0 – 10 min (Early) and 15 – 60 min (late phase). Acetylsalicylate at dose of 100 mg/Kg was used as a positive control. The dose significantly (p<0.05) reduced the time spent in pain behavior in both phases hence indicating that the plant posses antinociceptive activity. It’s concluded that Vernonia hymenolepis possesses analgesic property.

Keywords: Vernonia hymenolepis, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antinociceptive.

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