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W. KM. "Agricultural Land Management for Sustainable Development in Rural Kenya." Africa Habitat Review Journal . 2008;Vol 2 (No.2).
W. KM. "Agricultural Land Management for Sustainable Development in Rural Kenya." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2008;2(No.2 June 2008).
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Agricultural Land Use Patterns and Malaria Conditions in Kenya," (with Joseph Wang.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Ayuke FO, Pulleman MM, Vanlauwe B, de Goede RGM, Six J, Csuzdi C, Brussaard L. "Agricultural management affects earthworm and termite diversity across humid to semi-arid tropical zones." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2011;148:148-154. Abstract

Earthworm and termite diversity were studied in 12 long-term agricultural field trials across the subhumid
to semi-arid tropical zones of Eastern and Western Africa. In each trial, treatments with high and low soil organic C were chosen to represent contrasts in long-term soil management effects, including tillage intensity, organic matter and nutrient management and crop rotations. For each trial, a fallow representing a relatively undisturbed reference was also sampled. Earthworm taxonomic richness decreased in the direction fallow > high-C soil > low-C soil and earthworm abundance was higher in fallow than under continuous crop production. Termite abundance was not significantly different between fallow and high and low-C treatments and termite taxonomic richness was higher in fallow soil than in the two cropping systems. We concluded that fewer species of earthworms and termites were favored under agricultural management that led to lower soil C. Results indicated that the soil disturbance induced by continuous crop production was more detrimental to earthworms than to termites, when compared to the fallow.
Keywords: Soil biodiversity, Earthworms, Termites, Agriculture, Crop management, Soil carbon, Climate

Oluoch-Kosura W;, Sharma L. "Agricultural Research and Development Policy in Kenya."; 1986.
J.O. O. "Agricultural Research in the face of Climate Change and Variability and Commercial Agriculture.". In: ASDSP RESEARCH AND EXTENSION INAUGURATION MEETING. Nairobi: ASDSP; 2013.
Keya, SO; Michieka RW. Agricultural sector development.; 1993.
Oluoch-Kosura W, Ariga ES, Waithaka MM, Kyalo AM. "Agricultural technology, economic viability and poverty alleviation in Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

The major challenges facing Kenya today are poverty and unemployment. About 50% of the rural population and 30% of the urban population live below the poverty line. With 80% of the population being rural the poverty problem is overwhelming. The country has been unable to generate adequate employment and wage employment has been declining over the recent past. While in the 1970s the growth rate of employment was about 4% per annum, in the current decade, the growth rate has been about 1.9% per annum, which is below the population growth rate estimated at about 3%. The country has also witnessed declining growth in income per capita. While in the 1960s per capita income grew at 2.6% p.a. this declined to 0.4% in 1980s. Between 1990 and 95 the decline was even more dramatic at negative 0.3% (Kenya, 1997). The poverty line is defined here as the value of consumption of food and non-food items below which individuals cannot afford the recommended energy intake plus a minimum allowance for non-food consumption. The poverty line has been estimated at about US$ 200 and 300 for rural and urban areas respectively (GoK, 1998). This translates to less than one US$ per day. Of Kenya’s total land area of 57.6 million hectares, 9.4 million or about 16% is classified as high and medium potential land for agriculture. The remaining area estimated at 84% makes up the arid and semi arid lands (ASALs). Out of the ASALs 48 million hectares, about 9 million hectares can support crop production, 15 million hectares is adequate for livestock production while the rest is dry and only useful for nomadic pastoralism. The ASAL supports about 20% of the population, 50% of livestock and 3% of current agricultural output and 7% of commercial output. ASALs have low natural fertility which are prone to compaction and vulnerable to erosion. The agriculture sector dominates the economy and contributes virtually to all the stated national goals including achievement of national and household food security, industrialization by year 2020 as well as provision of employment opportunities. Currently, agriculture accounts for about one-third of the gross domestic product, employs more than two-thirds of the labour force, accounts for almost 70% of the export earnings (excluding refined petroleum), generates the bulk of the country's food requirements and provides significant proportion of raw materials for the agricultural based industrial sector. Overall, the smallholder sub-sector contributes about 75% of the total value of agricultural output, 55% of the marketed agricultural output and provides just over 85% of the total employment in agriculture. The sector’s ability to contribute effectively to the national goals hinges on identifying and implementing measures which promote high and sustainable growth rate. Mellor (1990) asserted that agricultural productivity growth is normally the major source of sustained improvements in rural welfare. Three sources of agricultural growth can be identified in Kenya. One is the expansion of cultivated area. The second is substitution or switching towards higher valued commodities. The third is intensification. The first source of agricultural growth is currently extremely limited. The cultivable land available to open up has diminished over the years with rapidly rising population estimated at about 3% per annum to the extent that the land holdings are becoming sub-optimal economic units and there is ever increasing temptation to migrate to the marginal and fragile zone. Moreover, irrigation development which could help in increasing cultivable land has been very slow due to the seemingly high cost associated with it. Commodity substitution will contribute significantly to growth only if the input and output markets function in a way to allow the producers and the private sectors respond appropriately to the market signals. This is expected to occur if the on-going structural adjustment programmes succeed in limiting government intervention to its core functions (of public good nature) and allowing the private sector to take up the production, marketing and distribution role. Most agricultural growth will therefore come from the third source: increased output per unit land area. The realization of this growth potential will hinge on shifting rapidly from resource based to science and knowledge-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to The sector’s ability to contribute effectively to the national goals hinges on identifying and implementing measures which promote high and sustainable growth rate. Mellor (1990) asserted that agricultural productivity growth is normally the major source of sustained improvements in rural welfare. Three sources of agricultural growth can be identified in Kenya. One is the expansion of cultivated area. The second is substitution or switching towards higher valued commodities. The third is intensification. The first source of agricultural growth is currently extremely limited. The cultivable land available to open up has diminished over the years with rapidly rising population estimated at about 3% per annum to the extent that the land holdings are becoming sub-optimal economic units and there is ever increasing temptation to migrate to the marginal and fragile zone. Moreover, irrigation development which could help in increasing cultivable land has been very slow due to the seemingly high cost associated with it. Commodity substitution will contribute significantly to growth only if the input and output markets function in a way to allow the producers and the private sectors respond appropriately to the market signals. This is expected to occur if the on-going structural adjustment programmes succeed in limiting government intervention to its core functions (of public good nature) and allowing the private sector to take up the production, marketing and distribution role. Most agricultural growth will therefore come from the third source: increased output per unit land area. The realization of this growth potential will hinge on shifting rapidly from resource based to science and knowledge-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to

Oluoch-Kosura W, Okeyo AM, Waithaka MM, Kyalo AM. "Agricultural technology, economic viability and poverty alleviation in Kenya.". 1999. AbstractWebsite

The major challenges facing Kenya today are poverty and unemployment. About 50% of the rural population and 30% of the urban population live below the poverty line. With 80% of the population being rural the poverty problem is overwhelming. The country has been unable to generate adequate employment and wage employment has been declining over the recent past. While in the 1970s the growth rate of employment was about 4% per annum, in the current decade, the growth rate has been about 1.9% per annum, which is below the population growth rate estimated at about 3%. The country has also witnessed declining growth in income per capita. While in the 1960s per capita income grew at 2.6% p.a. this declined to 0.4% in 1980s. Between 1990 and 95 the decline was even more dramatic at negative 0.3% (Kenya, 1997). The poverty line is defined here as the value of consumption of food and non-food items below which individuals cannot afford the recommended energy intake plus a minimum allowance for non-food consumption. The poverty line has been estimated at about US$ 200 and 300 for rural and urban areas respectively (GoK, 1998). This translates to less than one US$ per day. Of Kenya’s total land area of 57.6 million hectares, 9.4 million or about 16% is classified as high and medium potential land for agriculture. The remaining area estimated at 84% makes up the arid and semi arid lands (ASALs). Out of the ASALs 48 million hectares, about 9 million hectares can support crop production, 15 million hectares is adequate for livestock production while the rest is dry and only useful for nomadic pastoralism. The ASAL supports about 20% of the population, 50% of livestock and 3% of current agricultural output and 7% of commercial output. ASALs have low natural fertility which are prone to compaction and vulnerable to erosion. The agriculture sector dominates the economy and contributes virtually to all the stated national goals including achievement of national and household food security, industrialization by year 2020 as well as provision of employment opportunities. Currently, agriculture accounts for about one-third of the gross domestic product, employs more than two-thirds of the labour force, accounts for almost 70% of the export earnings (excluding refined petroleum), generates the bulk of the country's food requirements and provides significant proportion of raw materials for the agricultural based industrial sector. Overall, the smallholder sub-sector contributes about 75% of the total value of agricultural output, 55% of the marketed agricultural output and provides just over 85% of the total employment in agriculture. The sector’s ability to contribute effectively to the national goals hinges on identifying and implementing measures which promote high and sustainable growth rate. Mellor (1990) asserted that agricultural productivity growth is normally the major source of sustained improvements in rural welfare. Three sources of agricultural growth can be identified in Kenya. One is the expansion of cultivated area. The second is substitution or switching towards higher valued commodities. The third is intensification. The first source of agricultural growth is currently extremely limited. The cultivable land available to open up has diminished over the years with rapidly rising population estimated at about 3% per annum to the extent that the land holdings are becoming sub-optimal economic units and there is ever increasing temptation to migrate to the marginal and fragile zone. Moreover, irrigation development which could help in increasing cultivable land has been very slow due to the seemingly high cost associated with it. Commodity substitution will contribute significantly to growth only if the input and output markets function in a way to allow the producers and the private sectors respond appropriately to the market signals. This is expected to occur if the on-going structural adjustment programmes succeed in limiting government intervention to its core functions (of public good nature) and allowing the private sector to take up the production, marketing and distribution role. Most agricultural growth will therefore come from the third source: increased output per unit land area. The realization of this growth potential will hinge on shifting rapidly from resource based to science and knowledge-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to The sector’s ability to contribute effectively to the national goals hinges on identifying and implementing measures which promote high and sustainable growth rate. Mellor (1990) asserted that agricultural productivity growth is normally the major source of sustained improvements in rural welfare. Three sources of agricultural growth can be identified in Kenya. One is the expansion of cultivated area. The second is substitution or switching towards higher valued commodities. The third is intensification. The first source of agricultural growth is currently extremely limited. The cultivable land available to open up has diminished over the years with rapidly rising population estimated at about 3% per annum to the extent that the land holdings are becoming sub-optimal economic units and there is ever increasing temptation to migrate to the marginal and fragile zone. Moreover, irrigation development which could help in increasing cultivable land has been very slow due to the seemingly high cost associated with it. Commodity substitution will contribute significantly to growth only if the input and output markets function in a way to allow the producers and the private sectors respond appropriately to the market signals. This is expected to occur if the on-going structural adjustment programmes succeed in limiting government intervention to its core functions (of public good nature) and allowing the private sector to take up the production, marketing and distribution role. Most agricultural growth will therefore come from the third source: increased output per unit land area. The realization of this growth potential will hinge on shifting rapidly from resource based to science and knowledge-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to

Ariga ES, Okeyo AM, Waithaka MM, Kyalo AM. "Agricultural technology, economic viability and poverty alleviation in Kenya.". 1999. AbstractWebsite

The major challenges facing Kenya today are poverty and unemployment. About 50% of the rural population and 30% of the urban population live below the poverty line. With 80% of the population being rural the poverty problem is overwhelming. The country has been unable to generate adequate employment and wage employment has been declining over the recent past. While in the 1970s the growth rate of employment was about 4% per annum, in the current decade, the growth rate has been about 1.9% per annum, which is below the population growth rate estimated at about 3%. The country has also witnessed declining growth in income per capita. While in the 1960s per capita income grew at 2.6% p.a. this declined to 0.4% in 1980s. Between 1990 and 95 the decline was even more dramatic at negative 0.3% (Kenya, 1997). The poverty line is defined here as the value of consumption of food and non-food items below which individuals cannot afford the recommended energy intake plus a minimum allowance for non-food consumption. The poverty line has been estimated at about US$ 200 and 300 for rural and urban areas respectively (GoK, 1998). This translates to less than one US$ per day. Of Kenya’s total land area of 57.6 million hectares, 9.4 million or about 16% is classified as high and medium potential land for agriculture. The remaining area estimated at 84% makes up the arid and semi arid lands (ASALs). Out of the ASALs 48 million hectares, about 9 million hectares can support crop production, 15 million hectares is adequate for livestock production while the rest is dry and only useful for nomadic pastoralism. The ASAL supports about 20% of the population, 50% of livestock and 3% of current agricultural output and 7% of commercial output. ASALs have low natural fertility which are prone to compaction and vulnerable to erosion. The agriculture sector dominates the economy and contributes virtually to all the stated national goals including achievement of national and household food security, industrialization by year 2020 as well as provision of employment opportunities. Currently, agriculture accounts for about one-third of the gross domestic product, employs more than two-thirds of the labour force, accounts for almost 70% of the export earnings (excluding refined petroleum), generates the bulk of the country's food requirements and provides significant proportion of raw materials for the agricultural based industrial sector. Overall, the smallholder sub-sector contributes about 75% of the total value of agricultural output, 55% of the marketed agricultural output and provides just over 85% of the total employment in agriculture. The sector’s ability to contribute effectively to the national goals hinges on identifying and implementing measures which promote high and sustainable growth rate. Mellor (1990) asserted that agricultural productivity growth is normally the major source of sustained improvements in rural welfare. Three sources of agricultural growth can be identified in Kenya. One is the expansion of cultivated area. The second is substitution or switching towards higher valued commodities. The third is intensification. The first source of agricultural growth is currently extremely limited. The cultivable land available to open up has diminished over the years with rapidly rising population estimated at about 3% per annum to the extent that the land holdings are becoming sub-optimal economic units and there is ever increasing temptation to migrate to the marginal and fragile zone. Moreover, irrigation development which could help in increasing cultivable land has been very slow due to the seemingly high cost associated with it. Commodity substitution will contribute significantly to growth only if the input and output markets function in a way to allow the producers and the private sectors respond appropriately to the market signals. This is expected to occur if the on-going structural adjustment programmes succeed in limiting government intervention to its core functions (of public good nature) and allowing the private sector to take up the production, marketing and distribution role. Most agricultural growth will therefore come from the third source: increased output per unit land area. The realization of this growth potential will hinge on shifting rapidly from resource based to science and knowledge-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to The sector’s ability to contribute effectively to the national goals hinges on identifying and implementing measures which promote high and sustainable growth rate. Mellor (1990) asserted that agricultural productivity growth is normally the major source of sustained improvements in rural welfare. Three sources of agricultural growth can be identified in Kenya. One is the expansion of cultivated area. The second is substitution or switching towards higher valued commodities. The third is intensification. The first source of agricultural growth is currently extremely limited. The cultivable land available to open up has diminished over the years with rapidly rising population estimated at about 3% per annum to the extent that the land holdings are becoming sub-optimal economic units and there is ever increasing temptation to migrate to the marginal and fragile zone. Moreover, irrigation development which could help in increasing cultivable land has been very slow due to the seemingly high cost associated with it. Commodity substitution will contribute significantly to growth only if the input and output markets function in a way to allow the producers and the private sectors respond appropriately to the market signals. This is expected to occur if the on-going structural adjustment programmes succeed in limiting government intervention to its core functions (of public good nature) and allowing the private sector to take up the production, marketing and distribution role. Most agricultural growth will therefore come from the third source: increased output per unit land area. The realization of this growth potential will hinge on shifting rapidly from resource based to science and knowledge-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to

Mukunya DM. "Agriculture."; 1976.
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "Agriculture and Development in Zambia, Economic Affairs, Vol.25, Nos.1 - 3, January-March.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1980. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Kanyinga K. "Agriculture can help uproot poverty." Sunday Nation, April 22, 2017.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Agriculture Development Council activities in Aasia Lessons for Kenya Report to the ADC the Ford Foundation and the University of Nairobi. Written with W.M Mwnagi S.E. Migot-Adholla and G.M Ruigu.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1985. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Gitu, K.W. W;, Nyangito H, Oluoch-Kosura. W;. "Agriculture, Food and Environment. Kenya’s Situation."; 1998.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Agro-biodiversity and International Law - A Conceptual Framework, Journal of Environmental Law (with Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1999. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
Gebrekidan B, Wafula BM, Njoroge K. "Agro-ecological zoning in relation to maize research priorities in Kenya." Review of National Maize Research Programme. KARI/ISNAR. . 1992:1-4.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "AN AGRO-ECOSYSTEM HEALTH APPROACH: AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF SMALLHOLDER DAIRY FARMERS IN KIAMBU DISTRICT KANYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
This paper describes the methodology and some results obtained from an integrated assessment of smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu District Kenya, using the agro-ecosystem health approach. Participatory techniques, soft system methods, complex system theory and convectional research are used in combination. The approach is holistic, multidisciplinary and iterative. It involves designing, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the development processes. The aim is to make smallholder dairy farms sustainable. A sustainable agricultural system is one in which resource management is optimized to satisfy changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and its capacity. The approach applies the agro-ecosystems concepts of health developed both in veterinary and human health. Screening diagnosis and remediation of ecosystems pathologies are carried out in methods analogous to those in individuals and populations.
Mutero C;, Githure J;, Kabutha C;, Kimani V;, Kabuage L;, Gitau G;, Ssennyonga J;, Muthami L. "Agro-ecosystem Management for Malaria Control.".; 2001.
Gitau T;, McDermott JJ;, Waltner-Toews D;, Gathuma JM;, Kang EK;, Kimani VW;, Kilungo, J K;, Muni RK;, Mwangi JM;, Otieno GO. "Agro-ecosystems, natural resources management and human health related research in East Africa."; 1989. Abstract

The paper briefly describes the application of agro-ecosystem health framework for characterization of an agro-ecosystem in central Kenya, and identification of the indications of its health. The lessons learnt from the application are briefly discussed.

Muchemi, L., Lwande O. Agro-Meteorological KMS for SS Farmers. Pretoria, South Africa: CSIR International Convention Centre; 2008.
Amugune, N.O., Anyango B, Mukiama TK. "Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of common bean. ." African Crop Science Journal. 2011;19( 3):137-147.
Ayuke F.A, Karanja N.K, J.J O, Wachira P.M, Mutua G.K, Lelei D. K, Gachene K.K. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health .". In: Tropical Soils of Africa. London: Soils and Food Security; 2012.
Ayuke FO, Karanja NK, Okello J, Wachira P, Mutua GK, Lelei, D., Gachene CKK. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of Africa.". In: In Hester, R.E., Harrison, R.M. (Eds)Soils and Food Security: Issues in Environmental Science and Technology, No 35, 5: 94-133 . London, United Kingdom: The Royal Society of Chemistry; 2012. Abstract

Land degradation and soil fertility decline is often cited as a major constraint to crop production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As mineral and organic fertilisers are often limited in quantity and quality, soil
fertility research has focused on developing integrated management strategies to address soil fertility decline. Soil biotas are an essential component of soil health and constitute a major fraction of global
terrestrial biodiversity. Within the context of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM), soil biota are responsible for the key ecosystem functions of decomposition and nutrient cycling, soil organic matter
synthesis and mineralisation, soil structural modification and aggregate stabilisation, nitrogen fixation, nutrient acquisition, regulation of atmospheric composition, the production of plant growth substances
and the biological control of soil-borne pests and diseases. Soil biological processes are not as well understood as are soil physical and chemical properties, creating opportunities for breakthroughs in
biotic function to provide better services to agriculture. These services accrue through two basic approaches: indirectly, as a result of promoting beneficial soil biological processes and ecosystem services through land management, or directly, through the introduction of beneficial organisms to the soil. Because of their sensitivity to disturbance and their importance in redistributing and transforming organic inputs, some of the soil biota groups, such as earthworms and termites, represent an important indicator of soil quality. In this chapter we have highlighted the importance of soil biodiversity, especially its potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of SSA.

NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Agrochemicals exposure and health implications in Githunguri location, Kenya. Kimani VN, Mwanthi MA. East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):531-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):531-5. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1995. Abstract
A study conducted in a rural agricultural community (Githunguri location) in Kenya between 1987 and 1990 investigated the extent of use of agrochemicals, especially pesticides, by the farmers; their level of awareness of the dangers posed by these chemicals and their attitudes towards agricultural chemicals in general. The findings showed that more than 95% of the farmers used pesticides extensively. More women than men were found to be at risk of agrochemicals exposure, while babies and children were at more risk of agrochemicals exposure than the women. In this community, knowledge and awareness regarding safety in handling and storage of agrochemicals was to some extent limited. For instance, many had no knowledge of an antidote in case of accidental poisoning. Additionally, suicidal attempts by ingestion of agrochemicals was prevalent. Improper handling of the agrochemicals by the community members was implicated to have adverse health effects. These health effects were reported in form of complaints. They ranged from acute to chronic conditions. Consequently, an intervention programme was launched with the women as the key players. It is envisaged that community participation in the on going intervention programme is saving babies, children, women and the community at large from agrochemicals hazards.
Emily N Kitivo, GH Nyamasyo JKM. "Agroecosytem disservices and service providers." South Eastern Kenya University; 2018.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Agroforestry for soil and water in drylands. E. Afr. For. J. 62 (1). 151-162. Nairobi, Kenya, 1996.". In: Proc. of Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) held in Kampala, Uganda, Sept.1999. (ISBN No 9966-879-27-7) pp. 220-226. University of nairobi; 1996. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
Mugo FW. "Agroforestry for woodfuel production.". In: Provincial and District Subject Matter Specialists in Nyanza province at ICRAF. Kisumu; 2001.
Mugo FW. "Agroforestry for woodfuel production. .". In: Provincial and District Subject Matter Specialists in Nyanza province. Kisii F.T.C; 2001.
Mungai DN, Ibrahim AA, Kainkwa RMR, Stigter CJ, Mohammed AE, Onyewotu LOZ. Agrometeorological research for protection and improvement of the tropical agricultural environment.; 1994.
Gitari HI, Shadrack N, Kamau S, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Agronomic assessment of phosphorus efficacy for potato (Solanum tuberosum L) under legume intercrops.". 2019.
Héritier KM, Ngugi K, Olubayo F, Kivuva BM. "Agronomic Performance of Kenyan Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties." Journal of Plant Science;. 2018;7(2):11-19.
Owino-Gerroh C, Keter A, Mbuvi JP. "Agronomic response estimates of acidulated and uncidulated phosphorus sources for tea (camellia spp l.) growing in Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

Studies were conducted on two tea fields, one with tea bushes planted in 1957 and another with tea bushes planted n LgTg in Kaaga, Kenya to determine the response of green tea leaf production to acidulated (Tripleiuper phosphate) and unacidulated (Minjingu phosphate rock) phosphorus fertilisers in the 1993194 af,d lg%lg1 Cropping seasons. The soils yere fairly acidic, low in exchangeable Ca and Mg and high in exchangeable ,ciaty and Al. Al saturation was high ( > 480 g kg-') in both soils. In both tgg3tg4 and 1994195 cropping seasons significantly (P 50.001) higher tea yields were obtained in the field with tea bushes planted in 19?9. The yield for 1994195 cropping season was significantly (P S0.m1) higher. than that for the 1993194 cropping season. There were no significant differences between the two P sources and also that of the control. The higher yields observed in the field with tea planted n lg/g was attributed to the high yielding varieties (clones) which had been planted. Higher yields observed in the 1994195 cropping season were due to improved management practices compared to that of the previous year. The lack of significant response of the crop to either of the P sources was attributed to the 'Al complexation' tolerance mechanism whereby the plant is still able to absorb Ca and P.

Karanja NK, Kahindi JHP. "Agrotechnological Transfer Of Legume Inoculants In Eastern And Southern Africa.". 2002. Abstract

Legumes are an important component of smallholder farming systems in Eastern and Southern Africa and efforts are underway to improve legume yields and symbiotic biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) for replenishment of N depleted soils. Seed inoculation with rhizobia is recommended and solid formulations are produced in Kenya, Uganda...

O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah G.J.O. and Ogaa, J.S. (1979). Genital tropism and coital transmission of C. fetus subsp intestinals. Br. Vet. J. 135 83 - 91.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1979. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah G.J.O., Ogaa J.S. Mutiga E.R. and Muraguri, J. (1983). Coliform mastitis in the Nairobi area of Kenya: Bacteriological types, antimicrobial sensitivity patterns and clinical problems of treatment. Ken. Vet. 7(1) - 20.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1983. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1976): Control of infectious agents exclusively transmitted by the venereal route with particular reference to Vibrio fetus. Dissertation for Partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of D.P.V.M., Royal Veterinary and Agricultural .". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1976. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1976): Control of infectious agents exclusively transmitted by the venereal route with particular reference to Vibrio fetus. Dissertation for Partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of D.P.V.M., Royal Veterinary and Agricultural .". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1976. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1981). The counter-current immunoelectrophoresis method in the diagnosis of C.fetus infection in cattle.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1981. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1982. Companion of CIE and VMAT methods for the immunodiagnosis of C. fetus infection in cattle.". In: Wld. Congr. Dis. Cattle. Amsterdam, 7 - 10th Sept. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1982. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1983). Vibriosis: Current Diagnostic trends.". In: Annual Conf. Ken. Vet. Assoc. April, 1983, Nairobi. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1983. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1986). Clinical and serological diagnosis of infertility in cattle due to C. fetus infection. Dept. of Clinical Studies Academic staff seminars, Kabete, Nairobi.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1986. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1987). The repeat-breeder syndrome in cattle: A functional approach to its causes,diagnosis and clinical management.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1987. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1996). Knobbed acrosome and swollen in-piece defects associated with sub fertility in a ram. Zim. Vet. J. 28, 6 - 15.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1996. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. and Kiere, S. M. (2000). Alternative viable sustainable forms of delivery of Artificial Insemination (AI) services room temperature semen (RTS), technical logistical scope for its use.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2000. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. and MacLaren, A.P.C. (1986): Demonstration and activity of Anodal antigens of C.fetus in the CIE system. Irish Bet. J. 40,24 -29.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1986. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. and MacLaren, A.P.C. (1989). Scificity and immunoglobin types reactive in the C.I.E. test for the diagnosis of C fetus infection in cattle. Acta. Veterinarian Bograde. 39 197 - 208.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1989. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. and Ogaa, J.S. (1977). Pathology of reproduction in the bovine. The Upjohn seminars in reproduction, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1977. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. and Phillipa, Chengeta (1998). Loose sperm head defect in a dorper ram. Zim. Vet. 27, 105 - 118.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1998. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. Mac-Laren, A.P.C. and Boyd, H. (1983). Development and Application of the Counterium Unoelectrophoresis (CIE) test for the immunodiagnosis of C. fetus infection in cattle Br. Vet. J. 139, 528 - 36.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1983. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O., Masembe, F.N. and Maribei, J.M. (1993). Ovulatory rate, fetal loss and littersize as factors limiting porcine reproductive performance in some Kenyan piggeries. Ind. Vet. J. 70 page 817 - 822.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1993. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O., Odiawo, G.O., Tyrrell, D. and Ogaa, J. S. (1995). Ultranography to diagnose testicular lesions in an infertile Angora buck. Irish Vet. Journal 48: 416 - 418.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1995. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Agumbah, G.J.O., Ogaa, J.S., Mutiga, E.R. and Muraguri, J.M. 1983. Coliform mastitis in the Nairobi area of Kenya: Bacteriological Types, Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns and clinical problems of treatment. Kenya Vet. 7(1) : 20-24.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1983. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O., Tafirei, G., Mudenge, D. and Shumba, W. (1995). Testicular Ultrasonography in bucks and rams. Indian Vet. Journal, Vol. 72, 829 - 834.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1995. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
DR. CHUAH(MRS) MINSHING. "Ah-Peng, C., Chuah-Petiot, M.S., Bardat, J., Stamenoff, P., Descamps-Julien, B. & D. Strasberg. Bryological diversity and distribution along an altitudinal gradient on a lava flow of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Reunion island. Diversity and Distrib.". In: Poumon Coeur. 1983;39(3):159-62. uon press; 2007. Abstract
Pneumatocele, a special form of lung injury, is characterized by intrathoracic images of cavities detected on X-ray films. These cavities develop immediately after a trauma of the thorax, disappear rapidly and have a relatively favourable outcome.
R. T. "Ahadi Ni Deni.". In: Mapambazuko ya Machweo na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Mountain Top ; 2021.
Kiage DO, Damji FK, Gichuhi S, Gradin D. "Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implant: Experience in East Africa." Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2009;16(3):157-161. AbstractWebsite

Purpose: To describe short term outcomes of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve [AGV] implantation in East African patients.Materials and Methods: In this multi-center retrospective case series we reviewed eyes of Black African patients with refractory glaucoma, treated consecutively with Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation, in two centers in Kenya between January 2006 and October 2007.Results: About 25 cases including 18 [72%] pediatric eyes and seven [28%] adult eyes were identified. Results have been presented with a median follow-up of two months with inter-quartile range [IQR] of one to 12 months. intraocular pressure [IOP] was reduced from a mean of 36.4 mmHg preoperatively to 16.7 mmHg and glaucoma medications were lowered from a mean of 1.32 before surgery to 0.2 after surgery. The success rate during short term follow-up was 79%. The mean visual acuity dropped slightly from 6/18 pre-operatively to 6/24. There was only one major complication of an extruded, infected valve in a child.Conclusions: The Ahmed Valve Implant is safe and effective in lowering IOP for the short term in pediatric and adult East African patients with refractory glaucoma. Further studies with more patients and longer term follow-up are needed in this population.Key words: Aqueous Rainage Devices, Glaucoma Surgery, Intraocular Pressure

Kiage DO, Damji FK, Gichuhi S, Gradin D. "Ahmed glaucoma valve implant: experience in East Africa.". In: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO).; 2008.agv_poster_arvo.pdf
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Ahuya, C.O. F.M. Matiri and A.M.Okeyo. 2002. Community-Based Goat productivity improvement in Central and South Meru Districts of Kenya: Characterisation of Farm Resources and capacities for keeping local goats or different grades of crossbred goats. In S.". In: Proceedings of the Second DFID Livestock Production Programme Link Project (R7798) Workshop for Smallstock Keepers. Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. 8-10 January 2002. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2002. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Ahuya, C.O., A. M. Okeyo, A. Kitalyi, P. Mutia and F.M. Murithi. 2003. Farm-Africa Dairy goat and Animal Healthcare project: A successful case of agricultural research and sustainable development partnership.". In: A poster presented the Global Forum on Agricultural Research (GFAR) Conference, May 22nd-24, 2003, Dakar,Senegal. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2003. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Ahuya, C.O., A. M. Okeyo, R. O. Mosi and F. M. Murithi. 2003. Growth, survival and milk production performance of Toggenburgs and their crosses to East African and Galla goat breeds in the Eastern slopes of Mount Kenya.". In: Proceedings of an International Workshop on Small Ruminants Research and Dissemination, Embu,Kenya, February 3rd . Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2003. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Ahuya, C.O., Okeyo, A.M, Mwangi-Njuru and Peacock, C. 2005. Developmental challenges and opportunities in the goat industry: The Kenyan experience.". In: Small Ruminant Research 60:197. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2005. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Ahuya, C.O., Okeyo, A.M. and C. Hendy. 2001. Community-based livestock improvement: A case study of the Farm-Africa.". In: 28th Scientific Conference, Tanzania Society of Animal Production (TSAP), 7th-9th August 2001, Morogoro, Tanzania. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2001. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Ahuya, C.O., Okeyo, A.M., Mosi R.O., Murithi F.M. and Matiri F.M. 2002. Body weight and preweaning growth rate of pure indigenous, Toggenburg goat breeds and their crosses under smallholder production systems in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of . Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2002. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
Mwega F. "Aid Effectiveness to Infrastructure: A Comparative Study of East Asia And Sub-Saharan: Kenya Case Study." Japanese Bank for International Development (JBIC); 2008.
Kuria MW. Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
C N. "AIDS control policies in Kenya: a crit ical perspect ive on prevent ion.". In: AIDS: Foundations for the future. London: Taylor and Francis Publishers; 1994.
Mulindi SAZ. "The AIDS Crisis: Challenges, Consequences, and Recommendations for the World and Africa.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

AIDS is a global problem of unprecedent consequences in the history of epidemics. It poses serious health, economic, social, ethical, political, religious, legal, cultural and philosophical problems that threaten to undermine the fabric and the well being, adherence and understanding upon which societies must function and have functioned for centuries.

Piot PM, Kapita B, Ngugi EN, Mann JM, Colebunders R, Wabitsch R. "AIDS in Africa A Manual for Physicians, World Health Organization, Geneva.". 1994.Website
Korongo A, Nzioka C, Njiru R. "AIDS in Kenyan Teacher Colleges." Mitigating the impact: IIEP Research Paper . 2007.
Nzioka C, Korongo A, Njiru R. AIDS In Kenyan Teacher Colleges.; 2007.
co-author Nduati, R. "AIDS in Women.". In: AIDS in Africa. New York: Raven Press.; 1994.
Mwamba PM, Mwanda WO BSRMLPJRSCN. "AIDS related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa : current status and realities of therapeutic approach." Lymphoma. 2012. AbstractWebsite

Today AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AR-NHL) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients the world over, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. While the overall incidence of AR-NHL since the emergence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era has declined, the occurrence of this disease appears to have stabilized. In regions where access to cART is challenging, the impact on disease incidence is less clear. In the resource-rich environment it is clinically recognized that it is no longer appropriate to consider AR-NHL as a single disease entity and rather treatment of AIDS lymphoma needs to be tailored to lymphoma subtype. While intensive therapeutic strategies in the resource-rich world are clearly improving outcome, in AIDS epicenters of the world and especially in sub-Saharan Africa there is a paucity of data on treatment and outcomes. In fact, only one prospective study of dose-modified oral chemotherapy and limited retrospective studies with sufficient details provide a window into the natural history and clinical management of this disease. The scarcities and challenges of treatment in this setting provide a backdrop to review the current status and realities of the therapeutic approach to AR-NHL in sub-Saharan Africa. More pragmatic and risk-adapted therapeutic approaches are needed.

S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "The AIDS situation and its containment.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1990. Abstract
No abstract available yet
Excler JL, Rida W PGMDABKANZALAMSEJKBFFJA. "AIDS Vaccines and Preexposure Prophylaxis: Is Synergy Possible? ." AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES. 2011;27(6).
C.O.N K, perspective R(E) ARC. Aids: ignorance or overwhelming drive. Nairobi: USIU; 2000.
Wafula GA. "Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya." Journal of occupational and Environmental hygeine. 2012;9(5):340-344.
FH W, GN K, PM S, A WG, CM M. "Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya." J. Occup Environ Hyg. 2012;9(5):340-344. AbstractWebsite

The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

Johannsson, et al. "Air breathing in Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami, under normoxic and hyperoxic conditions, and the association with sunlight and reactive oxygen species." Journal Fish Biology. 2014;84(3):844-863. Abstractwileyonlinelibrary.com

Observations of the Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami in hot, highly alkaline Lake Magadi revealed that they air breathe not only during hypoxia, as described previously, but also during normoxia and hyperoxia. Air breathing under these latter conditions occurred within distinct groupings of fish (pods) and involved only a small proportion of the population. Air breathing properties (duration and frequency) were quantified from video footage. Air breathing within the population followed a diel pattern with the maximum extent of pod formation occurring in early afternoon. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the water may be an irritant that encourages the air-breathing behaviour. The diel pattern of air breathing in the field and in experiments followed the diel pattern of ROS concentrations in the water which are amongst the highest reported in the literature (maximum daytime values of 2·53–8·10 μM H2O2). Interlamellar cell masses (ILCM) occurred between the gill lamellae of fish from the lagoon with highest ROS and highest oxygen levels, while fish from a normoxic lagoon with one third the ROS had little or no ILCM. This is the first record of air breathing in a facultative air-breathing fish in hyperoxic conditions and the first record of an ILCM in a cichlid species.
Key words: diel patterns; gill remodelling; interlamellar cell mass.
© 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles

Air Breathing: the Elite Respiration.; 1998. AbstractWebsite

Water forms an important structural and functional constituent of the intercellular and intracelular lung tissue (e.g., Bastacky et al. 1987). Furthermore, a hydrated layer lines the air spaces of the lung (e.g., Fishman et al. 1957; Cantin et al. 1987; Chinard 1992). In the larger air spaces, the aqueous layer is comprised mostly of mucus, a glycoprotein-containing phase which is about 98% water (e.g., Sturgess 1979). The mucus forms an important source of moisture which humidifies the inhaled air, traps solid particles, and protects the ciliated epithelium. At the alveolar level, the hydrated layer occurs in form of an aqueous subphase in which proteins, carbohydrates, ions, and surfactant are dissolved. In the vertebrate lungs, where detailed investigations have been carried out, gas exchange occurs across an extracellular alveolar fluid film which lines the surface. The lining has been lucidly demonstrated by Finley et al. (1968), Weibel and Gil (1968), Kikkawa (1970), Bastacky et al. (1987, 1993), and Hook et al. (1987). In the airways, the thickness of the surface liquid lining is 20 to 150 µm (Widdicombe 1997) while on the alveolar surface, the thickness ranges from 0.1 to 0.241Im (Weibel and Gil 1968; Bastacky et al. 1993, 1995; Stephens et al. 1996). In the human lung, it has been estimated physiologically (e.g., Rennard et al. 1986) that the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) makes up 20 to 40 ml while through morphometric techniques (e.g., Untersee et al. 1971; Gorin and Steward 1979), the ELF was estimated to range from 15 to 70 ml. The alveolar fluid layer contributes significantly to the gas exchange function of the lung

pollution clean technology: a case for metal emisiion abatement A&, Mbuthia RN. Air pollution & clean technology: a case for metal emisiion abatement.; 2006.
…, Njau LN, Mukolwe EA, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ,... Air pollution in Kenya. Appendix 13. inis.iaea.org; 1995. AbstractWebsite

SUMMARY Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EXDRF) analysis of aerosol samples in Nairobi is presented. Results show that elemental concentrations is of the order of 10^ to lO" 10\ġfm^ for most elements analyzed. The total suspended particulate (TSP) matter were …

M PROFIRANDUEVARISTUS. "Air Transport and Growth of Tourism in Kenya, published in Nairobi,Kenya.". In: in HEKIMA, Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol.3, No.1:14-26,. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
Air transportation plays an important role in the social and economic development of the global system and the countries that seek to participate in it. As Africa seeks to takes its place in the global economy, it is increasingly looking to aviation as the primary means of connecting its people and goods with the world. It has been suggested that Africa as a continent needs to move toward a system of hubs to optimize its scarce resources. Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, Kenya is one of the airports in the Eastern region of Africa that is seeking to fill this role. This paper discusses the prospects for success and the challenges that it will need to overcome, including projections through 2020 for the growth in passenger and cargo traffic. Key Words: African aviation, hub-and-spoke, traffic forecasts
Irandu EM. "Air Transport Security in Kenya .". In: Air Transport Security: Issues, Challenges and National Policies. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishers; 2018.
Pope FD, Gatari M, Ng'ang'a D,... "Airborne particulate matter monitoring in Kenya using calibrated low cost sensors [discussion paper]." Atmospheric …. 2018. AbstractWebsite

East African countries face an increasing threat from poor air quality, stemming from rapid urbanisation, population growth and a steep rise in fuel use and motorization rates. With few air quality monitoring systems available, this study provides the much needed high temporal …

Blake R, Pope F, Gatari M. "Airborne particulate matter monitoring in Nairobi, Kenya using calibrated low cost sensors." EGU General Assembly …. 2018. AbstractWebsite

This study investigated the use of low cost optical particle counters (OPCs) to measure particulate matter (PM) pollution in Nairobi, Kenya, between February and March 2017. Measurements were performed in three locations, an urban background and urban roadside …

Agandaa AA, Coneyb JER, Sheppard CGW. "Airflow maldistribution and the performance of a packaged air conditioning unit evaporator.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

The performance of an evaporator for a packaged air conditioning unit has been investigated. A heat transfer program ACOL5 validated in an earlier study, was used to predict the performance. Non-uniform velocity distribution measurements taken in a typical air conditioning unit were employed in the prediction of the evaporator performance. It was found that this maldistribution reduced the performance of an evaporator circuit, as compared to uniform flow. Circuits at the edges of the evaporator, where the velocity was low, did not perform well. With the refrigerants controlled by one thermostatic valve, the worst performing circuit affected the performance of the whole evaporator, the evaporator performance being reduced by as much as 35%. The performance of the evaporator, where the circuits had different numbers of passes, depended on the position of the circuit in the evaporator.

Agullo JO, Marenya MO. "Airflow resistance of parchment Arabica coffee." Biosystems Engineering. 2005;91(2):149-156.
Wondimu W, Bogale A, Babege T. "AJPS Articles." Evaluation. 2018.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Ajusi JD, Onyango FE, Mutanda LN and WAMOLA I.A. Bacteriology of unheated expressed breast milk stored at room temperature. EAMJ 66(6): 381 1989.". In: EAMJ 66(6): 381 1989. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Akama M.K., Chindia M.L., and Ndung'u F.l.: Occurrence and pattern of Mandibular fractures at Kisii District Hospital, Kenya. East African Medical Journal. 70: 732-733, 1993.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):49-50. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1993. Abstract
The report revisits the role of alcohol in the treatment of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN). The study included 6 patients, 3 male and 3 female, average age 50 years. In 3 cases PTN involved both the infraorbital and mental nerves; in 2 cases the infraorbital alone while one case had buccal branch involvement. In each case 2mls standard Lignocaine was infiltrated at each site followed by 2mls 60% sterile alcohol. All patients reported swelling postoperatively. One case with mental and infraorbital nerve involvement complained of oral dysaesthesia. Another patient with similar involvement failed to respond and developed trismus. Responders remained pain-free for 9 months on average. While paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) has been recognised for centuries, the aetiology and definitive treatment remain obscure. Since this is a debilitating condition, management should aim at improving the quality of life. Alcohol is available, affordable and offers useful results where medical resources provide limited PTN treatment modalities.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "AKAMA M.K., CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA, S.W., and NYONG'O, A. Extra-abdominal fibromatosis invading the mandible: A case report. East Afr. Med. Journal, 79 (1), 49-50, 2002.". In: A case report. East Afr. Med. Journal, 79 (1), 49-50. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular.  This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the august 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya.  A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta national Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi.  Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft and hard tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries.  Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region: 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region.  This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach.  The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "AKAMA M.K., MACIGO FG, CHINDIA ML, ODHIAMBO W.A. Occurence of injuries of the maxillofacial skeleton seen at a Teaching and National referral Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. African Journal of Oral health Sciences 2003.". In: African Journal of Oral health Sciences 2003. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of dental injuries in the 0-15 year-olds. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and five patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 505 patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. Most of the injuries were recorded in the year 1999 (22.2%). Boys were more affected (63.0%) than girls (37.0%). The main presenting complaint recorded was pain (75.8%).The majority of the patients (69.5%) presented for treatment during the same day or the day after trauma. Falls were the leading cause of injuries (73.5%). Most injuries involved two teeth (47.1%) and the maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth both in the primary (67.5%) and permanent (64.0%) dentitions. Luxation injuries were the most common type of dental trauma with 47.5% occurring in the permanent teeth and 77.3% in the primary teeth. The main radiographic investigation performed was intraoral periapical views (52.9%) following which dental extraction (34.4%) was the main treatment modality offered. CONCLUSION: Prospective cross-sectional studies to determine the prevalence of dental injuries are needed. Furthermore improving the knowledge of dental practitioners through continuing dental education programmes would help in updating them on current trends in managing these injuries.
KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW. "Akama MK, Chindia ML, Guthua SW, Nyong'o A.Extra-abdominal fibromatosis invading the mandible: case report.East Afr Med J. 2002 Jan;79(1):49-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jan;79(1):49-50. University of Nairobi.; 2002. Abstract
Extra-abdominal fibromatosis (desmoid tumour) is a rare aggressive neoplasm with a tendency to infiltrate local structures but rarely metastasises or undergoes spontaneous malignant transformation. The treatment of choice is surgery, however, recurrences have been reported even after wide-field resection. This article presents a case of extra-abdominal fibromatosis that had extensively invaded the mandible.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "AKAMA MK, CHINDIA ML, MACIGO FG, GUTHUA SW. Pattern of Maxillofacial associated injuries in road traffic accidents. East African Medical Journal 2007; 84: 287-295.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):107-12. Elsevier; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Akama MK, Chindia ML, Macigo FG, Guthua SW.Pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries in road traffic accidents.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):287-95.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):287-95. University of Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Victims may suffer multiple injuries including maxillofacial injuries. In most developing countries RTAs are the leading cause of maxillofacial injuries. In an attempt to reduce RTAs, the government of Kenya has enacted a legislation requiring mandatory fitting of speed governors and safety belts by passenger service vehicles. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries sustained in road traffic accidents. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). SUBJECTS: All patients involved in RTAs brought to casualty and the dental department of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries. Males in the 21-30-year age group were the most affected. Most accidents occurred during weekends with pedestrians being the leading casualties in 59.5% and 71.4% of non-fatal and fatal cases respectively. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatus) which were responsible for 62% and 40.6% of non-fatal and fatal injuries respectively. Non-use of safety belts was reported in 56.6% of the cases who suffered non-fatal injuries. In the non-fatal category 89.6% of the casualties had soft tissue injuries (STIs) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1%) incidents of other STIs than those of the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the casualties with non-fatal injuries had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. In the fatal category head injury alone was the leading cause of death accounting for 37.7% of the cases followed by head and chest injuries combined which were responsible for 13% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Injuries to the maxillofacial skeleton appear to be uncommon in this series. Pedestrians in their third decade of life are most affected with passenger service vehicles being responsible in the majority of the cases. RECOMMENDATIONS: Interventional programmes targeting pedestrians and those in the third and fourth decades of life should be enacted.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Akama MK, Chindia ML, Macigo FG, Guthua SW.Pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries in road traffic accidents.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):287-95.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):287-95. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2007. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Victims may suffer multiple injuries including maxillofacial injuries. In most developing countries RTAs are the leading cause of maxillofacial injuries. In an attempt to reduce RTAs, the government of Kenya has enacted a legislation requiring mandatory fitting of speed governors and safety belts by passenger service vehicles. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries sustained in road traffic accidents. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). SUBJECTS: All patients involved in RTAs brought to casualty and the dental department of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries. Males in the 21-30-year age group were the most affected. Most accidents occurred during weekends with pedestrians being the leading casualties in 59.5% and 71.4% of non-fatal and fatal cases respectively. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatus) which were responsible for 62% and 40.6% of non-fatal and fatal injuries respectively. Non-use of safety belts was reported in 56.6% of the cases who suffered non-fatal injuries. In the non-fatal category 89.6% of the casualties had soft tissue injuries (STIs) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1%) incidents of other STIs than those of the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the casualties with non-fatal injuries had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. In the fatal category head injury alone was the leading cause of death accounting for 37.7% of the cases followed by head and chest injuries combined which were responsible for 13% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Injuries to the maxillofacial skeleton appear to be uncommon in this series. Pedestrians in their third decade of life are most affected with passenger service vehicles being responsible in the majority of the cases. RECOMMENDATIONS: Interventional programmes targeting pedestrians and those in the third and fourth decades of life should be enacted.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Akama MK, Chindia ML, Macigo FG, Guthua SW.Pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries in road traffic accidents.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):287-95.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):287-95. Elsevier; 2007. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Victims may suffer multiple injuries including maxillofacial injuries. In most developing countries RTAs are the leading cause of maxillofacial injuries. In an attempt to reduce RTAs, the government of Kenya has enacted a legislation requiring mandatory fitting of speed governors and safety belts by passenger service vehicles. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries sustained in road traffic accidents. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). SUBJECTS: All patients involved in RTAs brought to casualty and the dental department of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries. Males in the 21-30-year age group were the most affected. Most accidents occurred during weekends with pedestrians being the leading casualties in 59.5% and 71.4% of non-fatal and fatal cases respectively. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatus) which were responsible for 62% and 40.6% of non-fatal and fatal injuries respectively. Non-use of safety belts was reported in 56.6% of the cases who suffered non-fatal injuries. In the non-fatal category 89.6% of the casualties had soft tissue injuries (STIs) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1%) incidents of other STIs than those of the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the casualties with non-fatal injuries had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. In the fatal category head injury alone was the leading cause of death accounting for 37.7% of the cases followed by head and chest injuries combined which were responsible for 13% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Injuries to the maxillofacial skeleton appear to be uncommon in this series. Pedestrians in their third decade of life are most affected with passenger service vehicles being responsible in the majority of the cases. RECOMMENDATIONS: Interventional programmes targeting pedestrians and those in the third and fourth decades of life should be enacted.
KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW. "Akama MK, Guthua SW, Chindia ML.Pierre Robin Syndrome: case report.East Afr Med J. 2000 Jun;77(6):343-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Jun;77(6):343-4. University of Nairobi.; 2000. Abstract
A case of a female neonate with Pierre Robin Syndrome with frequent cyanotic episodes and feeding difficulties which could not be adequately managed by positioning and oral airway placement is presented. Tongue-anterior mandible fusion procedure was performed with satisfactory results.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "AKAMA, .K., ODHIAMBO, W.A., CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA, S.W., and MACIGO, F.G.: Injuries of the Maxillofacial skeleton in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afri. Med. Journal.". In: East Afri. Med. Journal. Elsevier; 1983. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "AKAMA, M.K. and GUTHUA, S.W., Management of Complex orofacial soft tissueinjuries; J. Dent. res 78(5), 1092, 1999 (Abs).". In: J. Dent. res 78(5), 1092. Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
S.W. Guthua , D.L. Mwaniki and F.G. Macigo. Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi , Kenya J. of Dental Research 1999, Vol. 78 Keloids are soft tissues growths which develop as a complication in later stages of wound healing. They occur more commonly in blacks in comparison to other racial groups. Although hereditary factors are implicated in individual selection and pathogenesis of keloids, the aetiology is unknown. The individuals who succumb to this disfiguring condition are usually psychologically traumatized thereby influencing their self-esteem. The management of these lesions is challenging and surgery alone without adjuvant radiotherapy shows high recurrence rate. 10 patients with keloids in the cervicofacial region are presented. The patients were divided in two categories. Category I patients (N=5) were managed with surgery and local steroid therapy. Category II patients (N=5) Received adjuvant superficial radiotherapy treatment (SXRT) after surgery. In two of the patients, in Category I, there was recurrence whereas in Category II, there was none. Complications observed in category I patients included; hypopigmentation and lipotrophy while in Category II patients, localized dermatitis, sloughing of the skin and local tissue necrosis (N=1) were observed. The complications related to SXRT improved and no invasive intervention was required. SXRT if meticulously fractionated and monitored seems to be the most favourable adjuvant modality in the management of keloids among the black population .
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "AKAMA, M.K., GUTHUA, S.W. and CHINDIA, M.L.: Management of complex orofacial soft tissue injuries. Afri. Journal of oral Health Sciences. Vol1(1): 8-10, 2000.". In: Afri. Journal of oral Health Sciences. Vol1(1): 8-10. Elsevier; 2000. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "AKAMA, M.K., ODHIAMBO, W.A., CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA, S.W. and MACIGO, F.G. Injuries of the Maxillofacial Skeleton in Nairobi, Kenya. E. Afr. Med. J.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. Elsevier; 1983. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga S.I (1987), (Revised 1999), Semi za Kiswahili: Maana na matumi, Oxford University Press, Nairobi.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 1987. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga S.I (1987), (Revised 1999), Semi za Kiswahili: Maana na matumi, Oxford University Press, Nairobi.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 1987. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga S.I. (1997), "A study of Logooli moral values with particularreference to taboos, oaths and curses"; PhD Unpublished thesis, University of Nairobi, Nairobi.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 2000. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga S.I. (1997), "A study of Logooli moral values with particularreference to taboos, oaths and curses"; PhD Unpublished thesis, University of Nairobi, Nairobi.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 2000. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga, S.I (1993), Christianity in Africa, Lecture Series University of Nairobi, Nairobi.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 1993. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga, S.I (1993), Christianity in Africa, Lecture Series University of Nairobi, Nairobi.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 1993. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga, S.I (1996), "Some aspects of indigenous logooli moral values"in Trans African Journal of History, Vol. 25:146-153, Gideon Were Press, Nairobi.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 1996. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga, S.I (1996), "Some aspects of indigenous logooli moral values"in Trans African Journal of History, Vol. 25:146-153, Gideon Were Press, Nairobi.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 1996. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga, S.I (2000), "The concept of curses and oaths among the indigenous logooli".". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 2000. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga, S.I (2000), "The concept of curses and oaths among the indigenous logooli".". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 2000. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga, S.I., "Ritual purification and reconciliation". Submitted to Trans African of History.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 2000. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga, S.I., "Ritual purification and reconciliation". Submitted to Trans African of History.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 2000. Abstract
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S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Akuja, T E, Akundabweni, L.S., Chweya, J.A. 2003. Effect of Intercropping Finger Millet with two Indigenous Legumes at different Nitrogen Levels in Kabete and Njoro, Kenya.". In: Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development Vol. 19, No. 1 (2003). NISC Pty Ltd; 2003.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Akundabweni L.S.M, Munene R.W., Maina D.M and S.K. Bartilol. MINERAL MICRONUTRIENT DENSITY IN LOCAL CEREALS SAMPLED FROM BUNGOMA, MASENO AND KIBWEZI AREAS.". In: African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development. African Scholarly Science Communications Trust; 2010.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Akundabweni L.S.M., Mulokozi G. and D.M. Maina. IONOMIC VARIATION CHARACTERIZATION IN AFRICAN LEAFY VEGETABLES FOR MICRONUTRIENTS USING XRF AND HPLC.". In: African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development. African Scholarly Science Communications Trust; 2010.
M. MF. "Al Amin Mazrui Kama Mwandishi wa Ulimwengu wa Tatu." University of Nairobi. BA Thesis; 1992. Abstract
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SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. Al-Bustan.; 2008.
OMONDI DROJOORODI. "Al-Eisa, N., Ojoo, R. O., & Moore, H. D. M. (2001) Characterisation of Human Sperm Antigens Exposed After the Acrosome Reaction That May Participate In Gamete Fusion. In: Andrology in the 21st Century; Proceedings of the VIIth International Congress of An.". In: TWAS-BiovisionAlexandria NXT Conference, Alexandria Egypt. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
Sudden death in the young after low energy anterior chest wall impact is an under-recognised phenomenon in this country. Review of the literature yields several American references to commotio cordis, mainly in the context of sporting events. Two cases are reported of sudden death in young men as a result of blunt impact anterior chest wall trauma. It is suggested that these cases draw attention to a lethal condition of which many practitioners are unaware. J Accid Emerg Med 2000 Nov 17 (6): 421-422. PMID: 11104247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC1725482  
and Jeniffer Birech, Joseph Kabiru JMDK. "Alcohol Abuse and its impact on family life. A case study of the Nandi community of Kenya." Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2013;3:137-144.
Basangwa D, Ndetei DM, Kuria M, Ongecha-Owuor F, Abdullahi A, Mburu J, Gakinya B. "Alcohol and Other Substance Related Disorders."; 2006.
David B, David N, Mary K, Francisca O-O, Abdulreshid A, John M, Benson G. "Alcohol and other Substance Related Disorders Chapter 35.". In: The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. Nairobi: AMREF; 2007.
Matheka CW, Karanja J, Ndetei DM, Muriungi SK. "Alcohol and substance abuse risk among students at the Kenya Medical Training College.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The object was to determine alcohol and substance use risk among students at the Kenya Medical Training College (KMTC). Data related to alcohol and substance use were obtained from 3107 first- and second-year basic diploma students from seven of the KMTC campuses in Kenya. Data were collected using a researcher-designed socio-demographic questionnaire and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test questionnaire. Most of the participants had low risk for alcohol use (98.1%), while a small percentage had moderate (1.7%) and high (0.25%) risk of alcohol use. Low risk of alcohol use was higher in females (99.15%) compared to males (97%). The risk for alcohol and tobacco use was comparable between those below 24 and those above 24 years. All the separated, divorced and widowed students (n=34) (100%) had low risk for sedatives and hallucinogens use. The risk of alcohol and substance use exists among KMTC students at different levels. There is need to screen students for substance use, increase awareness and provide appropriate intervention to prevent drug use and its related co-morbidities.

Chindia ML, Ng'ang'a PM. "Alcohol injection in the management of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia: a report of six cases.". 1994. AbstractWebsite

The report revisits the role of alcohol in the treatment of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN). The study included 6 patients, 3 male and 3 female, average age 50 years. In 3 cases PTN involved both the infraorbital and mental nerves; in 2 cases the infraorbital alone while one case had buccal branch involvement. In each case 2mls standard Lignocaine was infiltrated at each site followed by 2mls 60% sterile alcohol. All patients reported swelling postoperatively. One case with mental and infraorbital nerve involvement complained of oral dysaesthesia. Another patient with similar involvement failed to respond and developed trismus. Responders remained pain-free for 9 months on average. While paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) has been recognised for centuries, the aetiology and definitive treatment remain obscure. Since this is a debilitating condition, management should aim at improving the quality of life. Alcohol is available, affordable and offers useful results where medical resources provide limited PTN treatment modalities.

Kiama W. Alcohol Related Deaths Amongst Drivers, Passengers, Pedestrians Andcyclists In Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract

Introduction
Alcohol and its effects on persons have use in both civil and criminal
litigation. In terms of civil matters alcohol has impact in the insurance
industry as relates to road traffic accidents, personal accidents claims
and also life insurance claims. Excessive alcohol has been blamed as a
cause of many deaths resulting from road traffic accidents, assault, stab
.wounds, crime and drowning (I).This has been taken to be so. This has
largely remained unverified by scientific research in Kenya.
The purpose of the study is to determine the incidence of alcohol related
deaths in road traffic accidents by measuring alcohol levels in vitreous
humor. Clinical studies have been conducted in this area but there has
not been a forensic pathology study in this area.
Hypothesis
Most deaths of road users in Nairobi are alcohol related.
Study Objects
The study objectives were broadly to determine alcohol related deaths
amongst drivers, passengers, pedestrians and cyclists between January
2007 and March 2007, specifically to determine the presence and levels
of exogenous alcohol levels in vitreous humors of dead bodies from road
traffic accidents; to determine the presence of microorganism in vitreous
humor as a marker of presence of endogenous alcohol and so as a
quality control and to establish the prevalence of alcohol related deaths
in road traffic accidents.
Study Design
A descriptive cross sectional study
Study setting
The study was conducted at the City Mortuary in Nairobi. It is the
biggest mortuary in Nairobi and receives most of the deceased persons
involved in road traffic accidents in Nairobi and its environs.
Methodology
The study subjects consisted of dead bodies of those who died due to
road traffic accidents in Nairobi and were selected consecutively.
The study involved collection of vitreous humor from the deceased
persons.
The sample for alcohol estimation was put into a fluoride bottle
which was tightly closed and sealed with cellotape and transported in a
cooler box and stored at -4 degrees Celsius until time of analysis.
The samples for microbiology were inoculated immediately at the site of
collection into Robertson's cooked media, sobourrounds dextrose agar
media and blood agar.
Results
The study established that out of the 101 subjects 21 had presence of
alcohol in the vitreous humor. Of the 21 subjects 6 had microorganisms
grown from their vitreous humor and were excluded from further
analysis. Exogenous alcohol was therefore established in 15 subjects
which was 15.8%.
The class of persons involved were distributed as passengers
who were 7 out of a total of 36 (46.7%), cyclists who were 3 out of a total
of 24 (20%),pedestrians who were 3 out of a total of 24 (20%) and drivers
2 drivers out of a total of 17 (13.3%).Amongst the males sampled 22.9%
had exogenous alcohol while amongst the females those that had
exogenous alcohol were 16.1%.
Conclusion
The prevalence of exogenous alcohol in bodies from road traffic
accidents was 15.8% this would form a basis for social interventions.
Passengers contributed a larger percentage of the class of persons
involved. The total percentage of death from road traffic accidents was
40% for pedestrians and cyclists.
Recommendations
There is need to structure roads to provide space for pedestrian and
cyclists to reduce contact with motor vehicles. Drivers and passengers
composed 60% of those found to have exogenous alcohol it is therefore
recommended that there be policies on alcohol intake and driving which
would set the legally acceptable drink and drive levels.

Kibera AN, Kuria MW, Kokonya DA. "Alcohol Use Disorders among HIV and AIDS Patients at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Comprehensive Care Centre, Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Research and Health Sciences. 2017;2(7):21-30.
Abuga K, Nyamweya N. "Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers in COVID-19 Prevention: A Multidimensional Perspective." Pharmacy. 2021;9(1):64. Abstract

The global use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) as an important means of controlling the transmission of infectious disease has increased significantly as governments and public health agencies across the world advocated hand hygiene as a preventative measure during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the performance of these products is most commonly defined as a function of their alcohol concentration, they are multifaceted products in which an interplay of several factors is important in determining efficacy. This paper discusses the interplay between ABHS input (formulation) factors and output (product performance) factors in the context of a multidimen-sional perspective using a novel representative paradigm. In the model, represented in the form of a three-dimensional tetrahedron, each of the faces represents inputs in the manufacturing of the ABHS product, which are the type and amount of alcohol, the inactive ingredients, the formulation and the manufacturing practices. The four corners of the tetrahedron represent the product per-formance factors which include product efficacy, sensory characteristics, usage and compliance and product safety. The multidimensional approach to the formulation and evaluation of ABHS shows that several factors contribute to the effectiveness and utility of these products. The paradigm provides a useful framework for manufacturers of ABHS and related healthcare products.

FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus: case report. East Afr Med J. 2002 Feb;79(2):103-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Feb;79(2):103-5. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients with diabetes mellitus and alcohol dependence syndrome are presented. Both were married and in middle age. MI stayed alone in the city while his spouse and two children lived in the rural home. He showed no obvious underlying psychiatric morbidity. FWK was living with his family in the city. He was an alcoholic receiving psychiatric care for alcoholism. They both presented separately at different hospitals with decompensated diabetes following heavy alcohol consumption. The history and clinico-laboratory picture of both patients are presented and brief management programme and outcome are also given. Review of literature on alcoholism and its potential impact on the course and management of diabetes is presented.
Mwaura J, Mawia AM, Chepchirchir A. "Alcoholism and intimate partner violence." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2008;2:194-201. Abstract
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Mwaura J, Mawia AM, Chepchirchir A. "Alcoholism and intimate partner violence." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2008;2:194-201. Abstract
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Mwaura J, Mawia AM, Chepchirchir A. "Alcoholism and intimate partner violence." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2008;2:194-201. Abstract
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M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Alemu, D.T., Farah, K.O. & Nyariki, D.M. (1999). Influence of settlements on land-use and vegetation in the rangelands of north-eastern Ethiopia: Application of aerial photographic technique. Journal of Human Ecology, 10(5-6), 349-356.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
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M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Alemu, D.T., Nyariki, D.M. & Farah, K.O. (2000). Changing land-use systems and socio-economic roles of vegetation in semi-arid Africa: The case of the Afar and Tigrai of Ethiopia. Journal of Social Sciences, 4(2-3), 199-206.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2000. Abstract
.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. "Alex LaGuma's "In the Fog of the Seasons' End." Nairobi: Heinemann, 1984.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1984. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Ajuoga P, Ogacho A, Aduda B, Mwabora JM. Alex Ogacho Alex Ogacho Niobium Doped TiO2 (Nb:TiO2) : Effects of Doping Concentration on the Optical Properties of TiO2. United Nairobi Club, Nairobi, Kenya: MSSEESA; 2013.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "ALEXANDER R. McN., JAYES, A.S., MALOIY, G.M.O., and WATHUTA,E.M.(1979) Allometry of the limb bones of mammals from shrews (Sorex) to elephant (Loxodonta). Journal of Zoology London 189, 305-314.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1979. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "ALEXANDER R. McN., MALOIY, G.M.O., HUNTER, B., JAYES, A.S., and NTURIBI, J.(1979) Mechanical stress during fast locomotion in buffalo and elephant.Journal of Zoology London 189, 135-144.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1979. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "ALEXANDER R. McN., MALOIY, G.M.O., NJAU R. and JAYES, A.S.(1979) Mechanics of running of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Journal of Zoology London 187, 169-178.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1979. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "ALEXANDER, R. McN. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1984) Stride lengths and stride frequencies of primates. Journal of Zoology London 22, 577-582.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "ALEXANDER, R. McN. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1989) Locomotion of African mammals. Symposium London Zoological Society 61, 163-180.". In: Annual Conference Society for integrative and Comparative Biology New Orleans Louisiana U.S.A. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "ALEXANDER, R. McN., JAYES, A.S., MALOIY, G.M.O. and WATHUTA,E.M.(1981) Allometry of the leg muscles of mammals. Journal of Zoology London 194, 539-552.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1981. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "ALEXANDER, R. McN., MALOIY, G.M.O., KER, R.F., JAYES, A.S. and WARUI, C.N.(1982) The role of tendon elasticity in the locomotion of the camel (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Zoology London 196, 293-313.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1982. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.

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