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Odote C, Makoloo O. "African Initiatives for Public Participation in Environmental Management.". In: The New "Public": Globalisation of Public Participation. Washington,D.C.: Environmental Law Institute; 2002.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "African institutions to take the lead in development of GM mosquito.". In: Lancet Infectious Diseases, 4 (5), 264 -265. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
OGOLA EN, Ahmed AH, JOSHI MD, Amayo EO, NJERU E. "African Journal of Rheumatology." Journal of Hypertension. 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease is rapidly attaining epidemic portions in Africa and is strongly associated with urbanisation. We studied a population of Kenyans of Somali ethnicity; traditionally a semi nomadic pastoralist community but who have settled in local urban centres and thereby subject to lifestyle influences of urbanisation. This represents a unique position in the epidemiological transition.

Methods: A cross-sectional community survey carried out in Garissa town, the administrative centre for North Eastern Province, with a population of 196,062. Utilising cluster sampling 2200 adults were recruited. WHO STEPS questionnaire was followed by measurement of BP; height and weight for BMI; waist and hip circumference. Non fasting blood specimens were taken for random blood sugar and total cholesterol.

Results: Data for 1823 subjects, 702 males, 1121 females were complete and analysed. Mean age was 38.5 (range 18-96 years), 82% less than 50 years. Hypertension prevalence was 12.6% (95% CI 11.1-14.2%) and increased with age reaching 38.5 % in over 65years; with a 61% detection rate. Concurrent risk factors were: diabetes 3.7% (2.9-4.7); Overweight 23.9% (21.9-25.9%), Obesity 12.6% (11.2-14.3%), Abdominal obesity (WHR)20.4% (18.5-22.3%), Smoking 5.2% (4.4-6.5%) and hypercholesterolemia 16.9%(11.0-24.3%). Male sex, increasing age, diabetes and over weight were independently associated with hypertension.

Discussion: Despite the young age, this unique and previously unstudied urban & semi-urban population has a high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors showing evidence of epidemiological transition to NCDs. There is opportunity for primary prevention.

Aduda BO, Opiyo N(ed.). "African Journal of Science and Technology.". 2000.Website
Aduda BO, Opiyo N(ed.). "African Journal of Science and Technology.". 2000.Website
E.Odada, H.A.Bootsma, R.Hecky. "African lake management initiatives: The global connection." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 2006;Volume 11(Issues 4):203-213. AbstractWebsite

There is a global dimension to lake management in Africa and elsewhere that will require a concerted action not only from individual riparian states, but also from regional, continental and global communities. The current global lake threats arise from climate change, regional land degradation and semivolatile contaminants, and share the common feature that the atmosphere is the vector that spreads their impacts over large areas and to many lakes. The Great Lakes of Africa (Malawi, Victoria and Tanganyika) are particularly sensitive to these problems because of their enormous surface areas, slow water flushing rates, and the importance of direct rainfall in their water budgets. Their response times might be slow to yield a detectable change and, unfortunately, their recovery times might also be slow. It is possible for atmospheric effects to act antagonistically to the impacts of catchment change, but antagonistic effects could become synergistic in the future. Improved understanding of the physical dynamics of these lakes, and development of models linking their physical and biogeochemical behaviour to regional, mesoscale climate models, will be necessary to guide lake managers.

Odada EO, Hecky, R., Bootsma, H. African Lake Management Initiatives: The Global Connection. Proceedings of the Workshop on World Lake Management. Nairobi, Kenya: World Lakes Initiative; 2004.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""African land tenure reform" in J. Heyer et al. (eds.) Agricultural Development in Kenya: an Economic Assessment, Oxford University Press, Nairobi.". In: Academics Press, New york. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1976. Abstractafrican_land_tenure_reform.pdf

The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.

Nganga W. "African Language Technology for Multilingual Local Content Development.". In: Proceedings of the Third International IST-Africa Conference.; 2008. Abstract

Information and Communication Technologies have been identified as major catalysts to rapid and sustainable development, especially in today's information-driven economies. The provision of timely, accurate and relevant information to the masses should therefore be a prime consideration in any development agenda. For this information to have an effective developmental impact, it must be presented in the language that the populace is most proficient in, usually the language(s) commonly spoken in day to day life. The language factor should therefore be recognized as a critical success factor in the deployment of ICTs for development, especially in the areas of education, health and governance. While Africa is home to a third of all the world's languages, the “information languages” on the continent are more often than not, European languages, namely English, French and Portuguese, which are by and large, languages of the educated elite. This has had the adverse effect of locking out a huge percentage of Africa's populace from effectively participating in the increasingly information-based economies. This paper discusses how language technology can be exploited to support the development of relevant local content that addresses and satisfies the multilingual requirements deriving from the continent's linguistic and cultural diversity, effectively reducing the language barrier to technology that exists especially among Africa's rural populations.

OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "African Languages: Will Sign Language Have Better Luck?'.". In: In Proceedings of East African Language Seminar. Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1992. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "African Legal Systems Need African Ethical Base.". In: The Standard (Nairobi: July 1, 1988), p. 14. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1988. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
Kimenyi MS, Mwega FM, Ndung'u SN. "The African Lions: Kenya country case study."; 2016.
Wanjala C. "African Literature and the Tyranny of Change.". In: Language and Literature. Suva: The University of South Pacific Press; 1983.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""African Literature and the Tyranny of Change", in Language and Literature, Edited by Sandra Nandan (Suva, Fiji: The University of South Pacific Press, 336-352.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1983. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "African Mountains and Highlands: Topics for Research and Action with special Reference to the Kenya Scene.". In: In 2nd proceedings of the African Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 12, No.4, 1992. UN-HABITAT; 1992. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
Owakah F, Aswani RD. "African Ontology: Its Implications on Socio-Political Development.". In: UNESCO-Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS):African Cultures, History, and Civilizations. Paris: UNESCO; 2013.
Owakah F, Aswani DR. "African Ontology: It’s Implications on Socio-Political Development.". In: Reflections of African Societies and Development: Perspectives from African Philosophers.; Submitted.
WAFULA DRMUYILAJACKSON. "African orientation towards the past: The problem of development.". In: Horizons Vol.1,no 1 jan/May 2009. Consolata institute of philosophy; 2009. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
Hanotte O, Bradley DG, Ochieng JW, Verjee Y, Hill EW, Rege EJO. "African pastoralism: genetic imprints of origins and migrations." Science. 2002;296(5566):336-9. Abstract

The genetic history of African cattle pastoralism is controversial and poorly understood. We reveal the genetic signatures of its origins, secondary movements, and differentiation through the study of 15 microsatellite loci in 50 indigenous cattle breeds spanning the present cattle distribution in Africa. The earliest cattle originated within the African continent, but Near East and European genetic influences are also identified. The initial expansion of African Bos taurus was likely from a single region of origin. It reached the southern part of the continent by following an eastern route rather than a western one. The B. indicus genetic influence shows a major entry point through the Horn and the East Coast of Africa and two modes of introgression into the continent.

Dorothy McCormick. "African Perceptions of Afro-Chinese Relations.". In: Sixth Shanghai Workshop. Shanghai: Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.; 2008. Abstract

n/a

Amugune BK, Otieno-Omutoko L. "An African Perspective of Benefits in Social Science Research.". In: Social Science Research Ethics in Africa.Research Ethics Forum, vol 7. Nortjé N., Visagie R., Wessels J. (eds). Cham : Springer; 2019.
H.J. K. An African Perspective of Human Resource Strategic Orientation. KGDudweiler Landstr. 99, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. : VDM Verlag Dr. Müller GmbH & Co. ; 2010.
MBURUGU PROFEDWARDK. "An African Perspective on Development London: James Currey Publishers (with Ulf H. Himmerlstrand & Kabiru Kinyanjui).". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract
Families in Kenya. In Handbook of World Families, edited by B.N. Adams and J. Trest. Sage Publication, 2005.
E. DROWAKAHFRANCIS. African Philosophy. The Centre for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi; 2008. AbstractWebsite

An Instructional Manual for teaching African Philosophy to second year students in the department of philosophy, University of Nairobi

Ong’amo G, Khadioli N, LeRu B, Mujica N, Carhuapoma P. "African Pink stemborer, Sesamia calamistis (Hampson 1910).". In: Pest distribution and risk atlas for Africa. Potential global and regional distribution and abundance of agricultural and horticultural pests and associated biocontrol agents under current and future climates. Lima (Peru).: International Potato Center (CIP).; 2016.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "African Programme: Kenya Community Eye Health. 2000; 13 (36) : 53.". In: Community Eye Health. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
Kenya is one of the East African countries with a coastline bordering the Indian Ocean and astride the equator. The country has an area of 225,000 square miles and a population of about 30 million people. The prevalence of blindness is estimated as 0.7%, with cataract contributing 43%, trachoma 19% and glaucoma 9%. The Kenya Ophthalmic Programme (KOP) is a Ministry of Health (MOH) programme receiving administrative support from the Kenya Society for the Blind (KSB). It started as a small project in 1956 but has grown into a major National Programme rendering comprehensive eye care (CEC) through a network of about 70 Government and NGO static and outreach service delivery points scattered all over the country. About half a million patients are treated annually.
Nyasani PJ. The African Psyche. Nairobi: Theological Printing Press; 1997.
Arasa, J.N., Mulinge MM, Odiemo LO. "African Refugee Students’ Conceptions of Democracy: Implications for Conflict mitigation. ." African Renaissance. 2012;9(3-4):15-34.
Gor SO. "The African Regional Integration Index: a Selective Audit." Trade and Development Review. 2017;9(1-2):86-98.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "African Regional Security Issues in the Age of Globalisation.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy Vol. 3. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This book provides an incisive discussion and analysis of the major issues and dynamics in diplomatic practice. It analyses documents and the process of diplomacy, the process and documents of diplomatic negotiations and mediation, and in the third part discusses some of the issues in diplomatic practice, such as reporting, manageemnt of the foreign service and legal and social problems of diplomatic missions.
Wanambisi MM. "African Religions .". 1984.Website
Wanjala C. "African Response to Negritude and Pan-Africanism." Busara. 1974;6(1):39-42.
T
OLEWE-NYUNYA PROFJD. "THE AFRICAN SCRAMBLE AND GLOBAL MANAGEMENT."; 1990.
A
OLEWE PROFNYUNYA. "The African Scramble and Globals Management.". In: Kenya's Quarter Century of Diplomatic Realitons. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1990. Abstract
East African Publishers, Ltd.
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "African Single Mothers: Socio-Ethical and Religious Investigations, Nairobi: Signal Press, 1994 (233 pp).". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1994.
E. DROWAKAHFRANCIS. "African Social and Political Philosophy.". In: Thought & Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya. Centre for Open & Distance Learning, University of nairobi; 2010. Abstract
An Instructional Manual for teaching African Social and Political Philosophy, a fourth year course in the department of Philosophy.
Wachege PN, Cherono F. "African Socio-religio Cultural Understanding of Family and Parenting: A Case of the Agikuyu, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies. 2017;5(3):23-28.wachege_cherono_article2.pdf
Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Kilonzo G, Mburu J, Tarek O. The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. Nairobi: African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF); 2006.the_african_textbook_of_clinical_psychiatry_and_mental_health_2.pdfWebsite
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "African Theology, in WSCF Dossier, Geneva, No. 5, pp. 33-49.".; 1974. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

Akaranga SI, Ongong’a JJ. "African traditional cultural conundrums which make women prone to HIV/ AIDS infections: A case of the Maasai of Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;Vol.1 No.8(8):153-156.ijern_vol.1_no.8_august_2013.pdf
SAMUEL PROFKIBICHO. ""African Traditional Religion & Christanity".". In: In A New Look at Christianity In Africa (WSCF book, vol. II, No.2 1972, Serial No. 5, Geneva) pp. 1-12. Longhorn; 1972. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Anyamba TJC. African Urban Qualities.; 2010.
WAFULA DRMUYILAJACKSON. "African values and the problem of the rights of the child: a search for explanations.". In: Research partnership 3/2006. The Danish Institute for human rights; 2006. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
Muyila DW. "African values and the rights of the child: Aview of the dilemmas and prospects for change’ .". In: Women and children’s rights: African Views. Paris: Karthalah; 2011.
Githiri M, Njeri T, Muthoni FK, Yego R, Muchane M, Njoroge P, Giani A. "African wild dogs from south-eastern Kenya: recent records and conservation issues." Canid News. 2008;11. Abstract
n/a
Kinyua PID, Kooten GC, Bulte EH. "African wildlife policy: protecting wildlife herbivores on private game ranches.". 2000. Abstract

In large parts of Africa, wildlife herbivores spill over onto private lands, competing with domestic livestock for forage resources. To encourage private landowners to take into account the externality benefits of wildlife, game cropping is increasingly considered as an important component of conservation policies. In this paper, we employ a bioeconomic model of a private game ranch to examine five potential government policies concerning wildlife conservation, ranging from (strict) preservation to uncontrolled exploitation. 'Intermediate' policies appear to contribute most to wildlife conservation, with costs to landowners of such policies being modest. The model outcomes support recent wildlife policy shifts in Kenya.

NZOMO PROFMARIA. "African Women in the Public Sector" ."; 1993.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "African Women in the Public Sector, Status and Strategies for women's Advancement, (Sadig Rasheed et.al (eds).". In: Managing Development in Africa: Past Experience, Emerging Challenges, Future Priorities.; 1995. Abstract
n/a
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "African Women in the Public Sector, Status and Strategies for women's Advancement.". In: Paper presented at the Regional Conference on: Development Management in Africa: Thirty years of experience, Emerging Challenges and Future priorities, Addis Ababa, March.; 1993. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "African Women Liberation: A Man's Perspective, Nairobi: Industrial Printing Works 1992.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1992.the_book_abstract.pdf
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "African Women Liberation: A Man's Perspective, Nairobi: Industrial Printing Works, 1992 (2001 pp).". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1992.
"An African Women Trader in an Emerging Town 1899-1918." Eastern Africa Journal of Historical And Social Sciences. 1997;1 (2).
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M M, J M, Wanjohi. "THE AFRICANA WOMAN." Wajibu. 2002.
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G.O.Oyoo, F.Adelowo. "AfricanJournal ofRheumatology Systemic.". In: ISSN. Vol. 1.; 2013:. Abstractafrica_journal_rheumatology.pdf

Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
infection is a worldwide burden whose
seroprevalence is higher in developing countries with Cameroon being the
third most aff ected country in Africa.
HCV both a hepatotropic and lympho-
tropic infection is responsible for a great
number of hepatic and extra hepatic
disorders some of which are rheumatic
in nature. These rheumatologic mani-
festations though extensively studied
in western countries; there is little or no
data in sub-Saharan Africa.
Objective: The study was conducted
with the aim to describe the musculo-
skeletal manifestations associated to
HCV infection in a hospital setting in
Cameroon.
Design: A cross-sectional study.
Setting: Three hospitals in Cameroon:
the Douala General Hospital, a tertiary
referral hospital with a capacity of 320
beds in Douala, the largest city and
economic capital of Cameroon; the
University Teaching Hospital of the
Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical
Sciences of the university of Yaoundé
1, a 240 beds hospital in Yaoundé the
political capital of Cameroon and the
“Centre Médical de la Cathédrale”,
a private acceptable standard
Gastroenterology clinic also found in
Yaoundé.
Patients and methods: From February
to June 2009, we did a multicentric
cross-sectional study of patients from
the Gastroenterology, Rheumatology
and Internal medicine outpatient clinics
of three hospitals in Cameroon. Patients
with HIV or HBV infection and those on
antiviral treatment were excluded.
Results: Among 148 patients with HCV
infection identifi ed during the study
period, only 62 fulfi lled eligibility, 15
(24.2%) of whom had musculoskeletal
manifestations related to HCV, the
commonest of which were myalgia
9/62 (14.5%) , arthritis 6/62 (9.7%), bone
pain 6.4% (4/62), sicca syndrome 3/62
(4.8%), and Raynaud’s phenomenon
6/62 (9.7%). Among patients with
rheumatologic manifestations, 9/15
(60%), had rheumatologic symptoms at
HCV diagnosis and in 6/15 (40%). HCV
infection was discovered during routine
medical check-up. Musculoskeletal
manifestations were neither associat ed
with the genotype (p=0.17) nor with the
viral load (p>0.98).
Conclusion: Arthralgia is the most
common presenting feature of the
symptomatic disease. Musculoskeletal
manifestations may be confused with symptoms of common tropical infections, leading to delayed diagnosis
and treatment of HCV infection.
Key words: Hepatitis C Virus, Arthralgia,
Extra hepatic manifestations; Africa
Introduction
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection
which occurs worldwide has a higher
seroprevalence in Africa, estimated
at 5.3% compared to about 1.03%
in Europe1,2. Cameroon, the third
most affected country in Africa, has a
seroprevalence which varies from as low
as 0.6% to 4.8% in Pygmy groups and
blood donors, to as high as 13% in hospital
based studies4,5. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
which is a single-stranded, spherical RNA enveloped fl avivirus, measuring 38 to 50
nm in diameter has multiple genotypes
and quasispecies classifi ed in six major
clades. This genetic diversity confers to
this virus a difference in pathogenicity,
disease severity, and response to treatment
with interferon3. Though considered a
hepatotropic virus, HCV’s lymphotropic
nature is responsible for a great number of
extra hepatic immune system disorders1.
About 40 to 70% of affected patients will
develop an extra hepatic manifestation
that can have a rheumatic nature

Winnie Mitullah, Bratton M, Gyimah-Boadi E, Mattes R. "Afrobarometer 3: The quality of democracy and governance in Kenya, 2005.". 2005.Website
Njeri KM. "After Graduation what next: A Tracer study of polytechnic graduates." IDC working Paper No. 547,Nairob IDC University of Nairobi. 2008.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "After Graduation What Next? A Tracer Study of Polytechnic Graduates in Kitui, Makueni, Kwale and Taita Taveta Districts in Kenya.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
Iraki XN. "After Obama: A return to reality, unless we work towards change." The Standard, August 1, 2023.
Farquhar C, Nathanson N. "The Afya Bora Consortium: an Africa-US partnership to train leaders in global health." Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am.. 2011;25(2):399-409. Abstract

The Afya Bora Consortium is a partnership of 8 academic health institutions, 4 in Africa and 4 in the United States. The Consortium is developing a Global Health Leadership Fellowship for medical, nursing, and public health professionals, largely drawn from the 4 African partner countries. The fellowship provides trainees with practical skills to prepare them for future positions leading the design, implementation, and evaluation of large, high-impact programs in governmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and academic health institutions in their own countries. This article describes a Pilot of the proposed program.

A. DRAGANDAALEX. "Aganda, A. A,, Coney J. E. R., Sheppard, C. G. W. Effect of air maldistribution on performance of an evaporator. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2000.". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2000.
A. DRAGANDAALEX. "Aganda, A. A., Coney J. E. R., Sheppard, C. G. W., Farrant, P. E. A comparison of the experimental and predicted heat transfer performance of an evaporator coil circuit. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2000.". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2000.
A. DRAGANDAALEX. "Aganda, A. A., Murray, P. W., Kionga-Kamau, S. Temperature profiles in a wood packed bed heated by hot inert gases. Trans. Institution of Chemical Engineers. Vol. 75. Part A, October 1997.". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1997.
A. DRAGANDAALEX. "Aganda, A.A. Study of air flow distribution in an air conditioning unit. International Conference of Mechanical and Engineering Design. Manufacturing and Energy Technology, September. 1997.". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1997.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Agarwal N, Handa R, Acharya SK, Wali JP, Dinda AK, Aggarwal P.A study of autoimmune markers in hepatitis C infection.Indian J Med Res. 2001 May;113:170-4.". In: Indian J Med Res. 2001 May;113:170-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with several autoimmune markers. Despite HCV being common in India, no information on this aspect is available. This study was undertaken to ascertain the frequency and clinical significance of autoimmune markers like rheumatoid factor (RF), antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA), anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), anti smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), anti liver kidney microsomal 1 antibodies (anti LKM1), anti gastric parietal cell antibodies (anti GPCA), anti mitochondrial antibodies (AMA), anti cardiolipin antibodies (ACL) and cryoglobulins in HCV infection and to determine the effect of treatment on these markers. METHODS: Twenty five patients with chronic hepatitis C and 25 healthy controls were studied. Cryoglobulins were detected by cryoprecipitation, RF by latex agglutination, anti dsDNA and ACL by ELISA while indirect immunofluorescence was used to detect all other autoantibodies. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (72%) demonstrated autoimmune markers. RF, cryoglobulins and anti LKM1 antibodies were the most frequently detected markers (in 32% patients each). ASMA, perinuclear ANCA (pANCA), ANA and anti GPCA were seen in 24, 20, 12 and 4 per cent patients respectively. None of the patients exhibited ACL, AMA or antibodies to dsDNA. No antibodies were detected in healthy controls. Sixty per cent of the patients had rheumatological symptoms. Of the seven patients followed up after treatment with alpha interferon, only two exhibited persistence of RF, while symptoms and other markers disappeared. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Rheumatological symptoms and autoimmune markers are common in HCV infection and are usually overlooked. Patients with unexplained joint pains and/or palpable purpura should be screened for HCV. Further studies are needed to delineate fully the link between infection and autoimmunity.
OLUOCH M F. "Age And Effective Human Resource Management." European Scientific Journal. 2019;15(34):ISSN: 1857-7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857-7431.
Nyamai C, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu AW, Feneyrol J, Giuliani G, et al. "Age and origin of the tsavorite and tanzanite mineralizing fluids in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Metamorphic Belt." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(4):763-786. AbstractFull Text

The genetic model previously proposed for tsavorite- (and tanzanite-) bearing mineralization hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (stretching from Kenya through Tanzania to Madagascar) is refined on the basis of new Sm-Nd age determinations and detailed Sr-O-S isotope and fluid-inclusion studies. The deposits are hosted within meta-sedimentary series composed of quartzites, graphitic gneisses, calc-silicate rocks intercalated with meta-evaporites, and marbles. Tsavorite occurs either in nodules (also called “boudins”) oriented parallel to the metamorphic foliation in all of the deposits in the metamorphic belt or in quartz veins and lenses located at the hinges of anticlinal folds (Lelatema fold belt and Ruangwa deposits, Tanzania). Gem tanzanite occurs in pockets and lenses in the Lelatema fold belt of northern Tanzania.

The Sm-Nd isotopic data for tsavorites and tanzanites hosted in quartz veins and lenses from Merelani demonstrate that they formed at 600 Ma, during the retrograde metamorphic episode associated with the East African Orogeny. The tsavorites hosted in nodules do not provide reliable ages: their sedimentary protoliths had heterogeneous compositions and their Sm-Nd system was not completely rehomogenized, even at the local scale, by the fluid-absent metamorphic recrystallization.

The initial 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios of calcite from marble and tanzanites from Merelani fit with the strontium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic marine carbonates. Seawater sediment deposition in the Mozambique Ocean took place around 720 Ma.

The quartz-zoisite O-isotopic thermometer indicates a temperature of formation for zoisite between 385 and 448 °C.

The sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite (between –7.8 and –1.3‰ V-CDT) associated with tsavorite in the Lelatema fold belt deposits suggests the contribution of reduced marine sulfate. The sulfur in pyrite in the marbles was likely derived from bacterial sulfate reduction which produced H2S. Fluid inclusion data from tsavorite and tanzanite samples from the Merelani mine indicate the presence of a dominant H2S-S8±(CH4)±(N2)±(H2O)-bearing fluid. In the deposits in Kenya and Madagascar, the replacement of sulfate by tsavorite in the nodules and the boron isotopic composition of tourmaline associated with tsavorite are strong arguments in favor of the participation of evaporites in garnet formation.

MBURUGU PROFEDWARDK. ""Age at Marriage and Completed Family Size". Journal of Social Biolofy. Vol.24, No.1, pp31-37, 1977: (with L. Bumpass).". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1977. Abstract
Families in Kenya. In Handbook of World Families, edited by B.N. Adams and J. Trest. Sage Publication, 2005.
El-busaidy H, Saidi H, Odula P, Ogeng'o J, Hassanali J. "Age Changes in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;1(1):30-38.
Elbusaidy H, Saidi H, Odula P, Ogeng'o J, Hassanali J. "AGE CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF HUMAN ATRIOVENTRICULAR ANNULI." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2012;1(1):31-39.age_changes_in_the_structure_of_human_atrioventricular_annul.pdf
El-busaidy H, Saidi H, Odula P, Ogeng’o J, Hassanali J. "Age changes in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Atrioventricular annuli are important in hemodynamic stability and support to tricuspid and mitral valves. Anatomical features of the annuli such as circumference, organization of connective tissue fibers, myocardium and cellularity may predispose to annular insufficiency and valvular incompetence. These pathologies increase with age and are more common in females, although the anatomical basis for this disparity remains unclear. This study therefore aimed to investigate age-related changes in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli. One hundred and one hearts (48males, 53 females) from subjects (15 to 60 years) were studied in three age groups (≤ 20 yrs, 21-39 yrs and 40-60 yrs). Annular circumferences were measured and corrected for heart weight. Routine histology was carried out on 21 hearts. Differences in annular circumference between the age groups were determined using one-way ANOVA while gender differences were determined using independent Students’t-test. Overall, females had significantly larger annular circumference than males after correcting for heart weight (p ≤0.05). The annular circumference generally increased with age however there was a significant increase in the 21-39 year age group (p ≤0.05). Microscopically, myocardium was consistently present in males but absent in females except in one specimen. The collagen fiber density increased with age in both gender as the fibers became more irregular. The annular cellularity, elasticity and myocardial content also declined with increasing age. The significantly wider annular circumference in the 21-39 year age group is clinically important as wider circumference is associated with decreased heart valve co-aptation and valvular incompetence. This may suggest an earlier predisposition to this pathology in the study population. The age-related decrease in annular cellularity, elasticity and myocardial content may explain the higher incidence of valvular incompetence with increasing age.

Ogeng’o JA, Mwachaka P, Olabu BO, Ongeti KW. "Age changes in the tunica intima of the aorta in goat (capra hircus)." Anat J Afr. 2013;2(2):161-167.
Ogeng’o J, Mwachaka P, Olabu B, ONGETI K. "Age Changes In The Tunica Intima Of The Aorta In Goat (capra Hircus).". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Age changes in the aortic tunica intima may explain the higher prevalence of atherosclerosis among the elderly. Goat is a suitable model for the study of cardiovascular disease but the age changes in its aortic tunica intima are unreported. This study therefore examined structural changes that occur in the tunica intima of its aorta. Six healthy goats three aged over 60 months, and three aged less than 12 months, were used in this study. The animals were euthanized with sodium pentabarbitone and specimens taken from the various segment of the aorta studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Materials for light microscopy were fixed 10% formaldehyde solution, processed for paraffin embedding and 7 micron sections stained with Mason’s Trichrome and Weigert’s Resorcin Fuchsin/Van Gieson stains. Those for transmission electron microscopy were fixed in 3% phosphate buffered glutaraldehyde solution, post fixed in osmium tetroxide and prepared for durcupan embedding. Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl acetate, counterstained with lead citrate and examined by EM 201 phillips© electron microscope. Observations reveal that aging is characterized by endothelial discontinuities, presence of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the tunica intima, subendothelial thickening, vacuolation and disintegration of internal elastic lamina. It is concluded that the intimal breaches observed in intimal aging may promote ingression of macromolecules into the vessel wall, and underpin the higher prevalence of atherosclerosis among the elderly. Control of serum atherogenic molecules should be enhanced in this age group.

J O’o, P M, B O, K O. "AGE CHANGES IN THE TUNICA INTIMA OF THE AORTA IN GOAT (Capra hircus).". 2008. AbstractAGE CHANGES IN THE TUNICA INTIMA OF THE AORTA IN GOAT (Capra hircus)

Age changes in the aortic tunica intima may explain the higher prevalence of atherosclerosis among the elderly. Goat is a suitable model for the study of cardiovascular disease but the age changes in its aortic tunica intima are unreported. This study therefore examined structural changes that occur in the tunica intima of its aorta. Six healthy goats three aged over 60 months, and three aged less than 12 months, were used in this study. The animals were euthanized with sodium pentabarbitone and specimens taken from the various segment of the aorta studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Materials for light microscopy were fixed 10% formaldehyde solution, processed for paraffin embedding and 7 micron sections stained with Mason’s Trichrome and Weigert’s Resorcin Fuchsin/Van Gieson stains. Those for transmission electron microscopy were fixed in 3% phosphate buffered glutaraldehyde solution, post fixed in osmium tetroxide and prepared for durcupan embedding. Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl acetate, counterstained with lead citrate and examined by EM 201 phillips© electron microscope. Observations reveal that aging is characterized by endothelial discontinuities, presence of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the tunica intima, subendothelial thickening, vacuolation and disintegration of internal elastic lamina. It is concluded that the intimal breaches observed in intimal aging may promote ingression of macromolecules into the vessel wall, and underpin the higher prevalence of atherosclerosis among the elderly. Control of serum atherogenic molecules should be enhanced in this age group.

Bukachi F, Waldenstrom A, Mörner S, Lindqvist P, Henein MY, Kazzam E. "Age dependency in the timing of mitral annular motion in relation to ventricular filling in healthy subjects: Umea General Population Heart Study.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

AIMS:

Peak left ventricular (LV) relaxation normally precedes peak filling (E), which supports the hypothesis that LV suction contributes to early-diastolic filling. The significance of similar temporal discordance in late diastole has previously not been studied. We describe the time relationships between mitral annular motion and LV filling in early and late diastole and examine the effect of normal ageing on these time intervals.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

A total of 128 healthy subjects aged 25-88 years were studied. Transmitral and pulmonary venous flow reversals (Ar) were recorded by Doppler echocardiography. Mitral annular diastolic displacement-early (E(m)) and late (A(m))-were recorded by Doppler tissue imaging. With reference to electrocardiographic R and P-waves, the following measurements were made: R to peak E-wave (R-E) and E(m) (R-E(m)); onset P to peak A-wave (P-pA), A(m) (P-pA(m)), and Ar (P-pAr). The differences between [(R-E) and (R-E(m))] for early-diastolic temporal discordance (EDTD) and [(P-A) and (P-A(m))] for late-diastolic temporal discordance (LDTD) were calculated. Isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) was also measured. Early-diastolic temporal discordance was approximately 26 ms in all age groups. Late-diastolic temporal discordance, however, was inversely related to age (r = -0.35, P < 0.001) and IVRT (r = -0.34, P < 0.001) and therefore decreased in the elderly vs. young (13 +/- 10 vs. 23 +/- 10 ms; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, age failed to predict LDTD in the presence of IVRT. A, A(m), and Ar were simultaneous at onset, and peak A(m) coincided with peak Ar in all age groups (r = 0.97, P < 0.001). No significant differences were noted in the RR intervals.

CONCLUSIONS:

Sequential prolongation of IVRT with ageing reduces LDTD, thus converging the peaks of A(m), A, and Ar (atrial mechanical alignment)-a potential novel method to identify subjects at increased dependency on atrial contraction for late-diastolic filling

Greenfield C, Wankya BM, Musoke R, Osidiana V, Nyangao J, Tukei PM, Owino N. "An Age Related Point Prevalence Study Of Markers Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection In Kenya.". 1986.Website
Awuor V, Odipo G, Agwanda A. "Age schedules of intra-provincial migration in Kenya." African Population Studies . 2018;32(2):4356-4375.
Victor Awuor GOAA&. "Age schedules of intra-provincial migration in Kenya." Africa Population Studies. 2018;32(2):21.
Agwanda A, A K. "Age schedules of Out Migrants and their implications for County development.". In: Rural Urban Migration and Urban Rural Linkages: The case of Western Kenya. Nairobi: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung ; 2016.
Kipchirchir IC. An Age Structured Population Model. Nairobi: Nairobi; 1993.
Lehmann K, Löwel S. "Age-dependent ocular dominance plasticity in adult mice." PloS one. 2008;3:e3120. Abstract

BACKGROUND Short monocular deprivation (4 days) induces a shift in the ocular dominance of binocular neurons in the juvenile mouse visual cortex but is ineffective in adults. Recently, it has been shown that an ocular dominance shift can still be elicited in young adults (around 90 days of age) by longer periods of deprivation (7 days). Whether the same is true also for fully mature animals is not yet known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We therefore studied the effects of different periods of monocular deprivation (4, 7, 14 days) on ocular dominance in C57Bl/6 mice of different ages (25 days, 90-100 days, 109-158 days, 208-230 days) using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. In addition, we used a virtual optomotor system to monitor visual acuity of the open eye in the same animals during deprivation. We observed that ocular dominance plasticity after 7 days of monocular deprivation was pronounced in young adult mice (90-100 days) but significantly weaker already in the next age group (109-158 days). In animals older than 208 days, ocular dominance plasticity was absent even after 14 days of monocular deprivation. Visual acuity of the open eye increased in all age groups, but this interocular plasticity also declined with age, although to a much lesser degree than the optically detected ocular dominance shift. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE These data indicate that there is an age-dependence of both ocular dominance plasticity and the enhancement of vision after monocular deprivation in mice: ocular dominance plasticity in binocular visual cortex is most pronounced in young animals, reduced but present in adolescence and absent in fully mature animals older than 110 days of age. Mice are thus not basically different in ocular dominance plasticity from cats and monkeys which is an absolutely essential prerequisite for their use as valid model systems of human visual disorders.

Lehmann K, Lowel S. "Age-{Dependent} {Ocular} {Dominance} {Plasticity} in {Adult} {Mice}." PLoS ONE. 2008;3. AbstractWebsite

Background Short monocular deprivation (4 days) induces a shift in the ocular dominance of binocular neurons in the juvenile mouse visual cortex but is ineffective in adults. Recently, it has been shown that an ocular dominance shift can still be elicited in young adults (around 90 days of age) by longer periods of deprivation (7 days). Whether the same is true also for fully mature animals is not yet known. Methodology/Principal Findings We therefore studied the effects of different periods of monocular deprivation (4, 7, 14 days) on ocular dominance in C57Bl/6 mice of different ages (25 days, 90–100 days, 109–158 days, 208–230 days) using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. In addition, we used a virtual optomotor system to monitor visual acuity of the open eye in the same animals during deprivation. We observed that ocular dominance plasticity after 7 days of monocular deprivation was pronounced in young adult mice (90–100 days) but significantly weaker already in the next age group (109–158 days). In animals older than 208 days, ocular dominance plasticity was absent even after 14 days of monocular deprivation. Visual acuity of the open eye increased in all age groups, but this interocular plasticity also declined with age, although to a much lesser degree than the optically detected ocular dominance shift. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that there is an age-dependence of both ocular dominance plasticity and the enhancement of vision after monocular deprivation in mice: ocular dominance plasticity in binocular visual cortex is most pronounced in young animals, reduced but present in adolescence and absent in fully mature animals older than 110 days of age. Mice are thus not basically different in ocular dominance plasticity from cats and monkeys which is an absolutely essential prerequisite for their use as valid model systems of human visual disorders.

Othieno-Abinya NA. "Ageing and cancer.". 1997. AbstractWebsite

The process of carcinogenesis is complicated and in most cases requires several steps of cellular transformation resulting from various molecular signals brought about by interactions between carcinogens and the cellular genome. Cancers in which cellular transformation does not require numerous processes tend to occur in younger age groups while cancers of the advancing age tend to be those in which the process of cellular transformation occurs through complex molecular processes that require ample time for induction.

N S, SO. ML. "Ageing population in Africa and other developing communities: a public health challenge calling for urgent solutions. East Afr Med J. 2002 Jun;79(6):281-3. Review. No abstract available." East African Medical Journal.2002:79 (11);563 . 2002;79(6):281-283. AbstractWebsite

We present two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), one a 35 year old male who first recognised his problem at the age of fifteen years and at the time of assessment, satisfied the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF-1 and had a nodular plexiform neurofibroma involving the left fifth dorsal nerve root and a diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving the left lower limb. The second patient, a 45 year old female recognised her problem at the age of 39 years, did not quite satisfy the NIH diagnostic criteria for NF 1 and had diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving both lower limbs and buttocks almost symmetrically, a finding which has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge. The scarcity of management options are briefly outlined.

Abea FBO. "Agency Problem." KASNEB Newsline. 2009;April - June(No. 2):17-26.
Abea FBO. "Agency Problem." KASNEB Newsline. 2009;April - June(Issue No. 2):Pg. 17-26.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Agenda for Gender Society Nairobi January 11, pp 32-34.". In: Paper presented at the National Conference on: the next step forward: Operationalising Good Governance and Accountability. Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, August 12-14.; 1993. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

Ndetei DM, Maru HM, Amayo EO, Kaka ZA. "Agenesis of the corpus callosum with associated inter-hemispheric cyst and right frontal pachygyria presenting with psychiatric symptoms in a Kenyan Citation.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

This case report presents a 26 year old man who had a history of childhood onset seizures, mild cognitive slowing and social withdrawal. He gradually developed symptoms of depression and attempted suicide once. He presented to the authors following a recurrence of his seizures. On examination they noted a normal general and neurological examination apart from some frontal lobe signs on mental status examination. He also had features of psychosis and labile mood. On CT brain scan he had agenesis of the corpus callosum (CC) with associated interhemispheric cyst and right frontal pachygyria. The authors suggest that clinicians in developing countries should be alert to organic disorders presenting with psychiatric symptoms.

Kahome P, Opiyo ETO, Okello-Odongo W. "Agent Application In The Stock Market.". In: Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa. Nairobi; 2014.
Musumba GW, R.O. O, E.T.O. O. "Agent Based Adaptive Learning Model for Intermittent Internet Connection Conditions." Journal of Continuing, Open and Distance Education. 2012.
Musumba GW, R.Oboko GW, E.T.Omulo O. "Agent Based Adaptive Learning Model for Intermittent Internet Connection Conditions." Journal of Continuing, Open and Distance Education. 2012.
Zablon O. Ochomo, Elisha Opiyo WO-O(E) KLNJMKR, J. A. "Agent Based Model For Localized Secure Payment Systems Integration.". 2010. Abstract
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Ochomo ZO, Opiyo E, Okello-Odongo W, Kizza JM. "Agent Based Model For Localized Secure Payment Systems Integration.". In: Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. Nairobi; 2010.
Mutoru T, Opiyo ETO, Okello-Odongo W. "Agent based realtime continuous auditing.". 2011. Abstract
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Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Agent Systems Scheduler and Open Grid Computing Standards.". In: 2nd Annual International Conference on Sustainable ICT Capacity in Developing Countries SREC06. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2006.
Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. Agent Systems Scheduler and Open Grid Computing Standards.; 2006.
Liech JG. Agent-Based Interoperability System In Health Insurance . Nairobi; 2014. Abstract

Abstract:
The Information Technology industry has been very dynamic in health insurance for the last couple of decades. In this health insurance firms applications have been developed using different methodologies, and technologies. These applications cannot be integrated, which becomes an issue to health insurance interoperability. Health insurance is available to both individual and groups; there are many insurance companies in Kenya and there is no central database to extract stratified information about them. Attempts by many scholars to develop an interoperable system have not been successful largely due to lack of expertise, resources and the inherent complex nature of the health insurance system. There is also difficulty in accessing the required data by different people due to the fact that the applications of these insurance firms are independent. They are designed in any manner, and can use different technologies. This study proposed an agent-based platform which allowed users to receive and exchange data and information from distributed sources. The health insurance business was used as a case study to implement multi-agents approach in this study. In this case study, different agents were used to represent different functional areas in the developed system. The reactivity, proactive, sociability characteristics of multi-agents achieved health insurance interoperability and accomplished the health insurance business requirements. In this study we reviewed pure theory, evaluated and developed an agent based system which allowed health insurance firms to share data and also data sharing platform that enabled collaboration among multiple health insurance institutions in Kenya and also the experimental results showed that the platform could be extended easily to support a large number of concurrent client connections.

James LG, Opiyo ETO, Okello-Odongo W. "Agent-based interoperability system in health insurance.". In: 9th Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA). Nairobi; 2013.
Opiyo ETO, Okello-Odongo W, Ayienga E, Manderick B, Now A. "Agent-based Scheduler for Unrelated Parallel Machines using a load balancing heuristic.". 2011. Abstract
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Wekesa B, Miriti E, Moturi CA. "Agent-based Vulnerability Assessment of Government Web Applications." NNGT Int. J. on Internet and Web Applications. 2015;2( International Journals of N&N Global Technology(IJNNGT)):1-6. Abstract

While most governments, including the government of Kenya, have improved their performance through allowing more information exchange using web support, there is increased spread of information crimes targeting government web applications. Structured Query Language (SQL) injection and Cross Site Scripting attack (XSS) are ranked as the two top most vulnerability attacks by the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) top 10, 2013 vulnerability list. Recently there have been massive attacks on a number of websites including the government of Kenya. Agent orientation is emerging as a dominant research area and as a new paradigm in provision of solutions to problems. Agents provide developers and designers with a way of structuring applications around autonomous and communicative elements. In this paper, we present a solution that uses multi-agents to detect both SQL injection and XSS attacks vulnerabilities on web applications. The system has been developed using Java programming language and Prometheus methodology as an Agent Oriented Software. It will specifically target websites in development environment
for testing the vulnerabilities before being hosted in the production environment. We have also incorporated the testing of already hosted websites for the two vulnerabilities. The proposed system will help web developers and owners of websites to fix the vulnerabilities and enhance the entire security.

M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Agevi, E. and P.M. Syagga (1988), A Survey of Import Content of Building Materials Input in Umoja II Low-Cost Housing Project, HABRI, University of Nairobi.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1988. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
and Kibugu J.K., Makumi J.N. NKGMJJNJM. "Aggravation of pathogenesis mediated by aflatoxin B1 in mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense." Protozool. Res. 19. 2009:24-33.
Kibugu J.K., Ngeranwa J.J. MGKMMMJNJK. "Aggravation of pathogenesis mediated by ochratoxin A in mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. ." Parasitology.. 2009;136(3):273-281.
Barthel W, Markwardt F. "Aggregation of blood platelets by adrenaline and its uptake." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(20):1903-4.
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "The Agikuyu, Rosen Publishers, New York USA.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1994. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
Amecha SC, Njue PN. "Agile Risk Management as a Solution to the Failure of Kenyan Public Projects." American Journal of Engineering and Technology Management. 2021;6(3):35-40.
Muchiri J, Osaaji M, Odari M. "The Agile Thinking and Subversion in Chinua Achebe’s The Education of a British-Protected Child." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2021;9:124-143.
Ogeng'o J, Mwachaka P, Ongeti K, Olabu B. "Aging Changes In The Tunica Intima Of Aorta In Goat (Capra Hircus)." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(2):161-167.
NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Agnes N Wausi & Timothy M. Waema (2010) Implementing IS in Developing Country HE Context: Towards Creating A Favourable Implementation Context.". In: International Journal of Computing and ICT Research. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2010. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Agnes N Wausi & Timothy M. Waema (2010) Implementing IS in Developing Country HE Context: Towards Creating A Favourable Implementation Context.". In: International Journal of Computing and ICT Research. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2010. Abstract
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W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "Agnes W. Mwang.". In: African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (11), pp. 1662-1671, 3 June, 2008. Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. ISSN 1684. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2008. Abstract
Participatory rural appraisal techniques and a survey of 100 households were used to evaluate livestock production, and pastoral development of the Maasai in Mara. It was observed that patterns of land-use have principally changed from nomadic pastoralism to sedentary pastoralism, agropastoralism, and, in some cases, pure cultivation. These trends have adversely affected livestock production and the productive capacity of the Mara ecosystem. Diminishing grazing area occasioned by expanding cropping patterns has negatively impacted on vegetation resources and the biodiversity of the ecosystem. It has also increased the intensity of conflict over diminishing land resources. Because the production system is largely subsistence with a strong livestock base, it is further undermined by, among other factors, animal diseases, water scarcity, land individualisation, poor marketing infrastructure, and livestock/wildlife conflicts. Based on the findings of the present study, development approaches need to emphasize integrated livestock and wildlife utilization, land tenure reforms that embody livestock mobility as a key strategy of optimising the use of transient forage resources, disease control, and development of livestock marketing.
M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "Agnes W. Mwang.". In: International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production 3(5): 40- 45. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Agnes Wangechi Karuga, Alice Gathogo , Teresia Mbua, Nancy Ndungu, Prof. Ann Karani Retrospective study on overcrowding in Thika and Kiambu District Hospitals Medical Wards 2006 - 2007 . Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2. Sgma Theta Tau International : Honor Society For Nursing; 2008. Abstract

The study was conducted at Thika and Kiambu District Hospitals Medical wards covering September 2005

OWINO DRJUNG&#39;AJOSEPH. "Agnese, J-F., Adepo-Gourene, Owino J., Pouyand L., and R. Aman, (1999). Genetic characterization of pure relict population of Oreochromis esculentus, an endangered tilapia. J. Fish Biol. 54(5): 1119-1123.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60. University of Nairobi Press; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
OWINO DRJUNG&#39;AJOSEPH. "Agnese, J-F., Adepo-Gourene, Owino J., Pouyand L., and R. Aman, (1999). Genetic characterization of pure relict population of Oreochromis esculentus, an endangered tilapia. J. Fish Biol. 54(5): 1119-1123.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60. University of Nairobi Press; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "The agony of AIDS in the rural areas: The case study of Kapenguria Division in West Pokot District.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
Wasamba P, undefined. "The agony that retiring Professors go through." The Standard, July 2, 2019:15.
NANJALA DRAGOYA-WOTSUNACATHERINE. "Agoya C.N. .". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 2002.
NANJALA DRAGOYA-WOTSUNACATHERINE. Agoya-Wotsuna, C.N. (2012):. Muenster: Waxmann ; 2012.
NANJALA DRAGOYA-WOTSUNACATHERINE. "Agoya-Wotsuna, C.N. :.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 2005.
Kamau S. "The Agrarian Question in Kenya.". In: UONGOZI INSTITUTE Leadership Training. Dar-er-Salaam; 2006.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Agrarian reform in Sub-Saharan Africa: assessment of state responses to the African Agrarian crisis and their implications for Agricultural Development". In Thomas J. Basset and CrummeyD.E. Land in African Agrarian Systems (Chapter 9) University of Wisco.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1993. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Agrarian reform in Sub-Saharan Africa: implications for agricultural development" in J.B. Ojwang and J. Kabeberi (eds.); Law and the Public Interest IDS Occasional Paper No. 52.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1988. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
Middleton P, Kelly A-M, Brown J, Robertson M. "Agreement between arterial and central venous values for {pH}, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate." Emergency medicine journal: EMJ. 2006;23:622-624. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the extent of agreement between central venous and arterial values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate in a group of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: A prospective study of a convenience sample of patients deemed by their treating doctor to require blood gas analysis as part of their clinical care in ICU. It compared pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate on arterial and central venous samples taken within five minutes of each other. Data were analysed using bias (Bland-Altman) methods. RESULTS: A total of 168 matched sample pairs from 110 patients were entered into the study. All variables showed close agreement. The mean difference between arterial and venous values of pH was 0.03 pH units, for bicarbonate 0.52 mmol/l, for lactate 0.08 mmol/l, and for base excess 0.19 mmol/l. All showed acceptably narrow 95% limits of agreement. CONCLUSION: Central venous pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate values showed a high level of agreement with the respective arterial values, with narrow 95% limits of agreement. These results suggest that venous values may be an acceptable substitute for arterial measurement in this clinical setting.

Hjort af Ornäs A, Bich PT, Musimba N;, Nashon; Nyangito M. "Agri-SMEs in action. Lessons for the entrepreneurial poor.". 2006.
Nunow A, Wanja M, Obiero L. "Agribusiness in Horticulture: Empowerment & Gender Dynamic." World Journal of Innovative Research (WJIR). 2018;4(6):5-8.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. "Agricultural Administration in Kenya.". In: Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol. XXVI, No.3. IPPNW; 1978. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Agricultural Administration in Kenya,".". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1976. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, Kimenju JW, ph -Onyango JGP. "Agricultural Agents influence on the Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies." Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(4):219-225.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Agricultural and Land Use Patterns in Relation to Changing Malaria Conditions in Kenya (with Germano M. Mwabu), Paper presented at the WHO/TDR Meeting on Social Economic Determinants and Consequences of Malaria and its Control under Changing Conditions, S.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1987. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "Agricultural Biotechnology Global Genetic Revolution. The role of molecular marker assisted breeding.". In: Symposium organized by the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, 30th October 2001. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Kiriti-Nganga TW, Tisdell C, Tisdell CA, Sankar U, Srivastava M. "Agricultural Commercialisa tion in Developing Countries, Household Food Consumption and Nutrition: A Kenyan Case Study.". In: Leading Economic Issues: Essays in Honour of Professor Chandra Srivastava. New Delhi: B. R. Publishin g Corporation; 2003.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Agricultural Decline, Politics and Structural Adjustment in Kenya.". In: Peter Gibbon (ed): Social Change and Economic Reforms in Africa, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Uppsala. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Njoroge K, Kinyanjui M. "Agricultural Development and Globalisation in Kenya." In: Gender in International Agricultural Trade Agreements: A Kenya synopsis. Heinrich Boll Foundation, East and Horn of Africa Region. 2007:1-6.
Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, Kimenju JW, Gweyi-Onyango JP. "Agricultural Extension Approaches Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu County, Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016;1(5):45-51.extension_approaches_enhancing_improved_sorghum_uptake.pdf
Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, John W. Kimenju, Gweyi-Onyango JP. "Agricultural Extension Approaches Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu County, Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Research . 2017;5(1):45-51.
Ngowi HA, Mukaratirwa S, Lekule FP, Maingi N, Waiswa C, Sikasunge C, Afonso S, Sumbu J, Ramiandrasoa S, penrith ML, Willingham AL. "Agricultural Impact of Porcine Cysticercosis in Africa: A Review.". In: Novel Aspects on Cysticercosis and Neurocysticercosis. Jeneza Tirdine Rijeka, Croatia: INTECH; 2013.
Adekunle AA;, Ellis-Jones J;, Ajibefun I;, Nyikal RA;, Bangali S;, Fatunbi O;, Ange A. "Agricultural innovation in sub-Saharan Africa: experiences from multiple-stakeholder approaches."; 2012.
Kahindi JHP, P; George T, de Moreira FMS, Karanja NK, Giller KE. "Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and ecosystem function in the tropics: the role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.". 1997. Abstract

Among the nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria, the rhizobia in symbiosis with legumes are generally the most important in agriculture, although Frankia, cyanobacteria and heterotrophic free-living N2 -fixers may fix significant amounts of nitrogen under specific conditions. The taxonomy of N2-fixing bacteria is undergoing substantial revisions due to the advent of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, and in certain cases this has proved useful in unravelling ecological relationships among confusing groups. Molecular methods are also proving useful in studies of biodiversity within populations of rhizobial species. Rhizobia are surprisingly competent free-living bacteria, although few fix nitrogen in the free-living state, and the major factors that determine their population sizes in the absence of legume hosts are environmental stresses (such as soil acidity factors), protozoal grazing and some factors associated with agricultural intensification such as increases in salinity or heavy metal pollution of the soil. Rhizobial populations generally increase in response to the presence of the host legume. Due to the high degree of host-specificity between legume hosts and rhizobial species, loss of a single rhizobial species can result in loss of N2-fixation by that legume, although many legumes can be nodulated by several species of rhizobia. However, as only a single, compatible rhizobial genotype or strain is necessary for establishment of effective N, -fixation (i.e. the basis of the rhizobial inoculant industry), it is questionable whether biodiversity within species is necessary to ensure function, although this may confer resilience in the face of further environmental stresses.

Bluffstone R, Kohlin G, Nyangena W. "Agricultural Investment and Productivity in East Africa.". In: Agricultural Investment and Productivity in East Africa.; 2011.
J.S. S, S.M. M. Agricultural Investment in Eastern Kenya. Nairobi: Interregional Economic Network; 2006.

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