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Journal Article
Mundo L, Porro LD, Granai M, Siciliano MC, Mancini V, Santi R, Marcar L, Vrzalikova K, Vergoni F, Stefano GD, Schivoni G, Segreto G, Noel Onyango, Nyagol JA, Amato T, Bellan C, Anagnostopoulos I, Falini B, Leoncini L, Lazzi S. "Correction: Frequent traces of EBV infection in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas classified as EBV-negative by routine methods: expanding the landscape of EBV-related lymphomas." Modern Pathology. 2020:10.1038/s41379-020-0608-y.
M G, L M, AU A, MC S, H R, V M, N O, J N, OA A, I M, S M, W W, M B, PP P, L Q-M, F F, S L, Leoncini L, T M. "Correction: Immune landscape in Burkitt lymphoma reveals M2-macrophage polarization and correlation between PD-L1 expression and non-canonical EBV latency program. ." Infect Agent & Cancer . 2020;15(39):doi:10.1186/s13027-020-00304-9.
P M, N MJ, O AS, Mang'uriu GN. "A Corrosion Model for Prediction of Service Life of Reinforced Concrete Water Structures." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;Vol 10(2).
P M, O AS, N MJ, Mang'uriu GN. "A Corrosion Model for Prediction of the Service Life of Reinforced Concrete Water Conveyancing Structures." British Journal of Civil and Architecture Engineering. 2020;Vol 02(6):153-181.
Oluoch JO, Rambo CM, Pokhariyal GP. "Data Dissemination and Use and Provision of Curative and Preventive Tuberculosis Health Care Services in Public Health Institutions in Kisumu County, Kenya ." European Journal of Business and Management Research. 2020;5((1)). Abstractview

The study sought to determine how data dissemination and use influence provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare in institutions of public health in Kisumu County, Kenya. The study focused on public health institutions that practices M&E system on provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare services. The study employed the use of pragmatism paradigm and a descriptive research design to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. A correlational design was used to test the hypothesis. A sample of 221 respondents was selected from a population of 517 using stratified random sampling. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire with both open and close ended with Likert type on 1-5 five point scale and interview schedule. Correlational design was used to test the hypothesis. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and data presented in frequency tables using means and standard deviations while qualitative data was presented in in narrative statements. Hypothesis was tested using linear regression at 0.05 level of significance to determine the degree and direction of relationships among the thematic area of the study. The reliability of the instruments was obtained using Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.735 for all items meaning that the instruments were reliable. The results showed that data dissemination and use and provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis health care services in public health institutions had [r2=0.186, p<0.05]. The results for quantitative data based on composite mean score of 3.91 and 0.466 standard deviation for this variable respectively. Therefore, data dissemination and use influence provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare services in public health institutions.

Oluoch JO, Rambo CM, Pokhariyal GP. "Data Dissemination and Use and Provision of Curative and Preventive Tuberculosis Health Care Services in Public Health Institutions in Kisumu County, Kenya." European Journal of Business and Management Research. 2020;5(1). AbstractWebsite

The study sought to determine how data dissemination and use influence provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare in institutions of public health in Kisumu County, Kenya. The study focused on public health institutions that practices M&E system on provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare services. The study employed the use of pragmatism paradigm and a descriptive research design to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. A correlational design was used to test the hypothesis. A sample of 221 respondents was selected from a population of 517 using stratified random sampling. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire with both open and close ended with Likert type on 1-5 five point scale and interview schedule. Correlational design was used to test the hypothesis. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and data presented in frequency tables using means and standard deviations while qualitative data was presented in in narrative statements. Hypothesis was tested using linear regression at 0.05 level of significance to determine the degree and direction of relationships among the thematic area of the study. The reliability of the instruments was obtained using Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.735 for all items meaning that the instruments were reliable. The results showed that data dissemination and use and provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis health care services in public health institutions had [r2=0.186, p<0.05]. The results for quantitative data based on composite mean score of 3.91 and 0.466 standard deviation for this variable respectively. Therefore, data dissemination and use influence provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare services in public health institutions.

Jane Ireri, Pokhariyal G, Moindi S. "Delayed Nutrient Conversion for a Single Species Periodic Chemostat." Journal of Scientific Research and Reports. 2020;26(5):1-9. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we analyze a Chemostat model with periodic nutrient input modelled using Fourier series and incorporate delays in nutrient conversion. We show that both periodicity and delays have complementing influence in the long term behaviour of the species. Numerical results show that periodicity has bigger influence on species density variations for delays below the Hopf Bifurcation point, while for delays above the Bifurcation point,the delay effect is more influential.

Sola L, Levin NW, Johnson DW, Pecoits-Filho R, Aljubori HM, Chen Y, Claus S, Collins A, Cullis B, Feehally J, Harden PN, Hassan MH, Ibhais F, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, Saleh A, Schneditz D, Tchokhonelidze I, Kazancioglu RT, Twahir A, Walker R, Were AJO, Yu X, Finkelstein FO. "Development of a framework for minimum and optimal safety and quality standards for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis." Kidney International Supplements. 2020.
P M, O AS, N MJ, Mang'uriu GN. "Effect of Selected Commercially Available Corrosion Inhibitors in Kenya on Bond Strength of Reinforced Concrete." British Journal of Civil and Architecture Engineering. 2020;Vol 02(1):133-152.
Nyawade S, Gitari HI, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Schulte-Geldermann E, Sharma K, Parker ML. "Enhancing Climate Resilience of Rain-Fed Potato Through Legume Intercropping and Silicon Application.". 2020.
Peter Aweer Duot Ajak, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Wanyoike MMM. "Evaluation of Dairy Cattle Productivity in Smallholder Farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;2(1).
Gichure M, J O, R W, P G. "Factors associated with level of income derived from working donkeys for smallholder farmers in the central highlands of Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation . 2020;1(4).
Mitchell EJ, Qureshi ZP, Were F, Daniels J, Gwako G, Osoti A, Opira J, Bradshaw L, Oliver M, Pallotti P, Ojha S. "Feasibility of using an Early Warning Score for preterm or low birthweight infants in a low-resource setting: results of a mixed-methods study at a national referral hospital in Kenya." BMJ Open. 2020;10(10). AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Introduction: Fifteen million babies are born prematurely, before 37 weeks gestational age, globally. More than 80% of these are in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. 35% of all deaths in the first month of life are due to prematurity and the neonatal mortality rate is eight times higher in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) than in Europe. Early Warning Scores (EWS) are a way of recording vital signs using standardised charts to easily identify adverse clinical signs and escalate care appropriately. A range of EWS have been developed for neonates, though none in LMICs. This paper reports the findings of early work to examine if the use of EWS is feasible in LMICs.

Methods: We conducted an observational study to understand current practices for monitoring of preterm infants at a large national referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Using hospital records, data were collected over an 8-week period in 2019 on all live born infants born at <37 weeks and/or <2500 g (n=294, 255 mothers) in the first week of life. Using a chart adopted from the EWS developed by the British Association of Perinatal Medicine, we plotted infants' vital signs. In addition, we held group discussions with stakeholders in Kenya to examine opinions on use of EWS.

Results: Recording of vital signs was variable; only 63% of infants had at least one temperature recorded and 53% had at least one heart rate and respiratory rate recorded. Stakeholders liked the traffic-light system and simplicity of the chart, though recognised challenges, such as staffing levels and ability to print in colour, to its adoption.

Conclusion: EWS may standardise documentation and identify infants who are at higher risk of an adverse outcome. However, human and non-human resource issues would need to be explored further before development of an EWS for LMICs.

Bohlin-Nizzetto P, Melymuk L, B.White K, Kalina J, Madadi VO, SamAdu-Kumi, Prokeš R, Přibylová P, Klánová J. "Field- and model-based calibration of polyurethane foam passive air samplers in different climate regions highlights differences in sampler uptake performance." Atmospheric Environment. 2020;238(117742).
Karuma AN, PT G, CKK G. "Financial returns of maize and bean production under selected tillage practices in semi-arid area of Mwala Sub County, Kenya." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics and Sociology. 2020;38(10):11-23.
Makau MC, Powell J, Prendergast J, de Late PL, Morrison LJ. "A Fisch (2021) Inverted CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in Boran (Bos indicus) cattle ." Veterinary Immunology And Immunopathology . 2020;230:235.
Mundo L, Porro LD, Granai M, Siciliano MC, Mancini V, Santi R, Marcar L, Vrzalikova K, Vergoni F, Stefano GD, Schivoni G, Segreto G, Noel Onyango, Nyagol JA, Amato T, Bellan C, Anagnostopoulos I, Falini B, Leoncini L, Lazzi S. "Frequent traces of EBV infection in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas classified as EBV-negative by routine methods: expanding the landscape of EBV-related lymphomas." Modern Pathology . 2020.
Astère Bararyenya, Bode A. Olukolu, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Wolfgang J. Grüneberg, Ekaya W, Jan Low, Mildred Ochwo-Ssemakula TOL. "Genome-wide association study identified candidate genes controlling continuous storage root formation and bulking in hexaploid sweetpotato." BMC Plant Biology . 2020;20(1):1-16.
Jane Ireri, Pokhariyal G, Moindi S. "Hopf Bifurcation Analysis for a Two Species Periodic Chemostat Model with Discrete Delays." Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science. 2020;35(3):93-105. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we analyze a Chemostat model of two species competing for a single limiting nutrient input varied periodically using a Fourier series with discrete delays. To understand global aspects of the dynamics we use an extension of the Hopf bifurcation theorem, a method that rigorously establishes existence of a periodic solution. We show that the interior equilibrium point changes its stability and due to the delay parameter it undergoes a Hopf bifurcation.
Numerical results shows that coexistence is possible when delays are introduced and Fourier series produces the required seasonal variations. We also show that for small delays periodic variations of nutrients has more influence on species density variations than the delay.

M G, L M, AU A, MC S, H R, V M, N O, J N, OA A, I M, S M, W W, M B, PP P, L Q-M, F F, S L, Leoncini L, T M. "Immune landscape in Burkitt lymphoma reveals M2-macrophage polarization and correlation between PD-L1 expression and non-canonical EBV latency program. ." Infectious Agents & Cancer . 2020;15(28).
S. S, Gitau G.K., J. VL, C. M, P. K. "Impact of calf feeding practices on calf growth and health in smallholder dairy farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology, and Innovation. 2020;1(3):2707-0425.
Makau MC, Powell J, de Laté PL, LJ Morrison FA. "Inverted CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in Boran (Bos indicus) cattle." Veterinary immunology and immunopathology. 2020;230:110126.
N A, Aly NM, Folayan MO, Mohebbi SZ, P H-H, S B, Y K, DA M, A R, I K, M M, AA S, OB A-B, M R, V P, S C, G G, A P, D M, A A, MA D, M N, P P, J K, Y C, JL C, E J, MM A, MM A, I H, AP V, A I, AM K, ME T. "Knowledge of Dental Academics About the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multi-Country – Online Survey." BMC Medical Education. 2020;2020; 20:399.(2020; 20:399.):2020; 20:399.
AL S, T DR, M C, J L, P P, A K, J C, W P. "Mitigating Global Oral Health Inequalities: Research Training Programs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries." Annals of Global Health.. 2020;2020; 86(1): 141, 1–5.(2020; 86(1): 141, 1–5.):2020; 86(1): 141, 1-5.
Pokhariyal GP. "Modeling influence of business excellence parameters on sustainable high performance of organizations." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3):134-139. AbstractWebsite

Organizations aspire to have sustainable high performance in order to have competitive advantage in the
market. Business excellence models provide frameworks to be applied by organizations in order to
develop thoughts, so that adequate actions be taken in a systematic and structured way to accomplish
sustainable high financial as well as non-financial performance. Various business excellence models
proposed by organizations as well as researchers are discussed. In this paper a mathematical model is
proposed in which independent variables are: top management team characteristic, mission vision and
core values, technology and innovation, and customer focus. Motivation and culture are moderating
variables. Government policies and global economy are intervening variables. The financial and nonfinancial performance, are dependent variables. The proposed model would yield corresponding
regression equations, representing stated hypotheses to be tested for the collected data from the field for
the chosen business organization. Further correlation coefficient can also be computed to check the
relationship between variables. From the estimated regression equations, through various tests, the
elasticity of the coefficients of model parameters and their statistical significance can be investigated.
Adequate recommendations can then be made to achieve the sustainable high performance for the
selected organization.

Peter SG, Gabriel A, Hellen WK, Esther K, Daniel WG, Ndichu M, Charles MM, Alfred OM. "Molecular prevalence of emerging Anaplasma and Ehrlichia pathogens in apparently healthy dairy cattle in peri- urban Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Veterinary Research. 2020;16(1).
Peter SG, Aboge GO, Kariuki HW, w Kariuki H, Kanduma EG, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM, Mainga AO. "Molecular prevalence of emerging Anaplasma and Ehrlichia pathogens in apparently healthy dairy cattle in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16:364.
Peter, Aboge, G.O., Kariuki, D.N., Kanduma, E.G., Gakuya, F., Maingi, N., Mulei CM, Mainga, A.O. "Molecular prevalence of emerging Anaplasma and Ehrlichia pathogens in apparently healthy dairy cattle in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Veterinary Research, . 2020;16(1):pp.1-12.
Godman B, Basu D, Pillay Y, Almeida PHRF, Mwita JC, Rwegerera GM, Paramadhas BAD. "Ongoing and planned activities to improve the management of patients with Type 1 diabetes across Africa; implications for the future." Hospital Practice. 2020;48(2):51-67.
Nyawade SO, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Gitari HI, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker M. "Optimizing soil nitrogen balance in a potato cropping system through legume intercropping.". 2020.
N A, N A, S M, S A, H H, S B, D M, A R, I K, O A-B, Y K, M R, V P, S C, K N, G G, A P, M F, A S, M M, A AA, D M, P P, J K, Y C, M D, J V, M A, J C, M N, I H, A V, A I, A K, E J, ME T. "Preparedness of dental academic institutions to manage the COVID-19 pandemic: a global survey." Int. J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;2021; 18:1445(2021; 18:1445):2021; 18:1445.
Godman B, Basu D, Pillay Y, Mwita JC, Rwegerera GM, Paramadhas BAD, Tiroyakgosi C. "Review of Ongoing Activities and Challenges to Improve the Care of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Across Africa and the Implications for the Future." Front. Pharmacol. 2020;11(108).brian_et_al_-t2dm-africa.pdf
Udahemuka JC, Aboge GO, George O Obiero, Lebea PJ, Onono JO, Paone M. "Risk factors for the incursion, spread and persistence of the foot and mouth disease virus in Eastern Rwanda." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16 (1):387.
Udahemuka JC, Aboge GO, Obiero GO, Lebea PJ, Onono JO, Paone M. "Risk factors for the incursion, spread and persistence of the foot and mouth disease virus in Eastern Rwanda." BMC Veterinary Research. 2020;6(1):1-10.
Chaurasiya ND, Midiwo J, Pandey P, Bwire RN, Doerksen RJ, Muhammad I, Tekwani BL. "Selective Interactions of O-Methylated Flavonoid Natural Products with Human Monoamine Oxidase-A and-B." Molecules. 2020;25(22):5358. AbstractMolecules

Description
A set of structurally related O-methylated flavonoid natural products isolated from Senecio roseiflorus (1), Polygonum senegalense (2 and 3), Bhaphia macrocalyx (4), Gardenia ternifolia (5), and Psiadia punctulata (6) plant species were characterized for their interaction with human monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and-B) in vitro. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 showed selective inhibition of MAO-A, while 4 and 6 showed selective inhibition of MAO-B. Compound 3 showed~ 2-fold selectivity towards inhibition of MAO-A. Binding of compounds 1–3 and 5 with MAO-A, and compounds 3 and 6 with MAO-B was reversible and not time-independent. The analysis of enzyme-inhibition kinetics suggested a reversible-competitive mechanism for inhibition of MAO-A by 1 and 3, while a partially-reversible mixed-type inhibition by 5. Similarly, enzyme inhibition-kinetics analysis with compounds 3, 4, and 6, suggested a competitive reversible inhibition of MAO-B. The molecular docking study suggested that 1 selectively interacts with the active-site of human MAO-A near N5 of FAD. The calculated binding free energies of the O-methylated flavonoids (1 and 4–6) and chalcones (2 and 3) to MAO-A matched closely with the trend in the experimental IC 50′ s. Analysis of the binding free-energies suggested better interaction of 4 and 6 with MAO-B than with MAO-A. The natural O-methylated flavonoid (1) with highly potent inhibition (IC 50 33 nM; Ki 37.9 nM) and> 292 fold selectivity against human MAO-A (vs. MAO-B) provides a new drug lead for the treatment of neurological disorders. View Full-Text

E.S. K, G. G, J. VL, P. K, T.O. A, D. G, J. M, D. M. "Sero-prevalence and risk factors of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (type 1) in Meru County, Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine . 2020;175:104863.
Chiorean GE, Nandakumar G, Fadelu T, Temin S, Alarcon-Rozas AE, Bejarano S, Croitoru A-E, Grover S, Lohar PV, Odhiambo A, Park SH, Garcia ER, Teh C, Rose A, Zaki B, Chamberlin MD. "Treatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified GuidelineTreatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified Guideline." Journal of Global Oncology. 2020;6(2020):414-438.
Galvin KA, Trevor Even, Robin S. Reid, Jesse Njoka, Joana Roque de Pinho, Philip Thornton, Saylor K. "Understanding Climate from the Ground Up: Knowledge of Environmental Changes in the East African Savannas." Changing Climate, Changing Worlds. 2020:221-242.
Vogel JP, Comrie‐Thomson L, Pingray V, Gadama L, Galadanci H, Goudar S, Rose Laisser, Lavender T, Lissauer D, Misra S, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Amole T, Berrueta M, Dankishiya F, Gwako G, Homer CSE, Jobanputra J, Meja S, Nigri C, Mohaptra V, Osoti A, Roberti J, Solomon D, Suleiman M, Robbers G, Sutherland S, Vernekar S, Althabe F, Bonet M, Oladapo OT. "Usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the World Health Organization Labour Care Guide: A mixed‐methods, multicountry evaluation." Wiley Online Library . 2020. AbstractWebsite

Introduction
The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Labour Care Guide (LCG) is a “next‐generation” partograph based on WHO’s latest intrapartum care recommendations. It aims to optimize clinical care provided to women and their experience of care. We evaluated the LCG’s usability, feasibility, and acceptability among maternity care practitioners in clinical settings.

Methods
Mixed‐methods evaluation with doctors, midwives, and nurses in 12 health facilities across Argentina, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania. Purposively sampled and trained practitioners applied the LCG in low‐risk women during labor and rated experiences, satisfaction, and usability. Practitioners were invited to focus group discussions (FGDs) to share experiences and perceptions of the LCG, which were subjected to framework analysis.

Results
One hundred and thirty‐six practitioners applied the LCG in managing labor and birth of 1,226 low‐risk women. The majority of women had a spontaneous vaginal birth (91.6%); two cases of intrapartum stillbirths (1.63 per 1000 births) occurred. Practitioner satisfaction with the LCG was high, and median usability score was 67.5%. Practitioners described the LCG as supporting precise and meticulous monitoring during labor, encouraging critical thinking in labor management, and improving the provision of woman‐centered care.

Conclusions
The LCG is feasible and acceptable to use across different clinical settings and can promote woman‐centered care, though some design improvements would benefit usability. Implementing the LCG needs to be accompanied by training and supportive supervision, and strategies to promote an enabling environment (including updated policies on supportive care interventions, and ensuring essential equipment is available).

Peter SG. "Zoonotic Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Infections and their Potential Reservoirs: A Review." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2020;9(1):1-9.
Peng B, Liu D, Lü Z, Mart{\'ı R, Ding J. "Adaptive memory programming for the dynamic bipartite drawing problem." Information Sciences. 2020;517:183-197. Abstract
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Fu W, Zhao X, Wang K, Chen Z, Leng K, Fu D, Song P, Wang H, Deng L, Pennycook SJ, others. "An anomalous magneto-optic effect in epitaxial indium selenide layers." Nano Letters. 2020;20:5330-5338. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Ong CS, Bange S, Junior PFE, Peng B, Ziegler JD, Zipfel J, Bäuml C, Paradiso N, Watanabe K, others. "Bright excitons with negative-mass electrons." arXiv preprint arXiv:2006.14705. 2020. Abstract
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Peng B, Feng X-Q, Li Q. "Decohesion of a rigid flat punch from an elastic layer of finite thickness." Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 2020;139:103937. Abstract
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Wang B, Ma Y, Ge H, Luo J, Peng B, Deng Z. "Design and synthesis of self-healable superhydrophobic coatings for oil/water separation." Langmuir. 2020;36:15309-15318. Abstract
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Wang C, Jiang X, Zhao G, Zhang M, Hsu CW, Peng B, Stone DA, Jiang L, Yang L. "Electromagnetically induced transparency at a chiral exceptional point." Nature Physics. 2020;16:334-340. Abstract
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Xie Y, Peng B, Bravić I, Yu Y, Dong Y, Liang R, Ou Q, Monserrat B, Zhang S. "Highly efficient blue-emitting CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals through neodymium doping." Advanced Science. 2020;7:2001698. Abstract
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Fei Y, Wu J, An H-W, Zhu K, Peng B, Cai J, Zhang Y, Li L-L, Wang H, Huang Z. "Identification of new nitric oxide-donating peptides with dual biofilm eradication and antibacterial activities for intervention of device-related infections." Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2020;63:9127-9135. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-scale mapping of moir$\backslash$'e superlattices by Raman imaging of interlayer breathing mode and moir$\backslash$'e phonons." arXiv preprint arXiv:2012.13820. 2020. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang Y, Lü Z, Cheng TCE, Glover F. "A learning-based memetic algorithm for the multiple vehicle pickup and delivery problem with LIFO loading." Computers & Industrial Engineering. 2020;142:106241. Abstract
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Li Z, Peng B, Lin M-L, Leng Y-C, Zhang B, Pang C, Tan P-H, Monserrat B, Chen F. "Light-driven bandgap renormalization and terahertz atomic oscillations in few-layer PdSe2." arXiv preprint arXiv:2007.02034. 2020. Abstract
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Feldmann S, Gangishetty M, Bravic I, Neumann T, Peng B, Winkler T, Friend RH, Monserrat B, Congreve DN, Deschler F. "Mechanism of carrier localization in doped perovskite nanocrystals for bright emission." arXiv preprint arXiv:2008.11495. 2020. Abstract
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Herren JK, Mbaisi L, Mararo E, Makhulu EE, Mobegi VA, Butungi H, Mancini MV, Oundo JW, Teal ET, Pinaud S, Lawniczak MKN, Jabara J, Nattoh G, Sinkins SP. "A microsporidian impairs Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes." Nat. Commun.. 2020;11:2187. Abstract

A possible malaria control approach involves the dissemination in mosquitoes of inherited symbiotic microbes to block Plasmodium transmission. However, in the Anopheles gambiae complex, the primary African vectors of malaria, there are limited reports of inherited symbionts that impair transmission. We show that a vertically transmitted microsporidian symbiont (Microsporidia MB) in the An. gambiae complex can impair Plasmodium transmission. Microsporidia MB is present at moderate prevalence in geographically dispersed populations of An. arabiensis in Kenya, localized to the mosquito midgut and ovaries, and is not associated with significant reductions in adult host fecundity or survival. Field-collected Microsporidia MB infected An. arabiensis tested negative for P. falciparum gametocytes and, on experimental infection with P. falciparum, sporozoites aren't detected in Microsporidia MB infected mosquitoes. As a microbe that impairs Plasmodium transmission that is non-virulent and vertically transmitted, Microsporidia MB could be investigated as a strategy to limit malaria transmission.

Peter SG, Aboge GO, Kariuki HW, Kanduma EG, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM, Mainga AO. "Molecular prevalence of emerging Anaplasma and Ehrlichia pathogens in apparently healthy dairy cattle in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya." BMC veterinary research. 2020;16:1-12. Abstract
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Wang N, Yu X, Kong Q, Li Z, Li P, Ren X, Peng B, Deng Z, others. "Nisin-loaded polydopamine/hydroxyapatite composites.". 2020. Abstract
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Wang N, Yu X, Kong Q, Li Z, Li P, Ren X, Peng B, Deng Z. "Nisin-loaded polydopamine/hydroxyapatite composites: Biomimetic synthesis, and in vitro bioactivity and antibacterial activity evaluations." Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2020;602:125101. Abstract
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Zhou S, Peng B. "Non-volatile optical memory in vertical van der Waals heterostructures." Journal of Semiconductors. 2020;41:072906. Abstract
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Xie Y, Peng B, Bravić I, Yu Y, Dong Y, Liang R, Ou Q, Monserrat B, Zhang S. "Perovskite Nanocrystals: Highly Efficient Blue-Emitting CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals through Neodymium Doping (Adv. Sci. 20/2020)." Advanced Science. 2020;7:2070112. Abstract
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Shang B, Zhang X, Ji R, Wang Y, Hu H, Peng B, Deng Z. "Preparation of colloidal polydopamine/Au hollow spheres for enhanced ultrasound contrast imaging and photothermal therapy." Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2020;106:110174. Abstract
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Peng B, Xu H-K. "Proximal methods for reweighted lQ-regularization of sparse signal recovery." Applied Mathematics and Computation. 2020;386:125408. Abstract
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Peng B, Liu X-M, Tseng H-R, Li L-L, Wang H. "A ratiometric photoacoustic imaging approach for semi-quantitative determination of aggregation efficiency in vivo." Nanoscale. 2020;12:18654-18662. Abstract
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Ma Y, Zhu X, Wang B, Liu S, Meng T, Chen H, Peng B, Deng Z. "Sacrificial template synthesis of hierarchical nickel hydroxidenitrate hollow colloidal particles for electrochemical energy storage." Chemical Engineering Science. 2020;217:115548. Abstract
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Peng B, Wu L, Yi Y, Chen X. "Solving the multi-depot green vehicle routing problem by a hybrid evolutionary algorithm." Sustainability. 2020;12:2127. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang H, Chen W, Hou B, Qiu Z-J, Shao H, Zhu H, Monserrat B, Fu D, Weng H, others. "Sub-picosecond photo-induced displacive phase transition in two-dimensional MoTe2." npj 2D Materials and Applications. 2020;4:1-8. Abstract
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Shang B, Xu M, Zhi Z, Xi Y, Wang Y, Peng B, Li P, Deng Z. "Synthesis of sandwich-structured silver@ polydopamine@ silver shells with enhanced antibacterial activities." Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2020;558:47-54. Abstract
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Peng B, Hu Y, Murakami S, Zhang T, Monserrat B. "Topological phonons in oxide perovskites controlled by light." Science advances. 2020;6:eabd1618. Abstract
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Al-Azawi A, Cenev Z, Tupasela T, Peng B, Ikkala O, Zhou Q, Jokinen V, Franssila S, Ras RHA. "Tunable and Magnetic Thiol–ene Micropillar Arrays." Macromolecular Rapid Communications. 2020;41:1900522. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang Y, Cheng TCE, Lü Z, Punnen AP. "A two-individual based path-relinking algorithm for the satellite broadcast scheduling problem." Knowledge-Based Systems. 2020;196:105774. Abstract
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Peter SG, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM. "Prevalence and risk factors associated with infections in smallholder dairy cattle in Nairobi City County, Kenya." Vet World. 2019;12(10):1599-1607. Abstract

Ehrlichiosis caused by is a tick-borne disease of great economic importance in cattle production worldwide. Despite its economic impact, limited knowledge is available on its epidemiology in Africa, including Kenya. Suspected cases of infections have been reported in the recent past to the University of Nairobi's Veterinary Hospital, prompting the need to investigate their possible re-emergence. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of among smallholder dairy cattle in Nairobi City County and to assess potential risk factors. This knowledge may guide the development of appropriate control strategies of ehrlichiosis, subsequently reducing associated losses.

Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Cheng C-Y, Wang N, Wong TY, Congdon N, He M, Wang YX, Braithwaite T, Casson RJ, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Bourne RRA, of the of Study VLEGGBD. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in East Asia in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." Br J Ophthalmol. 2019. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment (VI) in East Asia in 2015 and to forecast the trend to 2020.
METHODS: Through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, we estimated prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye), moderate-to-severe vision impairment (MSVI; 3/60≤presenting visual acuity <6/18), mild vision impairment (mild VI: 6/18≤presenting visual acuity <6/12) and uncorrected presbyopia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020. A total of 44 population-based studies were included.
RESULTS: In 2015, age-standardised prevalence of blindness, MSVI, mild VI and uncorrected presbyopia was 0.37% (80% uncertainty interval (UI) 0.12%-0.68%), 3.06% (80% UI 1.35%-5.16%) and 2.65% (80% UI 0.92%-4.91%), 32.91% (80% UI 18.72%-48.47%), respectively, in East Asia. Cataract was the leading cause of blindness (43.6%), followed by uncorrected refractive error (12.9%), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, corneal diseases, trachoma and diabetic retinopathy (DR). The leading cause for MSVI was uncorrected refractive error, followed by cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, corneal disease, trachoma and DR. The burden of VI due to uncorrected refractive error, cataracts, glaucoma and DR has continued to rise over the decades reported.
CONCLUSIONS:Addressing the public healthcare barriers for cataract and uncorrected refractive error can help eliminate almost 57% of all blindness cases in this region. Therefore, public healthcare efforts should be focused on effective screening and effective patient education, with access to high-quality healthcare.

Hassan S, Skilton RA, Pelle R, Odongo D, Bishop RP, Ahmed J, Seitzer U, Bakheit M, HASSAN SM, El Hussein AM. "Assessment of the prevalence of Theileria lestoquardi in sheep from the Sudan using serological and molecular methods." Prev Vet Med. 2019;169:104697. Abstract

Malignant theileriosis of sheep and goats caused by Theileria lestoquardi is considered to be among the most important tick borne diseases in the Sudan. Information on the prevalence of the disease in different parts of the Sudan is limited. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the disease in five states of the Sudan using molecular and serological assays. A total of 393 blood and serum samples from clinically asymptomatic sheep were analysed using nested reverse line blot (nRLB) and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), as well as an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated a sero-prevalence of 33.8% while RLB and LAMP assays revealed molecular prevalences of 29.5 and 22.6% respectively. The prevalence of Theileria lestoquardi varied significantly according to the geographical origin of the infected animals, whereas age and gender did not have a significant effect. RLB data indicated that T. lestoquardi usually occurred as a co-infection with the non-pathogenic Theileria ovis. Using RLB as a gold standard, a sensitivity of 68.1% and a specificity of 96.4% were recorded for LAMP and a sensitivity of 75.9% and a specificity of 83.8% for ELISA. The Kappa coefficient between nRLB and LAMP indicated a significant level of agreement (0.692), but only moderate concordance (0.572) between nRLB and ELISA. The results of the present study confirm and extend earlier findings regarding the widespread of T. lestoquardi infections in sheep in the Sudan. The data provide evidence that should enable the veterinary authorities to deploy appropriate control measures.

Attardo GM, Abd-Alla AMM, Acosta-Serrano A, Allen JE, Bateta R, Benoit JB, Bourtzis K, Caers J, Caljon G, Christensen MB, Farrow DW, Friedrich M, Hua-Van A, Jennings EC, Larkin DM, Lawson D, Lehane MJ, Lenis VP, Lowy-Gallego E, Macharia RW, Malacrida AR, Marco HG, Masiga D, Maslen GL, Matetovici I, Meisel RP, Meki I, Michalkova V, Miller WJ, Minx P, Mireji PO, Ometto L, Parker AG, Rio R, Rose C, Rosendale AJ, Rota-Stabelli O, Savini G, Schoofs L, Scolari F, Swain MT, Takáč P, Tomlinson C, Tsiamis G, Van Den Abbeele J, Vigneron A, Wang J, Warren WC, Waterhouse RM, Weirauch MT, Weiss BL, Wilson RK, Zhao X, Aksoy S. "Comparative genomic analysis of six Glossina genomes, vectors of African trypanosomes." Genome Biol. 2019;20(1):187. Abstract

Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse flies are distinguished from other Diptera by unique adaptations, including lactation and the birthing of live young (obligate viviparity), a vertebrate blood-specific diet by both sexes, and obligate bacterial symbiosis. This work describes the comparative analysis of six Glossina genomes representing three sub-genera: Morsitans (G. morsitans morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. austeni), Palpalis (G. palpalis, G. fuscipes), and Fusca (G. brevipalpis) which represent different habitats, host preferences, and vectorial capacity.

Park J, Michira JN, Yun SY. "African hip hop as a rhizomic art form articulating urban youth identity and resistance with reference to Kenyan genge and Ghanaian hiplife." Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa. 2019;Vol. 16(No. 1-2):99-118.
E.A O, P.G N, P.K N. "Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Water Hyacinth (E. crassipes) With Ruminal Slaughterhouse Waste for Biogas Production." Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development. 2019;8(3):253-259.
Indiatsy C, P OK', Muindi F, M M. "Analysis Of The Effect of Employees Age, HRM Practices, and Competence on Employee Performance." European Journal of Business and Management . 2019;22(30).
P O, C O, R K. "Assessing Efficacy of Kenya’s Spatial Planning Tools Towards Sustainable Management of the Land-Sea Interface." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH AND KNOWLEDGE. 2019;Volume-4(Issue-5):33-43.
Bebora L.C, Gitao CG, P.M M, Mobegi VA, Shumbusho B, Iraguha B. "Assessment of bacterial contamination and milk handling practices along the raw milk market chain in the North-Western region of Rwanda." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2019;13(29):640-648.abstract.pdf
Shem Otoi Sam, Pokhariyal GP, hir Moses M Manene, Kipchirc IC. "Autoregressive distributed lag cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(1):29-41. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider cointegration analysis in an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) structure. First, logarithmic transformation is performed on the series to reduce outlier effects and have elasticity interpreted in terms of percentage. Second, the variables are tested for stationarity using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. Third, the Johansen Cointegration test is carried out to examine cointegration of the series. Fourth, cointegrated dynamic ARDL model is estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS) and effects of variables and their lags interpreted. The results indicate that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and its two-year lag are the only ones having negative effect on youth unemployment, that is, one unit increase in GDP and GDP two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.207922% and 0.2052705% respectively. Also, one unit increase in External Debt (ED) and ED two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.07303% and 0.009116% respectively. Furthermore, unit increase in one-year lag of youth literacy rate is the only one which reduces youth unemployment by 0.0892691%; one-year and three-year lag of population (POP) reduce youth unemployment by 0.2590455% and 4.3093119% respectively. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Private Investment (PI) do not have significant effects on youth unemployment. In the long run, increase in GDP causes increase in youth unemployment by 0.09148447%. The long run result explains that GDP growth in the country is “jobless growth” mainly in less labour intensive sectors

Shem Otoi Sam, Pokhariyal GP, Manene MM, Isaac C Kipchirchir. "Autoregressive distributed lag cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(1): 29-41. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider cointegration analysis in an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) structure. First, logarithmic transformation is performed on the series to reduce outlier effects and have elasticity interpreted in terms of percentage. Second, the variables are tested for stationarity using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. Third, the Johansen Cointegration test is carried out to examine cointegration of the series. Fourth, cointegrated dynamic ARDL model is estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS) and effects of variables and their lags interpreted. The results indicate that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and its two-year lag are the only ones having negative effect on youth unemployment, that is, one unit increase in GDP and GDP two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.207922% and 0.2052705% respectively. Also, one unit increase in External Debt (ED) and ED two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.07303% and 0.009116% respectively. Furthermore, unit increase in one-year lag of youth literacy rate is the only one which reduces youth unemployment by 0.0892691%; one-year and three-year lag of population (POP) reduce youth unemployment by 0.2590455% and 4.3093119% respectively. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Private Investment (PI) do not have significant effects on youth unemployment. In the long run, increase in GDP causes increase in youth unemployment by 0.09148447%. The long run result explains that GDP growth in the country is “jobless growth” mainly in less labour intensive sectors.

Odhiambo SA, ZP Q, PM N, Kosgei RJ, AB K, Ayieko P, PK K, A O, Odawa FX, GN G, MK K, O K, O O. "Born Too Soon: Provide Corticosteriods at the earliest opportunity even if dose is not completed." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):62-63.Website
Cuni-Sanchez A, Omeny P, Pfeifer M, Olaka L, Mamo MB, Marchant R, Burgess ND. "Climate change and pastoralists: perceptions and adaptation in montane Kenya." Climate and Development. 2019;11(6):513-524. Abstractclimate_change_and_pastoralists_perceptions_and_adaptation_in_montane_kenya.pdfWebsite

Abstract

Tropical montane forests are amongst the most threatened ecosystems by climate change. However, little is known about climatic changes already observed in these montane areas in Africa, or the adaptation strategies used by pastoralist communities. This article, focused on three mountains in northern Kenya, aims to fill these knowledge gaps. Focus-group discussions with village elders were organized in 10 villages on each mountain (n = 30). Villages covered different pastoralist ethnic groups. Historical data on rainfall, temperature and fog were gathered from Marsabit Meteorological station. All participants reported changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall, fog, temperature and wind for the past 20–30 years; regardless of the mountain or ethnicity. They particularly highlighted the reduction in fog. Meteorological evidence on rainfall, temperature and fog agreed with local perceptions; particularly important was a 60% reduction in hours of fog per year since 1981. Starting farming and shifting to camel herding were the adaptive strategies most commonly mentioned. Some adaptive strategies were only mentioned in one mountain or by one ethnic group (e.g. starting the cultivation of khat). We highlight the potential use of local communities’ perceptions to complement climatic records in data-deficient areas, such as many tropical mountains, and emphasize the need for more research focused on the adaptation strategies used by pastoralists.

Prisca J. "A Comparative Account of Possession Expression in Tugen and Kiswahili." International Journal of Language and Linguistics. . 2019;7(2):55-62.
Nyawade SO, Gachene CKK, Karanja NN, Gitari HI, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker ML. "Controlling soil erosion in smallholder potato farming systems using legume intercrops.". 2019.
Kwadha CA, Janet Irungu, George Ongamo, Paul Ndegwa, Suresh Raina AFT. "Decanal as a major component of larval aggregation pheromone of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2019;143(4):417-429.
PK K, F T, G O'amo, JM N, EA O, A K. "Diversity and Abundance of Grasshopper and Locust Species in Nakuru County, Kenya." Asian J Conserv Biol. 2019;8(2):102-109.
Odhiambo SA, ZP Q, PM N, Kosgei RJ, AB K, Ayieko P, PK K, A O, Odawa FX, GN G, MK K, O K, O O. "Early Neonatal Outcomes among Mothers receiving variable doeses of Dexamethasone for Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes at Kenyatta National Hospital: A restrospective Cohort Study ." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):54-61.Website
Patrick G Mwangi, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mbugua PN, Isako T. "EFFECT OF GROWTH STAGE OF DUAL PURPOSE SORGHUM ON SILAGE QUALITY." American Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019;4.
Catherine K, Fidahusein DS, Wanjiru LC, Maina WJ, Carla K, Hahn D, Serge F, Paul G, Thomas S. "Effect of Vernodalol, a Sesquiterpene Lactone, on Economically Important Agricultural Fungi." International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology. 2019;4(3):685-694. Abstract

The status of food insecurity in the world is devastating and fungal based diseases are a major cause that result in approximately 40-60% crop yield loss. Although synthetic chemical fungicides have been the preferred immediate method for management of fungal diseases, they have undesirable effects on human and animal health; causes environmental hazards, and are expensive. This study investigated whether the natural products from Vernonia glabra (Asteraceae) could be used as alternative biofungicide against disease causing agricultural fungi. Fractions were separated from V. glabra methanolic flower crude extract, using bioassay-guided fractionation. The single pure fraction yielded was selected for bioassay tests, and was isolated and characterized using chromatographic and spectrometric methods. In vitro bioassay test was performed against spore germination of Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides, Zymoseptoria tritici, Ustilago maydis, and Pyricularia oryzae. A known sesquiterpene lactone, Vernodalol was identified using high resolution mass spectrometry. In vitro bioassay results revealed that spores of Z. tritici were the most susceptible to Vernodalol, (42% spore inhibition) at 33 μg/100 μL compared to Azoxystrobin, a standard fungicide, (100% inhibition) against the fungus at 0.005 μg/100 μL. Vernodalol sprayed on 7 days old wheat seedlings that were inoculated with spores of Zymosepteria tritici, Puccinia triticina, and Helminthosporium sativum, at 50 and 200 ppm did not exhibit any disease control under greenhouse conditions. Azoxystrobin exhibited 90-100% disease control. V. glabra extracts have sesquiterpene lactones which are antifungal, however Vernodalol needs further research on its structural modification to increase efficacy against fungal pathogens.
Keywords:- Plant Fungal Diseases; Alternative Biofungicides; Sesquiterpene Lactones; Food Security.

P G, H S, D M, L L, E B, T MD, L O, V W, C W, Z Q, E O, A G, R M. "Effectiveness of an Electronic Partogram: A Mixed-Method, Quasi- experimental Study." Global Health: Science and Practice. 2019;7(4):521-539. AbstractWebsite

Background: Timely identification and management of intrapartum complications could significantly reduce maternal deaths, intrapartum stillbirths, and newborn deaths due to hypoxia. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies monitoring of labor using the paper partograph as a high-priority intervention for identifying abnormities in labor and fetal well-being. This article describes a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of an Android tablet-based electronic, labor clinical decision-support application (ePartogram) in limited-resource settings.

Methods: The study, conducted in Kenya from October 2016 to May 2017, allocated 12 hospitals and health centers to an intervention (ePartogram) or comparison (paper partograph) group. Skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in both groups received a 2-day refresher training in labor management and partograph use. The intervention group received an additional 1-day orientation on use and care of the Android-based ePartogram app. All outcomes except one compare post-ePartogram intervention versus paper partograph controls. The exception is outcome of early perinatal mortality pre- and post-ePartogram introduction in intervention sites compared to control sites. We used log binomial regression to analyze the primary outcome of the study, suboptimal fetal outcomes. We also analyzed for secondary outcomes (SBAs performing recommended actions), and conducted in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and SBAs to ascertain acceptability and adoptability of the ePartogram.

Results: We compared data from 842 clients in active labor using ePartograms with data from 1,042 clients monitored using a paper partograph. SBAs using ePartograms were more likely than those using paper partographs to take action to maintain normal labor, such as ambulation, feeding, and fluid intake, and to address abnormal measurements of fetal well-being (14.7% versus 5.3%, adjusted relative risk=4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.95–8.19). Use of the ePartogram was associated with a 56% (95% CI=27%–73%) lower likelihood of suboptimal fetal outcomes than the paper partograph. Users of the ePartogram were more likely to be compliant with routine labor observations. SBAs stated that the technology was easy to use but raised concerns about its use at high-volume sites. Further research is needed to evaluate costs and benefit and to incorporate recent WHO guidance on labor management.

Conclusion: ePartogram use was associated with improvements in adherence to recommendations for routine labor care and a reduction in adverse fetal outcomes, with providers reporting adoptability without undue effort. Continued development of the ePartogram, including incorporating new clinical rules from the 2018 WHO recommendations on intrapartum care, will improve labor monitoring and quality care at all health system levels.

P G, H S, D M, L L, E B, T MD, L O, V W, C W, Z Q, E O, A G, R M. "Effectiveness of an Electronic Partogram: A Mixed-Method, Quasi- experimental Study." Global Health: Science and Practice. 2019;7(4):521-539. AbstractWebsite

Background: Timely identification and management of intrapartum complications could significantly reduce maternal deaths, intrapartum stillbirths, and newborn deaths due to hypoxia. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies monitoring of labor using the paper partograph as a high-priority intervention for identifying abnormities in labor and fetal well-being. This article describes a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of an Android tablet-based electronic, labor clinical decision-support application (ePartogram) in limited-resource settings.

Methods: The study, conducted in Kenya from October 2016 to May 2017, allocated 12 hospitals and health centers to an intervention (ePartogram) or comparison (paper partograph) group. Skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in both groups received a 2-day refresher training in labor management and partograph use. The intervention group received an additional 1-day orientation on use and care of the Android-based ePartogram app. All outcomes except one compare post-ePartogram intervention versus paper partograph controls. The exception is outcome of early perinatal mortality pre- and post-ePartogram introduction in intervention sites compared to control sites. We used log binomial regression to analyze the primary outcome of the study, suboptimal fetal outcomes. We also analyzed for secondary outcomes (SBAs performing recommended actions), and conducted in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and SBAs to ascertain acceptability and adoptability of the ePartogram.

Results: We compared data from 842 clients in active labor using ePartograms with data from 1,042 clients monitored using a paper partograph. SBAs using ePartograms were more likely than those using paper partographs to take action to maintain normal labor, such as ambulation, feeding, and fluid intake, and to address abnormal measurements of fetal well-being (14.7% versus 5.3%, adjusted relative risk=4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.95–8.19). Use of the ePartogram was associated with a 56% (95% CI=27%–73%) lower likelihood of suboptimal fetal outcomes than the paper partograph. Users of the ePartogram were more likely to be compliant with routine labor observations. SBAs stated that the technology was easy to use but raised concerns about its use at high-volume sites. Further research is needed to evaluate costs and benefit and to incorporate recent WHO guidance on labor management.

Conclusion: ePartogram use was associated with improvements in adherence to recommendations for routine labor care and a reduction in adverse fetal outcomes, with providers reporting adoptability without undue effort. Continued development of the ePartogram, including incorporating new clinical rules from the 2018 WHO recommendations on intrapartum care, will improve labor monitoring and quality care at all health system levels.

W.A 1. O, GN C’wa, J.I K, P.N N. "Effects of Azolla and inorganic nitrogen application on growth and yield of rice in Mwea Irrigation Scheme." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2019;14 (3):1-8.
W.A 1. O, GN C’wa, J.I K, P.N N. "Effects of inorganic nutrient P and N application on Azolla biomass growth and nutrient uptake." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2019;14 (02):1-9.
GN M, LW K, JM M, MO O, PA A, Korhonen H JV. "Effects of the Use of Good Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxin Levels in Maize Grown in Nandi County, Kenya. ." SCi. 2019. 2019;1 (28)(MDPI):1-19.
Oyang WA, P.A K, J.I. K. "Effects of Varied Nitrogen Levels and Plant Density on Growth and Yield of Nerica 1 Rice Variety ." Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS) . 2019;12(3):72-77.
Paul N’u, Samuel K, Angeline K, Jerusha M. "Evaluation Of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Knowledge and Its Impact on Practice Among Clinicians at a County Referral Hospital In Kenya." International Knowledge Sharing Platform. 2019;9(9).
P. K, D. M, J. VL, G. G, J. M, S. M, L. H. "Factors associated with leg cleanliness of smallholder dairy herds in Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2019;1(1):11-26.
Kyany'a C, Eyase F, Odundo E, Kipkirui E, Kipkemoi N, Kirera R, Philip C, Ndonye J, Kirui M, Ombogo A, Koech M, Koech M, Bulimo W. "First report of Entamoeba moshkovskii in human stool samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic participants in Kenya." Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines. 2019;5:23.kyanya_et_al_2020.pdf
A B, E O, P M, M N, Y M, Kiambi S, Muturi M, Mwatondo A, Muriithi R, Cleaveland S, Hampson K, MK N, M KP, M TS. "A hundred years of rabies in Kenya and the strategy for eliminating dog-mediated rabies by 2030." AAS Open Res. 2019;1:23.
Richards S, Vanleeuwen J, Peter SG, Wichtel J, Kamunde C, Uehlinger F, Gitau G. "Impact of mineral feeding on reproductive efficiency on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2019;31:80.
Johnson MA, Garland CR, Jagoe K, Edwards R, Ndemere J, Weyant C, Patel A, Kithinji J, Wasirwa E, Nguyen T, Khoi DD, Kay E, Scott P, Nguyen R, Yagnaraman M, Mitchell J, Derby E, Chiang RA, Pennise D. "In-Home Emissions Performance of Cookstoves in Asia and Africa." Atmosphere. 2019;10(5):290. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
This paper presents results from eight field studies in Asia and Africa on the emissions performance of 16 stove/fuel combinations measured during normal cooking events in homes. Characterizing real-world emissions performance is important for understanding the climate and health implications of technologies being promoted as alternatives to displace baseline cooking stoves and fuels. Almost all of the stove interventions were measured to have substantial reductions in PM2.5 and CO emissions compared to their respective baseline technologies (reductions of 24–87% and 25–80%, for PM2.5 and CO emission rates, respectively), though comparison with performance guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) suggests that further improvement for biomass stoves would help realize more health benefits. The emissions of LPG stoves were generally below the WHO interim PM2.5 emissions target (1.75 mg/min) though it was not clear how close they were to the most aspirational ISO (0.2 mg/min) or WHO (0.23 mg/min) targets as our limit of detection was 1.1 mg/min. Elemental and organic carbon emission factors and elemental-to-total carbon ratios (medians ranging from 0.11 to 0.42) were in line with previously reported field-based estimates for similar stove/fuel combinations. Two of the better performing forced draft stoves used with pellets—the Oorja (median ET/TC = 0.12) and Eco-Chula (median ET/TC = 0.42)—were at opposite ends of the range, indicating that important differences in combustion conditions can arise even between similar stove/fuel combinations. Field-based tests of stove performance also provide important feedback for laboratory test protocols. Comparison of these results to previously published water boiling test data from the laboratory reinforce the trend that stove performance is generally better during controlled laboratory conditions, with modified combustion efficiency (MCE) being consistently lower in the field for respective stove/fuel categories. New testing approaches, which operate stoves through a broader range of conditions, indicate potential for better MCE agreement than previous versions of water boiling tests. This improved agreement suggests that stove performance estimates from a new ISO laboratory testing protocol, including testing stoves across low, medium, and high firepower, may provide more representative estimates of real-world performance than previously used tests. More representative results from standardized laboratory testing should help push stove designs toward better real-world performance as well as provide a better indication of how the tested technologies will perform for the user. View Full-Text
Keywords: household energy; solid fuel; biomass; stove performance; emission factors; black carbon

Nyawade SO, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Gitari HI, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker ML. "Intercropping Optimizes Soil Temperature and Increases Crop Water Productivity and Radiation Use Efficiency of Rainfed Potato.". 2019.
PARK JEONGKYUNG. "Love and War in Alex La Guma’s “Thang’s Bicycle." Korean Association of African Studies. 2019;57:161-182.
Okumu MO, Patel MN, Bhogayata FR, Ochola FO, Olweny IA, Onono JO, Gikunju JK. "Management and cost of snakebite injuries at a teaching and referral hospital in Western Kenya." F1000Res. 2019;8:1588.
M W, G P, GJ H, G C, A C, I G, S G, AM G, S LL, P L, K M. "Maternal characteristics and causes associated with refractory postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal birth: a secondary analysis of the WHO CHAMPION trial data." BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology.. 2019;127(5):628-634. AbstractWebsite

Objective: To assess the maternal characteristics and causes associated with refractory postpartum haemorrhage (PPH).

Design: Secondary analysis of the WHO CHAMPION trial data.

Setting: Twenty-three hospitals in ten countries.

Population: Women from the CHAMPION trial who received uterotonics as first-line treatment of PPH.

Methods: We assessed the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy and childbirth factors and refractory PPH, and compared the causes of PPH between women with refractory PPH and women responsive to first-line PPH treatment.

Main outcome measures: Maternal characteristics; causes of PPH.

Results: Women with labour induced or augmented with uterotonics (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.35; 95% CI 1.07-1.72), with episiotomy or tears requiring suturing (aOR 1.82; 95% CI 1.34-2.48) and who had babies with birthweights ≥3500 g (aOR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04-1.69) showed significantly higher odds of refractory PPH compared with the reference categories in the multivariate analysis adjusted by centre and trial arm. While atony was the sole PPH cause in 53.2% (116/218) of the women in the responsive PPH group, it accounted for only 31.5% (45/143) of the causes in the refractory PPH group. Conversely, tears were the sole cause in 12.8% (28/218) and 28% (40/143) of the responsive PPH and refractory PPH groups, respectively. Placental problems were the sole cause in 11 and 5.6% in the responsive and refractory PPH groups, respectively.

Conclusion: Women with refractory PPH showed a different pattern of maternal characteristics and PPH causes compared with those with first-line treatment responsive PPH.

Serem EK, Abuom TO, Peter SG, Gakuya DW, Kirui GK, Mbuthia PG. "Microcardia Associated with Traumatic Reticulo Pericarditis (TRP) In an Adult Female Ayrshire Cow A Case Report." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2019;8(2):73-78.
Thanh BY, P L, Pattanittum P, Laopaiboon M, JP V, Oladapo OT, Pileggi-Castro C, Mori R, Jayaratne K, Z Q, J S. "Mode of delivery and pregnancy outcomes in preterm birth: a secondary analysis of the WHO Global and Multi-country Surveys." Scientific reports. 2019;9(15556):1-8. AbstractWebsite

Many studies have been conducted to examine whether Caesarean Section (CS) or vaginal birth (VB) was optimal for better maternal and neonatal outcomes in preterm births. However, findings remain unclear. Therefore, this secondary analysis of World Health Organization Global Survey (GS) and Multi-country Survey (MCS) databases was conducted to investigate outcomes of preterm birth by mode of delivery. Our sample were women with singleton neonates (15,471 of 237 facilities from 21 countries in GS; and 15,053 of 239 facilities from 21 countries in MCS) delivered between 22 and <37 weeks of gestation. We assessed association between mode of delivery and pregnancy outcomes in singleton preterm births by multilevel logistic regression adjusted for hierarchical data. The prevalences of women with preterm birth delivered by CS were 31.0% and 36.7% in GS and MCS, respectively. Compared with VB, CS was associated with significantly increased odds of maternal intensive care unit admission, maternal near miss, and neonatal intensive care unit admission but significantly decreased odds of fresh stillbirth, and perinatal death. However, since the information on justification for mode of delivery (MOD) were not available, our results of the potential benefits and harms of CS should be carefully considered when deciding MOD in preterm births.

Subject terms: Epidemiology, Outcomes research

AE R, GO A, PF AM, S HL, C J, M L, Y G, H G, W Z, A E, EM G, J L, O T, N I, H S, X X. "Molecular detection and genetic characterization of pathogenic Theileria, Anaplasma and 2 Ehrlichia species amongst apparently healthy sheep in central and western Kenya." Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2019;86(1).
Mundo L, Ambrosio M, Raimondi F, Porro LD, Granai M, Mancini V, Guazzo R, Rocca B, Lopez C, Bens S, Noel Onyango, Joshua Nyagol, Abinya N, Navari M, Ndede I, Patel K, Piccaluga PP, Bob R, Santi MD, Russel R, Lazzi S, Siebert R, Stein H, Leoncini L. "Molecular switch from MYC to MYCN expression in MYC protein negative Burkitt lymphoma cases." Blood Cancer Journal. . 2019;9(91):2-10.
Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG, P.N N, Mutinda WU, Njagi LW. "Pathogenicity of Kenyan Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolates in Indigenous Chickens." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2019;18(11):523-529.abstract.pdf
D P, ZP Q, K L, MK K, GN G, Odawa FX, A O, O K, PK K, Kosgei RJ, AB K, PM N, O O. "Policy Brief - Increasing Caesarean Section rates among low risk women after introduction of free maternity services in a Kenyan National Referral Hospital." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):52-53.Website
Karama M, Beniamino T, Prosperi AC, Etter E, El-Ashram S, Ombui JN, McCrindle C, Karake A. "Prevalence and risk factors associated with campylobacter spp occurrence in healthy dogs visiting four rural community veterinary clinics in South Africa." Ondersport Journal of Veterinary Research,. 2019;86(1):a1673.
Peter SG, Daniel WG, Ndichu M, Charles MM. "Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Ehrlichia Infections in Smallholder Dairy Cattle in Nairobi City County, Kenya." Veterinary World. 2019;12(10):1599-1607.
Shem Otoi Sam, Pokhariyal GP, Manene MM, Kipchumba IC. "Reparameterization of vector error correction model from auto-regressive distributed lag to analyze the effects of macroeconomic shocks on youth employment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(1):: 05-17. AbstractWebsite

This study analyzes the effects of reparameterization of autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) to vector error correction model (VECM) through cointegration of time series. It further verifies the effects of macroeconomic shocks on youth unemployment in Kenya using VECM. First, the unit root test has been done on youth unemployment (YUN), gross domestic product (GDP), external debt (ED), foreign direct investment (FDI), private investment (PI), youth literacy level (LR), and youth population (POP) to verify stationarity. The Johansen Cointegration Test has been employed and revealed three long run relationships which can be interpreted as a GDP effect, External Debt effect and Foreign Direct Investment effect relations. A structural VECM has been described through restrictions derived from the Cointegration Analysis. Based on the results of the Impulse-Response Function analysis and variance decomposition analysis of the Structural VECM, it is concluded that GDP, literacy level, population, Private Investment, External and FDI shocks have significant effects on Kenyan youth unemployment in the long run. Based on the results of the Impulse-Response Function and variance decomposition analyses of the Structural VECM, it is concluded that GDP, literacy level, population, and FDI shocks have significant effects on Kenyan youth unemployment in the long run. Whereas population, external debt, private investment, and GDP have positive effects, foreign direct investment and literacy rate have negative effects on youth unemployment in the long run. The results provide a statistical basis for assessing and prioritising investment policies and …

Nyawade SO, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Gitari HI, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker ML. "Short-term dynamics of soil organic matter fractions and microbial activity in smallholder potato-legume intercropping systems.". 2019.
D P, ZP Q, K L, MK K, GN G, Odawa FX, A O, O K, PK K, Kosgei RJ, AB K, PM N, O O. "Use of the Robson Classification to compare Caesarean Section patterns at the Kenyatta National Hospital after and before free Maternity Services in Kenya." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):46-51.Website
LF Uwimbabazi Ruganzu, Moindi SK, Pokhariyal GP, Katende J. "η-ricci solitons defined with W8− curvature tensor and cyclic ricci tensor on para-kenmotsu manifolds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(5):80-84. AbstractWebsite

In this Paper η- Ricci solitons are considered on Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0 and
(ξ,.)W8.S = 0. The results of Blaga [1] for W2 have motivated us to use the same conditions on W8. We have
proved that the Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)W8.S = 0. Are quasi- Einstein Manifolds and
those satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0, are Einstein Manifolds. At the end of the paper it has been proven that the
para- Kenmotsu manifolds with cyclic Ricci tensor and η− Ricci soliton structure are quasi-Einstein
manifolds.

LF Uwimbabazi Ruganzu, Moindi SK, Pokhariyal GP, Katende J. "η-ricci solitons defined with W8− curvature tensor and cyclic ricci tensor on para-kenmotsu manifolds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics 2. 2019;4(5):80-84. AbstractWebsite

In this Paper η- Ricci solitons are considered on Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0 and
(ξ,.)W8.S = 0. The results of Blaga [1] for W2 have motivated us to use the same conditions on W8. We have
proved that the Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)W8.S = 0. Are quasi- Einstein Manifolds and
those satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0, are Einstein Manifolds. At the end of the paper it has been proven that the
para- Kenmotsu manifolds with cyclic Ricci tensor and η− Ricci soliton structure are quasi-Einstein
manifolds.

Patricia K-M, Yohana G, Kinyanjui Sarah. "‘Sexual Harassment in the Workplace in Kenya’." East African Law Journal. 2019;(102).
Mans BJ, Featherston J, Kvas M, Pillay K-A, de Klerk DG, Pienaar R, de Castro MH, Schwan TG, Lopez JE, Teel P, others. "Argasid and ixodid systematics: implications for soft tick evolution and systematics, with a new argasid species list." Ticks and tick-borne diseases. 2019;10:219-240. Abstract
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Peng B, Iwnicki S, Shackleton P, Crosbee D. "Comparison of wear models for simulation of railway wheel polygonization." Wear. 2019;436:203010. Abstract
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Peng B, Xu H-K. "A cyclic coordinate-update fixed point algorithm." Carpathian Journal of Mathematics. 2019;35:365-370. Abstract
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Adwet WM, Pant HJ, MANGALA MJ,... "Evaluation of hydraulic performance of an anaerobic pond using radiotracer technique." Applied Radiation and …. 2019. AbstractWebsite

A radiotracer investigation was carried out in a wastewater stabilization pond using radiotracer technique. Residence time distribution (RTD) of wastewater was measured using Iodine-131 as a radiotracer. The measured RTD was treated and mean residence time …

Peng B, Mei H, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Ni G, Jin Q, Soukoulis CM, Zhu H. "High thermoelectric efficiency in monolayer PbI 2 from 300 K to 900 K." Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers. 2019;6:920-928. Abstract
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Nijimbere D, Zhao S, Liu H, Peng B, Zhang A. "A hybrid metaheuristic of integrating estimation of distribution algorithm with tabu search for the max-mean dispersion problem." Mathematical Problems in Engineering. 2019;2019. Abstract
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Zhao X-X, Li L-L, Zhao Y, An H-W, Cai Q, Lang J-Y, Han X-X, Peng B, Fei Y, Liu H, others. "In Situ Self-Assembled Nanofibers Precisely Target Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts for Improved Tumor Imaging." Angewandte Chemie. 2019;131:15431-15438. Abstract
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Chen Y, Peng B, Cong C, Shang J, Wu L, Yang W, Zhou J, Yu P, Zhang H, Wang Y, others. "In-Plane Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Few-Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Td-WTe2." Advanced Materials. 2019;31:1804979. Abstract
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Peng B, Iwnicki S, Shackleton P, Crosbee D, Zhao Y. "The influence of wheelset flexibility on polygonal wear of locomotive wheels." Wear. 2019;432:102917. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhao X, Yang M-S, Li L-L. "Intracellular transglutaminase-catalyzed polymerization and assembly for bioimaging of hypoxic neuroblastoma cells." Journal of Materials Chemistry B. 2019;7:5626-5632. Abstract
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Gitau J, GATARI MJ, Pant HJ. "Investigation of flow dynamics of porous clinkers in a ball mill using technitium-99m as a radiotracer." Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2019. AbstractWebsite

A radiotracer investigation was carried out in a ball mill of a cement plant in Kenya. Residence time distribution (RTD) of raw feed to the mill was measured using Technetium-99m adsorbed on the clinkers as a radiotracer. From the measured RTDs, solid holdup and …

Peng B, Zhang Y, Gajpal Y, Chen X. "A memetic algorithm for the green vehicle routing problem." Sustainability. 2019;11:6055. Abstract
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Lu Y, Benlic U, Wu Q, Peng B. "Memetic algorithm for the multiple traveling repairman problem with profits." Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence. 2019;80:35-47. Abstract
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Ding J, Shen L, Lü Z, Peng B. "Parallel machine scheduling with completion-time-based criteria and sequence-dependent deterioration." Computers & Operations Research. 2019;103:35-45. Abstract
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Zhu K, Hou D, Fei Y, Peng B, Wang Z, Xu W, Zhu B, Li L-L, Wang H. "Thermosensitive Hydrogel Interface Switching from Hydrophilic Lubrication to Infection Defense." ACS Applied Bio Materials. 2019;2:3582-3590. Abstract
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Peng B, Bravić I, MacManus-Driscoll JL, Monserrat B. "Topological semimetallic phase in PbO 2 promoted by temperature." Physical Review B. 2019;100:161101. Abstract
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Marangu D, Pillay K, Banderker E, Gray D, Vanker A, Zampoli M. "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: an important cause of interstitial lung disease in infants." Respirol Case Rep. 2018;6(7):e00356. Abstract

Exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP), an important cause of interstitial lung disease, often goes unrecognized. We conducted a retrospective study of children with histologically confirmed ELP at Red Cross Children's Hospital, South Africa. Twelve children of Zimbabwean heritage aged 2.1-10.8 months were identified between 2012 and 2017. Repeated oral administration of plant-based oil for cultural reasons was reported by 10 of 11 caregivers. Cough (12/12), tachypnoea (11/12), hypoxia (9/12), and diffuse alveolar infiltrates on chest radiography (12/12) were common at presentation. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacification with lower zone predominance (9/9) and interlobular septal thickening (8/9). Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens appeared cloudy/milky, with abundant lipid-laden macrophages and extracellular lipid on Oil-Red-O staining (12/12), with polymicrobial (6/12) and Mycobacterium abscessus (2/12) co-infection. Antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, and therapeutic lavage were interventions in all eight and five patients, respectively. Clinicians should consider ELP in children with non-resolving pneumonia in settings with similar practices.

Nangia V, Jonas JB, George R, Lingam V, Ellwein L, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA. "Prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment: magnitude, temporal trends and projections in South and Central Asia." Br J Ophthalmol. 2018. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:To assess prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia.

METHODS: A systematic review of medical literature assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity<3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18) in Central and South Asia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020.

RESULTS: In Central and South Asia combined, age-standardised prevalences of blindness, MSVI and MVI in 2015 were for men and women aged 50+years, 3.72% (80% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.39-6.75) and 4.00% (80% UI: 1.41-7.39), 16.33% (80% UI: 8.55-25.47) and 17.65% (80% UI: 9.00-27.62), 11.70% (80% UI: 4.70-20.32) and 12.25% (80% UI:4.86-21.30), respectively, with a significant decrease in the study period for both gender. In South Asia in 2015, 11.76 million individuals (32.65% of the global blindness figure) were blind and 61.19 million individuals (28.3% of the global total) had MSVI. From 1990 to 2015, cataract (accounting for 36.58% of all cases with blindness in 2015) was the most common cause of blindness, followed by undercorrected refractive error (36.43%), glaucoma (5.81%), age-related macular degeneration (2.44%), corneal diseases (2.43%), diabetic retinopathy (0.16%) and trachoma (0.04%). For MSVI in South Asia 2015, most common causes were undercorrected refractive error (accounting for 66.39% of all cases with MSVI), followed by cataract (23.62%), age-related macular degeneration (1.31%) and glaucoma (1.09%).

CONCLUSIONS: One-third of the global blind resided in South Asia in 2015, although the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased significantly between 1990 and 2015.

Pankau MD, Dalton Wamalwa, Benki-Nugent S, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Langat A, Otieno V, Moraa H, Maleche-Obimbo E, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC, Lehman DA. "Decay of HIV DNA in the Reservoir and the Impact of Short Treatment Interruption in Kenyan Infants." Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018;5(1):ofx268. Abstract

We compared change in HIV reservoir DNA following continued antiretroviral therapy (ART) vs short treatment interruption (TI) in early ART-treated Kenyan infants. While HIV DNA in the reservoir decayed with continued ART, HIV DNA levels were similar to pre-TI HIV DNA reservoir levels in most children after short TI.

Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

Widmer M, Piaggio G, Nguyen TMH, Osoti A, Owa OO, Misra S, Coomarasamy A, Abdel-Aleem H, Mallapur AA, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Lumbiganon P, Patel AB, Carroli G, Fawole B, Goudar SS, Pujar YV, Neilson J, Hofmeyr JG, Su LL, Ferreira de Carvalho J, Pandey U, Mugerwa K, Shiragur SS, Byamugisha J, Giordano D, Gülmezoglu MA. "Heat-Stable Carbetocin versus Oxytocin to Prevent Hemorrhage after Vaginal Birth." N Engl J Med. 2018;379(8):743-752. Abstract

Postpartum hemorrhage is the most common cause of maternal death. Oxytocin is the standard therapy for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, but it requires cold storage, which is not available in many countries. In a large trial, we compared a novel formulation of heat-stable carbetocin with oxytocin.

Knowles DP, Kappmeyer LS, Haney D, Herndon DR, Fry LM, Munro JB, Sears K, Ueti MW, Wise LN, Silva M, Schneider DA, Grause J, White SN, Tretina K, Bishop RP, Odongo DO, Pelzel-McCluskey AM, Scoles GA, Mealey RH, Silva JC. "Discovery of a novel species, Theileria haneyi n. sp., infective to equids, highlights exceptional genomic diversity within the genus Theileria: implications for apicomplexan parasite surveillance." Int J Parasitol. 2018;48(9-10):679-690. Abstract

A novel apicomplexan parasite was serendipitously discovered in horses at the United States - Mexico border. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA showed the erythrocyte-infective parasite to be related to, but distinct from, Theileria spp. in Africa, the most similar taxa being Theileria spp. from waterbuck and mountain zebra. The degree of sequence variability observed at the 18S rDNA locus also suggests the likely existence of additional cryptic species. Among described species, the genome of this novel equid Theileria parasite is most similar to that of Theileria equi, also a pathogen of horses. The estimated divergence time between the new Theileria sp. and T. equi, based on genomic sequence data, is greater than 33 million years. Average protein sequence divergence between them, at 23%, is greater than that of Theileria parva and Theileria annulata proteins, which is 18%. The latter two represent highly virulent Theileria spp. of domestic cattle, as well as of African and Asian wild buffalo, respectively, which differ markedly in pathology, host cell tropism, tick vector and geographical distribution. The extent of genome-wide sequence divergence, as well as significant morphological differences, relative to T. equi justify the classification of Theileria sp. as a new taxon. Despite the overall genomic divergence, the nine member equi merozoite antigen (EMA) superfamily, previously found as a multigene family only in T. equi, is also present in the novel parasite. Practically, significant sequence divergence in antigenic loci resulted in this undescribed Theileria sp. not being detectable using currently available diagnostic tests. Discovery of this novel species infective to equids highlights exceptional diversity within the genus Theileria, a finding with serious implications for apicomplexan parasite surveillance.

Davis SM, Pals S, Yang C, Odoyo-June E, Chang J, Walters MS, Jaoko W, Bock N, Westerman L, Toledo C, Bailey RC. "Circumcision status at HIV infection is not associated with plasma viral load in men: analysis of specimens from a randomized controlled trial." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2018;18(1):350. Abstract

Male circumcision provides men with approximately 60% protection from acquiring HIV infection via heterosexual sex, and has become a key component of HIV prevention efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. Possible mechanisms for this protection include removal of the inflammatory anaerobic sub-preputial environment and the high concentration of Langerhans cells on the inside of the foreskin, both believed to promote local vulnerability to HIV infection. In people who do acquire HIV, viral load is partially determined by infecting partner viral load, potentially mediated by size of infecting inoculum. By removing a portal for virion entry, prior male circumcision could decrease infecting inoculum and thus viral load in men who become HIV-infected, conferring the known associated benefits of slower progression to disease and decreased infectiousness.

Salih DA, Mwacharo JM, Pelle R, Njahira MN, Odongo DO, Mbole-Kariuki MN, Marcellino WL, Malak AK, Kiara H, El Hussein ARM, Bishop RP, Skilton RA. "Genetic diversity and population structure of Theileria parva in South Sudan." Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018;9(4):806-813. Abstract

Theileria parva is a parasitic protozoan that causes East Coast fever (ECF), an economically important disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa. In South Sudan, ECF is considered a major constraint for livestock development in regions where the disease is endemic. To obtain insights into the dynamics of T. parva in South Sudan, population genetic analysis was performed. Out of the 751 samples included in this study, 178 blood samples were positive for T. parva by species-specific PCR, were collected from cattle from four regions in South Sudan (Bor = 62; Juba = 45; Kajo keji = 41 and Yei = 30) were genotyped using 14 microsatellite markers spanning the four chromosomes. The T. parva Muguga strain was included in the study as a reference. Linkage disequilibrium was evident when populations from the four regions were treated as a single entity, but, when populations were analyzed separately, linkage disequilibrium was observed in Bor, Juba and Kajo keji. Juba region had a higher multiplicity of infection than the other three regions. Principal components analysis revealed a degree of sub-structure between isolates from each region, suggesting that populations are partially distinct, with genetic exchange and gene flow being limited between parasites in the four geographically separated populations studied. Panmixia was observed within individual populations. Overall T. parva population genetic analyses of four populations in South Sudan exhibited a low level of genetic exchange between the populations, but a high level of genetic diversity within each population.

Perciani CT, Jaoko W, Farah B, Ostrowski MA, Anzala O, MacDonald KS. "αEβ7, α4β7 and α4β1 integrin contributions to T cell distribution in blood, cervix and rectal tissues: Potential implications for HIV transmission." PLoS ONE. 2018;13(2):e0192482. Abstract

Cell surface expression of α4β7, α4β1 and αEβ7 integrins play a key role in T cell distribution. Understanding the contribution of integrins to the density and ratios of CD4+: CD4negT cell at the portals of entry for HIV is of fundamental importance for the advance of more effective HIV prevention strategies. We therefore set out to characterize and compare the expression of α4β7, α4β1 and αEβ7 integrins on systemic, cervical and rectal CD4+ and CD4negT cells isolated from a cohort of healthy Kenyan women at low risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) (n = 45). Here we show that blood and cervix were enriched in α4+β1+CD4+T cells and α4+β7hiCD4+T cells, whereas the rectum had an equal frequency of α4+β7hiCD4+T cells and αE+β7hiCD4+T cells. Most cervical and rectal αE+β7hiCD4+T cells expressed CCR5 as well as CD69. Interestingly, αEβ7 was the predominant integrin expressed by CD4negT cells in both mucosal sites, outnumbering αE+β7hiCD4+T cells approximately 2-fold in the cervix and 7-fold in the rectum. The majority of αE+β7hiCD4negT cells expressed CD69 at the mucosa. Taken together, our results show unique tissue-specific patterns of integrin expression. These results can help in guiding vaccine design and also the use of therapeutically targeting integrin adhesion as a means to preventing HIV.

H. MWIZERWA, GO A, K. MS, MW O, P. GACHERU, M. MUIRU, B. OBURA, B VILJOEN. " Profiling of microbial content and growth in fermented maize-based products from western Kenya." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science . 2018;6(2):509-519.
POKHARIYAL P, MUTURI NE, J. M. KHALAGAI G. " SPLITTING AND ADMISSIBLE TOPOLOGIES DEFINED ON THE SET OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS BETWEEN BITOPOLOGICAL SPACES." International Journal of Mathematical Archive. 2018;9(( 1),2018, ):65-68. Abstract SPLITTING AND ADMISSIBLE TOPOLOGIES DEFINED ON THE SET OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS BETWEEN BITOPOLOGICAL SPACES

In this paper, p-splitting, p-admissible, s-splitting and s-admissible topologies on the sets p−C(Y, Z) and s−C(Y, Z) are defined and their properties explored. exponential functions are introduced in function spaces and s-splitting and s-admissible topologies defined on s-C(Y, Z) compared using these mappings

Matiko Mwita, Mathai M, Pauline Ng’ang’a, Jande M. ". Prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety disorders among patients on treatment for HIV/AIDS in Mwanza-Tanzania." . Tanzania J Health Sci . 2018;2(1):38-49.
Patrice K, Gideon NN, Paul NN, Christopher A, Robert K. "Apis mellifera adansonii Is the Most Defensive Honeybee in Uganda." Psyche. 2018;201:6.
G WE, W B, P W, JT K. "Associations of Interleukin-1 Polymorphisms with Chronic Periodontitis in Two Different Kenyan Ethnic Groups." Journal of International Academy of Periodontology. 2018.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
Angeline Anyona Aywak1*, Timothy Musila Mutala1, Purity Ndaiga1, Callen Onyambu1, Raza2 S. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." The Journal of Global Radiology. 2018;4(1):1-7.
AA A, TM M, P N, C O, S. R. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." J Glob Radiol. 2018;4((1)):10.7191/jgr.2018.1037.
Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, E. O, Olago D, Opere A, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability . 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, Odada E, Olago D, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability. 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

Gannon, Kate Elizabeth, Conway, Declan, Pardoe, Joanna, Ndiyoi, Mukelabai, Batisani, Nnyaladzi, Odada, E.O., Kgosietsile, Sinah, Opere, Alfred, Nyambe, Mubita, Omukuti, Jessica, Siderius, Christian, Olago DO. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability.. 2018; ISSN 2059-4798.
Paschalia Mbutu, Dr. Wanjiru Gichuhi DGN. "Choice of Place of Delivery during Pregnancy in Kenya: A Case of Kitui West Sub-County." International Journal ofbScience Arts and Commerce. 2018;3(5).
Cuni-Sanchez A, Omeny P, Pfeifer M, Olaka L, Mamo MB, Marchant R, Burgess ND. "Climate change and pastoralists: perceptions and adaptation in montane Kenya." Climate and Development. 2018:1-12. AbstractFull Text

Tropical montane forests are amongst the most threatened ecosystems by climate change. However, little is known about climatic changes already observed in these montane areas in Africa, or the adaptation strategies used by pastoralist communities. This article, focused on three mountains in northern Kenya, aims to fill these knowledge gaps. Focus-group discussions with village elders were organized in 10 villages on each mountain (n = 30). Villages covered different pastoralist ethnic groups. Historical data on rainfall, temperature and fog were gathered from Marsabit Meteorological station. All participants reported changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall, fog, temperature and wind for the past 20–30 years; regardless of the mountain or ethnicity. They particularly highlighted the reduction in fog. Meteorological evidence on rainfall, temperature and fog agreed with local perceptions; particularly important was a 60% reduction in hours of fog per year since 1981. Starting farming and shifting to camel herding were the adaptive strategies most commonly mentioned. Some adaptive strategies were only mentioned in one mountain or by one ethnic group (e.g. starting the cultivation of khat). We highlight the potential use of local communities’ perceptions to complement climatic records in data-deficient areas, such as many tropical mountains, and emphasize the need for more research focused on the adaptation strategies used by pastoralists.

Patrick K, Mercy M, Margaret O, Collins O, Alessandra F, Amanj K, B G, Brian G. "Clinical and Financial Implications of Medicine Consumption Patterns at a Leading Referral Hospital in Kenya to Guide Future Planning of Care. Front." Front. Pharmacol. 2018;(9):1348.
Mbindyo CM, Gitao CG, Peter SG. "Constraints affecting dairy goats milk production in Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2018;50(1):37-41.
Maina EG, Gachanja AN, Gachanja AN, Price H. "Demonstrating PM2.5 and road-side dust pollution by heavy metals along Thika superhighway in Kenya, sub-Saharan Africa." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2018;(190):251.
J K, P N, Ndegwa P, L I, J I, B BO, C. A. "Discovery of Phlebotomus Species of Sand Flies in Mwea Irrigation Scheme, Kirinyaga County, Kenya: A Possible Leishmaniases focus. ." Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology . 2018;4(3):1103-1107.
Ong’amo GO, Pallangyo B, Ali A, Njaku M, LeRu BP. "Diversity and abundance of lepidopteran stem borers and their respective native hosts in different vegetation mosaics in Tanzania." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):50-62.
Templer N, Probst L, Onwonga R, Kamusingize D, Ogwali H, Hauser M, Owamani A, Mulumba LN. "Does certified organic agriculture increase agroecosystem health? Evidence from four farming systems in Uganda." 2018 Impact Factor 2.243 International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. 2018;16(2):150-166 .
Olago D, Marchant R, Richer S, Capitani C, Courtney-Mustaphi C, Prendergast M. "Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000years ago to present." Earth-Science Reviews. 2018;178:322-378. AbstractFull Text

East African landscapes today are the result of the cumulative effects of climate and land-use change over millennial timescales. In this review, we compile archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from East Africa to document land-cover change, and environmental, subsistence and land-use transitions, over the past 6000 years. Throughout East Africa there have been a series of relatively rapid and high-magnitude environmental shifts characterised by changing hydrological budgets during the mid- to late Holocene. For example, pronounced environmental shifts that manifested as a marked change in the rainfall amount or seasonality and subsequent hydrological budget throughout East Africa occurred around 4000, 800 and 300 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). The past 6000 years have also seen numerous shifts in human interactions with East African ecologies. From the mid-Holocene, land use has both diversified and increased exponentially, this has been associated with the arrival of new subsistence systems, crops, migrants and technologies, all giving rise to a sequence of significant phases of land-cover change. The first large-scale human influences began to occur around 4000 yr BP, associated with the introduction of domesticated livestock and the expansion of pastoral communities. The first widespread and intensive forest clearances were associated with the arrival of iron-using early farming communities around 2500 yr BP, particularly in productive and easily-cleared mid-altitudinal areas. Extensive and pervasive land-cover change has been associated with population growth, immigration and movement of people. The expansion of trading routes between the interior and the coast, starting around 1300 years ago and intensifying in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries CE, was one such process. These caravan routes possibly acted as conduits for spreading New World crops such as maize (Zea mays), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), although the processes and timings of their introductions remains poorly documented. The introduction of southeast Asian domesticates, especially banana (Musa spp.), rice (Oryza spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and chicken (Gallus gallus), via transoceanic biological transfers around and across the Indian Ocean, from at least around 1300 yr BP, and potentially significantly earlier, also had profound social and ecological consequences across parts of the region.

Through an interdisciplinary synthesis of information and metadatasets, we explore the different drivers and directions of changes in land-cover, and the associated environmental histories and interactions with various cultures, technologies, and subsistence strategies through time and across space in East Africa. This review suggests topics for targeted future research that focus on areas and/or time periods where our understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and land-cover change are most contentious and/or poorly resolved. The review also offers a perspective on how knowledge of regional land-use change can be used to inform and provide perspectives on contemporary issues such as climate and ecosystem change models, conservation strategies, and the achievement of nature-based solutions for development purposes.

Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Wanderi SW, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize and Promiscuous Soybean on Growth and Yield. ." Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2018;12(2):1-21.
Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize-Soybean on Grain Quality Traits in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(2):341-351.
P M, Abuodha SO, N MJ, N MG. "The Effect of Selected Cement Brands in Kenya on the Critical Penetration depth of Rust in Reinforced Concrete Water Conveyancing Structures." International Journal of Scientific Research Publication. 2018;Vol 8(11):276-285.
Josyline K, Philip N, Lucy I, Paul N, Johnstone I, Reuben R, Osero B, Chritopher A. "Effects of Lambdacyhalothrin incorporated into 1,4-Dichlorobenzene on sand fly and mosquito vectors in endemic areas of Kenya. ." Journal of Zoological Research . 2018;2(1):1-6.
Yumbya PM, Hutchinson MJ, Ambuko J, Owino WO, Sullivan A, Paliyath G, Subramanian J. "Efficacy of hexanal application on the post-harvest shelf life and quality of banana fruits (Musa acuminata) in Kenya." Tropical Agriculture. 2018;95(1):14-35.abstract.pdf
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "Enhancing soil organic carbon, particulate organic carbon and microbial biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
Widmer M, Piaggio G, Nguyen TM, Osoti A, Owa OO, Misra S, Coomarasamy A, Abdel-Aleem H, Mallapur AA, Qureshi Z, Lumbiganon P. "Heat-Stable Carbetocin versus Oxytocin to Prevent Hemorrhage after Vaginal Birth." New England Journal of Medicine. 2018;379(8):743-752. AbstractWebsite

Background: Postpartum hemorrhage is the most common cause of maternal death. Oxytocin is the standard therapy for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, but it requires cold storage, which is not available in many countries. In a large trial, we compared a novel formulation of heat-stable carbetocin with oxytocin.

Methods: We enrolled women across 23 sites in 10 countries in a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial comparing intramuscular injections of heat-stable carbetocin (at a dose of 100 μg) with oxytocin (at a dose of 10 IU) administered immediately after vaginal birth. Both drugs were kept in cold storage (2 to 8°C) to maintain double-blinding. There were two primary outcomes: the proportion of women with blood loss of at least 500 ml or the use of additional uterotonic agents, and the proportion of women with blood loss of at least 1000 ml. The noninferiority margins for the relative risks of these outcomes were 1.16 and 1.23, respectively.

Results: A total of 29,645 women underwent randomization. The frequency of blood loss of at least 500 ml or the use of additional uterotonic agents was 14.5% in the carbetocin group and 14.4% in the oxytocin group (relative risk, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.06), a finding that was consistent with noninferiority. The frequency of blood loss of at least 1000 ml was 1.51% in the carbetocin group and 1.45% in the oxytocin group (relative risk, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.25), with the confidence interval crossing the margin of noninferiority. The use of additional uterotonic agents, interventions to stop bleeding, and adverse effects did not differ significantly between the two groups.

Conclusions: Heat-stable carbetocin was noninferior to oxytocin for the prevention of blood loss of at least 500 ml or the use of additional uterotonic agents. Noninferiority was not shown for the outcome of blood loss of at least 1000 ml; low event rates for this outcome reduced the power of the trial. (Funded by Merck Sharpe & Dohme; CHAMPION Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12614000870651 ; EudraCT number, 2014-004445-26 ; and Clinical Trials Registry-India number, CTRI/2016/05/006969 .).

Ogeng’o JA, Pulei AN, Olabu BO, Fidel O Gwala. "HIBISCUS EXTRACT MITIGATES SALT INDUCED CAROTID ADVENTITIAL CHANGES IN RATS." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2018;8(1):1342-1350. Abstract

The tunica adventitia is an active vascular compartment that actively participates in modulation of
vascular structure, function and pathophysiology. Adventitial thickness has recently been accepted as a
surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. The effects of salt and chemicals that ameliorate those effects are
important in understanding vascular structure, function and pathology. There are few studies on
hibiscus and high salt induced vascular pathology. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of
hibiscus on salt induced vascular changes on rat carotid artery. The experimental animals were divided
into 3 groups of 8 animals each – (i) controls; (ii) high salt diet alone and (iii) high salt + hibiscus
extract for a period of eight weeks. At ages 2, 5 and 8weeks 2 – 3 animals were sacrificed for study.
They were anaesthetized with ether and perfused with formal saline. Specimens were then obtained
from the middle of common carotid artery, fixed in 5% formaldehyde solution, processed routinely for
paraffin embedding and 5-micron thick sections stained with Hematoxylin / Eosin and also with Mason’s
Trichome/ Aniline blue. Adventitial thickness and volumetric densities of collagen were measured using
morphometric techniques. High salt consumption induced statistically significant increase in adventitial
thickness from 297.45μm at week 2 to 659.4μm in week 8. In hibiscus fed rats, this increase
progressively reduced to 482.55μm in week 8. Volumetric density of collagen was 57% in high salt fed
rats but reduced to 45.66% in hibiscus fed rats (p<0.001). The increase in tunica adventitial thickness
and collagen density which is induced by high salt can be mitigated by hibiscus extract. This implies
that hibiscus has potential to restore salt induced vascular injury. Further studies are recommended to
refine the extract.

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