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Conference Paper
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Capacity building in the lake Victoria ecosystem. In the proceedings of the International Conference on Managing Shared Waters.". In: In the proceedings of the International Conference on Managing Shared Waters United Nations University Press. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Comparing macrophyte herbivory by introduced Louisiana crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) (Crustacea: Cambaridae) and native Dytiscid beetles (Cybister tripunctatus) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Aquatic Science 30(2):. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Paul K. Muoria, Philip Muruthi DRNOO, Munene E. "Cross-sectional survey of gastro-intestinal parasites of Grevy’s zebras in southern Samburu, Kenya." Afr. J. Ecol. 43:392-395; 2005. Abstract
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P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Globalization Issues from a Developing Nations Perspective.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2005. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. ""Globalization Issues from a Developing Nations Perspective". Paper for IFAC SMP/SME and Developing Nations Consultative Conference.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2005. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Growth and moulting of captive Panulirus homarus homarus in Kenya, western Indian Ocean.". In: New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, Vol. 39: 539-549. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Growth patterns of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera L. in Gazi Bay, Kenya.". In: African Journal of Marine Science 27(3). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "In Pursuit Of Millennium Development Goals: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya Mbeo PO; Omwandho CA; Tumbo-Oeri AG.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Indigenous Snake Bite Remedies Of The Luo Of Western Kenya;.". In: Journal Of Ethnobiology Volume 25, Issue 1 (March 2005) Pp. 129. University of Nairobi Press; 2005. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "Integration Of ICT Into The Management Of Access To Treatment And Monitoring Of ART In Rural Kenya Submitted to 14th International Conference on AIDS and STI.". In: 14th International Conference on AIDS and STI. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
PROF. MUKIAMA TITUSK, PROF. MUKIAMA TITUSK. "K.M.Mavuti, E.N.Kimani & T.Mukiama (2005) Growth patterns of the pearl oyster Pinctada margarifera in Gazi Bay, Kenya. African Journal of Marine Sciences 27: 567-575.". In: African Journal of Marine Sciences 27: 567-575. WFL Publisher; 2005. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Life against HIV/AIDS-epidemiology,blood safety and research.". In: IDA - 3340-01/02-Rep-02/(4) KNA. Pp.20. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Louisiana crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) (Crustacea: Cambaridae) in Kenyan ponds: non-target effects of a potential biological control agent for schistosomiasis.". In: African Journal of Aquatic Science 2005, 30(2). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT, PETER DRMUGWE. "Macfadyen C, Gamble C, Garner P, Macharia I, Mackenzie I, Mugwe P, Oburra H, Otwombe K, Taylor S, Williamson P.Topical quinolone vs. antiseptic for treating chronic suppurative otitis media: a randomized controlled trial.Clin Otolaryngol. 2005 Apr;30(2):1.". In: Clin Otolaryngol. 2005 Apr;30(2):193-4. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare a topical quinolone antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) with a cheaper topical antiseptic (boric acid) for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 427 children with chronic suppurative otitis media enrolled from 141 schools following screening of 39 841 schoolchildren in Kenya. Intervention Topical ciprofloxacin (n = 216) or boric acid in alcohol (n = 211); child-to-child treatment twice daily for 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Resolution of discharge (at 2 weeks for primary outcome), healing of the tympanic membrane, and change in hearing threshold from baseline, all at 2 and 4 weeks. RESULTS: At 2 weeks, discharge was resolved in 123 of 207 (59%) children given ciprofloxacin, and in 65 of 204 (32%) given boric acid (relative risk 1.86; 95% CI 1.48-2.35; P < 0.0001). This effect was also significant at 4 weeks, and ciprofloxacin was associated with better hearing at both visits. No difference with respect to tympanic membrane healing was detected. There were significantly fewer adverse events of ear pain, irritation, and bleeding on mopping with ciprofloxacin than boric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin performed better than boric acid and alcohol for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children in Kenya.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT, PETER DRMUGWE. "Macfadyen C, Gamble C, Garner P, Macharia I, Mackenzie I, Mugwe P, Oburra H, Otwombe K, Taylor S, Williamson P.Topical quinolone vs. antiseptic for treating chronic suppurative otitis media: a randomized controlled trial.Clin Otolaryngol. 2005 Apr;30(2):1.". In: Clin Otolaryngol. 2005 Apr;30(2):193-4. MEDICOM; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Herbert O. Oburra, Tobias Sholz,  Jochen A. Werner,  Isaac M. Macharia,  Peter Masinde,  Joyce Aswani,  Anselmy Opiyo MEDICOM The African Journal of Hospital and Scientific Medicine, (2010) Vol  25: 33 - 36 Abstract Head and neck cancer occupies over 50% of in-patient beds at the Ear, Nose and Throat-Head and Neck Surgery Unit of the Kenyatta National Hospital. Laryngeal cancer is the third most common head and neck cancer after nasopharyngeal and oral cancers. Aim: To determine the demographic features, symptomatology, morbid anatomy, histology and disease stage of laryngeal cancer, and to assess the efficiency of the hospital facility in coping with initial work-up and diagnosis of the patients with laryngeal cancer from 1996 to 2001. Setting: Department of Ear, Nose and Throat/Head and Neck Surgery at The Kenyatta National Hospital Study design: Retrospective review of case notes of 100 patients admitted to the unit between 1996 and 2001. Results: Male to female ratio was 24:1. The peak age at presentation was 50 to 70 years with a mean of 60.6 years. Duration of delay between onset of symptoms and presentation to the unit was 4 to 300 weeks with a mean of 50 weeks. Long history of hoarseness of voices and respiratory stridor were the most frequent symptoms. Preoperative tracheostomy rate was 81%. Vocal cords were involved in 54% of cases, 33% supraglottic, 6% subglottic and 7% indeterminate. Delay in obtaining histological results after biopsy ranged from 1 to 71 days with a mean of 43 days. Ninety five per cent of cases had various grades of squamous cell carcinoma. GI differentiation was found in 36%, G2 in 25% and G3 carcinomas involving the vocal cords tended to be well differentiated.  
K DRKARIUKIDAVID, MUTHURE PROFMACHARIAISAAC, PETER DRMUGWE. "Macfadyen C, Gamble C, Garner P, Macharia I, Mackenzie I, Mugwe P, Oburra H, Otwombe K, Taylor S, Williamson P.Topical quinolone vs. antiseptic for treating chronic suppurative otitis media: a randomized controlled trial.Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Feb;10(2.". In: Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Feb;10(2):190-7. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare a topical quinolone antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) with a cheaper topical antiseptic (boric acid) for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 427 children with chronic suppurative otitis media enrolled from 141 schools following screening of 39 841 schoolchildren in Kenya. Intervention Topical ciprofloxacin (n = 216) or boric acid in alcohol (n = 211); child-to-child treatment twice daily for 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Resolution of discharge (at 2 weeks for primary outcome), healing of the tympanic membrane, and change in hearing threshold from baseline, all at 2 and 4 weeks. RESULTS: At 2 weeks, discharge was resolved in 123 of 207 (59%) children given ciprofloxacin, and in 65 of 204 (32%) given boric acid (relative risk 1.86; 95% CI 1.48-2.35; P < 0.0001). This effect was also significant at 4 weeks, and ciprofloxacin was associated with better hearing at both visits. No difference with respect to tympanic membrane healing was detected. There were significantly fewer adverse events of ear pain, irritation, and bleeding on mopping with ciprofloxacin than boric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin performed better than boric acid and alcohol for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children in Kenya.
K DRKARIUKIDAVID, MUTHURE PROFMACHARIAISAAC, PETER DRMUGWE. "Macfadyen C, Gamble C, Garner P, Macharia I, Mackenzie I, Mugwe P, Oburra H, Otwombe K, Taylor S, Williamson P.Topical quinolone vs. antiseptic for treating chronic suppurative otitis media: a randomized controlled trial.Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Feb;10(2.". In: Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Feb;10(2):190-7. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare a topical quinolone antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) with a cheaper topical antiseptic (boric acid) for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 427 children with chronic suppurative otitis media enrolled from 141 schools following screening of 39 841 schoolchildren in Kenya. Intervention Topical ciprofloxacin (n = 216) or boric acid in alcohol (n = 211); child-to-child treatment twice daily for 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Resolution of discharge (at 2 weeks for primary outcome), healing of the tympanic membrane, and change in hearing threshold from baseline, all at 2 and 4 weeks. RESULTS: At 2 weeks, discharge was resolved in 123 of 207 (59%) children given ciprofloxacin, and in 65 of 204 (32%) given boric acid (relative risk 1.86; 95% CI 1.48-2.35; P < 0.0001). This effect was also significant at 4 weeks, and ciprofloxacin was associated with better hearing at both visits. No difference with respect to tympanic membrane healing was detected. There were significantly fewer adverse events of ear pain, irritation, and bleeding on mopping with ciprofloxacin than boric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin performed better than boric acid and alcohol for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children in Kenya.
Paolo Colangelo, Marco Corti EVFANORMWV. "Mitochondrial phylogeny reveals differential modes of chromosomal evolution in the genus Tatera (Gerbilliscus) (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) in Africa." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35: 556-568; 2005. Abstract
n/a
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Model for understanding social problems in slums.". In: International journal for world peace Vol. XXII No. 2 , pp 59-75. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2005. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
PROF. MUKIAMA TITUSK. "Mukiama T.K.(2005) Medicinal Plants of Kenya. IDRC-KARI, ISBN 9966-879-68-4, 196 pp.". In: IDRC-KARI, ISBN 9966-879-68-4, 196 pp. WFL Publisher; 2005. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "Polychlorinated Biphenyls As Health Hazards Submitted to East African Medical Journal Mbeo PO; Omwandho CA; Tumbo-Oeri AG; Mecha EO.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z Editorial Safe motherhood in Africa: Achievable Goal or a Dream?". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jan;82. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "The Role Of Pharmacists In Providing Emergency Contraception In Kenya Submitted To The Pharmaceutical Society Of Kenya Journal Maiyo VC; Mbeo PO.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2005. Evolution of Governance Practice in Kenya. An Overview in Bujra Abdala (ed). Democratic Transition in Kenya: The Struggle from Liberal to Social Democracy.". In: African Centre for Economic Growth in collaboration with Development Policy Management Forum. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Since the 1990s, political discourse in Kenya and indeed in other Sub-Saharan Africa n countries has centred on issues of governance. This is because of the emerging consensus in the country , especially among scholars that the major social economic, political and human rights problems that Kenya is experiencing emanate from the nature of governance in the country(Kanyinga;2001;37).As a result , a number of initiatives to improve governance have been and continue to be undertaken in Kenya. These initiatives cover the four dimensions of governance, namely political, economic, administrative and legal. This chapter provides background material on the nature and trends of governance in Kenya . It highlights the major trends in governance since independence in 1963 , pointing out their impact on society generally and socio- economic development and stability in particular. The approach adopted is historical and examinees the mode of governance both during the presidency of Kenyatta and that of Moi. The final section of the chapter identifies areas of governance that require priority attention for improvement
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2005. Refugees and Internally Displaces Persons Phenomenon in Africa: A Governance Perspective.". In: Journal of the Regional Development Studies, Vol. 10. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Since the 1990s, political discourse in Kenya and indeed in other Sub-Saharan Africa n countries has centred on issues of governance. This is because of the emerging consensus in the country , especially among scholars that the major social economic, political and human rights problems that Kenya is experiencing emanate from the nature of governance in the country(Kanyinga;2001;37).As a result , a number of initiatives to improve governance have been and continue to be undertaken in Kenya. These initiatives cover the four dimensions of governance, namely political, economic, administrative and legal. This chapter provides background material on the nature and trends of governance in Kenya . It highlights the major trends in governance since independence in 1963 , pointing out their impact on society generally and socio- economic development and stability in particular. The approach adopted is historical and examinees the mode of governance both during the presidency of Kenyatta and that of Moi. The final section of the chapter identifies areas of governance that require priority attention for improvement
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2005. The Role of the East African Legislative Assembly. In Ajulu,R. The Making of Region: The Revival of the East African Community.". In: Institute for Global Dialogue. Midrand, South Africa. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
This chapter discusses the expected contribution of the East African Legislative Assembly to the revival and consolidation of the East African Community and the eventual political federation. It also discusses the challenges that the Assembly is likely to face while playing this role. In this regard, the chapter offers some suggestions on how this role can be enhanced. It ends with a brief discussion of the future of the East African Community.
Pokhariyal GP, Moturi CA, Hasssanali J. "Simulation Model for Dental Arch Shapes in Humans.". In: East African Medical Journal, November 2004, pp 599 . African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 2004. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

K.C C, P.W W, E.T O. "Computer based Medical Diagnostic decision assistant.". In: Workshop on Application of ICT in enhancing Higher learning education . Tanzania; 2004.
P. M. "informal financing mechanisms in urban areas in Kenya.". In: World Bank’s Urban Research Symposium. Washington D.C.; 2004.
P. KAAYAG. "Biocontrol of ticks using entomogenous fungi: Development of cheap fungal culture methods.". In: In proc. 3rd African Acarology Symposium. Cairo, Egypt ; 2004.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Bathymetry of Lake Bogoria, Kenya.". In: Journal of East African Natural History 92, 107-117. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstractbathymetry_of_lake_bogoria_kenya.pdf

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Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.W Gakuya, P.M.F. Mbithi, T.E Maitho and N.K.R. Musimba (2004). Potential use of plant antihelmintics for the control of livestock helminthoses in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 26 pp. 14-26.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthemintica bark and Maerua_edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the instestinal nematode heligmosmoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment grops and once control group. Groups 1,2 and 3 were given and one dose of water extratss of a. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20 gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5 gm/kg, 10gm aand 20 gm bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently gien a double oral dose of 0.2ml pf physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyrus egg count reduction of 72%, 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and I respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction I worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, 20%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2,3, 6 and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use f these plants as anthelmintics.

Ahuya CO;, Okeyo AM;, Peacock C. "Development of dairy goat industry in Kenya: A case study."; 2004.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "E.M. Njoroge, E. Zeyhle, J.K. Magambo, P.M.F. Mbithi and J.M. Gathuma. (2004). Evaluation of cost of ultrasound surveys for cystic echinococcosis in goats in a nomadic pastoral community. International Archives of the Hydatidosis Vol. 35 pp. 100-102.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

A study was carried to evaluate the cots of performing ultrasound surveys I goats in a nomadic set-up. The cost of ultrasound examination was determined by calculating how much money was required to perform a scan per goat. This was based on purchase price of portable ultrasound equipment, clippers/shavers, electric cables, and electric generator. It was also based on recurrent expenditure on items that are used during ultrasound examination. A total of 472 animal were examined I ultrasound, out of which 15 were identified to have cystic echinococcosis. In 12 (80.0%) animals, the cysts were thin-walled unilocular (TCE1) while in 3 (20.0%0 animals, they appeared as thick-walled unilocular structures (TCE4). Calcification appeared as hyper echoic ring in the cyst wall in 1 (6.7%) animal. Multiple unilocular cysts (TCE3) separated by the liver parenchyma were imaged in 13 (86.7%) animals. Single miltiloculated cysts (TCE2) appeared in 1 (6.7%) animal while multiple multiloculated cysts were observed in 1 (6.7%) animal. Cost of ultrasound examination per goat was found to be US$ 0.714. The technique could determine the presence, size, nature and exact location of the Echonococcus cysts. Although the initial cost of ultrasound equipment was high, the running costs were inexpensive compared to other diagnostic tests. The cost of ultrasound examination per animal was however inversely proportional to the number of animals scanned.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "E.M. Njoroge, P.M.F. Mbithi, T.M. Wachira, J.K. Magambo and E. Zeyhle (2004). Ethyl Alcohol: Is it necessary in the P.A.I.R Technique? International Archives of the Hydatidosis Vol. 35 pp. 149-150.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 95% ethyl alcohol in the pair technique using sheep and goat modes. A total of 6 animals (4 sheep and 2 goats) were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of 3 animals each (2 sheep and 1 goat). In the first group (test group), 7 cysts were punctured in vivo, cyst fluid drained and injected with 95% ethyl alcohol while the second group (controls) 9 cysts were only punctured and cysts fluid drained. The procedure was done under ultrasound guidance. The animals were then monitored for one month. Ultrasound showed that in both groups there was collapse of the endocysts after cyst puncture. One month later, the cysts showed decrease in size, increased echogenicity, and completed or partial detachment of the endcoyst. Post mortem examination showed that in 95% ethyl alcohol group (test group), the cysts were grossly degenerated with marked fibrosis of the surroundings liver tissue. Incision of the cysts revealed turbid yellow cystic fluid and degenerated endocysts. On microscopic examination of the cyst fluid, the protocols were dead, with detached hooks, in the puncture only group (control group), the cysts appeared grossly intact but flaccid. Incision of these cysts showed clear fluid with intact endcoysts. However, microscopic examination of the cyst fluid showed that the protocoleces were dead with detachments of hooks. A histopathological examination of the test group showed marked host cell reaction consisting of infiltration of the adventiatl layer with neutrophils, eosinophils, and plasma cells. In addition, the liver tissue was severely destroyed and replaced with you and disorganised fibroblasts and mesenchmal cess. In most necrotic areas, the laminate layer could not be collected together with adherent liver tissue and the adventiatil layer appeared completely degenerate and was replaced by acute inflammatory cells. In the control group, there was detachment of the laminate layer of the cyst from the adventitia. Additionally inflammatory cells were observed in the adventitia and the liver tissues. However, the degree of inflammation was markedly less than in the test group. Inflammatory cells were identified only in small parts of the liver tissues while most of the tissues were intact with hepatocytes being predominant in an organised appearance. The findings suggest that puncture alone may be sufficient to kill the protoscholeces, possibly due to detachment of the endocyst used; more studies need to be carried out to verify the necessity for using ethyl alcohol in PAIR techniques.

Kosura-Oluoch W;, Marenya PP;, Place F;, Barrett CB. "Indices and Manifestations of Poverty: Informing anti-poverty Policy Choices."; 2004. Abstract

Kenya has entered the 21st century with over 50% of its population classified as absolutely poor in that they live on less than a dollar a day. Per capita income is lower than at the end of the 1960’s. Income, assets, and access to essential services are unequally distributed. The country has made important economic reforms, improving macroeconomic management, liberalizing markets and trade, and widening the scope for private sector activity in the hope of improving economic growth and welfare for Kenyans. Yet, despite these reforms the country has experienced little growth and poverty continues to afflict an ever-larger segment of its citizenry, especially in rural areas. Recent debate on the reasons for limited impact of economic reforms on poverty reduction has been of a “top-down’ nature, where analysts consider a policy reform as an external shock and ask how its benefits and costs work their way through the economy to the poor. Increasingly, researchers are recognizing that macroeconomic and sectoral issues are only part of the basis for growth and poverty reduction. What is missing is a “bottom-up” perspective, which starts from the capabilities of individuals, households, and communities. What are their productivities, their environment and how do economic and social developments play out on the ground and how can these developments be influenced? Poverty is a complex, multifaceted concept reflecting a low level of well-being (World Bank 2000). The human well being itself is a multidimensional continuum from extreme deprivation (poverty) to a high attainment or experience of standard of living. 2 In economics use is commonly made of income or expenditure flows as proxies for welfare. This approach is appropriately contested within the social sciences, since well being is experiential, value laden, context and situation dependent and reflects social and personal factors. Poverty is therefore more than lack of material needs, since material sufficiency alone does not guarantee well being. While measurement of poverty is a critical empirical and policy concern, an important phenomenon that has gained currency in recent work on poverty analysis is that of poverty dynamics and poverty traps: who climbs above it, descends below it or oscillates around it – because poverty dynamics is the more fundamental policy concern. Identifying the right policy mix to help a given poor subpopulation depend on an accurate understanding of rural poverty dynamics.

Kosura-Oluoch, Willis; Marenya PP;, Place F;, Barrett CB. "Indices and Manifestations of Poverty: Informing anti-poverty Policy Choices."; 2004. Abstract

Kenya has entered the 21st century with over 50% of its population classified as absolutely poor in that they live on less than a dollar a day. Per capita income is lower than at the end of the 1960’s. Income, assets, and access to essential services are unequally distributed. The country has made important economic reforms, improving macroeconomic management, liberalizing markets and trade, and widening the scope for private sector activity in the hope of improving economic growth and welfare for Kenyans. Yet, despite these reforms the country has experienced little growth and poverty continues to afflict an ever-larger segment of its citizenry, especially in rural areas. Recent debate on the reasons for limited impact of economic reforms on poverty reduction has been of a “top-down’ nature, where analysts consider a policy reform as an external shock and ask how its benefits and costs work their way through the economy to the poor. Increasingly, researchers are recognizing that macroeconomic and sectoral issues are only part of the basis for growth and poverty reduction. What is missing is a “bottom-up” perspective, which starts from the capabilities of individuals, households, and communities. What are their productivities, their environment and how do economic and social developments play out on the ground and how can these developments be influenced? Poverty is a complex, multifaceted concept reflecting a low level of well-being (World Bank 2000). The human well being itself is a multidimensional continuum from extreme deprivation (poverty) to a high attainment or experience of standard of living. 2 In economics use is commonly made of income or expenditure flows as proxies for welfare. This approach is appropriately contested within the social sciences, since well being is experiential, value laden, context and situation dependent and reflects social and personal factors. Poverty is therefore more than lack of material needs, since material sufficiency alone does not guarantee well being. While measurement of poverty is a critical empirical and policy concern, an important phenomenon that has gained currency in recent work on poverty analysis is that of poverty dynamics and poverty traps: who climbs above it, descends below it or oscillates around it – because poverty dynamics is the more fundamental policy concern. Identifying the right policy mix to help a given poor subpopulation depend on an accurate understanding of rural poverty dynamics

PROF. MBITHI PMF, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K.H. Zessin, P.M.F. Mbithi, W.K. Munyua and J.M. Maribei. (2004). Helminthosis in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 26 pp. 29-33.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

A study was conducted in sixty-two randomly selected herds in Kikuyu division, Kiambu District in Central Kenyan Highlands to obtain prevalence, spectrum and intensity of gastrointestinal helminths in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Faecal samples from a total of 598 pigs of various age-group categories (piglets, weaners, growers and adults) were taken during a period of a 4 months in 1999 ad examined for helminthes eggs (EPG) using modified McMaster technique. Gastrintestinal helminth eggs wewre observed in 57 (91.9%) of the herds. The Helminths observed were Strongles (35.1%). Ascarids (10%), Trichuris (4), Strongloids (3.2%) and Tapeworms (0.3%). The overall prevalence of the helminaths was 43.5%. the prevalence among the various age groups differed significantly (p<0.01) with the highest prevalence in the weaners (55.6%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%). The prevalence of Strongles and Strongloids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups. The highest prevalence for Strongyles was in the growers (41.7%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%) while the highest prevalence for lowest in the adults (0.8%). The prevalence of Ascarids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups with the highest prevalence in weaners (27.8%) and the lowest in the piglets (3.6%). The prevalence of Trichuris worms was significantly (p<0.5) higher in the weaners than in the piglets. The high prevalence of the Gatrointestinal helmnths observed indicates the need to control these parasites due to their detrimental effects on productivity and also due to their public health significance.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Mogoa E.G.M. and P.M.F. Mbithi (2004). Pain and its Management in Animals. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 27 pp.10-14.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Towards Greater Access to Justice in Environmental Disputes in Kenya: Opportunities for Intervention, Submitted on request to the Indian Journal of Environmental Law.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2004. Abstracttowards_greater_access_to_justice.pdf

Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.

PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O, M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS, JUSTUS DRSIMIYU. "Anthocyanin Sensitized Nanoporous TiO2 PEC Solar Cells Prepared by Sol Gel Process.". In: Progr Colloid Polym Sci. 125, 34-37. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O, M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS, JUSTUS DRSIMIYU. "Anthocyanin Sensitized Nanoporous TiO2 PEC Solar Cells Prepared by Sol Gel Process.". In: Progr Colloid Polym Sci. 125, 34-37. Physica Status Solidi; 2004. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Bett, B., Orenge, C., Irungu, P. and Munga, L.K. (2004). Epidemiological factors that influence time-totreatment of trypanosomosis in Orma Boran cattle raised at Galana Ranch, Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology 120(1- 2):43-53.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004. Abstract
Four thousand nine hundred and seventy-one trypanosomosis-surveillance records from an open population of Orma Boran cattle raised under natural trypanosomosis challenge in Galana Ranch, Kenya between the years 1990 and 2000 were analysed. The objective of the analysis was to identify epidemiological factors that influenced time-to-treatment of trypanosomosis cases. Under the surveillance programme, blood was being examined fortnightly for trypanosomosis using buffy coat technique. Infected animals were treated when their packed cell volumes (PCV) fell to 25% or lower. The number of days between the first diagnosis and treatment of trypanosomosis cases was obtained from the difference between diagnosis and treatment dates. Days-to-treatment clustered around the screening periods; therefore, time-to-treatment was represented by a series of time points 0-8 at 14-day intervals. Factors postulated to affect the outcome (time-to-treatment) were age of an animal at time of diagnosis, sex, number of trypanosome infections, trypanosome species and season of the year. Five animal generations were generated from birth dates and treated as nuisance parameters. Conditional logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to the data, the former to analyse factors that influenced treatment after time 0 (outcome dichotomised as time 0 or >0) and the latter to analyse factors that influenced time-to-treatment for cases that were treated after time 0, excluding all cases treated on time 0. The majority of the cases (89.5%) were treated on the same day of diagnosis. Trypanosome infections were more likely to be treated after time 0 in dry than in wet season. Similarly, the rate of treatment was lower in the dry than the wet season. An increase in number of previous trypanosome infections reduced the odds of an animal being treated after time 0. Animals that had been exposed to many infections before had higher rates of treatment than those that had minimal experiences. We offer possible reasons for these observations and conclude that selection of animals for breeding purposes in programmes geared towards improving trypanotolerance should take into consideration the environmental factors that affect classification of an animal as being resistant or susceptible.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Community, Farmers and Breeders Rights in Africa: Towards a Legal Framework for Sui generis Legislation reprinted in the ICFAI Journal of Intellectual Property Rights (Volume II Number 4.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2004. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "The Coverage of Gender Issues in the Draft Bill of the Constitution of Kenya, 2002: Have the Hens Finally Come Home to Roost for Kenyan Women? University of Nairobi Law Journal.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2004. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Eastern and Central African Integration.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. ""Eastern and Central African Integration: What it Entails." Paper for Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) Golden Jubilee and 8th African Stock Exchanges Association (ASEA) Conference (Nairobi November 2004).". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Ecohydrology to guide the management of a tropical protected area.". In: Lake Naivasha, Kenya: . Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology 4:255-273. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU, P PROFPATELJAYANTI. "Evaluation of Geophagia as a pathway for internal exposure to ionizing radiation.". In: Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPAA11), Madrid, Spain, May 23-28, 2004. Departmental seminar; 2004. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU, P PROFPATELJAYANTI. "Evaluation of Geophagia as a pathway for internal exposure to ionizing radiation.". In: Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPAA11), Madrid, Spain, May 23-28, 2004. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2004. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, A. MRMOTURICHRISTOPHER, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "G.P. Pokhariyal, C.A. Moturi, J. Hasssanali S.M. Kinyanjui Simulation Model for Dental Arch Shapes in Humans, " East African Medical Journal 81, 599-602 (2004)).". In: East African Medical Journal, November 2004, pp 599 . Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2004. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Gender, Conflict and Regional Security' in Makumi Mwagiru ed., African Regional Security in the Age of Globalisation, Heinrich Boell Foundation, Nairobi.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2004. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Gicheru, P., C.K.K. Gachene, J.P. Mbuvi and E. Mare, 2004. Effects of soil management practices and tillage systems on surface soil water conservation and crust formation on a sandy loam in semi-arid Kenya. Soil and Tillage Research 75 (2004)173-184.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Global Knowledge and the Information Society: Illusion or Reality for Developing Countries?". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 8-19. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study infections complicating ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery in children with non-tumour hydrocephalus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: A retrospective survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi between January 1982 and December 1991. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and forty five patients who underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty five patients underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. There were 107 infection episodes involving 85 patients. The ages of these patients ranged from three months to 12 years. Most of the patients had congenital hydrocephalus. The infection rate was high (24.6%) although comparable to infection rates reported for clean surgery in the hospital. Fever, septic wounds and features of shunt malfunction were the main presenting features. Bacteriological studies confirmed Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci as the two most commonly isolated micro-organisms. CONCLUSION: This study emphasises need to reduce infection rate in ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Definitive surgical treatment for hydrocephalus was in most cases delayed and this problem was also observed during revision of infected shunts. Late presentation was often due to ignorance and the fact that many patients went for traditional forms of treatment first before going to hospital.
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Global Knowledge and the Information Society: Illusion or Reality for Developing Countries?". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 8-19. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2004. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "KAHINDI J.H.P., N. K. KARANJA , D. ODEE & F.B. MWAURA (2004). The Diversity of Biological Nitrogen-fixing Systems in Kenya. J. Trop. Microbiol. 3: 3-13.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Kigamwa P.Psychological manifestations and heart disease East Afr Med J. 2004 Dec;81(12):609-10. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Dec. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Kiima DM, Njenga FG, Okonji MM, Kigamwa PA. Kenya mental health country profile. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2004 Feb-May;16(1-2):48-53.". In: Int Rev Psychiatry. 2004 Feb-May;16(1-2):48-53. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. ""Mainstreaming Labour and Employment Concerns Within the Framework of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD): Issues, Initiatives and Actions." Keynote Address to a Forum of Permanent/Principal Secretaries, Directors-General and Commissioner.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Mugunieri, G.L., Omiti, J., Irungu, P. (2004). Integrating community-based animal health workers into the formal veterinary service delivery system in Kenya. Agrekon 43(1):89-100.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004. Abstract
The community-based animal health workers (CBAHWs) model has been one of the ways utilised in delivery of animal health services following the veterinary service reforms. Government statutory bodies have opposed the establishment of these programs arguing that their approach to animal health delivery does not fit within the existing technical, legal and policy framework. This study gives an account of the nature, characteristics, and activities of CBAHWs and provides information that would guide policy debate regarding their integration into formal health service delivery. It indicates that these programs provide mainly curative health services but the issue of sustainability has continued to dodge most of them. It establishes that, for trainees to continue actively providing services, continued professional development obtained through regular refresher training and entrepreneurship exemplified by proper record keeping are important. It therefore recommends that policy review is needed to address the role of CBAHWs and appropriately integrate their activities within the formal animal health delivery system.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Mugunieri, L.G., Irungu, P. and J.M. Omiti (2004). Performance of community-based animal health workers in the delivery of livestock health services. Tropical Animal Health and Production 36:523-535.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004. Abstract
Since the liberalization of animal health services in Kenya in the early 1990s, community-based animal health workers (CBAHWs) have become an important alternative animal health delivery channel in the country's marginal areas. However, professional veterinary practitioners have questioned the effectiveness of CBAHW programmes in animal health service delivery in Kenya. This is partly due to lack of information about their performance and partly because CBAHW programmes were implemented before the necessary changes in the existing legal, policy and institutional frameworks had been made. This study was designed to provide such information. In this regard, the productivity of livestock herds among farmers who utilized the services of CBAHWs was compared to that of livestock belonging to farmers who utilized the services of professional veterinarians. The annual live births per mature female (birth ratio) and the proportion of young stock to mature females (breeding index) was computed over a period of 3 years in cattle and goat herds under care of CBAHWs and professional veterinarians. The birth ratios in cattle and goats under CBAHWs were not significantly different from those under the care of professional veterinarians (p>0.05). Furthermore, the breeding index of cattle and goats under the two categories was not statistically different. Besides the CBAHWs providing clinical services, they also created positive externalities through participatory learning enjoyed by neighbouring livestock keepers, who later dispensed with their services. Policy attention is therefore needed to enhance the participation of CBAHWs in animal health service delivery and to appropriately integrate their activities into the existing formal animal health delivery system in Kenya. Interventions that improve the professional development of these workers, with emphasis on areas pertaining to care of young stock, would not only promote the sustainability of CBAHW programmes but would also improve livestock productivity in the country's marginal areas
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Njenga FG, Nicholls PJ, Nyamai C, Kigamwa P, Davidson JR. Post-traumatic stress after terrorist attack: psychological reactions following the US embassy bombing in Nairobi: Naturalistic study. Br J Psychiatry. 2004 Oct;185:328-33.". In: Naturalistic study. Br J Psychiatry. 2004. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
Paul Kamau. "Opportunities and Challenges of the Multilateral Trading System: The Kenyan Experience under WTO." Institute for International Studies) Vol. 37 Number 1, pp. 101-116; 2004. Abstract
n/a
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki , SPH 201: Mechanics II, A peer reviewed Physics lecture module for distance learners.". In: published by the University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki, Looking for Secrets in the Stars, Society Magazine, East African Standard, Saturday, August 28th (2004).". In: published by the University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Social Dialogue in Public Emergency Services.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Social Dialogue in Public Emergency Services: A Case Study of Kenya. WP.216, Print Version:92-2-115737-7 (Geneva: ILO Sector Programme, 2004).". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'The Impact of Internatinal Treaties on Land and Resource Rights', in Munyaradzi Saruchera, ed., Securing Land and Resorce Rights: Pan-African Perspectives, Chapter 5, 48, Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies, Cape Town, South African.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2004. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Towards a Liability and Redness System under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: A Review of the Kenya National Legal System, East African Law Journal.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2004. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Trophic Ecology of Some Common Juvenile Fish Species in Mtwapa Creek, Kenya.". In: Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. Vol. 3, No. 2. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2004. Challenging the Political Order: The Politics of Presidential Succession In Kenya. In Bahemuka and Brockington (edited) East Africa In Transition, Images, Identities and Institutions.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This paper analyses the politics of presidential succession that occupied the time resources and energy of the political class since the opening up of the political space in the late 1980s and earlyb1990s. The paper has three major arguments. First it argues that the changes that were sought constituted a major challenge to the established political order as it sought to dislodge those in power and to make the government responsive to the citizens. This was being done in a context in which political leaders consider it illegal to challenge those in authority. Secondly the paper argues that those challenging the political order by seeking the presidency faced an uphill task precisely because they were up against a well-established political machine in the name of the Kenya Africa National Union (KANU). Finally the paper argues that the politics surrounding presidential succession gravitated around two major interests, namely ethnic and class interests.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2004. Decentralization and Local Goverance: A Conceptual and Theoretical Discourse.". In: Regional Development Dialogue Journal of the United Nations Center for Regional Ddevelopment (UNCRD) Vol, 25, No 1 Spring pp1-13. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2004. NEPAD and Security In the IGAD Region. Security In the Age of Globalization.". In: In Makumi Mwagiru (edit) African Regional Henrich Boll Foundation Regional Office for Eastern Africa, Nairobi. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004.
Gathumbi, P.K., Thoithi, G.N., Mwangi, J.W., KIBWAGE, Maingi, N., Pelle R, Wando J. "Evaluation of effects of plant extracts on Trypanosomes.". In: End of ARF Project Conference . KARI Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya; 2003.
Gathumbi PK;, Thoithi GN;, Mwangi JW;, Kibwage IO;, Maingi N;, Pelle R;, Wando J. "Evaluation Of Effects Of Plant Extracts On Trypanosomes."; 2003.
Gathumbi PK;, Thoithi GN;, Mwangi JW;, Kibwage IO;, Maingi N;, Maingi N;, Pelle R;, Wando J. "Evaluation Of Effects Of Plant Extracts On Trypanosomes."; 2003.
Gathumbi PK;, Thoithi GN;, Mwangi JW;, Kibwage IO;, Maingi, N; Pelle WR; J, Pelle R;, Wando J. "Evaluation Of Effects Of Plant Extracts On Trypanosomes."; 2003.
Rutunga V;, Gachene CKK;, Karanja NK;, Palm CA. "Grain maize yield improvement using Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia biomass at Maseno, Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

This study aimed at assessing the response of maize crop to application of Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia biomass obtained six month-old fallows. The biomass were chopped into 5-cm long pieces and incorporated in the soil one week before planting maize. The natural fallow biomass was used as a control. These organic inputs were supplied with 20 kg phosphorus (P) /ha to attain P recommended rates. Shrub aboveground and litterfall biomass incorporation significantly (p=0.05) increased maize yield. Plots where above ground biomass was removed produced lower maize yield compared to those where the aboveground biomass was retained. Addition of 20 kg P/ha to soil together with the biomass increased maize yield by 40%. P in form of organic materials was insufficient to meet plant nutritional requirement. Residual effect of the biomass was low on the second and third subsequent crops. This may be due to the high rate of nutrient release during the biomass decomposition, the high crop nutrient uptake and also the nutrient losses through soil chemical and physical processes

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande and P.M.F. Mbithi (2003). Volume of ligamentum capitis femoris in osteoarthritis of the hip joints of adult dogs. Journal of South African Veterinary Medical Association. 74 (1) 11-13.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2003. Abstract

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Peter M.F. Mbithi, Charles M. Mulei and G.M. Magoa (2003). Restraint of Domestic, Wild and Laboratory Animals: A manual for students, practitioners and animal handlers. Published by, University of Nairobi Press.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2003. Abstract

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

MCLIGEYO SO, PN N, CF O, O AE. "Risk factors and prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2003 Jan;80(1):36-43.". In: East African Medical Journal. 2003; 80(1):56 - 58. University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of patients with diabetes mellitus. The diabetic patients with foot ulcers require long hospitalisation and carry risk of limb amputation. The risk factors for developing diabetic foot ulcers are manageable. In Kenya there is paucity of data on such risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers and the risk factors in a clinic-based setting. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus who had active foot ulcers in both outpatient and inpatient units. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diabetic foot ulcers glycated haemoglobin, neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease and fasting lipid profile. RESULTS: One thousand seven hundred and eighty eight patients with diabetes mellitus were screened and 82 (4.6%) were found to have foot ulcers. The males and females with diabetic foot ulcers were compared in age, duration of foot ulcers, blood pressure, glycaemic control, neurological disability score and their proportion. Diabetic foot ulcers occurred mostly in patients who had had diabetes for a long duration. The types of (occurence) ulcers were neuropathic (47.5%), neuroischaemic (30.5%) and ischaemic (18%). The neuropathic ulcers had significantly poorer glycaemic control compared to other types and the longest duration (23.3 weeks). Ischaemic ulcers had significantly higher total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure compared to other ulcer types. Wagner stage 2 ulcers were the commonest (49.4%) but stage 4 ulcers had their highest neuropathic score (7.8/10) and longest duration (23.6 weeks). Aerobic infective pathogens were isolated from 73.2% of the ulcers. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers was 4.6% in this tertiary clinic. The risk factors of diabetic foot ulcers in the study were poor glycaemic control, diastolic hypertension, dyslipidaemia, infection and poor self-care. These findings are similar to studies done in other environments and they are modifiable to achieve prevention, delay in formation or improved healing of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. Therefore, specific attention should be paid to the management of these risk factors in patients with or without diabetes foot ulcers in this clinic.

Diaz CM;, Massawe SC;, Clemence A;, Gitau GK;, Kiara HK;, Muraguri GR;, O'Callaghan CJ;, Perry BD. "Risk mapping of East Coast fever in coastal and highland regions of Kenya based on predicted mortality and morbidity incidences."; 2003. Abstract

This paper proposes risk mapping as a tool for interpolating epidemiological data from intensively surveyed local sites to make conclusions over a larger area. Two ECF risk models were built using morbidity and mortality incidence data from the coastal and the central highlands of Kenya as dependent variables. It is concluded that the available data were not adequate to predict accurately mortality and morbidity of ECF. The main problem with the approach was its inability to capture the biophysical variability when the original data were distributed into grid-cells for spatial analysis.

Wanjiku J;, Ackello – Ogutu C;, Kimenye LN;, Place F. "Socio-economic Factors Influencing Use Of Improved Fallows In Crop Production By Small-scale Farmers In Western Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

Abstract This study analysed the factors influencing the intensity of adoption of improved fallows in Western Kenya. Three hundred farmers were interviewed. Descriptive results showed the adopters to be older, more educated and had more contact with technology promoters than the non-adopters. Partial budgets were constructed and marginal rates of returns (MRR) showed that the technology is profitable. Based on the censored Tobit, the results indicate that the intensity of adoption was significantly influenced by age, experience of the household head and spouse, total land area, contact with technology promoters, technology profitability and use of other soil fertility replenishment options. It is recommended that education efforts be intensified. There is need to strengthen contact with the technology promoters. In order to ensure information flow to all, there is need for improvement in the approach and methods employed in on-farm research. Further, there is need to establish and strengthen networks of information exchange among relevant and interested organisation

PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Cmmunity Farmers and Breeders Rights in Africa: Towards a Legal Frameworkfor sui generis Legislation in University of Nairobi Laq Journal.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2003. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "A dynamical Model for stage-specific HIV Incidences with Application to Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Applied Maths and Computation, 146 pp93-104, with R.O.Simwa. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2003. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Effect of post treatment temperature on insecticidal activity of Melia Volkensii fruit extract against Locusta migratoria.". In: African Journal of Science & Technology: 3,20-23. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Employment, Poverty Reduction and Wealth Creation Nexus in Africa.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. ""Employment, Poverty Reduction and Wealth Creation Nexus in Africa". Paper for the ILO/ARLAC Workshop on Poverty Reduction and Wealth Creation (Harare: April 2003).". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Gender Considerations in Constitution-Making: Engendering Women's Rights in the Legal Process in University of Nairobi Law.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2003. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Globalization and the International Governance of Modern Biotechnology in Kenya: Implications for Food Security IDS Working Paper 199, Biotechnology Policy Series 20, Brighton, United Kingdom, IDS.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2003. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Heavy Metal Distribution in Surface Sediments from Mtwapa and Shirazi Creeks, Kenyan Coast.". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 70:1220-1227 (2003). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "The Informal Economy and Micro and Small Business Enterprise in Africa.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "It Takes One to Toy Toy: Oneness in East African Aesthetic Expression.". In: Network of African. University of Nairobi Press; 2003. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Kironchi G,. J.P. Mbuvi, H.P. Liniger and F.N. Gichuki, 2003. Livestock exclusion effect on ground cover and soil water balance in Mukogodo rangelands: Submitted to African Journal of Range and Forage Science.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "Lorentz- Non-invariance Effect on Flavour Oscillations, General Relativity and Gravitation.". In: Vol. 35, 891(2003). Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Njenga FG, Nyamai C, Kigamwa P.Terrorist bombing at the USA Embassy in Nairobi: the media response. East Afr Med J. 2003 Mar;80(3):159-64.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Mar. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Occurrence of Heavy Metal Pollutants in sediments from Makupa and Port-Reitz Creek systems.". In: Kenyan Coast. Environ. Internat. Vol: 28 (2003) 639-647. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Odada, E.O., Olago, D.O, Bugenyi, F., Kulindwa, K., Karimumuryamgo, J., West, K., Ntiba, M., Wandiga, S. Aloo-Obudho, P and Achola, P. Environmental Assessment of the East African Rift Valley lakes.". In: Aquat. Sci. 65:254-271. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, ONYINO PROFSIMWARICHARD. "On Emperical Modeling of HIV/AIDS pandemic with application to East Africa.". In: African Jour. Sci &Tech, vol. 4, No.1, pp104-109, with R.O.Simwa. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2003. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, ONYINO PROFSIMWARICHARD. "On Emperical Modeling of HIV/AIDS pandemic with application to East Africa.". In: African Jour. Sci &Tech, vol. 4, No.1, pp104-109, with R.O.Simwa. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki , SPH 101: Mechanics I, A peer reviewed Physics lecture module for distance learners.". In: published by University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Plant Genetic Resources in Africa's Renewal: Policy, Legal and Programmatic Issues under the New Partnership for Africa's Development IPGRI, Nairobi 2003 (With Kent Nnadozie, Dan Kiambi, John Mugabe & Kwesi Attah-Krah).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2003. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "Preparation of: .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. UN-HABITAT; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Preparing for the Future.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. ""Preparing for the Future: Strategic Thinking and Long Term Planning". Paper presented at a DPMF Sensitization Workshop for Senior Policy Makers from EAC Countries (Addis Ababa: June 2003).". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Regional Integration and Debt in East Africa.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Regional Integration and Debt in East Africa. ISBN 0-07974-2803-8 (Harare: African Forum and Network on Debt and Development - AFRODAD, 2003).". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Reproduction in the thumb print emperor, Lethrinus harak (Forsskkal, 1775) in the Kenyan Coastal Waters.". In: Afr. J. Trop.Hydrobiol. & Fish Vol.10: 38-52. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Spatial Distribution of Suspended Particulate Matter in Mtwapa Creek and Funzi Bay, Kenya.". In: Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. Volume 2, Issue 2, 16-26. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O, JUSTUS DRSIMIYU. "Stability of anthocyanin sensitized TiO2 photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cells prepared by sol gel process.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) Science & Engineering Series 3(2) 2003, 56-61. Physica Status Solidi; 2003. Abstract
n/a
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Strategic Measures to curb Crime Rates in Nairobi.". In: International Jour. on World Peace, with R.K. Muthuri. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2003. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
Penninah Ogada A. "The Struggle for Survival Amongst Rural Women in Kenya: Deference to Culture vs Socio-economic Needs." Ph.D. Dissertation, Northeastern University, Hope Lewis & Robert Weiss - Advisors,; 2003. Abstract
n/a
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. ""The Informal Economy and Micro and Small Enterprises in Africa: Instruments of Decent Work and Wealth Creation". Paper for the ILO/ARLAC Workshop on Poverty Reduction and Wealth Creation (Harare: April 2003).". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Tobacco- Related Issues in Kenya.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. ""Tobacco-related Issues in Kenya" in WHO, Economic, Social and Health Issues in Tobacco Control (Kobe: World Health Organization, 2003).". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "A torsionic .". In: Maseno Journal of Education, Arts and Science Vol.5 No.1 March 2003 . Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003.
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "WAGACHA J.M., E.W.MUTITU, J.W. MUTHOMI & F.B. MWAURA (2003). Translocation and persistence of antibiotics produced by Bacillus and Streptomyces spp. in the bean plant. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, 6: 81 .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2003. Affirmative Action for Kenyan Women: An Analysis of the Relevant Provision of the Draft Constitution. In Maria Nzomo (edts) Perspectives on Gender Discourse. Women in Politics: Challenges on Democratic Transition in Kenya.". In: Henrich Boll Foundation, East and North Africa Region. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
The paper examines the issues of affirmative action as currently provided for in the Draft constitution and seeks to shed insights into the impact of these provisions on the under- representation of women in major decision making state organs and the low level of political participation by women. In short the paper seeks to find out whether or not these provisions will be a panacea to the problems of under representation of women in public decision-making institutions including parliament and local authorities. The paper argues that the proposed affirmative action is major victory for Kenyan women and marks a positive step towards gender parity in Kenyan politics. However affirmative action by itself will not lead to gender parity and solve the political marginalization of women in the medium and long term. It will not result in the nomination of capable and influential women committed to the cause of women. It may in fact be counterproductive in the short and medium run. The women will have to put considerable pressure on those nominated through affirmative action to represent them to do precisely that.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2003. Beyond Campaign Rhetoric; The challenges for NARC Government.". In: Wajibu. A Journal of Social and Religious Concern. Vol.18, number 1-2, May -July.pp 23-25. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract

The current electoral system in Kenya was adopted at the Lancaster House Conference in 1962 during the negotiations for Kenya's independence. Numerous laws and regulations that have their origins in the current constitution govern the entire electoral process. Despite these the political and administrative environment often hinders the conduct of free and fair elections in the country, a fact that has serious negative implications for the development and attempts to institutionalise democracy in the country. There has been very weak support to the Electoral Commission by other key stakeholders such as political parties especially since the reintroduction of multiparty politics in 1992.There is an urgent need to re-examine the electoral laws and to empower the Electoral Commission of Kenya in order to improve the management of elections. The ongoing constitutional review provides a golden opportunity for this.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, Oyugi W, and C odhiambo- Mbai . 2003. The Politics of Transition in Kenya: FROM KANU To NARC.". In: Published by Henrich Boll Foundation Nairobi, Kenya. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2003. Reflections on Electoral System and Practice in Kenya.". In: Hekima, Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol.11, N umber 1,pp 102-116. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract

The current electoral system in Kenya was adopted at the Lancaster House Conference in 1962 during the negotiations for Kenya's independence. Numerous laws and regulations that have their origins in the current constitution govern the entire electoral process. Despite these the political and administrative environment often hinders the conduct of free and fair elections in the country, a fact that has serious negative implications for the development and attempts to institutionalise democracy in the country. There has been very weak support to the Electoral Commission by other key stakeholders such as political parties especially since the reintroduction of multiparty politics in 1992.There is an urgent need to re-examine the electoral laws and to empower the Electoral Commission of Kenya in order to improve the management of elections. The ongoing constitutional review provides a golden opportunity for this.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2003. The Political Context of Governance. In Kenya's Democratic transition Challenges and Opportunities.". In: African Centre for Economic Growth. Nairobi Kenya. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2003. The Politics of Alliance Building: The Search For Opposition Unity.". In: Oyugi, Wanyande and Mbai (Edts). The Politics of Transition In Kenya: From KANU to NARC. Book Print, Nairobi Kenya. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
P. KAAYAG. "Novel methods in the control of ticks.". In: Proc. PARSA Conf, Golden Gate Highlands National Park, RS.Africa.; 2002.
W AEM, C. M, S.B.B O, P. A. " Sustainable environmental management for poverty alleviation in the Lake Victoria basin.". In: Workshop proceedings. ISSN 1028 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "E.M. Njoroge, P.M.F. Mbithi, J.M. Gathuma, T.M. Wachira, P.B. Gachura, J.K. Magambo and E. Zeyhle (2002). A study of systic echinococcosis in slaughter animals in three selected areas of Northern Turkana. VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY. 104: 85-91.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2002. Abstract

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

PROF. NJERU E. H. NTHIA, M. Ember ES(E)CI. "The Embu People. Encyclopedia of World Cultures Supplement. Pp 107-111. New York:.". In: Macmillan Reference USA, Gale Group. Human Relations Area Files. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract

Identification and Location. The Embu people occupy the
Embu District, one of the twelve districts of the Eastern Province
of Kenya. The Embu District is bordered by the Mbeere
District to the east and southeast, the Kirinyaga District to
the west, and the Tharaka Nithi District to the north. The
main physical feature is Mount Kenya to the north and
northwest, 17,058 feet (5,200 meters) above sea level.
The district is located between 0°8" to 0°35" Sand 37°
19" to 37° 42" E, covering an area of 281 square miles (729
square kilometers). The landscape is characterized by highlands
ranging in altitude from 4,920 to 14,760 feet (1,500 to
4,500 meters) and midlands lying at 3,936 to 4,920 feet
(1,200 to 1,500 meters). Other topographical features include
rivers, hills, and valleys. The rainfall pattern is bimodal,
with long rains between March and June and short rains from
October through December.
Demography. In 1918 the Embu population was 53,000
(24,590 males and 28,410 females), increasing to 85,177 by
1962. The population increased constantly, reaching
278,196 in 1999, with a reported annual growth rate 00 percent.
In 1999 there were 63,893 households with 136,499
males and 141,697 females. The annual growth rate had decreased
from 3.86 percent from 1969 to 1979 to 3.41 percent
from 1979 to 1989, with increases in population density attributed
to high fertility and falling mortality rates. The infant
mortality rate decreased from 169 in 1962, to 92 in 1969, to
44 in 1999.
With a crude birth rate of 40.4, the fertility rate remains
high despite having declined from 7.78 in 1969 to 5.9 in
1999. The crude death rate stands at 6.4, with a life expectancy
of 69.7 years for males and 69.4 years for females. According
to the 1999 census, about 38 percent of the people
are children less than 15 years old, while people at the economically
productive ages (fifteen to sixty-four) account for
57 percent. People age 65 years and over account for 4 percent.
Serious outmigration has been reported.
Linguistic Affiliation. The Embu people speak the Kiembu
language, a Bantu language that is part of the larger
Niger-Congo family of languages. The Bantu linguistic cluster
includes languages such as Kiswahili, Kikuyu, Ki-meru,
Ki-mbeere, Ekegusii, and coastal languages. Although Kiembu
and Ki-mbeere are dialects of the same language, the
Ki-embu vocabulary borrows considerably from related
Bantu languages, many of which are mutually intelligible, especially
among the people of central and eastern Kenya.

Rutunga V;, Karanja NK;, Gachene CKK;, Palm C. "Performance of Zea mays grown under short term duration fallow systems."; 2002.
Rutunga V;, Karanja NK;, Gachene CKK;, Palm C. "Performance of Zea mays grown under short term duration fallow systems."; 2002.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA. "Stanback J, Qureshi Z, Sekkade-Kigondu C. Advance Provision of Oral Contraceptives to Family Planning Clients in Kenya 1: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):257-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):257-8. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Abundance and Population Structure of the Blacklip Pearl Oyster, Pinctada margaritifera L. 1758 (Bivalvia: Pteriidae).". In: Coastal Kenya Volume 1, Issue 2, 169-179. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2002. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Biodiversity characteristics of small high-altitude tropical man-made reservoirs in the Eastern Rift Valley, Kenya. Lakes & Reservoirs: Lakes and Reservoirs.". In: Research and Management 2002 7:1-12. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2002. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Biological Diversity Management in Africa: Legal and Policy Perspectives in the run-up to WSSDD (11.1 Review of European Community &International Environmental Law p. 38 (With Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "The Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Powdery Mildew Disease epidemic in Kenya.". In: Journal of Tropical Microbiology Vol. 1: 8 - 13. Taylor & Francis; 2002. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Catley, A., Irungu, P., Simiyu, K., Dadye, J., Kiragu, J., Mwakio, W. and Nyamwaro S.O. (2002). Participatory investigations on bovine trypanosomiasis in Tana River district, Kenya. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 16(1):55-66.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Chemical Characteristics, with particular reference to phosphorus, of the rivers draining into Lake Naivasha, Kenya.". In: Hydrobiologia. 488:57-71. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Community, farmers' and Breeders' Rights in Africa: Towards a Legal Framework for sui generis Legislation' in Cecil Machena & Gracian Banda eds., Policy and Legal Framework for Community, Farmers' and Breeders' Rights in Southern Africa p. 120.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Comparative fecundity estimates in the thumbprint emperor, Lethrinus harak (Forsskal, 1775) using volumetric and Stereological Methods.". In: Western Indian Ocean Journal. Mar.Sci.Vol.1, No :135- 144. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Crop Development Model.". In: Applied sciences, vol. 4,No.1, pp 11-16. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2002. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "The Development of Biosafety regulation in Africa in the context of the Cartegena Protocol: Legal and Administrative issue (11.1 Review of European community & International Environmental Law p.62.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Dynamics of Suspended Sediment Exchange and Transport in a Degraded Mangrove Creek in Kenya.". In: Ambio, Vol. 31, No. 7-8, pp. 580-587, 2002. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2002. Abstract
Kitheka J U, R. G. Angwenyi and K.M. Mavuti.  . .
Penninah Ogada A. "Gender & Diversity Institute." Conference paper AAUW International Symposium, Washington D.C; 2002. Abstract
n/a
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Gender Dimensions of Law Colonialism and Inheritance in East Africa: Kenyan Women's Experiences, (VRU-Verfassung und Recht in Ubersee - Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "If Laivino Dead: An Aesthetic.". In: University of Nairobi-Great Lakes Colleges Association, Nairobi. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Innovation and Policy Process: Case of Transgenic Sweet Potato in Kenya, 37/26 Economic & Political weekly, (6 July 2002) (with H. Odame & D. Wafula).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Irungu, P., Nyamwaro, S.O. and Masiga, D.K. (2002). Financial implications of rearing sheep and goats under natural trypanosomosis challenge at Galana Ranch, Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 34(6):503-513.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
A study to compare the profitability of rearing sheep and goats under natural trypanosomosis challenge was carried out on Galana ranch in south-eastern Kenya between July 1996 and October 1997. Seventy-nine male weaner sheep and 79 male weaner goats were monitored monthly for weight changes and fortnightly for trypanosomosis. The animals of each species were divided into two groups. Group 1 was an untreated control, while group 2 was treated with isometamidium chloride (Samorin) at 0.5 mg/kg body weight every 3 months. In both groups, trypanosome infections were detected by microscopy and treated with diminazene aceturate (Veriben), at 3.5 mg/kg body weight, when the packed cell volume reached 17% or below. The profitability of each drug regime was expressed as the marginal revenue over the cost of trypanosomosis (MOT). There were greater losses occasioned by trypanosomosis in sheep than in goats. Animals of both species on chemoprophylaxis gave higher MOT values than those that received chemotherapy on diagnosis. However, the MOT values for the chemoprophylactic regime were higher for sheep than for goats, suggesting that the greater weight gain by sheep more then compensated for the higher cost of maintaining them under high trypanosomosis challenge. Thus, a Galana rancher would be better off keeping sheep rather than goats, other things being equal. The marginal revenue per dose of Samorin was lower than that of Veriben for both species, suggesting that strategic use of Samorin timed to precede the peak incidence of trypanosomosis might be a better option to raise the overall profitability in sheep and goats.
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "KIBUNJA C.N., D.N. MUGENDI, F.B. MWAURA, E.M. KITONYO & M.P. SALEMA (2002). Fate of applied fertiliser nitrogen in a long-term maize-bean cropping system in Kenya. 17th World Congress in Soil Science, Bangkok, Thailand 2002.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Kulmiye, A.J.; Ntiba, M.J.and Kisia, S.M. Comparative fecundity estimates in the thumbprint emperor, Lethrinus harak (Forsskal, 1775) using volumetric and Stereological Methods.". In: Western Indian Ocean Journal. Mar.Sci.Vol.1, No :135- 144. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. ""Labour Market Flexibility and Employment in Africa: Mixed Outcomes". Paper written for WB-FES-ILO/ACTRAV Capacity Building Seminar on Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers - PRSP (Lusaka).". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2002. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Labour Market Flexity and Employment in Africa.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2002. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "M. Van der Knaap, M.J. Ntiba and Cowx, I.G. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management Journal Volume 5 No. 3: 254-254.". In: Western Indian Ocean Journal. Mar.Sci.Vol.1, No :135- 144. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Masiga, D.K., Okech, G., Irungu, P., Ouma, J.O., Wekesa, S., Ouma, B., Guya, S.O. and Ndung.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
Trypanosomosis is a major impediment to livestock production and economic development in those areas of Africa where it is endemic. Although small ruminants appear to perform better than cattle in various agroecological zones, the importance of trypanosomosis has not been extensively investigated in these livestock. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of trypanosomosis in sheep and goats in an endemic area and to evaluate the performance of different breeds under high tsetse challenge and the potential role of chemoprophylaxis in the control of the disease. The results showed that tsetse flies feed readily on small ruminants, and that these animals are susceptible to trypanosomosis. The Small East African goats acquired fewer infections than the Black Head Persian and Dorper sheep used in the study. In both sheep and goats, chemoprophylaxis with isometamidium chloride (Samorin, Rhone Merieux, Annecy, France) was protective, resulting in fewer infections and higher body weight gain. Trypanosomosis caused anaemia in both sheep and goats, and animals whose PCV fell below 15% rarely recovered, even with trypanocidal drug treatment. The peak transmission period was between 1 and 3 months after the peak tsetse fly density, which raises the possibility of effective strategic prophylaxis
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Mismatch in Design Education.". In: University of Art and Design, Helsinki. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Modeling Environmental, Epidemiological and Social Influences of Urbanization.". In: 23rd Conference on Regional and urban statistics and Research, 12th - 15th June, Lisbon, PORTUGAL; Proceeding of conference (CD). Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2002. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWANGI S.W. & F.B MWAURA (2002). Inoculation responses of Leucaena leucocephala grown in two tropical soils. International J. of BioChemiPhysics. Vol. 13 & 14 :.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B. & D. MASAKE (Eds.) (2002).Proceedings of the First Joint COASAD/UN - HABITAT workshop on Food Security for parliamentarians from English-speaking African countries. Nairobi, 30 April .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B. & U. GRANHALL(2002). Invasion and Colonisation of Maize plant Rhizosphere by two Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR). International J. of BioChemiPhysics. Vol. 13 & 14.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, Oxenham, J et al, Skills and Literacy Training for Better Livelihoods:A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002.
OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU, P PROFPATELJAYANTI. "Preliminary reports on Radon Concentration in Drinking Water and Indoor Air in Kenya.". In: Environmental Geochemistry & Health, 24, 387 . Departmental seminar; 2002. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU, P PROFPATELJAYANTI. "Preliminary reports on Radon Concentration in Drinking Water and Indoor Air in Kenya.". In: Environmental Geochemistry & Health, 24, 387 . Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2002. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P Current Management of Hypertensive Disease in Pregnancy, East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):169-71.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):169-71. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Stanback J, Qureshi Z, Sekkade-Kigondu C. Advance Provision of Oral Contraceptives to Family Planning Clients in Kenya 1: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):257-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):257-8. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "Unification of Gravitation and Electromagnetism in a Relativistic Version of Finslerian Geometry.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.3 No.2,101 (2002). Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2002. Recent Constitutional Developments in Kenya.". In: In Saida Yahya-Othmos (edt). Politics, Governance and Cooperation in East Africa. Mkuki Ya Nyota Publications, Dar-es-Salaam. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2002. The Public Service and the Politics of Succession. Mute L et al. (edts). Building and Open Society, The Politics of Transition in Kenya.". In: Claripress, Nairobi, Kenya. pp 157-174. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande. Peter. 2002. Joseph D, Otiende. A Biography.". In: Published under the series . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract

The current electoral system in Kenya was adopted at the Lancaster House Conference in 1962 during the negotiations for Kenya's independence. Numerous laws and regulations that have their origins in the current constitution govern the entire electoral process. Despite these the political and administrative environment often hinders the conduct of free and fair elections in the country, a fact that has serious negative implications for the development and attempts to institutionalise democracy in the country. There has been very weak support to the Electoral Commission by other key stakeholders such as political parties especially since the reintroduction of multiparty politics in 1992.There is an urgent need to re-examine the electoral laws and to empower the Electoral Commission of Kenya in order to improve the management of elections. The ongoing constitutional review provides a golden opportunity for this.

Kimani PM;, Buruchara R;, Ampofo K;, Pyndji M;, Chirwa RM;, Kirkby R. "Breeding beans for smallholder farmers in Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa: Constraints, achievements, and potential."; 2001. Abstract

Serious declines in food security and income in sub-Saharan Africa over the past two decades have resulted in widespread poverty and malnutrition, especially among resource-poor smallholders and the urban poor. The common bean is a major part of their food requirements and source of income, but there have been declines in bean productivity, attributable to a number of factors and estimated at nearly 3,000,000 t per year. In the last 16 years, the Pan-African Bean Research Alliance (PABRA) together with NARS partners, farmers, NGOs, and other stakeholders have sought to overcome these constraints by breeding highyielding, disease- and pest-resistant cultivars adapted to poor soils, with characteristics acceptable for domestic and export markets, and seed production and delivery systems for smallholder producers, among other things. A record 188 distinct varieties have been released and have contributed significantly to improvements in the livelihoods of resource-poor rural communities through increased availability of food and household income, savings in cooking time, reduced wood fuel consumption, gender equity, and empowerment of women and other vulnerable groups. Adoption rates of up to 100% indicate that accelerated dissemination and adoption of improved bean cultivars can significantly contribute to improving food security, household income, and poverty alleviation, especially for the most vulnerable group

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.R. Ndeereh, P.M.F. Mbithi and D.O. Kihurani (2001). The reversal of xylazine hydrochloride by yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine in goats. Tydskr.S.Afr.vet.Ver. (2001) 72(2): 64-67.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2001. Abstract

Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to assess their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four small East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15% 4-aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group 2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25 mg/kg to Group 3, and the combination of the 2 drugs at the same dose rates to Group 4. The yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination was also used to antagonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the pedal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-significantly (P > 0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produced better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged.

Paul O, Owino W, Oketch T. "A Focus on the Health Management Boards and Human Resource Development Issues.". In: Governance of District Health Systems.; 2001.
Ochsner P;, Nathan I;, Pedersen A. "How to reach rural people in developing countries with quality tree planting material."; 2001. Abstract

It has been stated that the future of trees is on-farm (Simons, 1997). This statement is likely to hold true because trends indicate that tree-planting on-farm is increasing, and because of the growing awareness of the need to grow trees on-farm in the future. Although uncertain it has been estimated that small farmers actually constitute a majority of tree planters, that the number of trees on-farm exceeds the number of trees in plantations, and that this gap tends to increase (Simons, 1997; FAO, 1997). Worldwide deforestation has been estimated at 12.6 mill ha or 0.7 % of the total forested area annually (FAO, 1997). Deforestation and forest degradation result in a dramatic loss of present and, as biodiversity is lost, future options for use of trees (Kjær & Nathan, 2000). This represents a serious problem at the global level but in particular to the millions of rural poor in tropical countries who are dependent on trees. Trees provide important products such as fuel wood, building material, food and fodder. Moreover, trees provide important services such as shade, shelter, erosion control, watershed protection, soil enrichment, etc. As alternative sources disappear, rural people will increasingly have to plant trees on their own land to cover their needs for these products and services in the future. Adoption of agroforestry innovations can increase agricultural production on a sustainable basis and hence improve food security for rural people. (ICRAF, 2000). In that perspective alone, rural people would benefit from planting more trees. Lack of seed and seedlings constitute a serious constraint for smallholders to fully utilise the benefits of trees (ICRAF, 2000; Johansson & Westman, 1992; Aalbæk, 2001). Even when planting material is available, it is often insufficient with regard to choice of species or provenance as well as genetic and physiological quality. It is important to use quality tree planting material for several reasons. First, the physiological quality of seeds and seedlings affects the success of establishment and the subsequent growth rate of the plant. Second, genetic quality is of great economic consequence (Foster, Jones & Kjær, 1995). The chosen material should be selected to suit local conditions and should be of sufficient genetically broad origin to ensure the stability, e.g. resistance against pests and diseases of the planted trees. Using quality plant material is one important avenue to ensure that farmers and other tree planters will gain from planting trees. Improvements, even very small improvements, in the productivity of trees will often be of great importance, especially to subsistence farmers who have invested some of their scarce resources in planting trees (Kjaer & Nathan, 2000).

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Mogoa E.G.M., Mbithi, P.M.F., Nguhiu, J.M. and Kihurani D. (2001). Alpha-2-adrenoceptor agonists in veterinary practice. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 22 pp. 82-90.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2001. Abstract

Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to assess their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four small East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15% 4-aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group 2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25 mg/kg to Group 3, and the combination of the 2 drugs at the same dose rates to Group 4. The yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination was also used to antagonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the pedal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-significantly (P > 0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produced better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged.

Muthumbi W, De Boever P, Pieters JG, Van Langenhove H, Comhaire F, Verstraete W. "Screening for the presence of estrogenic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in experimental flue gas matrices."; 2001.
Brichon P, Bertrand Y, Plantaz D. "Burkitt's lymphoma revealed by acute intussusception in children.". In: Annales de chirurgie. Vol. 126.; 2001:. Abstract
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P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Curvature tensors on A-Einstein Sasakian Manfold.". In: Balkan John. Of Geom.& its applications vol.6, No.1. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2001. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Design and the African Cultural Identity.". In: Design for Development Initiative, Durban. University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PHIRI MRMARENYAPASWEL. "The factors Influencing the Adoption and Economics of Crop Management technologies .". In: 5th African Crop Science Society International Conference in Lagos Nigeria October 21-26 2001. East African Medical Journal; 2001. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Gachene, C.K.K., H. Linner, N.J. Jarvis and J.P. Mbuvi, 2001. Field assessment of the effect of cumulative soil loss on soil productivity. E. Afr. For J. Vol. 67 (2) pp129-145.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Improving Tools and Techniques for Crisis Management: The Ecological Sources of Conflict: Experiences from Eastern Africa Romanian Journal of Political Science, Volume 1 No. 2 (with Jeremy Lind).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2001. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "Investigation of banana leaf speckle in Africa. In Sweetmore, A., Tochschild, G., & Eden-Green, S. (eds). Perspectives on pests.". In: Natural Resources International Limited, Chatham, U.K. ISBN 0-9539274-1-5. Taylor & Francis; 2001. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "KIBUNJA C.N., F.B. MWAURA & D.N. MUGENDI (2001). Nitrogen dynamics in response to long-term application of organic and inorganic sources in a maize-bean rotation. In : Proc. Soil Science Society of East Africa, 9 - 14 Dec. 2001, Moshi, Tanzania.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Kinyua P.I.D. and J.T. Njoka, 2001. Animal Exchange Ratios: An Alternative Point of View. African Journal of Ecology vol 39,59-64.". In: An Alternative Point of View. African Journal of Ecology vol 39,59-64. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2001. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Management issues in Lake Victoria watershed.". In: Lakes & Reservoirs: Res. Mangt. 6: 211-216. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM, PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "Microfungus Diversity and Conservation Agenda in Kenya. In Moore, D., Nauta, M.M., S. Evans, & Rotherroe, M. (eds).". In: Fungal Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. ISBN 0-521-80363-2. Taylor & Francis; 2001. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Nakedness in East African Aesthetics.". In: Action Publishers. University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PETER DRMUGWE. "Newton VE, Macharia I, Mugwe P, Ototo B, Kan SW.Evaluation of the use of a questionnaire to detect hearing loss in Kenyan pre-school children.Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2001 Mar;57(3):229-34.". In: Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2001 Mar;57(3):229-34. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2001. Abstract
In developing countries, there is a lack of trained personnel and testing equipment to facilitate the early detection of hearing impairment in children. A questionnaire offers a low cost option and the value of this for detecting hearing impairment in pre-school children was determined in several districts in Kenya. The questionnaire was completed by either teachers, parents/carers or community nurses. The children were subsequently tested using pure tone audiometry and visual examination of the ear by ENT Clinical Officers, who were not given prior access to the results of the questionnaire. A total of 757 (88%) questionnaires were completed. Of the 735 children, who could be tested using pure tone audiometry, four were found to have a unilateral hearing impairment and one was detected by the questionnaire. A total of 13 children had a bilateral hearing impairment >40 dB HL. All were detected using the questionnaire. There were eight males and five females with ages ranging from 4.2 to 6.9 years, mean age 5.7 years and median age 5.8 years. Eight had a sensorineural hearing impairment and two a mixed hearing impairment. Three of the children with a sensorineural hearing loss had a family history of hearing impairment. No question detected all children with a hearing impairment and some questions were more discerning than others. There was 100% sensitivity for the questionnaire when a hearing loss of >40 dB was considered, but specificity was lower at 75%. Negative predictive value was 100%, but the positive predictive value was low, 6.75%. It was concluded that a questionnaire of this nature could be usefully applied at Primary Health Care level for detecting hearing impairment at the pre-school stage. There would be need for services available for diagnosis, treatment and habilitation before a screening programme was introduced.

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