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Journal Article
Randall DJ, CM W, Perry SF, Bergman H, Maloiy GMO, Mommsen TP, Wright PA. "Urea excretion as a strategy for survival in a fish living in a very alkaline environment.". 1989.
Calva E, Puente JL, Calva JJ. "Research opportunities in typhoid fever: epidemiology and molecular biology." Bioessays. 1988;9(5):173-7.
Ronald AR, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Simonsen JN, Ngugi EN, Pamba H, Cameron DW. "A review of HIV-1 in Africa.". 1988. Abstracta_review_of_hiv-1_in_africa.pdf

As the AIDS epidemic reaches a dramatic stage of development, the time for African countries to establish effective control programs has come. The history of AIDS in Africa is different from that other regions of the world. The disease developed among heterosexual communities. By 1987, over 8,000 cases of AIDS had been reported from 37 of the 47 nations of Africa. Over 2,000 of these cases were found in Uganda. However, under-reporting and under-representation of the number of actual cases is still a problem. In many cases, there has been a failure to recognize the disease. The demographic and geographic distribution of seroprevalence is discussed. Because of the inaccuracies in AIDS reporting in Africa, epidemic forecasting is difficult. If 5 million are currently infected, a potential 50 million Africans may be infected by 1993. A further discussion of the risk factors for HIV-1 holds that promiscuity is the major problem. Cures and inexpensive treatments for the infection are years away. Energy, resources, and national committees in Africa and the world must be coordinated to combat the ultimate crisis of this century.

Plummer FA, Ngugi EN. "Strategies for control of AIDS in Africa.". 1988. AbstractWebsite

Stratégies générales pour le contrôle de l'infection. Prévention primaire de la transmission sexuelle du HIV, stratégies pour la réduction de l'exposition des sujets sensibles. Contrôle des transmissions périnatales et parentérales

Naamara W, Kunimoto DY, D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H, Ronald AR, Plummer FA. "Treating chancroid with enoxacin.". 1988. Abstracttreating_chancroid_with_enoxacin.pdf

Increasing resistance of Haemophilus ducreyi to antimicrobials necessitates further trials of new antimicrobial agents for treating chancroid. Enoxacin has excellent in vitro activity against H ducreyi, and a randomised clinical trial of three doses of enoxacin 400 mg at intervals of 12 hours compared with a single dose of trimethoprim/sulphametrole (TMP/SMT) 640/3200 mg was therefore conducted. Of 169 men enrolled in the study, 86 received enoxacin and 83 received TMP/SMT. Ulcers were improved or cured in 65/73 men treated with enoxacin and 57/70 men treated with TMP/SMT. This difference was not significant. At 72 hours after treatment, H ducreyi was eradicated from ulcers of 72/77 men treated with enoxacin and of 67/74 of those treated with TMP/SMT. Patients with buboes responded equally well to both treatments. Of 100 H ducreyi strains tested, all were susceptible to both 0.25 mg/l enoxacin and the combination of 0.25 mg/l TMP and 5 mg/l SMT. Although most men treated with either regimen were cured, neither regimen appeared to be the optimum treatment for chancroid. This study shows the efficacy of enoxacin for a soft tissue infection caused by Gram negative organisms.

Haselsberger K, Pucher R, Auer LM. "Prognosis after acute subdural or epidural haemorrhage." Acta neurochirurgica. 1988;90:111-116. AbstractWebsite
Wafula EM, Tukei PM, Bell TM, Nzanze H, Ndinya-Achola JO, Hazlett DT, Ademba GR, Pamba A. "Diagnosis of acute respiratory infections (ARI) among under fives in the paediatric observation ward (POW), Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. 1987;64(4):263-9.
Opinya GN, Pameijer CH, Gron P. "Analysis of Kenyan drinking water.". 1987.Website
Opinya GN, Pameijer CH, Grön P. "Simple defluoridation procedures for Kenyan borehole water.". 1987. Abstract

Magnesium oxide and bone meal were used as chemical defluoridating agents to reduce excessive amounts of fluoride from artificial water samples which had been prepared to simulate Kenyan water samples with a fluoride concentration ranging from 1 to 9.3 ppm. The water filtrate from bone meal was clear and palatable. The filtrate from magnesium oxide was slightly slimy and cloudy, but palatable. Either of these chemical agents may be used in simple defluoridation procedures in rural and suburban areas using borehole water to reduce the excess fluoride in the water to beneficial non-toxic levels. Both magnesium oxide and bone meal are inexpensive chemicals and readily available in Kenya.

Ngugi EN;, Plummer FA. "Health Outreach and Control of HIV Infection in Kenya.". 1986. Abstract

This paper highlights the role of mobilization of individuals and community groups and health professionals in prevention of HIV transmission. It traces the educational strategy employed to reach the general population and selected groups at risk. In Kenya, the general awareness about AIDS started to grow in late 1985 and increased in 1986--87. This has resulted in reduction ofthe incidence of some sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The importance of pretesting education material as well as monitoring and evaluation of educational efforts to lay the ground for culturally appropriate and more effective health education messages to combat HIV transmission is presented. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of developing the HIV infection programs with the people and for the people. Key Words: Human immunodeficiency rvirus-Prevention-Kenya-Sexually transmitted diseases.

Lubwama SW;, Plummer FA;, Ndinya-Achola JO;, Nsanze H;, Namaara W;, D'Costa LJ;, Ronald AR. "Isolation and identification of Haemophilus ducreyi in a clinical laboratory.". 1986. Abstract

Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.

Patel NB. "Reversible inhibition of neurite growth by focal electric currents." Prog Clin Biol Res. 1986;210:271-278.
Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H;, Karasira P, Fransen L, Fransen L, Piot P, Ronald AR. "Three day oral course of Augmentin to treat chancroid.". 1986. Abstract

Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentin; Beecham Research Laboratories) was used to treat patients with bacteriologically proved chancroid in three different dose regimens. A single dose of Augmentin (amoxycillin 3 g, clavulanic acid 350 mg) was found to be ineffective. A similar dose repeated after 24 hours was equally ineffective, but a dose (amoxycillin 500 mg, clavulanic acid 250 mg) given every 8 hours for three days was found to be effective. The drug was well tolerated and no side effects were noted in any of the patients treated

Wafula EM, Tukei PM, Bell TM, Nzanze H, Ndinya-Achola JO, Hazlett DT, Ademba GR, Pamba A. "Aetiology of acute respiratory infections in children aged below 5 years in Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1985.Website
Wafula EM, Tukei PM, Bell TM, Nzanze H, Ndinya-Achola JO, Hazlett DT, Ademba GR, Pamba A. "Aetiology of acute respiratory infections in children aged below 5 years in Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1985.Website
Patel, NB XZ-p, et al. "Response of nerve growth cone to focal electric currents." J. Neuroscience Res. 1985;13:245-256.
Perry VH, Oehler R, Cowey A. "Retinal ganglion cells that project to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque monkey." Neuroscience. 1984;12:1101-1123. AbstractWebsite

Horseradish peroxidase was deposited in the optic nerve to retrogradely label and reveal the dendritic form of all classes of ganglion cell, or it was injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus to reveal only those classes projecting to the thalamus. The results were compared with those of the accompanying paper in which the ganglion cells projecting to the midbrain are selectively revealed. Two major classes of ganglion cells are described, the Pα and Pβ cells. For both classes dendritic field size increases with eccentricity from the fovea and there is no overlap in the two classes at any given eccentricity. Cell body size shows a similar mean difference but with a slight overlap. Both cell bodies and dendritic fields are larger along the temporal horizontal meridian than the nasal horizontal meridian, for Pα and for Pβ cells, but these differences are reduced when naso-temporal differences in ganglion cell density are taken into account, that is, size correlates closely with density. Injections restricted to the parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus labelled almost exclusively Pβ cells, whereas injections confined to the magnocellular layers labelled almost exclusively Pα cells. As midbrain injections label no Pβ cells and few Pα cells it can be shown that about 80% of ganglion cells are Pβ cells projecting to parvocellular lateral geniculate nucleus, and that about 10% are Pα cells projecting to magnocellular layers. The coverage factor, that is the number of cells covering each point on the retina, varied from 1.9–2.3 for Pβ cells, and from 2–7 for Pα cells. Comparing the results with those of comparable investigations on cats and rabbits shows a much clearer segregation of the terminal targets of different classes of ganglion cell in monkeys, the greatest difference being the absence in the monkey of a projection to the geniculate from gamma- and epsilon-like cells. Further, axons which branch and innervate both thalamus and midbrain are rare in monkeys but common in other mammals. Comparing the results with those from physiological investigations suggests that the Pβ cells correspond to colour-opponent cells, whereas Pα cells correspond to the achromatic broad-band magnocellular cells.

Patel MS, Ottieno JAM. "Optimum two stage group-screening designs." Communications in Statistics-Theory and Methods. 1984;13(21):2649-2663. AbstractFull text link

In this paper, emphasis has been given to both the expected number of runs and the expected number of incorrect decisions and two stage group-screening designs have been obtained which minimise one fixing the other or minimise some sort of cost function which connects the two. Some group-screening plans have been given at the end as illustrations.
Keywords: group-screening plans, orthogonal main-effect plans, group-factor

Patel, Nilesh; Poo M-ming. "Perturbation of neurite growth by pulsed and focal electric fields." J. Neuroscience. 1984;4:2939-2947.
Nsanze H, D'Costa LJ, Owili DM, Ilako F, Ndinya-Achola JO, P P. "Treatment of gonorrhea with single-dose thiamphenicol in Kenya.". 1984. Abstract

The efficacy of a single 2.5-g dose of thiamphenicol against infection with penicillinase-producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) or non-penicillinase-producing strains (non-PPNG) was studied in a two-phase clinical trial in Nairobi. The first phase included men who had had a urethral discharge for less than seven days, were infected with either PPNG or non-PPNG, and had not received previous treatment. The second phase included men with PPNG infections that had not responded to treatment with penicillin. The overall cure rate (determined by follow-up examinations and cultures three and ten days after treatment) was 90.6% in the first phase of the study and 92.1% in the second phase. A second 2.5-g dose of thiamphenicol was administered to four of the six patients in the second phase whose cultures yielded gonococci after the initial dose; the infections of all four patients were cured. The results of disk diffusion tests of gonococcal isolates did not correlate well with the outcome of treatment.

Ottieno JAM, Patel MS. "Two stage woth unequal a-prior probabilities." Communications in Statistics-Theory and Methods. 1984;13(6):761-779 . AbstractFull text link

This paper aims at working out economic groupscreening plans to sort out defective items from a population which consists of tems with unequal a-priori probabilities of being defective. It is shown that in the case of group-screening from a population with unequal a-priori probabilities of factors being defective, the number of obseruations needed on the average is considerably smaller than that required in the case of a population with factors having the same a-priori probability of being defective. Tables at the end give some group-screening plans as illustrations.
Keywords: Group-factors, Group-Screening Plans

Levin AG, Jones M, Kirkham DM, Shah T, Peters TJ, Hill ID, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. "Lymphocyte enzyme activities in East African blacks: decrease in 5'nucleotidase and possible relation to immunosuppression." Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.. 1983;77(6):840-4. Abstract

Microanalysis of subcellular organelle marker enzymes was applied to cryopreserved lymphocytes (obtained and processed in the field) from East African blacks with moderate to severe malnutrition and subject to locally endemic parasitic and infectious diseases. An initial study demonstrated that activities of these enzymes, with the partial exception of catalase, were stable to cryopreservation. Cryopreserved and thawed lymphocyte specimens (1 to 3 X 10(6) viable cells) from 26 Africans and 20 Caucasian controls were studied. There was a highly significant decrease in 5'nucleotidase activity in these African subjects. Activity of another plasma membrane enzyme, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and of marker enzymes for other intracellular organelles, was not significantly different between the two groups, indicating that the nucleotidase alteration is highly specific. 5'Nucleotidase activity in a group of 17 East African blacks of high socio-economic status lay between the values obtained in the other two groups and was not significantly different from either. Further studies on 5'nucleotidase showed no evidence that the enzyme is functionally different in Africans. The differences in activity of this enzyme in Africans may reflect the known immuno-suppressive effects of infectious disease and malnutrition or may have a genetic basis which may in turn be associated with the pathogenesis of secondary immunodeficiency.

CF C, DS E, PE D, N H, BD R, LW I, H T. "Susceptibility of aposymbiotic Culex quinquefasciatus to Wuchereria bancrofti." Journal of invertebrate pathology. 1983;41(2):214-223. AbstractElsevier link

Larvae of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus originating from Kenya were reared in 0.025 mg/ml tetracycline hydrochloride. Some of the resulting progeny were shown, by electron microscopy and crossing experiments, to have been rendered free of the rickettsia like symbiont Wolbachia pipientis and from these progeny, symbiont-free lines were established. In experimental feedings on infected human volunteers and on cryopreserved microfilariae, the aposymbiotic stocks were found to be fully susceptible to the filaria Wuchereria bancrofti. This contrasts with some recently published data on Aedes polynesiensis, from which it has been suggested that rickettsia like symbionts have an important role in the development of filaria in the mosquito.

Culex quinquefasciatus; Wolbachia pipientis; Wuchereria bancrofti; electron microscopy; tetracycline treatment; aposymbiotic mosquitoes; filarial susceptibility; cryopreservation

PRESTON CHITERE. "Choice of methods of farmer contact." Agricultural Administration. 1982;11(3).
Patel, Nilesh; Poo M-ming. "Orientation of neurite growth by extracellular electric fields." J. Neuroscience. 1982;2:483-496.
Dechant W, Pamba HO, Awan AM. "A case of internal ophthalmomyiasis in Kenya (author's transl).". 1981. AbstractWebsite

An unusual case of ophthalmomyiasis is reported, in which two living fly larvae were observed inside the patient's eye. One larva was removed from the anterior chamber by paracentesis; the other was destroyed on the retina by photocoagulation. The mode of infestation, clinical picture and treatment are discussed in brief.

Cordobés F, Lobato RD, Rivas JJ, Muñoz MJ, Chillón D, Portillo JM, Lamas E. "Observations on 82 patients with extradural hematoma: comparison of results before and after the advent of computerized tomography." Journal of neurosurgery. 1981;54:179-186. AbstractWebsite
Peterson DW, Maitai CK, Sparber SB. "Relative potencies of two phenylalkylamines found in the abused plant Catha edulis, khat." Life Sci.. 1980;27(22):2143-7.
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ, Polome & Hill E. "Ecology of Tanzanian Language Situation." Language in Tanzania. 1980:139-175.
Winter RJ, Harris CJ, Phillips LS, Green OC. "Diabetic ketoacidosis. {Induction} of hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia by phosphate therapy." The American Journal of Medicine. 1979;67:897-900. Abstract
Perry VH. "The ganglion cell layer of the retina of the rat: a {Golgi} study." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing papers of a Biological character. Royal Society (Great Britain). 1979;204:363-375. Abstract

In whole-mounts of Golgi stained rat retinae four cell types are described in the ganglion cell layer. Three of these cell types are considered to be analogous to the alpha, delta and gamma cells described in the cat retina by Boycott & Wässle (1974). The fourth cell type is thoughtt to be a displaced amacrine cell. All the cell types described are present in all parts of the retina. There is no evidence for an increase in dendritic field size with increasing distance from the optic disk.

Patel JP, Raja PKS. "A palaeomagnetic study of lower Proterozoic granites from Western Kenya.". 1979. AbstractA palaeomagnetic study of lower Proterozoic granites from Western Kenya

This paper reports a palaeomagnetic study of the lower Proterozoic granites, exposed in the western part of Kenya and dated at 2530 ± 50 Ma (λRb= 1.39 × 10−11 yr−1). Ten sites out of 13 have yielded stable palaeomagnetic directions which are believed to be primary. Polished section and thermomagnetic analyses indicate titanomagnetite grains as the main carrier of the primary component of the natural remanence. The mean palaeomagnetic north pole is calculated at 210.7° E, 60.9° N with A95= 13.5°.

Patel JP, Raja PKS. "Paleomagnetic results from the Narosura and Magadi volcanics of Kenya.". 1979. AbstractPaleomagnetic results from the Narosura and Magadi volcanics of Kenya

Results of a paleomagnetic study carried out on the exposed volcanic rocks on the western side of the South Kenya Rift Valley are presented. Nine stratigraphic groups ranging in age from Miocene to Pleistocene were sampled. The rocks consist of basalts, trachytes, nephelinites, melanephelinites, olivine melanephelinites and ignimbrites. Paleomagnetic poles obtained for different age ranges are as follows: Period I (0.64–0.72 Ma), 116°E, 85°N (A95 = 6°); Period II (1.6–6.9 Ma), 297°E, 84°N (A95 = 4°); Period III (12.0–15.0 Ma), 34°E, 80°N (A95 = 9°). The results for Period II show large secular variations which are in disagreement with the model predictions for near-equatorial sites.

Kasili EG, Wamola IA, Pamba HO, Shiramba T, Broekman JM. "Various pathological manifestations of leprosy: a multidisciplinary study.". 1979.
Mendelow AD, Karmi MZ, Paul KS, Fuller GA, Gillingham FJ. "Extradural haematoma: effect of delayed treatment." BMJ. 1979;1:1240-1242. AbstractWebsite
Padilla AJ, Loeb JN. ""{Low}-dose" versus "high-dose" insulin regimens in the management of uncontrolled diabetes. {A} survey." The American Journal of Medicine. 1977;63:843-848. Abstract
Powner D, Snyder JV, Grenvik A. "Altered pulmonary capillary permeability complicating recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis." Chest. 1975;68:253-256. Abstract

Self-limited noncardiogenic interstitial pulmonary edema probably reflecting altered permeability of the pulmonary capillary membrane is reported in a patient being treated for severe diabetic ketoacidosis. The possible etiology, associated findings, and therapy with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by facemask are discussed.

Chow YW, Pietranico R, Mukerji A. "Studies of oxygen binding energy to hemoglobin molecule." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1424-31.
Chow YW, Pietranico R, Mukerji A. "Studies of oxygen binding energy to hemoglobin molecule." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1424-31.
Weiss JM, Glazer HI, Pohorecky LA, Brick J, Miller NE. "Effects of chronic exposure to stressors on avoidance-escape behavior and on brain norepinephrine." Psychosom Med. 1975;37(6):522-34. Abstract

A single exposure to a severe stressor (either cold swim or inescapable shock) impairs subsequent performance in a shuttle avoidance-escape task (1), a deficit attributed to reduction in brain noradrenergic activity produced by these stressors. In the present paper, two experiments are described which examine how repeated exposure to such stressors affects (a) shuttle avoidance-escape performance (Experiment 1), and (b) aspects of brain norepinephrine metabolism (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that, whereas subjects receiving the single exposure to cold swim or shock showed a large avoidance-escape deficit, subjects that received repeated exposure to these stressors for 14 days performed similarly to the control group that received no stressor. Experiment 2 showed that, whereas subjects that received one session of the inescapable shock stressor showed a lower level of norepinephrine in hypothalamus and cortex than did subjects that received no shock, subjects that received repeated exposure to inescapable shock or cold swim showed neurochemical "habituation." Subjects that received repeated shock showed elevated tyrosine hydroxylase activity and no depletion of norepinephrine level, and both repeated shock and cold swim caused a decrease in uptake of 3H-norepinephrine by slices of cortex in vitro. Thus, it is concluded that the behavioral and neurochemical changes that were observed after the stressful conditions studied are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in avoidance-escape responding following exposure to these stressful events are due to changes in brain noradrenergic activity.

Galliard T, Phillips DR, Matthew JA. "Enzymic reactions of fatty acid hydroperoxides in extracts of potato tuber. II. Conversion of 9- and 13-hydroperoxy-octadecadienoic acids to monohydroxydienoic acid, epoxyhydroxy- and trihydroxymonoenoic acid derivatives." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;409(2):157-71. Abstract

1. Crude extracts and partially purified enzyme preparations from potato tubers catalyse, at pH 5-7, the conversion of linoleic acid hydroperoxides to a range of oxygenated fatty acid derivatives. 2. 9-D- and 13-L-hydroperoxide isomers are converted at similar rates to equivalent (isomeric) products. 3. The major products from the 13-hydroperoxide isomer were identified as the corresponding monohydroxydienoic acid derivative, threo-11-hydroxy-trans12,13-epoxy-octadec-cis9-enoic acid and 9,12,13-trihydroxy-octadec-trans10-enoic acid. The corresponding products from the 9-hydroperoxide were the monohydroxydienoic acid, 9,10-epoxy-11-hydroxy-octadec-12-enoic acid and 9,10,13-trihydroxy-octadec-11-enoic acid. 4. No separation of activities forming the different products was achieved by partial purification of enzyme extracts. 5. Product formation was unaffected by EDTA, CN-, sulphydryl reagents or glutathione but was reduced by boiling the extracts. 6. This system is compared with the 9-hydroperoxide-specific enzymic formation of divinyl ether derivatives by potato extracts.

Scheller F, Jänchen M, Lampe J, Prümke HJ, Blanck J, Palecek E. "Studies on electron transfer between mercury electrode and hemoprotein." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;412(1):157-67. Abstract

The electrochemical behaviour of ferricytochrome c, metmyoglobin and methemoglobin was studied using d.c., a.c. and differential pulse polarography, and controlled potential electrolysis. 1. The three hemoproteins yield d.c. polarographic steps, and peaks in differential pulse polarograms, the height of which is proportional to concentration. The charge transfer is influenced by strong adsorption. 2. The concentration dependence of the a.c. polarograms indicates structural changes in the adsorbed molecules. 3. The reduction products of controlled potential electrolysis of metmyoglobin and methemoglobin have absorption spectra identical with the native control samples. The affinity for oxygen and the cooperativity in hemoglobin are not affected by the reaction at the electrode. 4. The charge transfer proceeds via adsorbed, already reduced, molecules to freely diffusible proteins.

Pogodina VV. "Elizaveta Nilolaevna Levkovich-75th birthday." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):509.
Wachter RF, Briggs GP, Pedersen CE. "Precipitation of phase I antigen of Coxiella burnetii by sodium sulfite." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):500.
Makar AB, McMartin KE, Palese M, Tephly TR. "Formate assay in body fluids: application in methanol poisoning." Biochem Med. 1975;13(2):117-26.
Makar AB, McMartin KE, Palese M, Tephly TR. "Formate assay in body fluids: application in methanol poisoning." Biochem Med. 1975;13(2):117-26.
Peterson DL, Gleisner JM, Blakley RL. "Bovine liver dihydrofolate reductase: purification and properties of the enzyme." Biochemistry. 1975;14(24):5261-7. Abstract

A purification procedure is reported for obtaining bovine liver dihydrofolate reductase in high yield and amounts of 100-200 mg. A key step in the procedure is the use of an affinity gel prepared by coupling pteroyl-L-lysine to Sepharose. The purified reductase has a specific activity of about 100 units/mg and is homogeneous as judged by analytical ultracentrifugation, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and titration with methotrexate. The products of the first step of Edman degradation indicated a minimum purity of 79%. The reductase has a molecular weight of about 21500 on the basis of amino acid composition and 22100 +/- 300 from equilibrium sedimentation. It is not inhibited by antiserum to the Streptococcus faecium reductase (isoenzyme 2). Unlike the reductase of many other vertebrate tissues, the bovine enzyme is inhibited by mercurials rather than activated and it has a single pH optimum at both low and high ionic strength. However, the position of the pH optimum is shifted and the activity increased by increasing ionic strength. Automatic Edman degradation has been used to determine 34 of the amino-terminal 37 amino acid residues. Considerable homology exists between this region and the corresponding regions of the reductase from S. faecium and from Escherichia coli. This strengthens the idea that this region contributes to the structure of the binding site for dihydrofolate.

Jaton JC, Huser H, Blatt Y, Pecht I. "Circular dichroism and fluorescence studies of homogeneous antibodies to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide." Biochemistry. 1975;14(24):5308-11. Abstract

The near-ultraviolet circular dichroism (CD) of three homogeneous anti-type III pneumococcal antibodies in the absence and the presence of the specific hexasaccharide ligand was studied. In addition recombinations and hybridizations of H and L chains derived from two of these antibodies were carried out and the CD spectra of bound and free reconstituted IgG molecules were measured. The results indicate that the CD spectra of the native antibodies in the 260-310-nm range are very similar in shape and sign and exhibit a positive band at 285 nm. The homologous reconstituted antibody molecules exhibited CD spectra very similar in shape and sign to those of the native antibody molecules although recombinant molecules are no longer stabilized by interchain disulfide bonds. Upon addition of the hexasaccharide ligand, a significant decrease in amplitude of the CD spectra (18-21%) occurred in all three native antibodies and their Fab fragments as well as in the homologous recombinant molecules. No CD spectral changes could be detected upon interaction of the hapten ligand with the heterologous recombinants. All homogeneous antibodies studied exhibited fluorescence quenching upon oligosaccharide binding and a blue shift of the emission maximum. This property allowed the determination of the binding constant of one selected antibody to be made. Taken together, CD and fluorescence spectroscopic data suggest that oligosaccharide ligands induced detectable conformational changes in the Fab fragment of the antibody.

Fleet GH, Phaff HJ. "Glucanases in Schizosaccharomyces. Isolation and properties of an exo-beta-glucanase from the cell extracts and culture fluid of Schizosaccharomyces japonicus var. versatilis." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(2):318-32. Abstract

(11 Cell extracts and extracellular culture fluids of species of the yeast genus Schizosaccharomyces exhibited exo-beta-(1 leads to 3)- and exo-beta-(1 leads to 6)-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.-) activities. (2) Using a combination of Sephadex G-100 and DEAE-cellulose chromatography, the exo-beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucanases from the cell extracts and culture fluid of Schizosaccharomyces japonicus var. versatilis were purified extensively. The enzymes from either location exhibited similar purification and other properties. (3) The purified enzymes hydrolysed the beta-(1 leads to 6)-glucosidic linkage in addition to the beta-(1 leads to 3) linkage. Heat denaturation, inhibition and electrophoretic studies indicated that both hydrolytic activities were properties of a single protein. Laminarin and pustulan hydrolysis followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Km and V for laminarin hydrolysis were 6.25 mg/ml and 350 mumol of glucose released/min/mg protein, and for pustulan they were 166 mg/ml and 52 mumol of glucose released/min/mg protein. (4) The exo-beta-glucanase was assigned a molecular weight of 43 000. (5) the purified enzyme failed to hydrolyse isolated cell walls from either baker's yeast or Schizosaccharomyces pombe or to induce protoplast formation from intact cells of S. japonicus var. versatilis or Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Van Gorkom HJ, Pulles MP, Wessels JS. "Light-induced changes of absorbance and electron spin resonance in small photosystem II particles." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;408(3):331-9. Abstract

Photosystem II reaction center components have been studied in small system II particles prepared with digitonin. Upon illumination the reduction of the primary acceptor was indicated by absorbance changes due to the reduction of a plastoquinone to the semiquinone anion and by a small blue shifts of absorption bands near 545 nm (C550) and 685 nm. The semiquinone to chlorophyll ratio was between 1/20 and 1/70 in various preparations. The terminal electron donor in this reaction did not cause large absorbance changes but its oxidized form was revealed by a hitherto unknown electron spin resonance (ESR) signal, which had some properties of the well-known signal II but a linewidth and g-value much nearer to those of signal I. Upon darkening absorbance and ESR changes decayed together in a cyclic or back reaction which was stimulated by 3-(3,4 dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. The donor could be oxidized by ferricyanide in the dark. Illumination in the presence of ferricyanide induced absorbance and ESR changes, rapidly reversed upon darkening, which may be ascribed to the oxidation of a chlorophyll a dimer, possibly the primary electron donor of photosystem II. In addition an ESR signal with 15 to 20 gauss linewidth and a slower dark decay was observed, which may have been caused by a secondary donor.

Van Gorkom HJ, Pulles MP, Wessels JS. "Light-induced changes of absorbance and electron spin resonance in small photosystem II particles." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;408(3):331-9. Abstract

Photosystem II reaction center components have been studied in small system II particles prepared with digitonin. Upon illumination the reduction of the primary acceptor was indicated by absorbance changes due to the reduction of a plastoquinone to the semiquinone anion and by a small blue shifts of absorption bands near 545 nm (C550) and 685 nm. The semiquinone to chlorophyll ratio was between 1/20 and 1/70 in various preparations. The terminal electron donor in this reaction did not cause large absorbance changes but its oxidized form was revealed by a hitherto unknown electron spin resonance (ESR) signal, which had some properties of the well-known signal II but a linewidth and g-value much nearer to those of signal I. Upon darkening absorbance and ESR changes decayed together in a cyclic or back reaction which was stimulated by 3-(3,4 dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. The donor could be oxidized by ferricyanide in the dark. Illumination in the presence of ferricyanide induced absorbance and ESR changes, rapidly reversed upon darkening, which may be ascribed to the oxidation of a chlorophyll a dimer, possibly the primary electron donor of photosystem II. In addition an ESR signal with 15 to 20 gauss linewidth and a slower dark decay was observed, which may have been caused by a secondary donor.

Page MM, Alberti KG, Greenwood R, Gumaa KA, Hockaday TD, Lowy C, Nabarro JD, Pyke DA, Sönksen PH, Watkins PJ, West TE. "Treatment of diabetic coma with continuous low-dose infusion of insulin." British Medical Journal. 1974;2:687-690. Abstract

Thirty-eight patients in diabetic coma from four different centres were treated with a continuous low-dose intravenous infusion of insulin at an average dose of 7.2 IU/hr. All patients recovered rapidly except for one profoundly shocked patient who died. The mean fall in plasma glucose was 58% four hours after the start of insulin. Blood ketone bodies and plasma free fatty acids showed a similar response. There was no significant difference in plasma glucose response according to severity of acidosis or previous treatment with insulin. Hypokalaemia was uncommon. In the treatment of diabetic coma this technique has proved simple, safe, and effective.

Parnavelas JG, Globus A, Kaups P. "Changes in {Lateral} {Geniculate} {Neurones} of {Rats} as a {Result} of {Continuous} {Exposure} to {Light}." Nature. 1973;245:287-288. AbstractWebsite

THE results of several investigators demonstrate that environmental manipulations can affect the structure of the brain. Environmental conditions studied most often have been deprivation and enrichment. In the visual system different forms of light deprivation have been found to induce a decrease in spine density1–3, dendritic branching4,5 and in cell areas6. A number of studies have described changes resulting from enriched environmental conditions, including an increase in cortical weight and depth7,8, ratio of glial cells to neurones9, spine density10, and dendritic branching11. The effects of excess light stimulation in the visual system have also been studied. Continuous exposure to light has been found to cause irreversible damage to photoreceptors12,13 and an increase in spine density in the visual cortex of albino rats14. Under these conditions, investigators have reported a decrease or absence of evoked potentials in adult albino rats15. Black-white discrimination and two pattern discrimination tests did not indicate any difference between these animals and control rats16. We have been able to show significant quantitative morphological changes in the dendritic field of neurones in the dorsal lateral geniculate of rats reared under continuous illumination from birth to 35 d.

Maitai CK, Muraguri N, Patel HA. ".A survey on the use of poisoned arrows in Kenya during the period 1964-1971." East Afr Med J. . 1973;50(2):100-104. AbstractWebsite

In a case of poisoning involving 70 cattle analysis of specimens obtained during post mortem examination showed that the toxic substances were arsenic and toxaphene. This was consistent with both the clinical and post mortem findings. Arsenic was detected in water from an abandoned cattle dip in the farm. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of the dip contained both arsenic and toxaphene.

Maitai CK, Muraguri N, Patel HA. "A survey on the use of poisoned arrows in Kenya during the period 1964-1971." East Afr Med J. 1973;50(2):100-4.
Patel JP, Gacii P. "Palaeomagnetic Studies Of The Kapiti Phonolite Of Kenya.". 1972. AbstractPalaeomagnetic Studies Of The Kapiti Phonolite Of Kenya

Specimens of Kapiti phonolite from sixteen sites were treated in an alternating field up to 900 Oe peak. Four sites were discarded on the basis of Watson's Criterion for randomness. Variations in various magnetic parameters along a vertical section of the rock indicate that a hard secondary component of magnetization of high coercive force is present in the surface samples of the rock — a possible cause for the poor grouping of directions of the remaining sites. Weathering may have introduced this component in the surface samples. The Kapiti phonolite possesses both normal and reverse polarities. The Pole position for the Upper Miocene is calculated at 81°N, 118°E with a circle of confidence of 17°.

Magazine Article
Etta Madete, Peirson E. "Gardens of Kibera: The Kibera Public Space Project by Kounkuey Design Initiative." The Architectural Review (2021).
P.K N. "Mitigating Engineering Profession Regulatory Gaps." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2021;2(2):73-74.
Ozdemir SK, Yang L, Peng B. Loss engineering to improve system functionality and output. Google Patents; 2021. Abstract
Mans BJ, Featherston J, Kvas M, Pillay KA, de Klerk DG, Pienaar R, de Castro MH, Schwan TG, Lopez JE, Teel P, others. Argasid and ixodid systematics: Implications for soft tick evolution and systematics, with a new argasid species list. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 10: 219–240.; 2019. Abstract
Omolo MJ, Pole L, Mwangi I, Kimani J, Anzala O, Oloo J, Elvira WT, Jacobsson S, Unemo M. P2. 30 Survey of antimicrobial resistance in clinical neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated over a period of four years in nairobi–kenya. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd; 2017. Abstract
Liu Z, Yang L, Edwards P, Janisch C, Peng B, Ozdemir S. Resonator enhanced raman spectroscopy. Google Patents; 2017. Abstract
Yang L, Ozdemir SK, Peng B. Loss engineering to improve system functionality and output. Google Patents; 2016. Abstract
Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Katz LC, LaMantia A-S, McNamara JO, Williams MS. Effects of {Visual} {Deprivation} on {Ocular} {Dominance}.; 2001. Abstract
Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Katz LC, LaMantia A-S, McNamara JO, Williams MS. Effects of {Visual} {Deprivation} on {Ocular} {Dominance}.; 2001. Abstract
Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Katz LC, LaMantia A-S, McNamara JO, Williams MS. Effects of {Visual} {Deprivation} on {Ocular} {Dominance}.; 2001. Abstract
Miscellaneous Section
P. OCHILO. The Kenyan Primary Health Care Programmes and the Supportive Options for the Mass Media. Finland: , Geneva and University of Tampere,; Submitted.
K. M, P.K. M. Gender Dimension s of Witch Burning and Women’ s Property Rights in Kisii County, Kenya. Nairobi: Coalition on Violence Against Women (COVAW); 2012.
I.O JUMBA, P.W WANGUI, R MADAD, G.A WAFULA, TONGA, C MIRIKAU, R SHIKUKU. KENYA NATIONAL INVENTORY OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (POPs) UNDER THE STOCKHOLM CONVENTION. GEF/UNEP/GoK - PART IV: Identification And Quantification of dioxins and Furans releases in Kenya.. NAIROBI: United Nation Enviroment programme (UNEP),Nairobi; 2006. Abstracttable_tl.docfor_ferrous_and_non_ferrous_category.doc

The total Dioxins (PCDD) and Furans (PCDF) release in Kenya is estimated to be 4,740 g TEQ per annum. The Uncontrolled Combustion Processes category generates 4,304 g TEQ which is the highest of all the categories that were identified, amounting to 91% of the total national release. Waste Incineration generated 249.4 g TEQ equivalent to 5% of the total national release, while Disposal/Landfilhng category has a notable contribution of 106 g TEQ which amounts to 2% of the total national release. Ferrous and non ferrous metal production contributes 12.8 g TEQ which is equivalent to 0.3% of the total national release. Releases from the remaining categories are not significant when compared to the ones already mentioned. However, this does not in anyway underrate their importance, especially in instances where total elimination by application of Best Available Technologies (BAT) and Best Environmental Practices (BEP) can be achieved. These results are summarised in Table Tl and Figures Fl and F2.
Uncontrolled domestic waste burning, a subcategory under the Uncontrolled Combustion Processes category, is the single most significant source of PCDD/PCDF. It generates 2168 g TEQ, which is equivalent to 45.7% of the total national releases. Landfill fires sub category is the second significant source of release, contributing 2126.3g TEQ which is equivalent to 44.8% of the total national release.
With regards to vectors, air receives the bulk of the PCDD/PCDF amounting to 3,103 g TEQ which is equivalent to 66% of the total national release. The bulk of this release comes from the Uncontrolled Combustion Processes, amounting to 2854g TEQ, which is equivalent to 92% of the total national release to air. Release to residues amounts to 1,614 g TEQ which is approximately 34% of the total national release, with the main contributor to this being Uncontrolled Combustion Processes, These results are summarised in Figure F2.
Uncontrolled Combustion Processes category therefore requires significant attention because of the great impact it may have in the country. Policies to govern the management of solid waste are necessary and would go along way in minimizing this impact. Similar efforts to address medical waste would also have a significant impact on the releases in the country. The release of PCDD/PCDF to water also needs to be addressed seriously considering the fact that a significant percentage of the country's population relies on surface water for domestic use.
There are no municipal waste incinerators in Kenya but there are isolated hazardous waste incinerators. However, the inventory has established that the medical waste accounts for the bulk of releases for this category. This is because majority of the government district hospitals and institutions operate the De Mont fort type incinerators. Only two major hospitals operate commercially acquired incinerators. However, most of the incinerators do not have effective air pollution control systems (APCs). To a large extent many of The medical facilities either openly bum their waste or have installations called incinerators which in effect are open burners. The total release from this category averages 249.4 g TEQ.
Hazardous wastes or waste oil are not currently used as fuel for firing cement kilns for fear of compromising on cement quality.

C.J. R, P. M, G.J.O. A, G. O. Community based Animal Based Workers in Kenya: A case study of Mwingi District. Nairobi: African Union/Inter African Bureau for Animal Resources; 2003.
K. M, P.K. M. Women and property Rights in Kenya. Nairobi: Kenya Federation of Women Lawyers (FIDA); 2002.
P OCHILO. 3. A Review of a WHO Video Programme and two WHO Radio Programmes on Health . Finland: Geneva and University of Tampere, ; 1986.
Research Paper
Mukundi MJ, Piero MN, Mwaniki NE, Murugi NJ, Daniel AS, Gathumbi PK, Muchugi AN. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Acacia nilotica in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice. Mukundi et al; 2015.mukundi-_acacia_nilotica_2015.pdf
I.T. KAMANJA, Mbaria J.M., P.K. GATHUMBI, M. MBAABU, A LANYASUNYA, D.W. G, D KABASAJ, S.G. KIAMA. Medicinal Plants Used in the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections by the Samburu Community, Kenya. Kamanja et al ; 2015.ijpr_2015_72_44-52_research_5-_mgt_std_samburu.pdf
Prakash, Teluve Nagarajarao; Mburu J;, Chandrashekar H;, Abebaw D. Analysis of Farmers' Willingness to Conserve Traditional Rice Varieties in the Western Ghats of South India.; 2013. Abstract

Conservation of crop genetic resources is a major preoccupation of the Indian government in particular and the international community at large. Drawing on a random sample of 228 farm households from two regions in the Western Ghats of Southern India, this study reports the main factors influencing farmers' willingness to conserve traditional rice varieties of different levels of survival ability (survivability). Estimated results of a logit model indicate that factors influencing decisions to conserve the varieties on-farm depend mainly on farmers' socio-economic characteristics, and vary between the two regions and among incentive or policy scenarios assumed. The factors do not however vary so much from the perspective of the survivability of the traditional rice varieties. Therefore, the study concludes that on-farm conservation in the two study areas requires a mix of different conservation strategies and policy incentives which may not be dependent on the levels of survivability of the traditional rice varieties.

J. M. Kagira, P. N. Kanyari, N. Maingi, S. M. Githigia, Ng’ang’a C, J.Gachohi. Relationship between the Prevalence of Ectoparasites and Associated Risk Factors in Free-Range Pigs in Kenya.. Hindawi Publishing Corporation; 2013.3_kagira_et_al_2013.pdf
Philipsson, J; Zonabend BRC; OAME;. Global perspectives on animal genetic resources for sustainable agriculture and food production in the tropics.; 2011. Abstract

This first module provides some insight into the need for better use of animal genetic resources (AnGR) in the context of projected demand for food in developing countries until 2020. Worldwide, about a billion people do not have enough to eat; a livestock revolution is currently underway to meet the nutritional needs and improve the livelihood of poor people. However, the recent international food and financial crises have again worsened the situation for many of the world’s poor. The module provides the background, facts and reasons for increased attention to improved utilization and maintenance of AnGR for food and agriculture in developing countries. It also provides a list of some key literature. References and links are made to web resources and to other parts of this resource. Some case studies on breed resources and other relevant components of this resource (CD and web version) help illustrate the issues presented.

Mwai AO;, Malmfors B;, Andersson-Eklund L;, Philipsson J;, Rege JEO;, Hanotte O;, Fulss R. Capacity building for sustainable use of animal genetic resources in developing countries. ILRI-SLU Project progress report for the period 1999-2003.; 2005. Abstract

To promote a sustainable and improved use of animal genetic resources in developing countries, ILRI in collaboration with the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), and supported by Sida (Sweden), launched a project training the trainers, for national agricultural research systems (NABS) scientists (national university teachers and researchers) in developing countries. The main objectives of the project were to strengthen subject knowledge and skills, and teaching and communication skills of scientists teaching and supervising students in animal breeding and genetics at least up to MSc level. Other objectives were to catalyse curriculum development, stimulate contacts and networking, and to develop computer-based training resources relevant for use by NARS scientists in teaching and research. This capacity building project was an integrated component of the ILRI research agenda on Animal Genetic Resources. It was also an endeavour by ILRI to collaborate with and strengthen NARS institutions and scientists. The project was initially planned to include regions in sub-Saharan Africa, SouthEast Asia and South Asia, resources allowing, Latin America. The activities in each region or sub-region included: planning activities (questionnaire, country visits, planning workshop), training course for university teachers and researchers (three weeks, combining training in animal genetics/breeding and teaching methodologies), development of an Animal Genetics Training Resource' (on CD-ROM, and later also on the Web), follow-up activities, including impact assessment (questionnaires and follow-up workshops). During the period 1999 to 2003 a full round of activities was completed for sub Saharan Africa. The training course was conducted for Eastern/Southern Africa (20 scientists from 10 countries) and for Western/Central Africa (18 scientists from 10 countries). The planning and follow-up workshops were performed jointly for the region. In addition, the planning activities and training course (18 scientists from 9 countries) were completed for South-East Asia. Version 1 of the computer-based training resource (CD) was released in late 2003. The resource contains modules, i.e. core texts on issues related with farm animal genetic resources, quantitative methods and teaching methods, and Resources containing case studies, breed information, maps, examples, exercises, video clips, a glossary and a virtual library. It also contains references to web links, books and other CDs. The participants found the training courses very useful; average score for Overall Impression was 8.2 (scale 1-9). They also indicated that the computer-based training resource would be a valuable tool both in teaching and in research, but had not yet had a chance to explore and use it fully. Impact assessments for Africa (questionnaire and follow-up workshop) showed that the training course has already had a substantial impact in many of the participants. Impact assessments for Africa (questionnaire and follow-up workshop) showed that the training course has already had a substantial impact in many of the participants' home institutions, both on teaching methods and on course content. Students have shown more interest and understanding of animal breeding and genetics. The impact on participants' research has been just as large; more focus on research involving indigenous animal genetic resources, improved research proposal writing, research methodologies and science communication skills, and also more efficient supervision of students' research. Many of the participants have actively disseminated materials and experiences from the course to colleagues in their home institutions. Other important outcomes have been increased contacts and an open e-mail network `Afrib' formed by the African course participants. The project also strengthened Swedish knowledge and expanded PhD activities on animal genetic resources in developing countries; these were valuable `spin-off effects' of the project. The 'training the trainers' approach adopted in the ILRI-SLU project seems to be a good model for effective capacity building to promote a sustainable use of animal genetic resources in developing countries. The approach was innovative and has functioned well; the model could be extended to other disciplines. Furthermore, linking universities from the North to those of the South, with a CGIAR institute playing both a facilitating and catalytic role was beneficial. The project will now proceed to South Asia and version 2 of the computer-based training resource will be developed. More impact analyses will also be performed.

Marenya, Paswel Phiri; Barrett CB, Oluoch-Kosura W;, Place F;, Barrett CB. Education, Nonfarm Income, And Farm Investment In Land-scarce Western Kenya.; 2003.
Peng B. Mechanisms of Railway Wheel Polygonization. University of Huddersfield; 2020. Abstract
king'oo p.k. SMS based system to provide first aid information in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2015.
Mishra RS, Pokhariyal GP. Electromagnetic Tensor Field, Nijenhius Tensor (III).; 2013.
Wagacha PW, Pauw GD, Githinji PW. A grapheme-based approach for accent restoration in Gıkuyu.; 2013.
Pokhariyal GP. Pokhariyal.; 2013.
MR GITAU WILSON. Diagnosis and Predictability of Intraseasonal characteristics of wet and dry spells over Equatorial East Africa. PROF OGALLO LABAN, PROF CAMBERLIN PIERRE, DR OKOOLA RAPHAEL, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Mulwa JK. Integrated geophysical study of Lake Bogoria basin, Kenya: Implications for geothermal energy prospecting. Mulwa JK, of Prof. Justus Barongo(University of Nairobi DG), of Prof. Jayanti Patel(University of Nairobi DP), Prof. Derek Fairhead(Leeds University and MD GETECH), of and Prof. Greg Houseman(Leeds University IGT), Dr Nicholas Mariita(Kenya Electricity Generating Company OGP), eds. Nairobi/Leeds: University of Nairobi/Leeds University; 2011. Abstract

The Lake Bogoria basin, herein referred to as ‘the study area’, is located in the greater Baringo-Bogoria basin (BBB), about 250 km from the city of Nairobi on the floor of Kenya Rift Valley (KRV). It is bound by latitudes 0o 00’ and 0o 30’N and longitudes 35o45’E and 36o15’E within the rift graben. The study area is characterised by geothermal surface manifestations which include hot springs, spouting geysers, fumaroles/steam jets and mud pools. The area is overlain by Miocene lavas mainly basalts and phonolites, and Pliocene to Recent sediments and pyroclastics such as tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, superficial deposits, volcanic soils, alluvium and lacustrine silts. The terrain is characterized by extensive faulting which forms numerous N-S ridges and fault scarps.

Gravity and magnetotelluric (MT) surveys were undertaken in the area in order to determine the heat source and evaluate the geothermal resource potential of the basin for generation of geothermal power. The gravity data used was from the University of Texas at El Paso and Leicester University gravity data bases. New gravity measurements’ comprising 260 data points was undertaken for the purpose of this study. In addition, magnetotelluric data comprising about fourty sites was also acquired in the study area.

Gravity survey results indicate Bouguer anomaly having an amplitude of ~40 mGals aligned in a north-south direction and this has been interpreted to be due to a series of dyke injections and hence the heat source in the basin. The dyke injections occur at depths of 3-6 km on average, but at 1 km depth at the shallowest. The gravity models show a north-south gradual variation in thickness of the uppermost low density layer comprising rift-fill volcanics from 1-4 km on average. The variation in thickness of this layer from south-north suggests that these volcanic deposits are as a result of volcanic eruption(s) outside Lake Bogoria basin such as Menengai to the south.

The MT survey results show three distinct relatively thick layers in the basin. The first of these layers, which is overlain by high resistivity (50-1000 m) thin (100-500 m) layers, is ~3 km thick and has resistivities ranging between 4-30 -m. This layer is interpreted as the geothermal reservoir and the low resistivities are due to a combination of circulating hot mineralized geothermal fluids, hydrothermal alteration and saline sediments. The second layer is ~10 km thick and resistivity values range between 85-2500 -m and is interpreted to be a fractured and hydrothermally altered basement metamorphic rock. The relatively high degree of fracturing has considerably enhanced circulation of water which gets heated by the underlying dyke injections and thus inducing convective heat transport to the geothermal reservoir. The substratum is characterized by resistivities ranging between 0.5-47 -m and is interpreted as hot dyke injections at depths of about 6-12 km, which are the heat sources for the geothermal system.

Consequently, a heat source and a geothermal reservoir exist in Lake Bogoria basin. The heat source(s) is/are due to cooling dyke injections occurring at depths of 3-6 km on average, but 1 km depth at the shallowest near Arus where steam jets and fumaroles occur. The magnetotelluric method, however, favours depths of 6-12 km for the heat source and this may be attributed to lack of significant resistivity contrast between the dyke injections and the basement rocks where the former have intruded the latter rocks.
More gravity data is warranted so as to precisely define the geometry and areal extent of the heat source in Lake Bogoria basin. However, based on the results of this study, it is recommended that:- 1) exploratory drilling be undertaken in the area near Arus steam jets, 2) even though the study area is not prone to any pre-historic eruptions, microgravity and seismic monitoring be undertaken so as to help in tracking possible magma migration and variations in magma input. Such data could, in turn, play an important role in predicting future eruptive events in Lake Bogoria basin.

Kiai W. An Analysis of Planning and Implementation of HIV and AIDS Communication Interventions by NGOs in Kenya. Prof. Siimiy Wandibba PIN, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2009.abstract.doc
Pauw GD, De Schryver G-M, Wagacha PW. Kiswahili part-of-speech tagger: demonstration system.; 2006.
MR GITAU WILSON. Characteristics of the wet and dry spells during the wet seasons over Kenya. PROF OGALLO LABAN, DR MUTEMI JOSEPH, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2005.
Mutegi RG. Factors Determining Demand for Secondary Education in Public Schools in Tharaka South Division. PhD GW, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2005.
omoni DG. Teenage Motherhood in North Kisii District, Kenya. Plant PA, ed. Perth: Curtin University of Technology; 2005. Abstract

Teenage pregnancy affects millions of girls every year worldwide and is extremely common in Africa. Teenage pregnancy reflects a pattern f sexual activity which not only puts teenagers at risk of pregnancy but also of infection by the human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). The subject of sexual behaviour is complex. It is an interplay of several factors - social, biological, economic and psychological.

Teenage pregnancy has been widely studied, but attention in relation to Africa has been largely limited to its prevalence. In particular, little work has been done on the consequences of teenage motherhood. The present study focuses on factors that pre-dispose a girl to teenage pregnancy, the effects of pregnancy on physical and mental health, and the socio-economic consequences of teenage motherhood.

The initial part of this study used qualitative research methodology. Focus group discussions were conducted with ten unmarried teenage mothers and a comparison group of ten teenage in-school girls aged between 10-19 years. Content analysis of the ensuring data was carried out to identify factors that predisposed teenage girls to unwanted pregnancy, and to determine the level of awareness about sexuality and sexually transmitted infections among teenage mothers and in-school teenage girls. The key themes that emerged as factors that predispose teenagers to unwanted pregnancy were: early sexual initiation, peer pressure, perception that other teenagers had sexual intercourse, knowledge deficit about their sexuality, sex-for-money, multiple partners, parental poverty, coerced sexual intercourse, and rape. Teenage mothers listed the following as consequences of their premature pregnancy: dropping out of school, abandonment or mistreatment by parents, desertion by their boyfriend, loss of friends, being scorned by relatives, contemplation of abortion, attempted abortion, depression, complications during or following delivery, sleep deprivation after delivery, and disillusionment about their future.

The second part of the study was a quantitative survey which aimed to compare the experiences of teenage mothers and in-school girls. Of major concern was depression among teenage mothers, an area that has received little attention in the literature. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) instrument was used to assess depression. There were 198 teenage mothers and 188 in-school girls who took part with their consent and/ of their parents. Analysis was by quantitative methods, including both bivariate statistical procedures and some multivariate methods.

Results show that of the teenage mothers, 65.2% had sexual intercourse before age 15, compared to 29.8% of the in-school girls. In the study, 12.1% of the teenage mothers and 3.5% of in-school girls suspected that they had ever had a sexually transmitted infection, while 6.1% of teenage mothers and 2% of in-school girls indicated that they had a confirmed and treated STI.

During pregnancy, abortion was contemplated by 25.3% of the teenage mothers. However, most of them were vague in their knowledge about available methods. About half of the teenage mothers (49.5%) in the study indicated having contemplated committing suicide, while only 17% of the in-school girls in the control group had contemplated committing suicide.

Teenage mothers were more depressed than in-school girls; the average depression score for teenage mothers being moderate to severe depression compared to mild to moderate for the in-school girls. The respondents who reported having consensual sex were examined along the three traits of early/non-early sexual initiation, multiple/single sexual partners, and sex-for-money. In each category, the teenage mothers were more significantly depressed than in-school girls, with the average depression scores being moderate to severe for teenage mothers and mild to moderate for the in-school girls in all the groups. For those who reported having coerced sex (those raped or teacher-seduced), there was no significant difference in the state of depression of the teenage mothers and the in-school girls - the average depression score being mild to moderate fort he raped, and teacher-seduced respectively.

The study explored the predictors of depression in teenage mothers, through multiple regression analysis. The models derived found the following four variables to be significant predictors: age at 1st sexual initiation, the teenage mother's own level of education, father's level of education, and whether the teenage mother had experienced rape.

In conclusion, this study suggests that being a teenage mother at such a young age is a difficult journey. The study adds to growing knowledge about depression among teenage mothers and suggests this is a significant problem which needs to be addressed. It is anticipated that health professionals, ministries such as the Ministry of Culture and Social Services and the Government of Kenya will use this knowledge to improve the services of its youth in general.

Kianji GK. Investigations on the Seismicity of Kenya using the University of Nairobi Seismic Network. Malte DI-von-S, Prof JB, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 2004.
B.W.K W.  Effects of herbicides and Kikuyu grass on yield and yield quality of pyrethrum. . Ariga ES, P.O A, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.
Wangoh J. Chemical and technological properties of camel milk. Chemical and technological properties of camel milk Nr. 12295. Farah Z, Puhan Z, eds. Zurich: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology; 1997.
Nicholls N, Gruza GV, Jouzel J, Karl TR, Ogallo LA, Parker DE. The Science of Climate Change.; 1996.
Parmeejet A. 'FLEXIBILITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION FACILITIES. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1984.
PHOEBE DRODHIAMBOACHIENG. F. A. Odhiambo. UN-HABITAT; 1988. Abstractabstract_1.doc

Inflammation may play an important role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD), and recent studies have identified the 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) as an important mediator of inflammatory responses. Here we demonstrate a significant increase in circulating serum Hsp70 level in SCD during vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) as compared with baseline steady-state levels (P <0.05) and a significant increase in Hsp70 levels in SCD at baseline compared with normal controls (P <0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that circulating serum Hsp70 might be a marker for VOC in SCD.

Web Article
E. GICHURE, O. AGWANDAC, C. COMBESM, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE, K. NGUGIEC, B. BERCRAND, P. LASHERMES. Identification of Molecular Markers linked to a gene conferring resistance to coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum Kahawae in Coffee arabica..; 2008.

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