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Conference Paper
Papah, et al. "Lake Magadi Ecosystem: Current Research Trends and Future Perspectives.". In: 1st International One Health Conference. Hilton Hotel, Addis Ababa Ethiopia; 2013.
Paul O. "Impact of peer education on HIV/AIDS behaviour change among secondary school youths: A static group comparison analysis of a peer education project in Rachuonyo District, Kenya.". In: Global Helath Metrics and Evaluation (GHME) "Data, Debates and Directions" Conference. Seattle, U.S.A.; 2013.about_ihme.pdfihme_brochure_2011.pdfihme_researchers.pdfihme_ghdx.jpga_comparative_risk_assessment_of_burden_of_disease_and_injury_attributable_to_67_risk_factors.pdfage-specific_and_sex-specific_mortality_in_187_countries_1970-2010.pdfcommon_values_in_assessing_health_outcomes.pdfdisability-adjusted_life_years_dalys.pdfgbd_2010_design_definitions_and_metrics.pdfglobal_and_regional_mortality_from_235_causes_of_death_for_20_age_groups_in_1990_and_2010.pdfhealthy_life_expectancy_for_187_countries_1990-2010.pdfyears_lived_with_disability_ylds_for_1160_sequelae_of_289_diseases_and_injuries_1990-2010.pdffigures_-_cod_appendix.pptxfigures_-_cod.pptxfigures_-_dalys.pptxfigures_-_disability_weights.pptxfigures_-_hale.pptxfigures_-_mortality_appendix.pptxfigures_-_mortality.pptxfigures_-_overview_appendix.pptxfigures_-_overview.pptxfigures_-_risk_factors.pptxfigures_-_ylds_appendix.pptxgbd_2010_design_definitions_and_metrics.pdfgbd_2010_a_multi-investigator_collaboration_for_global_comparative_descriptive_epidemiology.pdfa_comparative_risk_assessment_of_burden_of_disease_and_injury_attributable_to_67_risk_factors.pdfage-specific_and_sex-specific_mortality_in_187_countries_1970-2010.pdfcommon_values_in_assessing_health_outcomes_from_disease_and_injury_disability_weights.pdfdisability-adjusted_life_years_dalys_for_291_diseases_and_injuries_in_21_regions_1990-2010.pdfglobal_and_regional_mortality_from_235_causes_of_death_for_20_age_groups_in_1990_and_2010.pdfhealthy_life_expectancy_for_187_countries_1990-2010.pdfuk_health_performance.pdfyears_lived_with_disability_ylds_for_1160_sequelae_of_289_diseases_and_injuries_1990-2010.pdfihme_gbdposter_mapside.jpgihme_gbdposter_storyside.jpgbuilding_momentum_global_progress_toward_reducing_maternal_and_child_mortality_ihme_0610.pdffinancing_global_health_2009_tracking_development_assistance_for_health_ihme_0709.pdffinancing_global_health_2010_development_assistance_and_country_spending_in_economic_uncertainty_ihme_1110.pdffinancing_global_health_2011_continued_growth_as_mdg_deadline_approaches_ihme_1211.pdfthe_challenge_ahead_progress_and_setbacks_in_breast_and_cervical_cancer_ihme_0911.pdf50_years_of_violent_war_deaths_bmj_062008.pdfa_novel_framework_for_validating_and_applying_small_area_measurement_strategies__population_health_metrics_1010.pdfa_randomised_assessment_of_the_mexican_universal_health_insurance_programme_thelancet_040909.pdfa_randomised_assessment_of_the_mexican_universal_health_insurance_programme_thelancet_040909.pdfadverse_health_outcomes_of_road_traffic_injuries_in_iran_archives_of_iranian_medicine_051909.pdfalgorithms_for_enhancing_public_health_utility_of_national_cause_of_death_data_population_health_metrics_052410.pdfassessing_quality_of_medical_death_certification_mexico_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfassessment_of_population-level_effect_of_avahan_an_hiv_prevention_initiative_in_india_the_lancet_1011.pdfbreast_and_cervical_cancer_in_187_countries_between_1980_and_2010_the_lancet_0911.pdfburden_of_injuries_in_iranian_children_in_2005_population_health_metrics_043110.pdfcoverage_of_cervical_cancer_screening_in_57_countries_plos_061708.pdfdevelopment_assistance_for_health_thelancet_062009.pdfdiabetes_in_the_us_population_health_metrics_092509.pdfdirect_estimation_of_cause-specific_mortality_fractions_from_verbal_autopsies_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfestimating_population_cause-specific_mortality_fractions_from_in-hospital_mortality_plos_112007.pdfestimating_the_distribution_of_external_causes_in_hospital_data_from_injury_diagnosis_accident_analysis_and_prevention_070808.pdfexposing_misclassified_hiv_aids_deaths_in_south_africa_bulletin_of_the_world_health_organization_040111.pdffalling_behind_life_expectancy_in_us_counties_from_2000_to_2007_in_an_international_context_population_health_metrics_0611.pdfhas_the_dots_strategy_improved_case_finding_or_treatment_success_plos_030508.pdfhigh_total_serum_cholesterol_medication_coverage_and_therapeutic_control_bulletin_of_the_world_health_organization_0311.pdfhow_does_satisfaction_with_the_health-care_system_relate_to_patient_experience_bulletin_of_the_world_health_organization_030409.pdfimproving_the_public_health_utility_of_global_cardiovascular_mortality_data_population_health_metrics_031511.pdfin_denial_elsevier_article.pdfincreased_educational_attainment_and_its_effect_on_child_mortality_in_175_countries_between_1970_and_2009_the_lancet_0910.pdfindias_janani_suraksha_yojana_impact_evaluation_the_lancet_060410.pdflimitations_of_methods_for_measuring_out-of-pocket_private_health_expenditures_bulletin_of_the_world_health_organization_062909.pdfmalaria_trends_between_1980_and_2010_ihme_020212.pdfmaternal_mortality_for_181_countries_the_lancet_041210.pdfmeasuring_adult_mortality_using_sibling_survival_plos_041310.pdfmeasuring_under-five_mortality_plos_041310.pdfmillenium_can_we_achieve_millenium_development_goal_4_the_lancet_092207.pdfmillennium_a_systematic_analysis_of_progress_towards_millenium_development_goal_4_the_lancet_052410.pdfmodeling_causes_of_death_an_integrated_approach_using_codem_ihme_010611.pdfnational_and_subnational_mortality_effects_of_metabolic_risk_factors_and_smoking_in_iran_population_health_metrics_1011.pdfnational_regional_and_global_trends_in_systolic_blood_pressure_since_1980_the_lancet_020311.pdfnet_benefits_plos_medicine_0911.pdfperformance_of_interva_for_assigning_cuases_of_death_to_verbal_autopsies_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfperformance_of_physcian-certified_verbal_autopsies_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfperformance_of_the_tariff_method_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfpopulation_health_metrics_research_consortium_gold_standard_verbal_autopsy_validation_study_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfpreventable_causes_of_death_in_the_us_plos_042809.pdfprevention_of_cardiovascular_disease_in_high-risk_individuals_the_lancet_121507.pdfproduction_and_analysis_of_health_indicators_and_the_role_of_academia_plos_1110.pdfprogress_towards_millennium_development_goals_4_and_5_on_maternal_and_child_mortality_the_lancet_0911.pdfpublic_financing_of_health_in_developing_countries_the_lancet_0401710.pdfrandom_forests_for_verbal_autopsy_analysis_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfrobust_metrics_for_assessing_the_performance_of_different_verbal_autopsy_cause_assignment_methods_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfsimplified_symptom_pattern_method_for_verbal_autopsy_analysis_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfstrengthening_the_science_thelancet_040508.pdfthe_effects_of_four_preventable_risk_factors_on_national_life_expectancy_in_the_us_plos_032310.pdftracking_population_health_based_on_self-reported_impairments_american_journal_of_epidemiology_051809.pdftracking_progress_towards_universal_childhood_immunisation_and_the_impact_of_global_initiatives_the_lancet_121308.pdftrends_and_cardiovascular_mortality_circulation_021908.pdftrends_in_mortality_and_cross_country_mortality_disparities_in_the_us_plos_042208.pdftrends_in_self-rated_health_american_journal_of_epidemiology_062909.pdfunderstanding_the_decline_of_mean_systolic_blood_pressure_in_japan_bulletin_of_the_world_health_organization_091708.pdfus_ranking_nejm_perspective_011410.pdfvalidation_of_the_symptom_pattern_method_plos_medicine_112007.pdfwhat_can_we_conclude_from_death_registration_plos_041310.pdfworldwide_mortality_in_men_and_women_thelancet_043010.pdfafter_40_years_the_worlds_women_are_far_more_educated_christiansciencemonitor_091610.pdfaids_awareness_boosts_global_health_funding_afp_113010.pdfcash_for_vaccination_rates_exaggerated_financial_times_121208.pdfcash_on_delivery_hindustan_times_060410.pdfdiabetes_most_prevalent_in_southern_united_states_study_finds_science_daily_092509.pdffinancial_crisis_may_kill_in_congo_as_global_health_aid_stalls_businessweek_011812.pdfglobal_health_funding_still_healthy_but_may_need_better_focus___humanosphere_093010.pdfgood_news_from_the_childbirth_front_new_york_times_041610.pdflife_spans_falling_for_least-healthy_americans_study_by_harvard_uw_finds_the_seattle_times_042208.pdflocal_healthcare_reform_outpaces_the_us___the_australian_011610.pdfmaternal_deaths_decline_sharply_across_the_globe_-_new_york_times_041310.pdfnew_study_doubles_estimate_of_global_malaria_deaths_the_washington_post_020212.pdfqa_with_dr._christopher_murray_time_041610.pdfrace_to_save_mothers_children_set_to_fall_short_afp_111911.pdfspoonful_of_ingenuity_the_economist_010710.pdfstraight_talk_with_christopher_murray_nature__1009.pdfthe_power_of_numbers_the_economist_052710.pdfthe_worlds_under-funded_health_crisis_forbes_061809.pdfwomen_less_likely_to_die_in_childbirth_in_albania_than_in_uk_the_guardian_041210.pdfwomens_cancers_reach_two_million_bbc_news_111411.pdfworldwide_war_deaths_underestimated_abc_news_062108.pdf
Beatrice" "KA-, P" "K, M" "T, J' "A, Okoro" "D, E" "CJ, S" "M, J." "K, P" "N. "Title: Role of reproductive health clinical officers in provision of safe motherhood at Kangundo District Hospital .". In: Kenya Obstetrics and Gynecology Society 37th Conference. Sirikwa, Eldoret; 2013.
ndeti ndati, I G, P M. "Media Portrayal and Disability Mainstreaming.". In: School of Human Resource Annual Research Conference. JKUAT Main Campus; 2013.
Paul A. Odundo, MURIITHI EVANSONMURIUKI, Origa JO, Gatumu JC. "Project Method and Learner Achievement in Physics in Kenyan Secondary Schools.". In: International Journal of Education and Research. Vol. 1 No. 7, July 2013.; 2013.abstract_-international_journal_of_education_and_research_vol._1_no._7_july_2013.docx
Peng B, Lei F, Ozdemir SK, Long GL, Yang L. "Engineering the spectral properties of photonic molecules.". In: CLEO: QELS\_Fundamental Science. Optical Society of America; 2013:. Abstract
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Penninah Ogada A. "Hate Speech and Overt Polarization of Citizens Towards Elections in 2013." Presented at Kenya2013 Election Watch Forum, Sarova Stanley; 2013. Abstract
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Edwards P, Janisch C, Peng B, Ozdemir SK, Yang L, Liu Z. "Raman spectroscopic sensing using whispering gallery microresonators.". In: Ultrafast Imaging and Spectroscopy. Vol. 8845. International Society for Optics and Photonics; 2013:. Abstract
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Monifi F, Peng B, Özdemir ŞK, Ma L, Maslov K, Wang LV, Yang L. "Ultrasound sensing using a fiber coupled silica microtoroid resonator encapsulated in a polymer.". In: 2013 IEEE Photonics Conference. IEEE; 2013:. Abstract
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Chege, H.W., D.C.Kemboi, L.C. Bebora, N. Maingi, P.G. Mbuthia, P.N. Nyaga, Njagi LW, Githinji JM. "Prevalence of ecto and endo parasites in free-range chickens in Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya.". In: 3rd RUFORUM Conferencenar. Entebbe, Uganda; 2012.
Kemboi, D.C., H.W. Chege, L.C. Bebora, N. Maingi, P.N. Nyaga, P.G. Mbuthia, Njagi LW, Githinji JM. "Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titres in village chicken of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya.". In: 3rd RUFORUM Conferenceting. Entebbe, Uganda; 2012.2012-_seasonal_new_castle_disease_antibody_titre_levels_in_village_chickens_of_mbeere_distrct_kenya.pdf
Cornish LA, Shongwe MB, Odera B, Odusote JK, Witcomb MJ, Chown LH, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "Update on the development of platinum-based alloys for potential high-temperature applications. .". In: Proceedings of Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Platinum 2012 Conference. Sun City, South Africa; 2012.
ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Papo MJ, Rading GO. "Microstructural investigation of some as-cast alloys of the Pt-Cr-V system.". In: Proceedings of the Ferrous and Base Metals Development Network Conference. Magaliesburg, South Africa; 2012.
DM L, SM G, P C, HM A, JM K. "Management of bovine papilomatosis using autogenous vaccine: A case study in Bukura Agricultural College Western Kenya.". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennal and 46th Annual Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association . Safari Park Nairobi; 2012.
Risper Orero, Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Ommeh. M. "Assessing Progress with the Implementation of the Public Transport Policy in Kenya.". In: 31st Southern African Transport Conference. Pretoria, South Africa; 2012.
Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Risper Orero, Winnie Mitullah, Ommeh. M. "Public Road Transport Services in the City of Nairobi, Kenya: A Case Study of the Potential for Their Conversion into a Hybrid Transport Mode.". In: Southern Africa Transport Conference. Pretoria, South Africa; 2012.
Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Risper Orero, Ommeh. M. "‘Paratransit Operations and Regulation in Nairobi: Matatu Business Strategies and the Regulatory Regime.’ Paper presented at the Southern African Transport Conf." Nairobi - Silver Springs Hotel; 2012.
UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA, Abubakar LU, Kyallo M, Pelle R. "Vector genomics and arthropod-borne diseases in Africa.". In: Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Congress. Drakensberg, South Africa: 1. Abubakar L.U., Mwangi C. N., Uku J., Ndirangu S.; 2012. Abstractabstract_fasbmb.pdf

Background:
Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro.
Methods:
Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells.
Results:
Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.
Discussion:
These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
Key words:
Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates

L.C. B, T.N M, P.K G, Ngatia T.A., Muchemi G. "Historical perspectives of lesser flamingo mortalities in Kenya.". In: Bennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine ; 2012.2012_-_historical_perspectives_of_lesser_flamingo_mortalities_in_kenya.pdf
Papah, et al. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure in Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference. Safari Park Hotel Nairobi.; 2012.
Karanja, N.K, Wachira, P.M, Muthomi, J.W, Phiri, I.K., Mutegi, C.K, Nzioki, H.S, Gikaru, A.K, Kanampiu. "Use of geographical information system to determine incidence of Aspergillus section flavi in different soils in Kaiti, Kenya.". In: 13th ARI Conference: Agricultural innovation system for improved productivity and competitiveness in pursuit of vision 2030”. KARI HQs; 2012.
Papah, et al. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in lake magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS-BiovisionAlexandria NXT Conference. Alexandria Egypt; 2012.
PRESTON CHITERE. "Termini and Routes in Nairobi.". In: South African Transport Conference (SATC). Pretoria. SA; 2012.
PRESTON CHITERE. "Public Road Transport Services in the City of Nairobi.". In: South African Transport Conference (SATC). Pretoria.; 2012.
Subramanian S, Pappu HR, Birithia R, Muthomi JW, Sseruwagi P, Narla RD. "Diversity and distribution of Iris yellow spot virus infecting onion in Eastern Africa.". In: 4th Conference of the International Working Group on Legume and Vegetable Viruses (IWGLVV). Antequera, Málaga, Spain; 2012.
MONARI FRONICA, P.O.K'obonyo P, Andollo AA. "The Influence of Time Management Tendencies on the Relationship between Employee Empoerment and Organizational Performance: A study of the University of Nairobi.". In: African International Business and Mnagement (AIBUMA). Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Kemboi DC;, Chege HW;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, P.N N;, Mbuthia PG;, Njagi LW;, Githinji JM. "Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titres in village chicken of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya."; 2012.
Kemboi DC;, Chege HW;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, P.N N;, Mbuthia PG;, Njagi LW;, Githinji JM. "Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titres in village chicken of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya."; 2012.
Kemboi DC, Chege HW;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, P.N N;, Mbuthia PG;, Njagi LW;, Githinji JM. "Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titres in village chicken of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya."; 2012.
P.O Alila, et al. "Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions." University of Nairobi Press; 2012. Abstract
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MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA, ONWONGA DRRICHARDNDEMO, P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH, GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Climate Change and Variability: Farmers.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2012. Abstract
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MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA, ONWONGA DRRICHARDNDEMO, P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH, GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Climate Change and Variability: Farmers.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2012. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA, ONWONGA DRRICHARDNDEMO, P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH, GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Climate Change and Variability: Farmers.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2012. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
Peng B, Ozdemir SK, Zhu J, Yang L. "Hybrid photonic molecules.". In: CLEO: Science and Innovations. Optical Society of America; 2012:. Abstract
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K MRSMARIKAMOGIKOYONANCY-, PROF. OCHANDA HORACE. "Impact of ICT on education.". In: International Journal of BioChemPhysics. Elsevier; 2012. Abstract
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Changalwa, C. N. NBMMPL, Poipoi MW. "The parental relationship between parenting styles and alcohol abuse among college students in Kenya." The Greener Journal of Educational Research. ISSN 2276-7789, Vol. 2(2) 013-020; 2012. Abstract
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PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference, Nairobi. Elsevier; 2012.
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference, Nairobi. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2012. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in lake magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS-BiovisionAlexandria NXT Conference, Alexandria Egypt. Elsevier; 2012.
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in lake magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS-BiovisionAlexandria NXT Conference, Alexandria Egypt. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2012. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Shongwe MB, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "A study of some as-cast and heat treated alloys of the Pt-Al-V system at the Pt-rich corner.". In: Proceedings of the ZrTa New Metals Development Network Conference at Mount Grace Country House and Spa, Magaliesburg. The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Advanced Metals Initiative; 2011.
Rudebjer P, Chakeredza S, Dansi A, Ekaya W, Ghezae N, Aboagye LM, Kwapata M, Njoroge K, Padulosi S. "Beyond commodity crops: Strengthening young scientists’ capacity for research on underutilized species in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: 2nd International Symposium on Underutilised Plant Species. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2011.
ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "Solidification projection of the Pt-Al-V system at the Pt-rich corner.". In: Proceedings of the Microscopic Society of Southern Africa Conference. Pretoria, South Africa; 2011.
Coast E, Hennink M, Hutter I, Nzioka C, Puri M. "Qualitative research in demography: a review of the last decade.". In: Sixth African Population Conference. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; 2011.
PRESTON CHITERE. "Termini and Routes in Nairobi.". In: South African Transport Conference (SATC). Pretoria. SA; 2011.
Risper Orero, Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Ommeh. M. "Paratransit Operations and Institutions in Nairobi.". In: 30th Southern African Transport. South Africa; 2011.
Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Winnie Mitullah, Risper Orero, Ommeh. M. "Paratransit Operations in Nairobi: Development of Their Routes and Termini, 30th Southern African Transport Conference,." Pretoria, South Africa; 2011.
Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Risper Orero, Ommeh. M. "‘Paratransit Business Strategies: A Bird’s Eye View of Matatus in Nairobi.’ Paper presented at the Southern African Transport Conference,." Pretoria, South Africa; 2011.
Bebora L.C, E K, M N, N K, E K’ethe, C.J L, P.G M, L. N, J.J O. "Bacterial contamination of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) along the value chain in Nairobi and its environs.". In: 10th African Crop Science Society Conference. Maputo, Mozambique; 2011.2011_-_bacterial_contamination_of_kale_from_farm_and_market.pdf
Bigirimana J, Njoroge K, Muthomi W, Gahakwa D, Phiri NA, Gichuru EK. "Breeding for resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix Berkely and Brome) and coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum kahawae Waller and Bridge) in Rwanda.". In: aGRO 2011 Biennial Conference. Rwanda; 2011.
Birithia R;, Subramanian S;, Pappu HR;, Sseruwagi P;, Muthomi JW;, Narla RD. "First Report of Iris yellow spot virus Infecting Onion in Kenya and Uganda."; 2011. Abstract

Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the key vegetables produced by small-holder farmers for the domestic markets in Sub-Saharan Africa. Biotic factors, including infestation by thrips pests such as Thrips tabaci Lindeman, can inflict as much as 60% yield loss. Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus) transmitted by T. tabaci is an economically important viral pathogen of bulb and seed onion crops in many onion-growing areas of the world (2,4). In Africa, IYSV has been reported in Reunion (1) and South Africa (3). In September 2009, symptoms suspected to be caused by IYSV were observed on onions and leeks cultivated in Nairobi, Kenya. Symptoms consisted of spindle-shaped, straw-colored, irregular chlorotic lesions with occasional green islands on the leaves. The presence of the virus was confirmed with IYSV-specific Agdia Flash kits (Agdia Inc., Elkart, IN). Subsequently, surveys were undertaken in small-holder farms in onion production areas of Makueni (January 2010) and Mwea (August 2010) in Kenya and Kasese (January 2010) and Rwimi (January 2010) in Uganda. The incidence of disease in these locations ranged between 27 and 72%. Onion leaves showing symptoms of IYSV infection collected from both locations tested positive for the virus by double-antibody sandwich-ELISA with IYSV-specific antiserum (Agdia Inc). IYSV infection was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR with primers IYSV-465c: 5′-AGCAAAGTGAGAGGACCACC-3′ and IYSV-239f: 5′-TGAGCCCCAATCAAGACG3′ (3) as forward and reverse primers, respectively. Amplicons of approximately 240 bp were obtained from all symptomatic test samples but not from healthy and water controls. The amplicons were cloned and sequenced from each of the sampled regions. Consensus sequence for each isolate was derived from at least three clones. The IYSV-Kenya isolate (GenBank Accession No. HQ711616) had the highest nucleotide sequence identity of 97% with the corresponding region of IYSV isolates from Sri Lanka (GenBank Accession No. GU901211), followed by the isolates from India (GenBank Accession Nos. EU310287 and EU310290). The IYSV-Uganda isolate (GenBank Accession No. HQ711615) showed the highest nucleotide sequence identity of 95% with the corresponding region of IYSV isolates from Sri Lanka (GenBank Accession No. GU901211) and India (95% with GenBank Accession Nos. EU310274 and EU310297). To our knowledge, this is the first report of IYSV infecting onion in Kenya and Uganda. Further surveys and monitoring of IYSV incidence and distribution in the region, along with its impact on the yield, are under investigation.

ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "Solidification projection of the Pt-Al-V system at the Pt-rich corner."; 2011.
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Dry season ecology of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in two traditionally semi-arid villages in Baringo, Kenya.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Albert O Mala 1,2*; 2011. Abstract
{ Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background: Pre-adult stages of malaria vectors in semi-arid areas are confronted with highly variable and challenging climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to determine which larval habitat types are most productive in terms of larval densities in the dry and wet seasons within semi-arid environments, and how vector species productivity is partitioned over time.   Methods: Larval habitats were mapped and larvae sampled longitudinally using standard dipping techniques. Larvae were identified to species level morphologically using taxonomic keys and to sub-species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Physical characteristics of larval habitats, including water depth, turbidity, and presence of floating and emergent vegetation were recorded. Water depth was measured using a metal ruler. Turbidity, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperatures salinity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured in the field using the hand-held water chemistry meters.   Results: Mean larval densities were higher in the dry season than during the wet season but the differences in density were not statistically significant (F = 0.04
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Factors influencing differential larval habitat productivity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes in a western Kenyan village.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Albert O. Mala & Lucy W. Irungu; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background & objectives: The study was undertaken to characterize factors influencing differential productivity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in a rural village in western Kenya . Methods: Longitudinal larval sampling was done using an area sampler for 3 months. Emerged adults were identified to species level morphologically using taxonomic keys and to sub-species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nutrient content was analyzed using persulphate oxidation method. Water pH was measured using an Orion pH/conductivity meter. Turbidity was measured using a Hach 2100A turbidity meter. Algal count density was estimated using a sedge-wick rafter cell.   Results: A total 3367 larvae were harvested. Out of 500 adults subjected to PCR analysis 358 (71.6%) were Anopheles gambiae s.s., 127 (25.4%) An. arabiensis while PCR amplification failed for 15 (3%) specimens.  Rainwater pools were the most productive habitat type. There was a positive association between algal density and larval density (p<0). Total nitrogen, water pH and turbidity were positively correlated with larval density (p<0.01) and pH was negatively associated with larval density.   Conclusion: Results indicate water nutrient and algal content in larval habitats of An. gambiae play crucial, dual roles in the resource ecology of these mosquitoes. Overall, the findings of this study support the notion that anti-larval source reduction measures aimed at manipulating physicochemical variables in larval habitats to eliminate larval production have a chance of succeeding in an integrated vector control program.   Key words Anopheles gambiae; larval productivity, nutrients; rainwater pools
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch) Sorok and Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill to adult Phlebotomus duboscqi (Neveu-Lemaire) in the laboratory.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Philip M. Ngumbi 1,2, Lucy W. Irungu2, Paul N. Ndegwa2 & Nguya K. Maniania3 1Kenya Medical Research; 2011.
Pius Mutie KK, Muasya I. "State of Kenya Population 2010; From Conflict and Crisis to Recovery." prepared on behalf of the National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development NCAPD).; 2011. Abstract
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E.E.; E, N.; M, P.; K, Githigia S.M., R. O. "Prevalence of Porcine Cysticercosis and Risk Factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in Homa Bay District, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi Biennial Scientific Conference. Na1robi, Kenya; 2010.2010-prevalence_of_porcine_cysticercosis_and_risk_factors_in_homa_bay_kenya.pdf
PW K, Mbuthia P G, RM W, Njagi L W. "Some pathological changes in Nile Tilapia and Nile Perch from Lake Victoria.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2010.2010-some_pathological_changes_in_nile_tilapia.pdf
PW K, Mbuthia P G, RM W, Njagi L W. "Trypanosoma infection in carrier fish of Lake Victoria, Kenya.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2010.2010-trypanosoma_infection_in_fish.pdf
Mulwa J, Barongo J, Fairhead D, Mariita N, Patel J. "Integrated Geophysical Study of Lake Bogoria Basin, Kenya: Implications for Geothermal Energy Prospecting.". In: Proceedings: World Geothermal Congress 2010. Bali, Indonesia: World Geothermal Congress; 2010. Abstract

The Lake Bogoria basin, here in referred to as the study area, is located in the greater Baringo-Bogoria basin (BBB), about 100 km to the north of Menengai geothermal prospect on the floor of Kenya Rift Valley (KRV). It is bound by latitudes 0o 00’ and 0o 30’N and longitudes 35o45’E and 36o15’E within the rift graben. The study area is characterized by geothermal surface manifestations which include hot springs, spouting geysers, fumaroles/steam jets and mud pools. The area is overlain by Miocene lavas lavas, mainly basalts and phonolites, and Pliocene to recent sediments and pyroclastics such as tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, superficial deposits, volcanic soils, alluvium and lacustrine silts. The terrain is characterized by extensive faulting forming numerous N-S ridges and fault scarps.
Gravity and magnetotelluric (MT) surveys were undertaken in the area to determine the heat source, characterize the geothermal reservoir, and evaluate the geothermal resource potential of the basin.
Gravity survey results indicate Bouguer anomaly having an amplitude of ~40 mGals aligned in a north-South direction and interpreted to be due to a series of dyke injections and hence the heat source in the basin. The interpretation of Bouguer anomaly has been constrained by using previous seismic results. The MT survey results show three distinct layers in the basin. The first layer, overlain by high resistivity thin layers, is ~3 km thick and has resistivities ranging between 4-30 -m. This layer is interpreted to be due to a combination of saline sediments and circulation of high temperature geothermal fluids. The second layer is ~10 km thick and resistivity values range between 85-2500 -m. This layer is interpreted to be fractured basement metamorphic rocks hosting a steam reservoir where circulating fluids are heated by underlying dyke injections. The substratum is characterized by resistivities ranging between 0.5-47 -m and is interpreted as hot dyke injections which are the heat sources for this geothermal prospect. The magnetotelluric results in this study are consistent with results of previous microseismic study in Lake Bogoria basin by Young et al. (1991).
On the basis of gravity and MT results, the heat source in Lake Bogoria basin is due to cooling dyke injections occurring at depths of ~6 – 12 km in the subsurface. Gravity method however favours depths of ~3 – 6 km. The geothermal reservoir is probably two-phase and is attributed to condensation of high temperature steam from the underlying fractured basement metamorphic rocks.

Bebora L.C, Maingi N, P.N N, P.G M, C.O G, L.W N, J.M G. "Enhancing village chicken productivity through parasite management for effective Newcastle disease vaccination in Kenya.". In: 2nd RUFORUM Biennial Capacity Building Conference. Entebbe, Uganda; 2010.2010_-_effect_of_worm_burden_on_nd_vaccination_response.pdf
Gitao CG, S.M.Kihu, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Karimuribo E, P S, Wahome R, Maingi N. "Developing capacity for implementing innovative PPR control strategies based on the epidemiology and socio-economic aspects of the disease in the East African region.". In: Second RUFORUM Biennial Meeting. Kampala, Uganda; 2010.gitao.pdf
Ntihabose L, Patel JP, Maina DM, Angeyo HK. "NORM and Associated Gamma Radiation Field in the Coltan Mining Areas of Rwanda.". In: 3rd African IRPA Congress . Laico Hotel, Rwanda; 2010.
Khasakhala" "A, Palamuleni" "M. "Utilization of Maternal Health Care Services in Lesotho and Malawi.". In: 2010 7. Population of South Africa (PASA) annual conference. DBSA, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2010.
P.N(v) K. "An Analysis of the relationship between acquisition of ICT skills and teaching science curriculum in NEPAD e-schools in Kenya.Researchpaper.". In: Presented at elearningAfrica International conference – Zambia and published in the e-learning Africa Book of abstracts 2010.Elearning Africa publication.; 2010.
Lund JF;, Bhandari NS;, Baral K;, Kharel KK;, Puri L;, Chhetri BBK;, Nielsen, Ø.J; Upadhyaya CP, Nielsen, Ø.J; Upadhyaya CP. "Community forestry common funds in Nepal."; 2010.
Ojango JM;, Panandam JM;, Bhuiyan AKFH;, Khan MS;, Kahi AK;, Imbayarwo-Chikosi VE;, Mwai OA. "Higher education in animal breeding in developing countries–challenges and opportunities."; 2010.
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "IN VITRO EFFECTS OF WARBURGIA UGANDENSIS, PSIADIA PUNCTULATA AND CHASMANTHERA DEPENDENS ON LEISHMANIA MAJOR PROMASTIGOTES.". In: Afr. J. Trad. CAM 7 (3): 264-275. Edward K. Githinji, Lucy W. Irungu, Willy K. Tonui, Geoffrey M. Rukunga, Charles Mutai, Charles N. M; 2010. Abstract

Plant extracts from Warburgia ugandensis Sprague (Family: Canellaceae), Psiadia punctulata Vatke (Family: Compositae) and Chasmanthera dependens Hoschst (Family: Menispermaceae) were tested for activity on Leishmania major promastigotes (Strain IDU/KE/83 = NLB-144) and infected macrophages in vitro. Plants were collected from Baringo district, dried, extracted, weighed and tested for antileishmanial activity. Serial dilutions of the crude extracts were assayed for their activity against Leishmania major in cell free cultures and in infected macrophages in vitro. Inhibitory concentrations and levels of cytotoxicity were determined. Warburgia ugandensis, Psiadia punctulata and Chasmanthera dependens had an IC(50) of 1.114 mg/ml, 2.216 mg/ml and 4.648 mg/ml, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the drugs on BALB/c peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant as compared to the highly toxic drug of choice Pentostam(®). The supernatants from control and Leishmania infected macrophages were analyzed for their nitrite contents by Griess reaction and nitrite absorbance measured at 540 nm. Warburgia ugandensis (stem bark water extract), Chasmanthera dependens (stem bark water extract) and Psiadia punctulata (stem bark methanol extract) produced 112.3%, 94% and 88.5% more nitric oxide than the untreated infected macrophages respectively. Plant crude extracts had significant (p<0.05) anti-leishmanial and immunomodulative effects but insignificant cytotoxic effects at 1mg/ml concentration. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis of the differences between mean values obtained from the experimental group compared to the controls was done by students't test. ANOVA was used to determine the differences between the various treatment groups. The analysis program Probit was used to determine IC(50)s.

Okeyo AM;, PERSLEY G;, Kemp SJ. "Livestock and Biodiversity: The Case of Cattle in Africa."; 2010. Abstract

Africa is home to diverse and genetically unique ruminant livestock and wildlife species. The continent, however, faces huge food security challenges, partly due to low productivity of the livestock. As a centre of cattle domestication, Africa hosts genetically unique cattle, being products of generations of co-evolution with diverse people, each selecting for different attributes under different production systems and environments. Over millennia, this diversity of purpose has led to rich and unparalleled blends of indigenous and exotic cattle. Different parasites and pathogens, whose vigour has been buoyed by variable but generally favourable tropical conditions, have coevolved and served as critical drivers, making African cattle some of the world’s most scientifically interesting and valuable populations. This diversity is being lost at an alarmingly rate, and insitu conservation will not significantly save it These cattle can potentially provide adequate food and income to their keepers. First their genetic and phenotypic diversity should be understood, and then carefully tailored to specific production systems to improve their productivity. To realistically conserve these cattle, for which no conservation plans currently exist, available modern bio- and information technologies are needed to assemble and analyse complex sets of information on them. As the climate and pathogens all change, by smartly conserving (ex-situ) those at risk the genetic attributes critical for the world’s future food security challenges would be saved. This paper discusses the diversity of the African cattle and the need for their system-wide characterisation in order to allow their keepers to cope with the changing system, and minimise the loss of these unique genotypes.

P.K BUNDI, JA O'o, J HASSANALI, P O. "Morphometry and variations of bony ponticles of the atlas vertebrae (C1) in a Kenyans.". In: Int. J. Morphol., 28(4): 1019-1024. Int. J. Morphol., 28(4): 1019-1024; 2010. Abstract

Atlas bridges, the bony outgrowths over the third segment of the vertebral artery are associated with compression of the artery and nerves. There are limited studies comparing morphometry of the complete atlas bridges and that of the ipsilateral transverse foramen. Bilateral and gender differences in the morphometry of the complete bridges remain relatively unexplored. One hundred and two atlas vertebrae (49 male and 53 female) obtained from the Osteology Department of the National Museums of Kenya were used for this study. The presence of complete posterior atlas bridge (retroarticular canal) and lateral bridge (supratransverse foramen)
was noted. Measurements were taken for the diameters of foramina, and the ipsilateral transverse foramina and their areas calculated. Complete posterior bridges occurred in 14.6% and 13.6% on the right and left sides respectively. The lateral bridge was found in 3.9% of the cases on the right side only. The complete posterior bridges had a cross-sectional area of 23.44mm2 on the right and 24.98mm2 on the left side. The lateral bridges had a mean cross-sectional area of 27.30mm2. The right and left transverse foramina had mean crosssectional
area of 36.30mm2 and 37.20mm2 respectively, which was significantly larger than that of the ipsilateral complete and posterior bridges. The smaller dimensions of the complete atlas bridges compared to the ipsilateral transverse foramen suggest that they may predispose to vertebrobasilar insufficiency, Barre-Lieou and cervicogenic syndromes due to compression of the contents in the foramina.

PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "KIBUNJA, C.N., F.B. MWAURA AND D.N. MUGENDI 2010. Long-term Land Management Effects On Soil Properties And Microbial Populations In A Maize-Bean Rotation At Kabete, Kenya. African J of Agric. Research 5 (2): 108 .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2010. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
Pauw GD, Anyango Maajabu NJ, Waiganjo Wagacha P. "A Knowledge-Light Approach to Luo Machine Translation and Part-of-Speech Tagging." In: Pauw GD, H. Groenewald, de Schryver G-M, eds. Proceedings of the Second Workshop on African Language Technology (AfLaT 2010). Valetta, Malta: European Language Resources Association (ELRA); 2010:. Abstract
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PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MUIGAI, P.G., P.M. SHIUNDU, F.B. MWAURA AND G.N. KAMAU 2010. Phosphorous as the limiting nutrient element for the eutrophication of Nairobi dam , Kenya. Int. J of BiochemiPhysics 18 :47 .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2010. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MUIGAI, P.G., P.M. SHIUNDU, F.B. MWAURA AND G.N. KAMAU 2010.Correlation between dissolved oxygen and total dissolved solids and their role in the eutrophication of Nairobi Dam, Kenya. Int. J of BiochemiPhysics 18 :37 .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2010. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "NDATHE, J.K., F.B. MWAURA, J. NSUBA, L. BERGA, P.NDOLO, S.L. DOTY AND G.N. KAMAU 2010.Uptake and distribution of selected heavy metals by sweet potato plant varieties under greenhouse conditions Int. J of BiochemiPhysics. 18 :21 .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2010. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Nocturnal activities of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psydhodidae) in Baringo District, Kenya. Submitted to TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Ngumbi PM, Robert LL, Irungu LW, Kaburi JC, Githure JI; 2010.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Stephen Moindi Kibet, G.P. Pokhariyal and B.M. Nzimbi, Study of W_4 Curvature tensor on Sasakian Manifold, Kenya J. Sciences(KJS), Vol. 14, No.1 2010, 1-8.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2010. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Stephen Moindi Kibet, G.P. Pokhariyal and B.M. Nzimbi, Study of W_4 Curvature tensor on Sasakian Manifold, Kenya J. Sciences(KJS), Vol. 14, No.1 2010, 1-8.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2010.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Stephen Moindi Kibet, G.P. Pokhariyal and B.M. Nzimbi, Study of W_4 Curvature tensor on Sasakian Manifold, Kenya J. Sciences(KJS), Vol. 14, No.1 2010, 1-8.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2010. Abstract
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MONARI FRONICA, Porkiyal PGP. "Effect of Training Needs Assessment on Performance : The case of Non-teaching Staff of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences, UON.". In: The 4th International Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA)ch . Nairobi, Kenya; 2009.
and in of of the on P • IPIPDK: HSICWEA, of in System. TCRP-CK’s DSTW’s C. "Ethno-regional Alliances or Political Party Coalitions? The Political Struggles in Kenya, 1998 – 2007.".; 2009.
Nwankwo UM;, Bett RC;, Peters KJ;, Bokemann W. "Need-based innovation motivates attitude change in farmers: evaluation of PROSAB approach.".; 2009. Abstract

The assumption that indigenous farmers resist change is shallow, explained only by a lack of thorough investigation of what the change agents intend to communicate, how they intend to communicate it and the intended beneficiaries. Adoption-decision is complex; it is affected by innovation’s attributes, information-communication perception, socioeconomic, institutional, policy environments and other factors. Besides the riskiness of being the first to try new innovation, problem of resource allocation for maximum utility also affects individual decisions. Innovation availability, affordability and workability are sine qua non to agricultural development therefore they ought to work both technically and commercially. Both a semi-structured questionnaire and personal interviews were administered on a total of 560 farmers from 4 Local Government Areas in Borno State, Nigeria. Farmers faced numerous constraints, fertiliser availability and affordability being the highest, (18% total share) followed by weed problems (17%). Only 18% had information access for problem solution, information received is relevant to farming needs (36%). Within 3 years of PROSAB’s (Promoting Sustainable Agriculture in Borno State) activities in the state, the majority of the respondents have adopted their new crop varieties. Soybean (Glycine max) was not cultivated in the region before. The effect of participation on adoption decision was statistically significant at p<0.0001. 77% of respondents are core farmers while 73% make their living through it with a mean of 23.8 years experience. Soybean planting-harvesting ratio was 1:53 kg and maize (Zea mays) 0.14:23 kg. Innovation attributes were ranked in order of priority; economic needs rank higher than religious or cultural priorities. The claims that indigenous farmers resist change are not always the case due to approach like soliciting for their opinion. This paper has underscored this observation and diffused the misconception. It is clear that farmers can change when presented with sustainable alternatives through consultation.

PATRICK ALILA NM. "Child Labour: New and Enduring Forms." ISBN 978-9966-786-07-4; 2009. Abstract
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PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Githuku, S.N., P. Irungu and A. Wambugu (2009). Technical Efficiency in Kenya.". In: Paper accepted for publication in the African Journal for Agricultural and Resource Economics. In press. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2009. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Penninah Ogada A. "Integrating APRM into University Education: Workshop for African Academics." presented at aWorkshop Hosted by the South African Institute of International Affairs at the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, S. Africa; 2009. Abstract
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PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Irungu, P., P.M. Ithondeka, E. Wafula, S.N. Wekesa, H. Wesonga and T.W. Manga (2009). Strategies for revitalizing Kenya.". In: Paper submitted to Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2009. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Peng B, Zhang L, Yang J. "Iterated graph cuts for image segmentation.". In: Asian Conference on Computer Vision. Springer; 2009:. Abstract
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PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Medicinal Plants of East Africa, 3rd Edition.". In: Proceedings of 5th of African Crop Science Conference. Lagos Nigeria. University of Nairobi Press; 2009. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "NDATHE, J.K., F.B.MWAURA, J. NSUMBA, L. BERGA, P. NDOLO & G.N. KAMAU 2O09. Electrochemical monitoring of heavy metal ion solutions containing sweet potato plant varieties under in vitro conditions. pp 1 .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
Bebora L.C, P. M, G. GM, L.W N. "Histomoniasis and traumatic gastritis (hardware disease) in peacocks.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference , . Nairobi; 2008.2008_-_hostomoniasis_and_traumatic_gastritis_in_peacocks.pdf
L.C. B, L.W. N, Mbuthia P.G., P.N N. "Importance of environmental hygiene in reducing bacterial load exposure to night-housed indigenous chickens.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . Nairobi, ; 2008.
Patel, N. B KKSTPG. "Effect of Catha edulis (khat) on learning and memory on CBA mice.". In: International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) World Congress. Melbourne, Australia.; 2008.
H PROFS, P O, K A. "Child Maltreatment at a Violence Recovery Center in Kenya ;.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

Mbuthia PG;, L.C. B;, G M;, L.W N;, P.N N;, M. M. "Histomoniasis and other conditions in peacocks."; 2008.
Mbuthia PG;, L.C. B;, G M;, L.W N;, P.N N;, M. M. "Histomoniasis and other conditions in peacocks."; 2008.
Sabuni, A.Z, Mbuthia, P.G., Maingi, N., P.N. Nyaga, L.W. Njagi, L.C. Bebora, Michieka JN. "Prevalence of haemoparasites infections in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province, Kenya."; 2008.
Sabuni, A.Z, Mbuthia, P.G., Maingi, N., P.N. Nyaga, L.W. Njagi, L.C. Bebora, Michieka JN. "Prevalence of haemoparasites infections in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province, Kenya.".; 2008.
Sabuni, A.Z, Mbuthia, P.G., Maingi, N., P.N. Nyaga, L.W. Njagi, L.C. Bebora, Michieka JN. "Prevalence of haemoparasites infections in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province, Kenya.".; 2008.
Sabuni, A.Z, Mbuthia, P.G., Maingi, N., P.N. Nyaga, L.W. Njagi, L.C. Bebora, Michieka JN. "Prevalence of haemoparasites infections in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province, Kenya.".; 2008.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ, PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI, PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "A. N. Ngari, J. I. Kinyamario, M. J. Ntiba and K. M. Mavuti, 2008, Factors affecting abundance and distribution of submerged and floating macrophytes in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, African Journal of Ecology, Vol 46 (In Press).". In: African Journal of Ecology, Vol 46 (In Press). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ, PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI, PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "A. N. Ngari, J. I. Kinyamario, M. J. Ntiba and K. M. Mavuti, 2008, Factors affecting abundance and distribution of submerged and floating macrophytes in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, African Journal of Ecology, Vol 46 (In Press).". In: African Journal of Ecology, Vol 46 (In Press). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, A note on Similarity, Almost-Similarity and Equivalence of Operators, Far East Mathematics Journal, Vol 28, Issue 2(February 2008), 305-317.". In: Far East Mathematics Journal, Vol 28, Issue 2(February 2008), 305-317. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; 2008. Abstract
The almost-similar and similar relations between operators on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces are investigated. It is shown that almost-similar operators share some properties with some other classes of operators. Various results on almost-similarity and similarity are proved. An attempt is made to classify those operators where almost-similarity implies similarity. We investigate some properties of corresponding parts of operators which enjoy these equivalence relations.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, A note on Similarity, Almost-Similarity and Equivalence of Operators, Far East Mathematics Journal, Vol 28, Issue 2(February 2008), 305-317.". In: Far East Mathematics Journal, Vol 28, Issue 2(February 2008), 305-317. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2008. Abstract
The almost-similar and similar relations between operators on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces are investigated. It is shown that almost-similar operators share some properties with some other classes of operators. Various results on almost-similarity and similarity are proved. An attempt is made to classify those operators where almost-similarity implies similarity. We investigate some properties of corresponding parts of operators which enjoy these equivalence relations.
Pauw GD, Waiganjo Wagacha P, de Schryver G-M. "Bootstrapping Machine Translation for the Language Pair English - Kiswahili." In: J. Aisbett, G. Gibbon, A.J. Rodrigues, K.K. Migga, R. Nath, G.R. Renardel, eds. Special Topics in Computing and ICT Research - Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. Kampala, Uganda: Fountain Publishers; 2008:. Abstract
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OKWIRI DROWINO, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Emerging theories on decision making: application in judicial services.". In: 4th ORSEA Conference, 2008. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2008. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
Penninah Ogada A. "Gender and Governance: Kenya." UNIFEM/RECESSPA High Profile Seminar, Holiday Inn, Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
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JUMA DRMUSEMBIROBINSON, PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Intensity and Temperature Dependent Characterization of eta Solar Cell.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986. Physica Status Solidi; 2008. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
KIOGORA DRMWORIAJOHN, PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "Jane T. Munene, J.I. Kinyamario, N. Holst and JK Mworia Competition between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) and wild rice (Oryza punctata) in Kenya.African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 3 (9), pp. 605-611.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. Intech Open Access Publishers; 2008.
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW, DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Muriu S.M., Shilulu J.I., Muturi E.J., Irungu l.W., Mwangangi J.M., Mukabana R.W., Jacob B.G., Githure J.I., and Novak R.J., (2008). Host choice and multiple blood feeding behaviour of malaria vectors and other anophelines in Mwea rice irrigation scheme, .". In: Malaria Journal 7:43. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Studies were conducted between April 2004 and February 2006 to determine the blood-feeding pattern of anopheles mosquitoes in Mwea Kenya. Samples were collected indoors by pyrethrum spay catch and outdoors by Centers for Disease Control light traps and processed for blood meal analysis by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. A total of 3.333 blood-fed Anopheles mosquitoes representing four Anopheles species were collected and 2.796 of the samples were assayed, with Anopheles arabiensis comprising 76.2% (n=2.542) followed in decreasing order by Anopheles coustani 8.9% (n=297), Anopheles pharoensis 8.2 % (n=272) and anopheles funestus 6.7% (n=222).  All mosquito species had a high preference for bovine (range 56.3-71.4%) over human (range 1.1-23.9%) or goat (0.1-2.2%) blood meals.  Some individuals from all the four species were found to contain mixed blood meals.  The bovine blood index (BBI) for An. arabiensis was significantly higher for populations collected indoors (71.8%), than populations collected outdoors (41.3%), but the human blood index (HBI) did not differ significantly between the two populations.  In contrast, BBI for indoor collected An. funestus (51.4%) was significantly lower than for outdoor collected populations (78.8%) and the HBI was significantly higher indoors (28.7%) than outdoors (2.4%).  Anthropophily of An. funestus was lowest within the rice scheme, moderate in unplanned rice agro-ecosystem, and highest within the non-irrigated agro-ecosystem.  Anthropophily of An. Arabiensis was significantly higher in the non-irrigated agro-ecosystem than in the other agro-ecosystems. These findings suggest that rice cultivation has an effect on host choice by Anopheles mosquitoes.  The study further indicate that zooprophylaxis may be a potential strategy for malaria control, but there is need to assess how domestic animals may influence arboviruses epidemiology before adapting the strategy.
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MUTITU E.W., J.M. WAGACHA., J.W. MUTHOMI, & F.B. MWAURA, (2008). Control of bean rust on snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using antibiotic metabolites produced by Bacillus and Streptomyces species. Bots. J Agric & Appl. Sci. Volm. 4 No.1 2008: 62 .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PeRRin MR. "Niche separation in African parrots.". In: Proceedings of the 12th Pan-African ornithological congress. Avian Demographic Unit RawsonvilleCape Town; 2008:. Abstract
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P.W M, J.M M, M.W.K M, R.W N, N K, J.K M, E.M A, R.W M, R.E K. "Strategies for maintaining sweet potato nurseries free from insect vectors that spread Sweet potato Virus Disease.". In: African Crop Science Society Conference (ACSS).; 2007.
J.K M, P.W M, M.W.K M, R.W N, N K, J.K M, E.M A, R.W M, R.E K. "Participatory evaluation of sweet potato production in Kirinyaga and Kwale districts in Kenya.". In: Regional Universities Forum Biennial Meeting. Mangochi, Malawi; 2007.
P.W M, M.W.K M, R.W N, N K, J.K M, E.M A, R.W M, R.E K. "Screening for tolerance in selected sweet potato germplasm to Sweet-potato Virus Disease in Kenya.". In: Regional Universities Forum Biennial Meeting. Mangochi, Malawi; 2007.
Pauw GD, Wagacha PW, De Schryver G-M. "Automatic diacritic restoration for resource-scarce languages.". In: International Conference on Text, Speech and Dialogue. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg; 2007. Abstract

The orthography of many resource-scarce languages includes diacritically marked
characters. Falling outside the scope of the standard Latin encoding, these characters are
often represented in digital language resources as their unmarked equivalents. This renders
corpus compilation more difficult, as these languages typically do not have the benefit of
large electronic dictionaries to perform diacritic restoration.

Dorothy MC, Patrick A, Mary O. "Business in Kenya.". In: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Nairobi: Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.; 2007. Abstract

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P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER. "Abdi,A.I., Wambua P.P., Githui,E.K. and Bulimo, (2007). Deposited 35 P.falciparum ebl-1 gene variants at Gene Bank. Received provisional accession numbers for each gene: EF205091-EF205127.". In: International association of hydrological sciences ( IAHS) publication 2000 No 259. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 2007. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER. "Abdi,A.I., Wambua P.P., Githui,E.K. and Bulimo, W.D. Nucleotide polymorphism in reqion I of the P.falciparum ebl-1 gene in field isolated obtained form various regions of Kenya (2007) in press.". In: International association of hydrological sciences ( IAHS) publication 2000 No 259. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 2007. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
Pauw GD, Waiganjo Wagacha P, de Schryver G-M. "Automatic diacritic restoration for resource-scarce languages." In: s}ek VM{\v, Mautner P, eds. Proceedings of Text, Speech and Dialogue, Tenth International Conference. Vol. 4629. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg; 2007:. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4629. Abstract
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PATRICK ALILA, et al. "Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions." University of Nairobi Press; 2007. Abstract
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PROF. MUKIAMA TITUSK. "Matasyoh, Lexa G. 1*, Josphat C. Matasyoh2, Francis N. Wachira3, Miriam G. Kinyua4, Anne W. Thairu Muigai1 and Titus K. Mukiama 5(2007) Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L. growing in Eastern Kenya.". In: African Journal of Biotechnology 6:760-765. WFL Publisher; 2007. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Ojuok, J.E., Njiru, M., and M. J. Ntiba. The Effect of overfishing on the life- history strategy of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, Kenya.". In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management Journal (In Press). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2007. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki, Astronomy in The Cultural Heritage of African Societies, Proceedings of IAU GA XXVI SpS5, Cambridge University Press eds. John Hearnshaw and Peter Martinez.". In: In proceedings: International grasslands congress. Kentucky, USA. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2007.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki, Spreading Astronomy Education through Africa.". In: Proceedings of IAU GA SpS2, Cambridge University Press(2007) eds. Jay M. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2007.
Pauw GD, Waiganjo Wagacha P, D.A. Abade. "Unsupervised Induction of Dholuo Word Classes using Maximum Entropy Learning." In: K. Getao, E. Omwenga, eds. Proceedings of the First International Computer Science and ICT Conference. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2007:. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Waita S.M.,Aduda, B.O., Mwabora, J.M., Granqvist, C.G., Lindquist, S.E.,Niklasson, G.A., Hagfeldt, A., Boaschloo G. (2007)Electron Transportand Recombination in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated from Obliquely Sputter Deposited and Thermally Annealed .". In: Journal of Electroanalytic Chemistry, 605, 151-156. Physica Status Solidi; 2007. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
Waiganjo Wagacha P, Pauw GD, K. Getao. "Development of a Corpus for Gikuyu using machine learning techniques." In: J.C. Roux, ed. Proceedings of LREC workshop - Networking the development of language resources for African languages. Genoa, Italy: European Language Resources Association; 2006:. Abstract

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Waiganjo Wagacha P, Pauw GD, P.W. Githinji. "A Grapheme-Based Approach for Accent Restoration in Gikuyu.". In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation. Genoa, Italy: European Language Resources Association; 2006:. Abstract
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Riha SJ;, Blume LE;, Barret CB;, Kinyangi JM;, Lehmann CJ;, Marenya PP;, Mbugua DM;, Nicholson CF;, Ngoze SO;, Parsons D;, Verchot LV;, Pell AN. "Long-Term Human and Biophysical Dynamics of Soil Degradation in the Kenyan Highlands.".; 2006. Abstract

Agroecosystems are among the most tightly coupled of human and natural systems, as farmers make conscious decisions regarding land use and improvement, cropping systems, livestock management and labor allocation. These decisions can profoundly impact the natural resource base, which can then lead to changes in farmers' behaviors. The focus of this study is to understand the long term human and biophysical dynamics of soil degradation. We are especially interested in the role that soil degradation plays in creating poverty traps and in interventions that will strongly impact the dynamics of these systems. We have developed an integrated economic and biophysical systems dynamic model to understand and predict the long term behavior of farms in the Kenyan highlands. Additionally, we have established a chronosequence in western Kenya of farms converted from primary forest to agriculture 100, 70, 50, 30, 15, 5, and < 3 years ago. This chronosequence includes three blocks that contain all time conversions, with 3 farms per conversion. Soil chemistry and soil organic matter fractions have been measured from fields that have never received fertilizer additions. An extensive set of fertility experiments to examine the response of maize to amendment with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, manure and green manure have been established on these soils. Socioeconomic data for these farms has been collected. The chronosequence data is being used to both parameterize and evaluate the model. Preliminary findings indicate that both soil organic matter and maize yields decline after conversion from primary forest, but not at the same rates. As the soil degrades and maize yields decrease, farms become more diversified by shifting some land into perennials. This change in land use is associated with a stable, though decreased, soil fertility level. The relationship of these changes in cropping systems and soil fertility to off farm activities and income will be discussed, as well as the implications of these dynamics for preventing soil degradation and restoring fertility.

Dorothy McCormick, Paul K, Ligulu P. "Post-Multifibre Arrangement Analysis of the Textile and Garment Sectors in Kenya.". In: Post-Multifibre Arrangement Analysis of the Textile and Garment Sectors in Kenya." IDS Bulletin 37 (1): 80-88. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.; 2006. Abstract

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McConkey GA, Pinney JW, Gaskell EA, Wambua L, Hyland C, Shirley MW, Westhead DR. "Predicting parasite metabolic networks: A fisherman's nightmare?". In: 11th International Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA XI). Edinburgh, United Kingdom; 2006.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "A.A. Ogacho, B.O. Aduda and F.W. Nyongesa (Dec. ), Thermal Shock Behaviour of a Kaolinite Refractory Prepared Using a Natural Organic Binder,.". In: Journal of Materials Science, 41(24) 8276 . Physica Status Solidi; 2006. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER, J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Aluvaala, E.K, Tsuma, L.M Wambua.P.P, Bulimo.W.D, and Mulaa F.J. Identification of Glycosyl Hydrolase producing Extremophilic bacterium using ribosomal DNA sequence. Sequence deposited at Gene Bank under accession number DQ 341411. (2006).". In: Gene Bank under accession number DQ 341411. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 2006. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
Pauw GD, de Schryver G-M, Waiganjo Wagacha P. "Data-Driven Part-of-Speech Tagging of Kiswahili." In: P. Sojka, c}ek I K{\v, K. Pala, eds. Proceedings of Text, Speech and Dialogue, Ninth International Conference. Vol. 4188/2006. Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag; 2006:. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4188/2006. Abstract
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Penninah Ogada A. "Facilitation and Hindrance of Identity: Gender, Religion, Ethnicity and Politics in Kenya.". presented at(REDET) Workshop in Arusha; 2006. Abstract
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PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Irungu, P., Mugunieri, L.G. and Omiti, J.M. (2006). Determinants of farmers.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Kones, J., Soetaert, K., Van Oevelen, D., Owino, J.O., Mavuti, K. 2006. Gaining insight into aquatic food webs reconstructed by the inverse method: A factor analysis approach.". In: Journal of Marine Systems 60 (2006) 153. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Kulmiye1 AJ, KM Mavuti and JC Groeneveld. 2006. Size at onset of maturity of spiny lobsters Panulirus homarus homarus at Mambrui, Kenya.". In: African Journal of Marine Science. 2006, 28(1): 51-55. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R. W. and four others (2006). Greening the brown. A case study of the ASALS in Kenya. Egerton University Press.". In: Egerton University Press. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Njiru, M., Ojuok, J.E., Okeyo-Owuor, J.B., Muchiri, M., M. J. Ntiba and Cowx, I.G. Some biological aspects and life history strategies of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in Lake Victoria, Kenya.". In: Afri. J. Ecol, 44, 1-8. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Njoka, T,J. and P.I.D. Kinyua, 2006. The logistic model-generated carrying capacities, maximum sustained offtake rates and optimal stocking rates for Kenya.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "O. Aduda, Materials Science, Promotion of Science and Technology (POST).". In: .), Vol. XII No. 1, p19 . Physica Status Solidi; 2006. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Odada, E.O., Olago, D.O., Ochola, W., Ntiba, M.J., Wandiga, S., Gichuki, N. and Oyieke, H. Proceedings (Vol.I) of the 11th World Lakes Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 31st October to 4th November 2005: Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Kenya & International L.". In: Afri. J. Ecol, 44, 1-8. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki, SPH 305: Classical Mechanics , A peer reviewed Physics lecture module for distance learners .". In: published by the University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Prospects and Challenges of NEPAD with Focus on Addressing Capacity Deficits.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2006. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Prospects and Challenges of NEPAD with Focus on Addressing Capacity Deficits. Working Document for the 7th Regional Consultative Meeting of UN Agencies working in Africa, Addis Ababa,.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2006. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Wakwabi, E. O., Balirwa, J and Ntiba, M.J. Aquatic biodiversity of Lake Victoria Basin. In Eric Odada, D. Olago and W. Ochola (eds.). Environmental Development: An Ecosystem Assessment of Lake Victoria Basin Environmental and Socio-Economic Status, Trends.". In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management Journal (In Press). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2006. Electoral Politics and Election Outcomes in Kenya. Africa Development. Special Issue on Electoral Politics In Africa.". In: Vol XXXI No3, 2006.pp 62-80. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2006.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "The ability of Phenylbutazone and dexamethazone to modulate postoperative phenomena in cattle. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 28 pp. 29-32.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

The ability of Phenylbutazone and Dexamethazone to modulate post operative tempetature, limping, joint pain and joint mobility after joint surgery in calves was assessed. Intramuscular injections of 4.4mg/kg Phenylbutazone or 0.2 mg/kg Dexamethazone were given to two groups of calves. Both Dexamethazone and Phenybutazone were effective in reducing pain, limping and fever with a tendency fo Dexamethazone to be more potent than Phenylbutazone. However there was no significant difference between the ability of Dexamethazone and Phenylbitazone to module these controlled use of the anti-inflammatory drugs in the immediate post-operative period in cattle in beneficial.

MCLIGEYO SO, PK M, CF O, JK K, AA A. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: clinical presentation and precipitating factors at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S191-6.". In: Chiromo Campus, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinico-laboratory features and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Inpatient medical and surgical wards of KNH. SUBJECTS: Adult patients aged 12 years and above with known or previously unknown diabetes hospitalised with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. RESULTS: Over a nine month period, 48 patients had DKA out of 648 diabetic patients hospitalised within the period, one died before full evaluation. Mean (SD) age was 37 (18.12) years for males, 29.9 (14.3) for females, range of 12 to 77 years. Half of the patients were newly diagnosed. More than 90% had HbA1c > 8%, only three patients had HbA1c of 7-8.0%. More than 90% had altered level of consciousness, with almost quarter in coma, 36% had systolic hypotension, almost 75% had moderate to severe dehydration. Blunted level of consciousness was significantly associated with severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Over 65% patients had leucocytosis but most (55%) of them did not have overt infection. Amongst the precipitating factors, 34% had missed insulin, 23.4% had overt infection and only 6.4% had both infection and missed insulin injections. Infection sites included respiratory, genito-urinary and septicaemia. Almost thirty (29.8%) percent of the study subjects died within 48 hours of hospitalisation. CONCLUSION: Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in about 8% of the hospitalised diabetic patients. It was a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The main precipitant factors of DKA were infections and missed insulin injections. These factors are preventable in order to improve outcomes in the diabetic patients who complicate to DKA.

Mukiama T;, Patrick Rubaihayo, Kifle Dagne, Alois Kullaya, Richard Edema, Okori P, Bananuka J. "East African Regional Programme and Research Network for Biotechnology, Biosafety and Biotechnology Policy Development, Kampala, Uganda.". In: Revised BIO-EARN Phase III Programme Proposal (2006-2009).; 2005.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Ernest Njoroge, Peter Mbithi, Timothy Wachira, Joseph Gathuma, Peter Gathura, T E Maitho, Japhet Magambo, Eberhard Zeyhle (2005) Comparative Study of Albendazole and Oxfendazole in the Treatment of Cystic Echinococcosis in Sheep and Goats. International J.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of teo drugs, albendazole and oxfendazole in treatment of cystic echinococcosis using naturally infected sheep and goats. Fifteen (15) animals were randomly selected into 3 groups of 5 animals each, with each group having 2 sheep and 3 goats respectively. Two groups were treated orally with either albendazole of oxfendaole at 30 mg/kg body weight twice a week for 4 weeks while the third group served as controls. Ultrasound and post mortem examination of the animals , and microscopic examination of protoscolices for eosin dye exclusion and flame cell motility were used to determine the efficacy of the two drugs. Ultrasound examination revealed that 4 animals in the albendazole group and 3 in oxfendazole group had decreased cyst viability (p<0.05). There were no changes in idendifiable cysts of control animals. Microscopic ecaminaiton showed that 60.9% (14/23) of the cysts from albendazole group had dead protoscolices compared to 93.3% (14/15) and 27.3% (3/11) for oxfendazole and control groups respectively. There were no significant differences between the effect of either albendazole or oxfendazole between sheep and goats. In the present study , oxfendazole has a higher efficacy (93.3%) than albendazole (60.7%) when administered at the same dosage rate (30mg/kg-body weight) and for the same period 9twice weekly for 4 weeks). Based on the findings in this study, exfendazole seems promising as an alternative drug for treatment of cystic echinococcosis.

Shaka M, Dulo SO, wycliffe S, Joseph K, Timothy I, James K, Paul K, Patrick O, simon G, Victor K, Roseln O, Deksios T. "Flood And Drought Forecasting And Early Warning Program (For The Nile Basin).".; 2005.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi, et al (2005). Some clinical features of osteoarthritis in the hip joints of adult dogs in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 28 pp.20-22.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 95% ethyl alcohol in PAIR technique. Animals naturally infected with Echinococcus were randomly divided into two groups. In the test group, cysts (n=7) were punctured, drained and injected with 95% ethyl alcohol, while in the control group, cysts (n=9) were only punctured and drained. The procedure was done under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound showed collapsed endocysts after cyst puncture in both groups. One month later, there was decrease in cyst size, increased echogenicity and complete or partial detachment of the endocyst. Postmortem examination of the cysts in test group showed gross degeneration with marked fibrosis of the surrounding liver tissue. Incision of the cysts revealed turbid yellow cystic contents and degenerated endocysts. Microscopically, only debris and dead protoscoleces with detached hooks were seen. In the control group, the cysts appeared grossly intact but flaccid. Incision of the cysts showed clear fluid with intact endocysts. However, microscopic examination of the cyst fluid showed that the protoscoleces were dead with detached hooks. In the test group, histopathology showed host cell reaction consist of infiltrated, adventitial layer with neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma cells. In addition, the liver tissue was destroyed and replaced with young fibroblasts and mesenchymal cells. In the control group, histopathology showed detachment of the laminate layer of the cyst from the adventitia, and inflammatory cells in both the adventitia and the liver tissues. However, the degree of inflammation was markedly less in the control than in the test group. The findings suggest that puncture alone may be sufficient to kill the protoscoleces, possibly due to the detachment of the endocyst from the host wall.

Dorothy McCormick, Odhiambo W, Paul Kamau. "Kenya’s Participation in the WTO: Lessons Learned.". In: Managing the Challenges of WTO Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2005. Abstract

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PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Land Tenure, Land Use and Sustainability in Kenya: Towards Innovative Use of Property Rights in Wildlife Management' in C.O. Okidi et al. eds., Land Use for Sustainable Development, Cambridge University Press, New York.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2005. Abstractland_tenure.pdf

Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.

PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "Assessing Management of Medical Needs of Orphans in Orphanages in Nyanza Province (Submitted) Sahara Journal, 2005 Mbeo PO; Omwandho CA; Tumbo-Oeri AG.". In: AWC/FES Research Publications. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.

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