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Nantulya F.N.., Kitonyi G.W. PNKOJ. "Chediaki Higashi Syndrome: a case report on an African infant." EAMJ. 1990;9(67):674-680 . AbstractWebsite

An African Kenyan female infant was born with very light skin and ashen grey, scanty hair. At 18 months she presented with a bluish skin pigmentation, hepatosplenomegaly, generalised lymphadenopathy and non-responsive fever. A bone marrow aspirate and peripheral blood examination done revealed characteri¬stic features of the Chediak-Higashi Syndrome. This is a rare disorder, to our knowledge not previously described in Africans. The case is presented with a brief review of the literature

NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Chege M.N., Mwaniki P.K., Waweru C.M., Mwamburi R.L., Miano J.N, Kanjuga A., Karani A. , Syagga E., Macharia J. , Mwamuye J.N. Registered Theatre Nursing Clinical Log. Nursing Council of Kenya. Nairobi, May, 1999.". In: PMID: 12638835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the childcare practices of commercial sex workers (CSWs). DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and December 2000 during which a structured questionnaire was administered. SETTING: Kibera slum, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred eighty five CSWs and four focus group discussions (FGDs) held. Health cards from 126 under five years old children belonging to the respondents were reviewed for immunization status and regularity of growth monitoring. RESULTS: The mean age of the 385 CSWs surveyed was 32 +/- 7 years and mean duration of sex work was 6 +/- 4 years. The mean number of living children was 3.4 +/- 2 and 81.2% of the mothers lived with their children. Three quarters of the CSWs practised prostitution at home. The most common daily childcare activities by the mothers were food preparation (96.2%) and washing children's clothes (91.3%). Overall 96.8% of their under-five years old children were fully immunized and 80% of their under one year old children had their growth monitored monthly. About three quarters of the mothers with adolescent children educated them on HIV/STDs. Health seeking behaviour for the children was hampered by health care cost (71.4%) and consumption of alcohol by the mothers. Like other mothers, the CSWs encouraged their adolescent children to take up some adult roles such as maintaining a clean house (93.3%). However only 2.0% took time to converse or counsel the children. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with the CSWs showed that children were left unattended at night while the mothers went out in search of clients. Efforts to provide better education for the children were undermined by lack of funds (52.2%) and truancy (46.6%). One third of the study population had invested for the future maintenance of their children. CONCLUSION: There was more emphasis on physical, rather than psychological aspect of childcare. The practice of living with the children ensured that earnings from the sex trade were used for the immediate needs of the children such as food. However this practice had a negative influence on the children as the majority of the respondents conducted their sexual business at home with little or no privacy. Health seeking behaviour for the children was hampered by lack of funds and to some extent alcohol consumption by the mothers. Efforts to invest in the education of their children were undermined by lack of funds and truancy.

NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Chege, M.N. (2003): Health Seeking Behaviour of Commercial Sex workers. Kenya Nursing Journal, December; 2003.". In: Commun Statist. Theor. Meth. Vol. 16, No. 10, 3095 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
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NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Chege, M.N., Kabiru, E.W., Mbithi, J.N. and J.J. Bwayo (2002): Childcare Practices of Commercial Sex Workers. East African Medical Journal, July; 79 (7): 382-389.". In: PMID: 12638835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE. Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the childcare practices of commercial sex workers (CSWs). DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and December 2000 during which a structured questionnaire was administered. SETTING: Kibera slum, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred eighty five CSWs and four focus group discussions (FGDs) held. Health cards from 126 under five years old children belonging to the respondents were reviewed for immunization status and regularity of growth monitoring. RESULTS: The mean age of the 385 CSWs surveyed was 32 +/- 7 years and mean duration of sex work was 6 +/- 4 years. The mean number of living children was 3.4 +/- 2 and 81.2% of the mothers lived with their children. Three quarters of the CSWs practised prostitution at home. The most common daily childcare activities by the mothers were food preparation (96.2%) and washing children's clothes (91.3%). Overall 96.8% of their under-five years old children were fully immunized and 80% of their under one year old children had their growth monitored monthly. About three quarters of the mothers with adolescent children educated them on HIV/STDs. Health seeking behaviour for the children was hampered by health care cost (71.4%) and consumption of alcohol by the mothers. Like other mothers, the CSWs encouraged their adolescent children to take up some adult roles such as maintaining a clean house (93.3%). However only 2.0% took time to converse or counsel the children. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with the CSWs showed that children were left unattended at night while the mothers went out in search of clients. Efforts to provide better education for the children were undermined by lack of funds (52.2%) and truancy (46.6%). One third of the study population had invested for the future maintenance of their children. CONCLUSION: There was more emphasis on physical, rather than psychological aspect of childcare. The practice of living with the children ensured that earnings from the sex trade were used for the immediate needs of the children such as food. However this practice had a negative influence on the children as the majority of the respondents conducted their sexual business at home with little or no privacy. Health seeking behaviour for the children was hampered by lack of funds and to some extent alcohol consumption by the mothers. Efforts to invest in the education of their children were undermined by lack of funds and truancy.

Fombong AT, Teal PEA, Arbogast RT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Torto B. "Chemical communication in the honey bee scarab pest Oplostomus harlodi: Role of (Z)-9- Pentacosene." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2012;38:1463-1473.Website
Fombong AT, Teal TE, Arbogast RT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Torto B. "Chemical communication in the honey bee scarab pest Oplostomus haroldi: role of (Z)-9-pentacosene." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2012;38(12):1463-1473. AbstractPubMed link

Oplostomus haroldi Witte belongs to a unique genus of afro-tropical scarabs that have associations with honey bee colonies, from which they derive vital nutrients. Although the attributes of the honey bee nest impose barriers to communication among nest invaders, this beetle still is able to detect conspecific mates for reproduction. Here, we show, through behavioral studies, that cuticular lipids serve as mate discrimination cues in this beetle. We observed five steps during mating: arrestment, alignment, mounting, and copulation, and a post-copulatory stage, lasting ~40–70 % of the total mating duration, that suggested mate guarding. Chemical analysis identified the same nine straight-chain alkanes (C23–C31), six methyl-branched alkanes (6), and five mono-unsaturated alkenes in the cuticular lipids of both sexes. Methyl alkanes constituted the major component (46 %) of male cuticular lipids, while mono-unsaturated alkenes were most abundant (53 %) in females. (Z)-9-Pentacosene was twice as abundant in females than in males, and ~20 fold more concentrated in beetles than in worker bees. In mating assays, (Z)-9-pentacosene elicited arrestment, alignment, and mounting, but not copulation, by male beetles. These results represent the first evidence of a contact sex pheromone in a scarab beetle. Such contact pheromones may be an essential, cryptic mechanism for arthropods associated with eusocial insects.

Chalo DM, Kakudidi E, Origa-Oryem H, Namukobe J, Franke K, Yenesew A, Wessjohann LA. "Chemical constituents of the roots of Ormocarpum sennoides subsp. zanzibaricum." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2020;93:104142. AbstractBiochemical Systematics and Ecology

Description
Phytochemical investigation of the roots of O. sennoides subsp. zanzibaricum Brenan & J.B. Gillett resulted in the isolation of three biflavonoids (trime-chamaejasmin, (+)- chamaejasmin, (+)-liquiritigeninyl-(I-3,II-3)-naringenin), one bi-4-phenyldihydrocoumarin (diphysin), one isoflavan (glabridin), one triterpenoid (3-O-acetyloleanoic acid) and a phytosterol (β-sitosterol). Compounds were identified by detailed MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. Their absolute configurations were elucidated based on ECD spectra. The previously undescribed trime-chamaejasmin represents a bis-epi-chamaejasmenin C diastereomer. The chemophenetic significance is discussed in detail. The results contribute to the phytochemical characterization of the genus Ormocarpum and suggest a close chemophenetic relationship with other genera within the subfamily Papilionoideae. Furthermore, this report provides baseline …

Kiprop EK;, Narla RD;, Mibey RK;, Akundabweni LMS. "Chemical Control Of Septoria Leaf Spot On Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp,) In Kenya."; 2007. Abstract

Three foliar fungicides namely, Antracol, Kocide 101 and Folicur were evaluated for the control of Septoria leaf spot caused by S. vignicola V.G. Rao on cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] at two field sites in Kenya: Kabete and Katumani. The cowpea variety used was the high yielding Machakos 66 that was also susceptible to Septoria leaf spot. Reduction in disease incidence and severity of Septoria leaf spot on cowpea was obtained with the three fungicides. However, significant (P≤0.05) increase in seed yields was obtained when Kocide 101 and Antracol were applied to cowpea plants with the disease at Katumani. Folicur was found to be phytotoxic to cowpea plants and hence reduced plant dry weight and seed yield at both sites. Based on the cost-benefit analysis of the fungicides in the present study, Antracol and Kocide 101 are recommended for the control of Septoria leaf spot on high yielding cowpea varieties in arid and semi-arid areas. The Pearson correlation (r) between the disease incidence and seed yield was 0.75 (P=0.46), while that between disease severity and seed yield was 1.00 (P=0.01).

Kiprop EK;, Narla, R. D.; Mibey ARK; LM, Mibey RK;, Akundabweni LMS. "Chemical Control Of Septoria Leaf Spot On Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp,) In Kenya."; 2007. Abstract

Three foliar fungicides namely, Antracol, Kocide 101 and Folicur were evaluated for the control of Septoria leaf spot caused by S. vignicola V.G. Rao on cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] at two field sites in Kenya: Kabete and Katumani. The cowpea variety used was the high yielding Machakos 66 that was also susceptible to Septoria leaf spot. Reduction in disease incidence and severity of Septoria leaf spot on cowpea was obtained with the three fungicides. However, significant (P≤0.05) increase in seed yields was obtained when Kocide 101 and Antracol were applied to cowpea plants with the disease at Katumani. Folicur was found to be phytotoxic to cowpea plants and hence reduced plant dry weight and seed yield at both sites. Based on the cost-benefit analysis of the fungicides in the present study, Antracol and Kocide 101 are recommended for the control of Septoria leaf spot on high yielding cowpea varieties in arid and semi-arid areas. The Pearson correlation (r) between the disease incidence and seed yield was 0.75 (P=0.46), while that between disease severity and seed yield was 1.00 (P=0.01).

Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Ni G, Li J, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "Chemical intuition for high thermoelectric performance in monolayer black phosphorus, $\alpha$-arsenene and aW-antimonene." Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 2018;6. Abstract
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Soukoulis CM, Zhu H, Li J, Ni G, Xu K, Shao H, Zhang H, Peng B, others. "Chemical intuition for high thermoelectric performance in monolayer black phosphorus, alpha-arsenene and aW-antimonene.". 2018. Abstract
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W DRMUTHOMIJAMES, N DRCHEMININGWAGEORGE. "Chemining.". In: 7th Biennial Conference of the African Crop Science Society, 5th . African Crop Science Society; 2005. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
Langat MK, Crouch N, Ndunda B, Midiwo JO, Aldhaher A, Alqahtani A, Mulholland DA. "The Chemistry of African Croton species." Planta Medica. 2016;81(S 01):384. AbstractFull text link

The genus Croton is one of the largest of Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto, and consists of over 1300 species of trees, shrubs and herbs that are distributed worldwide in the warm tropics and subtropics. It is reported that 124 Croton species occur in continental Africa whilst a further 156 species are endemic to Madagascar. Another 12 species occur in the Indian Ocean islands of Comoros, Mauritius, Reunion and Sao Tome and Principe [1]. We discuss the chemistry, chemotaxonomic patterns and biological activities of selected compounds from ten African Croton taxa: C. alienus, C. dichogamus, C. gratissimus var. gratissimus, C. megalobotrys, C. megalocarpoides, C. megalocarpus, C. menyhartii, C. pseudopulchellus, C. rivularis and C. sylvaticus. Examples of compounds to be presented include cembranoids (1-3) from C. gratissimus var. gratissimus [2,3], ent-kauranes (4-5) from C. pseudopulchellus [4], ent-clerodanes (6-8) from C. sylvaticus, C. megalocarpus and C. megalocarpoidies, and both halimanes (9) and crotofolanes (10 – 11) from C. dichogamus. Triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids and cyclohexanol derivatives from Croton will also be discussed. Selected cembranoids from C. gratissimus were tested against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10) and against the PEO1 and PEO1TaxR ovarian cancer cell lines [2]. Compound 1 showed moderate activity against the PEO1 (IC50= 132 nM) and PEO1TaxR (IC50= 200 nM) ovarian cancer cell lines. Selected ent-kauranoids were tested for their effects on Semliki Forest Virus replication and for cytotoxicity against human liver tumour cells (Huh-7 strain). Other Croton-derived compounds were tested for antimicrobial and antifungal activities [5,6], antiplasmodial activity using two strains of Plasmodium falciparum, antileishmanial activities against Leishmania donovanii [5], and cytotoxic activity against NCI59 cancer cell panels, and colorectal and VERO cancer cell lines.
Keywords: Croton, Euphorbiaceae, ent-clerodanes, cembranoids, crotofolanes

N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Cheruiyot, P.K., W. Ndiema, C.K.W. and Ngunjiri, G.M.N. (2003). Greenhouse effects on biogas generation. Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Nyamweya NN, Kimani SN, Abuga KO. "Chewable Antacid Tablets: Are Disintegration Tests Relevant?" AAPS PharmSciTech . 2020;21:139. Abstract

A recently published FDA guidance on chewable tablets has addressed the quality attributes of this class of dosage forms. This study evaluated disintegration as a quality attribute for a number of commercially available chewable antacid tablets. Additionally, acid-neutralizing-capacity values were evaluated. A number of the products exhibited prolonged disintegration times—which were far longer than those of conventional immediate-release tablets. The mean disintegration times ranged from 6 to more than 60 min in distilled water and from 9 to over 60 min in 0.1 N HCl. The products with longer disintegration times had higher breaking force and tensile strength values. Despite the range in disintegration times, all products met the criteria for acid-neutralizing capacity. These results indicate a need for patients to be aware of the need to thoroughly chew antacid tablets upon administration. Given these considerations, disintegration testing would be a useful quality control test in evaluating these dosage forms as the implicit assumption by the manufacturer that patients will chew the product sufficiently may not be met in every case.

Kemboi. DC, Bebora. LC, Maingi. N, Nyaga. PN, Mbuthia. PG, Chege. HW, Njagi. LW, J.Githinji. "Chicken parasites and local treatments used against them in Mbeere District, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2014;vol 26(1).
H.W. Chege, D.C.Kemboi, L.C. Bebora, Maingi N, P.N. Nyaga, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW. "Chicken parasites and local treatments used against them in Mbeere District, Kenya." Livestock for Research for Rural Development. 2014;26(1).chege_et_al._2014-_chicken_parasites_and_treatment_-lrrd.pdf
Chege. HW, Kemboi. DC, C.Bebora. L, Maingi. N, Nyaga. PN, Mbuthia. PG, Njagi. LW, Githinji. J. "Chicken parasites and local treatments used against them in Mbeere District, Kenya." Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2014;26(1).
Njeru G. "Child Labour in Small and Medium Enterprises.". In: New and Enduring Forms from an African Development Policy Perspective. Nairobi: ILO/IPEC; 2009.
Alila PO, Njoka JM. "Child Labour: New and Enduring Forms." Nairobi. ILO/IPEC 2009,ISBN 978-9966-786-07-4; 2012. Abstract
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Ngaruiya B. "Children and HIV / AIDS education.". 2002.
Otieno SP, Muchiri P. Children Rise Up. Otieno SP, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Chlamydia as a cause of late neonatal pneumonia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):476-9. PMID: 12625688 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Were FN, Govedi AF, Revathi G, Wambani JS.". In: East African Med J, 79; 7-10:2002. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Neonatal pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. The problem is known to be higher in resource poor third world countries. Organisms (such as chlamydia) not covered by routine laboratory tests and regular antibiotic regimes may frequently contribute towards the causation of late neonatal pneumonia. It is therefore useful to gather epidemiological evidence to guide in the routine diagnosis and treatment of such infections. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of chlamydia associated pneumonia among infants developing the disease between the 7th and 30th days of life (late neonatal pneumonia). DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Fifty two newborns clinically diagnosed as having late neonatal pneumonia. They were all subjected to chest X-rays to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal aspirates for chlamydia antigen detection tests were then performed on all patients. The study was undertaken during the months of September through to November 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The proportion of newborns with late neonatal pneumonia that have chlamydia trachomantis as the sole or contributory causative agent. RESULTS: Fifty two newborns of postnatal age between seven and 30 days were recruited. Their sex distribution was about 1:1. Thirty three (63.5%) of these infants were found with chlamydia in their upper airways. Thirty out of 47 available chest X-rays, representing 63.8% had evidence of interstitial pneumonitis. Chlamydia associated pneumonia indicated by the presence of both interstitial pneumonia and colonization of the upper air ways was present in 24 out of 47 patients, 51% of the total cases of late neonatal pneumonia. When X-rays alone were compared with our gold standard for the diagnosis of chlamydia pneumonia (radiology and colonization), we computed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity 73%, negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value of 80%. Mode of delivery, birth weight and gestation had no association with nasopharyngeal colonization by chlamydia or actual diagnosis of chlamydia pneumonia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of chlamydia associated infection among newborns with late neonatal pneumonia at Kenyatta National Hospital is 51%, eight times more than that reported elsewhere. Chest X-rays appear to be a reliable diagnostic tool in this group. The use of antichlamydial drugs in addition to the regular antibiotics whenever a diagnosis of late neonatal pneumonia is made is justifiable.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Chloris roxburghiana Schult grass genetic variation between ecological sites: the case for in situ reseeding seed multiplication. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Chloroquine Drug Interactions Part I: Interaction with drugs acting at the neuromuscular junction.". In: EAST AND CENTRAL AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, VOL. I. ANASTASIA N. GUANTAI , IVAN ADDAE-MENSAH, DAVID K. NJOROGE; 1998. Abstract

Chloroquine is extensively used in the management of malaria in Kenya. It is widely available for self medication. Often it is used concurrently with other drugs. In the present paper, possible drug interactions with Chloroquine have been investigated. Isolated rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation was used to study the effect of Chloroquine alone and in combination with several drugs on neuromuscular impulse transmission. Chloroquine in the dose range 0.025 - 0.3 vg/m1 organ bath concentration induced a dose-dependent neuromuscular junction (NMJ) transmission blockade. The drug significantly potentiated the NMJ transmissionblockade induced by commonly used agents gallamine, succinylcholine and lignocaine. It antagonised the NMJ facilitatory action of physostigmine, calcium chloride and barium chloride. Chloraquine could. be interfering with ion conductance processes. It is suggested that Chloroquine should be used with caution in conditions characterised by muscle contractile disorders or during treatment with drugs that cause decreased skeletal muscle activity. Key Words: Chloroquine, interactions, neuromuscular junction.

Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA, Omondi BI, Nyagah J. "Choice of impression materials and techniques by dentists.". In: IADR ESAD. Eldoret, Kenya; 2015.
Kisumbi BK, Simila OH, Omondi BI, Nyagah J. "Choice of Impression Materials and Techniques by Dentists.". In: 33rd Kenya Dental Association Annual Scientific Conference & Exhibition.; 2015. Abstract
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N. WACHEGEPATRICK. CHRIST OUR ELDER: A Christological Study From the Agĩkũyũ Concept of Elder.. NAIROBI: CUEA (Catholic University Of East Africa); 1986.pn_wachegesma.pdf
Othieno-Abinya NA, Nyabola LO, Kiarie GW, Ndege R, Maina MD. "Chronic myeloid leukaemia at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2002;79(11):593-597. Abstract

To determine the clinical and haematological factors associated with treatment and outcome of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Retrospective survey of patients treated for chronic myeloid leukaemia.
Kenyatta National hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, between April 1990 and August 2000.
Patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia.
One hundred and four patients, 55 males and 49 females, age range 10-72 years with a median age of 35 years. Treatment with busulphan getting less popular in favour of hydroxyurea. Median follow-up 20 months with none of the clinical and haematological parameters impacting significantly on duration of follow-up.
CML occurs at a younger age-group in Kenya, and none of the clinical or haematological parameters appears to impact on follow-up duration.

Othieno-Abinya NA, Nyabola LO, Kiarie GW, Ndege R, Maina JM. "Chronic myeloid leukaemia at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2002;79(11):593-597. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the clinical and haematological factors associated with treatment and outcome of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) at Kenyatta National Hospital.
DESIGN:

Retrospective survey of patients treated for chronic myeloid leukaemia.
SETTING:

Kenyatta National hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, between April 1990 and August 2000.
SUBJECTS:

Patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia.
RESULTS:

One hundred and four patients, 55 males and 49 females, age range 10-72 years with a median age of 35 years. Treatment with busulphan getting less popular in favour of hydroxyurea. Median follow-up 20 months with none of the clinical and haematological parameters impacting significantly on duration of follow-up.
CONCLUSION:

CML occurs at a younger age-group in Kenya, and none of the clinical or haematological parameters appears to impact on follow-up duration.

Martelat J-E, Paquette J-L, Bosse V, Giuliani G, Monié P, Omito E, Simonet C, Ohnenstetter D, Daniel Ichang'i, Nyamai C, Wamunyu A. "Chronological Constraints On Tsavorite Mineralizations and Related Metamorphic Episodes In Southeast Kenya." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(5):845-865. AbstractFull text link

Tsavorite is exclusively hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (NMMB). The gemstone mines, widespread between Kalalani (Tanzania) and Mgama Ridge (Kenya), define a continuous corridor over a hundred kilometers in length. The tsavorite is hosted by a metasedimentary sequence defined as the Kurase tsavorite-bearing metasediments (Kurase-TB metasediments) that also hosts rubies. These metasediments underwent amphibolite-facies metamorphism and are surrounded by granulitic gneisses that are also of sedimentary origin (the Kurase high-temperature gneisses). All these rocks lie below the Kasigau Group, a unit dominated by granulite-facies metamagmatic rocks.

To constrain the timing of events that led to this peculiar occurrence of tsavorite, we have performed geochronological analyses of thin sections and of separated grains of zircon, monazite, and rutile using LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS, as well as 40Ar/39Ar of muscovite and phlogopite from various lithologies. The results show that the different terranes were metamorphosed synchronously between 620–580 Ma but under different P-T strain conditions. The Kurase-HT gneisses and the rocks from the Kasigau Group are highly strained and underwent granulite-facies metamorphism with abundant partial melting and emplacement of felsic melts between 620 and 600 Ma. Textural observations also underlined a late regional water flux controlling the occurrence of V-free muscovite and monazite mineralizations at 585 Ma. The latter event can be related to the activity of the Galana shear zone, in the east. The Kurase-TB metasediments escaped strain and partial melting. They record amphibolite-facies conditions with static heating, since initial sedimentary structures were locally preserved. The age of the tsavorite mineralization was inferred at 600 Ma from metamorphic zircon rims and monazite from the closest host-rocks, sampled in the mines. Hence, tsavorite crystallization occurred statically at the end of the metamorphic event, probably when the temperature and the amount of volatiles were at maximum levels.

Conversely, the ruby formed by local metasomatism of felsic dikes and isolated ultramafic bodies. The rubies are older and zircons and monazites from a ruby-bearing felsic dike (plumasite) were dated at 615 Ma. Finally, data from rutile and micas indicate a global cooling below 430 °C of the whole region between 510 and 500 Ma.

Nyamai C, Wamunyu A, Daniel Ichang'i, Martelat J-E, Paquette J-L, et al. "Chronological Constraints On Tsavorite Mineralizations and Related Metamorphic Episodes In Southeast Kenya." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(5):845-865. AbstractFull Text

Tsavorite is exclusively hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (NMMB). The gemstone mines, widespread between Kalalani (Tanzania) and Mgama Ridge (Kenya), define a continuous corridor over a hundred kilometers in length. The tsavorite is hosted by a metasedimentary sequence defined as the Kurase tsavorite-bearing metasediments (Kurase-TB metasediments) that also hosts rubies. These metasediments underwent amphibolite-facies metamorphism and are surrounded by granulitic gneisses that are also of sedimentary origin (the Kurase high-temperature gneisses). All these rocks lie below the Kasigau Group, a unit dominated by granulite-facies metamagmatic rocks.

To constrain the timing of events that led to this peculiar occurrence of tsavorite, we have performed geochronological analyses of thin sections and of separated grains of zircon, monazite, and rutile using LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS, as well as 40Ar/39Ar of muscovite and phlogopite from various lithologies. The results show that the different terranes were metamorphosed synchronously between 620–580 Ma but under different P-T strain conditions. The Kurase-HT gneisses and the rocks from the Kasigau Group are highly strained and underwent granulite-facies metamorphism with abundant partial melting and emplacement of felsic melts between 620 and 600 Ma. Textural observations also underlined a late regional water flux controlling the occurrence of V-free muscovite and monazite mineralizations at 585 Ma. The latter event can be related to the activity of the Galana shear zone, in the east. The Kurase-TB metasediments escaped strain and partial melting. They record amphibolite-facies conditions with static heating, since initial sedimentary structures were locally preserved. The age of the tsavorite mineralization was inferred at 600 Ma from metamorphic zircon rims and monazite from the closest host-rocks, sampled in the mines. Hence, tsavorite crystallization occurred statically at the end of the metamorphic event, probably when the temperature and the amount of volatiles were at maximum levels.

Conversely, the ruby formed by local metasomatism of felsic dikes and isolated ultramafic bodies. The rubies are older and zircons and monazites from a ruby-bearing felsic dike (plumasite) were dated at 615 Ma. Finally, data from rutile and micas indicate a global cooling below 430°C of the whole region between 510 and 500 Ma.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""City Slum Single Motherhood and Its Socio-economic Implications for Child Welfare".". In: In African Urban Quarterly (AUQ) Vol. 13 Nos. 1 and 2 of February and May 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Njeru G, Owiti MOD, Mute L, Geoffrey; Wanyande P. Civic Education for Marginalised Communities.; 2001.
Wanyande P, Njeru G, Mute L, Owiti MOD. Civic Education for Marginalised Communities.; 2001.
Nzomo M. "Civil Society in the Kenyan Political Transition: 1990-2002." The Kenyan Politics in Transition: 1990-2002; 2003. Abstract
n/a
Nzomo M. "Civil Society in the Kenyan Political Transition: 1990-2002." The Kenyan Politics in Transition: 1990-2002; 2003. Abstract
n/a
Ngugi M. "Claims of US Disinterest in Africa are Misleading." Daily Nation, June 22, 2022.
Ndetei DM, Mamah D, Owoso A, Mbwayo AW, Mutiso VN, Muriungi SK, Khasakhala LI, Barch DM. Classes of Psychotic Experiences in Kenyan Children and Adolescents.; 2012.classes_of_psychotic_experiences_in_kenyan_children.pdf
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Mbuthia P.G. Claw disorders in dairy cows under smallholder zero-grazing units. Saarbrucken: Scholar's Press; 2015.
Nguhiu J, P M F M, Mbuthia P G. Claw Disorders in Dairy Cows Under Smallholder Zero-grazing Units. Saarbrucken, Germany: Scholars' Press; 2015.
Nguhiu J, P M F M, Mbuthia P G. Claw Disorders in Dairy Cows Under Smallholder Zero-grazing Units. Saarbrucken, Germany: Scholars’ Press; 2015. Abstract
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Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Mbuthia PG. Claw Disorders in Dairy Cows Under Varying Zero-Grazing Units. Scholars’ Press. ; 2015.
Nyabuga G. "Click on democracy: An Assessment of Internet use in Kenya’s 2007 General Election.". In: Politics: Web 2.0. London, U.K.; 2008.
MBECHE IM, Kumssa A, Mosha AC, Njeru EHN. "Climate Change and Urban Development in Africa." Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation; Filho, WL, Ed.; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany. 2015:215-226. Abstract

Climate change poses a major threat to sustainable urban development in Africa. Changes in thefrequency, intensity, and duration of climate extremes (droughts,floods, and heat waves, amongothers) will affect the livelihoods of the urban population, particularly the poor and other vulnerablecommunities who live in slums and marginalized settlements. Extreme changes in weather patternswill increase incidences of natural disasters and impact on all key sectors of the economy, includingthe urban economy, agriculture and forestry, water resources, coastal areas and settlements, andhealth. In Africa, where livelihoods are mainly based on climate-dependent resources and environ-ment, the effect of climate change will be disproportionate and severe. Moreover, Africa’s capacityto adapt to and cope with the adverse effects of climate variability is generally weak. This Chapterexamines the relations between climate change and urban development in Africa and looks at therole and effect of climate change on urban development. It also assesses the available policy optionsfor adaptation and mitigating climate change effects in urban Africa

KABUBO-MARIARA J, Nyangena W. "Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Options of Farming Households: Empirical Evidence from Kenya. Chapter 5 .". In: Natural Resource Management and Climate Change in Africa. Vol. 3: Climate Change. African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) & Moran (E.A.) Publishers; 2012.
and Nyukuri PK-ME. "CLIMATE CHANGE, LAW AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES IN KENYA." IELRC. 2013.
Ngugi RK, Mureithi SM, Kamande PN. "CLIMATE FORECAST INFORMATION: THE STATUS, NEEDS AND EXPECTATIONS AMONG SMALLHOLDER AGRO-PASTORALISTS IN MACHAKOS DISTRICT, KENYA." International Journal of Current Research. 2011;Vol. 3(Issue:11):006-012. Abstract

The potential use of seasonal climate forecasts in farm and resource management has been studied
in a number of cultural contexts around the world. Many of these studies reveal difficulties that
smallholders encounter in accessing, interpreting and applying forecasts for their own benefit. This
study looked at the awareness of and usage of climate forecast information in central Kenya in the
aftermath of the 1997/98 El Niño event. Household surveys were conducted in Machakos District,
Kenya, in January 2001. Retrospective and concurrent awareness and application of seasonal
forecast information was assessed for 240 households across a range of agro ecological zones. The
results show high degree of awareness and use of forecasts. Farmers discussed both actual and
potential application of forecasts for both above-normal and below-normal rainfall. The influence of
the El Niño tendency to increase the rainfall as in the case of 1997/98 El Niño was clear from their
emphasis on strategies to mitigate the impacts of above-or below-normal rainfall. Applications of
information in both crop and livestock management are documented. Constraints still exist, such as
interpretation of information, relevance of the variables forecast to the management decisions of
concern, confidence in the forecasts, and timely and affordable access to resources such as seeds.
We suggest that collaborative efforts between the forecast providers and the users of information
may be directed towards addressing these constraints. For instance in case of abnormal
phenomenon such as droughts or floods, forecasts can be closely followed by early warning
campaigns with clear guidelines of how to prepare, distributed through the FM radio in local
languages order to abate human suffering

Keywords: Climate forecast, Smallholders, Agro-pastoralists, El Niño, Kenya.

Ngugi RK, Mureithi SM, Kamande PN. "Climate forecast information: the status, needs and expectations among smallholder agro-pastoralists in Machakos District, Kenya." Intern. J. Current Res. . 2011;6(11):006-012. Abstract2011_ngugi_et_al_ijcr-3-11_climate_forecast_information.pdfWebsite

The potential use of seasonal climate forecasts in farm and resource management has been studied
in a number of cultural contexts around the world. Many of these studies reveal difficulties that
smallholders encounter in accessing, interpreting and applying forecasts for their own benefit. This
study looked at the awareness of and usage of climate forecast information in central Kenya in the
aftermath of the 1997/98 El Niño event. Household surveys were conducted in Machakos District,
Kenya, in January 2001. Retrospective and concurrent awareness and application of seasonal
forecast information was assessed for 240 households across a range of agro ecological zones. The
results show high degree of awareness and use of forecasts. Farmers discussed both actual and
potential application of forecasts for both above-normal and below-normal rainfall. The influence of
the El Niño tendency to increase the rainfall as in the case of 1997/98 El Niño was clear from their
emphasis on strategies to mitigate the impacts of above-or below-normal rainfall. Applications of
information in both crop and livestock management are documented. Constraints still exist, such as
interpretation of information, relevance of the variables forecast to the management decisions of
concern, confidence in the forecasts, and timely and affordable access to resources such as seeds.
We suggest that collaborative efforts between the forecast providers and the users of information
may be directed towards addressing these constraints. For instance in case of abnormal
phenomenon such as droughts or floods, forecasts can be closely followed by early warning
campaigns with clear guidelines of how to prepare, distributed through the FM radio in local
languages order to abate human suffering

Keywords: Climate forecast, Smallholders, Agro-pastoralists, El Niño, Kenya.

Ndathi AJN, MNM, Musimba NKR, Mitaru BN. "Climate variability and dry season ruminant livestock feeding strategies in Southeastern Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2011;23(9). Abstract

Availability of feeds for livestock production is a major constraint to livestock production in drylands of Kenya. This study was conducted to generate information on the climate of the semi-arid lands of Southeastern Kenya and the livestock keepers’ dry seasons feed provision strategies. Information on climate was generated through analysis of long-term and short-term rainfall and temperature data. The dry seasons’ livestock feed provision strategies were generated through a household survey using a questionnaire.

Livestock keepers have a period of 6 months to grow and harvest feeds to bridge a5 months feed shortage gap. Long-term rainfall amounts showed irregular peaks and troughs and seem to have a stable mean over the years. However, even with the troughs and peaks, the temperatures seem to be increasing. This means that moisture available for feed production may be decreasing. Buying of feeds and using on-farm conserved feeds were the most commonly used feed provision strategies during the dry seasons. However, these strategies were constrained by lack of money, availability of the feeds to buy, inadequate space for conservation and rotting of the conserved feeds.

Key word: constraints, feed conservation, droughts, drylands

o. c. Ghibingal, Musimba NRK, Nyangito MM, Simbay J, Daural MT. "Climate variability; enhancing adaptive utilization of browse trees for improved livestock production among agro-pastoralists communities in Southern Zambia." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2012;6((7)):267-274. Abstract

Agro-pastoralists whose sources of livelihood depend on rain-fed agriculture are very vulnerable to
ecological disturbance due to increasing climate variability. They are unable to adequately feed their
animals in times of extreme weather conditions of floods and droughts thereby causing a disruption in
their maior source of (rve(ihood. fhfs study ana$zed (he feedrng s(ra(egies empfoyed by agropastoralists
in Southern Zambla and important browse species used in extreme weather conditions, in
order to improve their utilization for improved livestock production. The major feeding strategies during
droughts include browse utilization, dambo grazing, grazing along streams and supplementary feeding.
While during floods, upland grazing and browse grazing were the main strategies. However, most of the
agro-pastoralists do not practice pasture management and fodder conservation for their animals. Of the
21 lree browse species identified by the agro-pastoralists, 18 species were found to be important during
droughts and 8 during floods. Most of the agro-pastoralists neither knew how to plant these browse
species nor how to manage them for befter and sustainable use in feeding their animals. Therefore, the
agro-pastoralists in the study area need to take up management and feed conservation measures for
their animals. Deliberate effort should be made to teach the agro-pastoralists how to plant and manage
the important browse species that are suitable in extreme weather conditions. This will enhance
productive use of the browse species for improved animal feeding to ensure food security among the
pastoralists.

Key words: Extreme weather conditions, adaption, browse species, Agro-pastoralists.

Yanda P, Wandiga S, Kangalawe R, Opondo M, Olago D, Githeko A, Downs T, Robert Kabumbuli, Opere A, Githui F, Kathuri J, Olaka L, Apindi E, Marshall M, Ogallo L, Mugambi P, Kirumira E, Nanyunja R, Baguma T, Sigalla R, Achola P. "Climate, Malaria and Cholera in the Lake Victoria Region: Adapting to Changing Risks.". In: Climate Change and Adaptation. Routledge; 2012. Abstract

In the East African countries, malaria is ranked as the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. It causes about 40,000 infant deaths in Kenya each year; in Uganda annual cases of malaria range between 6 to 7 million, with 6500 to 8500 fatalities, and in Tanzania the annual death toll is between 70,000 and 125,000 and accounts for 19 per cent of health expenditure (De Savigny et al, 2004a and b). In the case of cholera, the first epidemic in Africa was reported as far back as 1836 (Rees, 2000). Major outbreaks were next reported in 1970 and affected West Africa (Guinea), the horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) and Kenya (Waiyaki, 1996). The most severe cholera outbreak on the African continent was in 1998, accounting for more than 72 per cent of the global total number of cholera cases and acutely affecting the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Cholera outbreaks in East Africa have been reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) since 1972. In the Lake Victoria region of East Africa both malaria and cholera are common, with malaria endemic in the lowlands and epidemic in the highland areas and cholera endemic in the basin since the early 1970s (Rees, 2000).

Olago D, Marshall M, Wandiga SO, Opondo M, Yanda PZ, Kangalawe R, Githeko A, Downs T, Opere A, Kabumbuli R, Kirumira E, Ogallo L, Mugambi P, Apindi E, Githui F, Kathuri J, Olaka L, Sigalla R, Nanyunja R, Baguma T, Achola P. "Climatic Socio-economic and Health Factors Affecting Human Vulnerability to Cholera in the Lake Victoria Basin East Africa." AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment. 2007;36:350-358.
Karanja DN, Ngatia TA, Wandera JG. Clinical and Pathological observations in Kenyan donkeys experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992.
Gichobi AN, Ndwigah SN, Sinei KA, Guantai EM. "Clinical audit of Heparin use in Rift Valley General Hospital, Nakuru County, Kenya. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2017;6(1):27-37.
Gichobi 2. AN, Ndwigah SN, Sinei KA, Guantai EM. "Clinical audit of Heparin use in Rift Valley General Hospital, Nakuru County, Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(1):27-37.
Muraguri GR, Ngumi PN, Wesonga D, Ndungu SG, Wanjohi JM, Bang K, Foxb A, Dunneb J, McHardy N. "Clinical efficacy and plasma concentrations of two formulations of buparvaquone in cattle infected with East Coast fever.". 2006.Website
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Maru H, Pizzo M, Mutiso V, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Kokonya DA. "Clinical epidemiology in patients admitted at Mathari Psychiatric Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2008.a_clinical_epidemiological.pdf
J.G KIBOI, PETER KITUNGUU, MUSAU C K, NIMROD MWANGOMBE. "clinical experience and outcome of pitutary surgery in kenyan patients at the kenyatta national hospital." AFRICA JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES. 2012;DECEMBER(2012):1-10.
Nyawira M, Muchai G, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Atieno J, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga PT, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. . 2017;21(2):33-39. Abstract

All persons living with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have a lifetime risk of developing Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a
potentially blinding microvascular complication of DM. The risk increases with the duration of diabetes. The
onset and progression of DR can be delayed through optimization of control of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids. The risk of blindness from DR can be reduced through cost-effective interventions such as screening for DR and treatment of sight-threatening DR with laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF medications.
Several factors make it important to provide guidance to clinicians who provide services for diabetes and
diabetic retinopathy in Kenya. First, the magnitude of both DM and DR is expected to increase over the next
decade. Secondly, as the retina is easily accessible for examination, the early signs of retinopathy may provide clinicians with the best evidence of microvascular damage from diabetes. This information can be used to guide subsequent management of both DM and DR. Thirdly, there are notable gaps in service delivery for the detection,treatment and follow-up of patients with DR, and the services are inequitable. Strengthening of service delivery will require close collaboration between diabetes services and eye care services.
Following a systematic and collaborative process of guideline development, the first published national
guidelines for the management of diabetic retinopathy have been developed. The purpose of this paper is to
highlight the recommendations in the guidelines, and to facilitate their adoption and implementation.

N M, M G, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, A J’o. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: An executive summary of the recommendations." JOECSA. 2017;21(2):33-39.
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr.. 2017;21(2):33-9.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Clinical manifestations in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." Ghana Journal of Science. 2017;57:35-45.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Clinical manifestations of sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." Ghana Journal of Science. 2017;57:35-45.
Saidi H, Abdihakin M, Njihia B, Jumba G, Kiarie G, Githaiga J, ABINYA NO. "Clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer in Kenya ." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2011;7. AbstractWebsite

Unilateral variations in the formation of the median nerve, with the presence of the third head of the biceps brachii entrapping the nerve are very rare. These variations were observed on the right side, of a 30 year old male cadaver during routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The median nerve was formed by the union of three contributions; two from the lateral cord and one from the medial cord. An additional head of the biceps brachii looped over the formed median nerve. On the left side the median nerve was formed classically by single contributions from the medial and the lateral cords. These variations are clinically important because symptoms of high median nerve compression arising from similar formations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.

Saidi H, Abdihakin M, Njihia B, Jumba G, Kiarie G, Githaiga J, ABINYA NO. "Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Kenya." Annals of African Surgery. 2011;7. Abstract

Background
The incidence of colorectal cancer in Africa is increasing. True data on clinical outcomes of the disease is hampered by follow up challenges.
Method
Follow up data of 233 patients treated for colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2010 at various Nairobi hospitals were evaluated. The primary outcome was mortality while secondary outcomes included recurrence rates, time to recurrence and the patient, disease and treatment factors associated with mortality and recurrence. Kaplan Meir charts were charted for survival trends.
Results
Half of the lesions were located in the rectum. There was no relationship between the sub-site location and recurrence and mortality. The mean follow-up period was 15.9 months. Overall recurrency and mortality rates were 37.5% and 29.4% respectively. Most recurrences occurred within one year of surgery. Recurrence was not influenced by age, gender, sub-site, chemotherapy receipt or presence of comorbidity.
Factors significantly associated with mortality included the
male gender ( p 0.04), presence of co-morbidity (p 0.029), recurrence (p 0.001), curative intent (p 0.01), disease stage (p 0.036) and receipt of chemotherapy ( p< 0.01).
Conclusion
Follow up of colorectal cancer patients is still challenging. The mortality and recurrence rates are high for the short follow up periods. Further studies are needed to explore the determinants of both survival and recurrences, especially with longer follow ups.

Nzou C, Kambarami RA, Onyango FE, Ndhlovu CE, Chikwasha V. "Clinical predictors of low CD4 count among HIV infected pulmonary tuberculosis clients: a health facility-based survey." S. Afr. Med. J.. 2010;100(9):602-5. Abstract

The study aimed to determine the clinical and laboratory predictors of a low CD4+ cell count (<200 cells/microl) in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).

Ndaguatha PLW. "Clinical presentations of urinary bladder in Kenya." East Afr.Med. J.. 1990;67(3):182-190.
Mbuthia P G, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Bebora LC, Minga U, Olsen JE. "Clinical signs of fowl cholera in experimental immunosuppressed and non-immunosuppressed Kenyan indigenous chickens and ducks.". In: Kenya veterinarian association annual general meeting and scientific conference . Nomad palace, Garissa; 2003.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia, T.A; Kimeto BA, Ngatia, T.A; Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Kuria JKN, Wahome RG, Kang'ethe EK, Nyaga PN. "Clinical, serological and pathological response in goats infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis through cutaneous and subcutaneous routes." Bulletin of Animal Health and Prodroduction in Africa. 1997;45:73-78.
Adeline VL, Dimba EAO, Wakoli KA, Njiru AK, Awange DO, Onyango JF, Chindia ML. "Clinicopathologic features of ameloblastoma in Kenya: a 10-year audit." Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2008;19:1589-1593. Abstract
n/a
Njoroge NC. "Cloning of a T-DNA-linked phosphatase gene that mediates salt tolerance in a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana." Kenya Journal for Science and Technology. 2006;Vol. 13 .
NJOROGE MRGACHIESTEVE. "Close-Up.". In: Jadini Beach Hotel, Mombasa. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
Oredo J, Njihia J, Iraki XN. "Cloud Computing Adoption by Firms in Kenya: The Role of Institutional Forces." African Journal of Information Systems. 2019;11(3).
Owino JO, Olago D, Wandiga SO, Ndambi A. "A cluster analysis of variables essential for climate change adaptation of smallholder dairy farmers of Nandi County, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020;16(7):1007-1014. AbstractA cluster analysis of variables essential for climate change adaptation of smallholder dairy farmers of Nandi County, Kenyadoi.org

Smallholder dairy farmers occupy high potential areas of Kenya and are a source of manure, crops and milk. There is need to use other means of characterising smallholder dairy farmers as they mostly practice mixed farming. The objective of this paper is to use cluster analysis method to characterize the smallholder dairy farmers with added farmer and activity data variables. Clusters of 336 farmers in this study were derived using 28 key variables. This paper demonstrates how to conduct farmer assessments for climate change adaptation activities, climate smart technologies implementation using knowledge of key farmer variables and their distribution in the smallholder dairy farmers of Nandi County, Kenya. This paper demonstrates the importance of integrating agricultural information for smallholder dairy farmers to machine models to characterize the groups and observe the natural groupings. This allows for policy managers to know the key characteristics and how to use them in policy implementation especially in designing climate change adaptation programs factoring education and training of farmers as demonstrated in this paper that they are practicing many activities on their farms.

Key words: Cluster analysis, smallholder dairy farmers, farm utilisation, climate change adaptation.

Nganga CJ, Gakuya DW, Otieno RO, Githinji RW. "Co-administration of Albendazole and Levamisole to control multiple anthelmintic resistant nematodes in a sheep farm in Kabete Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2014;62(3):275-278.1_nganga_et_al._2014.pdfWebsite
Njeru G. "Co-author of Making Informed Choices A Curriculum for Civic Education. Nairobi: CE." CEDMAC, CRE-CO, ECEP, and the Gender Consortium.. 2001.
Njeru G. Co-author of Making Informed Choices: A Trainer’s Manual for Civic Education. . Nairobi: Co-author of Making Informed Choices: A Trainer’s Manual for Civic Education. ; 2001.
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Co-authored a chapter entitled 'Haematologic manifestations of HIV.' The chapter is contained in the handbook 'Clinical care in times of AIDS.' These are guidelines intended for health workers in rural district hospitals and health centres. The handbook, .". In: Book. Douglas McLean Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Osuna. F, Achilla. R, Schnabel. D, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Njiri. J, Opot. B, Wurapa. E, Bulimo. W. "Co-circulating Respiratory Viral Pathogens during the pH1N1 Outbreak of 2009 In Kenya.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference at the College of Health Sciences University of Nairobi . University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
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Nyambura J, Achilla R, Mitei K, Mukunzi S, Njiri J, Coldren R, Bulimo W. Co-circulation of Human Parainfluenza viruses in Kenya, Jan 2013-Sep 2013. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) belong to the paramyxoviridae family. HPIV is the major cause of croup in which type 1 is most frequent cause, followed by type 3 and type 2 respectively. Surveillance has shown that Human Parainfluenza viruse are a major cause of respiratory infections in Kenya. In January 2013 through an existing influenza surveillance network at the Kenyan National Influenza center, we screened for parainfluenza and other non-influenza respiratory viruses. This was done within the designated Influenza network made up of eight sentinel sites. Objective: The objective of this study was to monitor and document circulation of Human parainfluenza viruses in Kenya in the period January–September 2013. Materials and Methods: Specimens were collected from the nasopharynx using a flocked swab from consenting patients meeting the WHO influenza-like-illness (ILI) case definition. Specimens were transported to the NIC while observing the cold chain and inoculated into LLCMK2 cell line. After incubation and observation for cytopathic effect, all samples were screened by direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using the Respiratory Panel I Viral Screening and Identification kit (Chemicon International, Inc).Results and Discussion: A total of 972 nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected between January – September 2013. HPIVs were detected in 108 (11%) cases. Out of these, there were 36 co-infections of the parainfluenza viruses. In general, Their seasonality patterns shows two peaks; one severe one occurring in April with 40.6% and the second milder peak occurring in June with 23.1% of all the cases. There was co-circulation of HPIV sub-types throughout the year. The three subtypes circulated between January to May with a peak in April with type 1 dominating in the month of April. They formed a second peak in June with type three dominating and type three lagging behind and appearing a month later. From our analysis we found that the conditions that trigger their occurrence are the same since their peaks are synchronized.Conclusion: This study shows that parainfluenza viruses are the major contributor of influenza in Kenya.

NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "Co-editor. (With Dr. Joseph G. Karanja): 1996: Curricula in Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, for Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynecology.". In: University of Nairobi, for Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1996.; 1996. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "Co-editor. (With Dr. Joseph G. Karanja): 1996: Curricula in Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, for Third and Fifth year Undergraduate Medical Students.". In: University of Nairobi,Third and Fifth year Undergraduate Medical Students.1996.; 1996. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

Ngwili N, Lian T, Githigia S, Muloi D, Marshal K, Wahome R, Roesel K. "co-infection of pigs with Taenia solium cysticercosis and gastrointestinal parasites in Eastern and Western Uganda." Parasitology Research. 2021;2021(https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07380-9):1-14.
Ngwili N, Thomas L, Githigia S, Muloi D, Marshall K, Wahome R, Roesel K. "Co-infection of pigs with Taenia solium cysticercosis and gastrointestinal parasites in Eastern and Western Uganda." Parasitology research. 2022;121(1):177-189.
Osuna. F, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Gachara. G, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Njiri. J, Opot. B, Obura. B, Schnabel. D, Wurapa. E. "Co-Infections and Co-Circulating Respiratory Viral Pathogens during the H1N1 Outbreak of 2009 in Kenya.". In: Virology Africa 2011 conference. University of Cape Town South Africa.; 2011. Abstract
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Ndavi PM, Oyieke JBO MKCS:G. "Coagulation Studies inHypertensive Disease in Pregnancy in Kenyatta National Hospital:." J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. 2003;16(1):32-36.
Ojiambo PJ, Karuri PE, Nguka G. "COALESCING NUTRITION ACTION FOR AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT IN 21ST CENTURY- (TRIUMPHS, CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS).". In: AFRICA NUTRITION CONFERENCE. Mombasa; 2014.
Mrumbi K, Rono R, Ngare D, Obondo A, Oladimeji BY, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)."; 2006.
Cohen CR, Koochesfahani KM, Meier AS, Shen C, Karunakaran K, Ondondo B, Teresa Kinyari, Mugo NR, Nguti R, Brunham RC. "Cohen C.,Koochesfahani K..,Meier A.,Shen C.,Karunakaran K.,Ondondo B.,Kinyari T.,Mugo N.,Nguti R., Brunham R. Immunoepidemiologic Profile of C. trachomatis Infection: Importance of hsp 60 and IFγ. JID 2005;192:591-599 ." The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2005;192:591-599. AbstractWebsite

Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.

Ambuko J, Wanjiru F, Karithi E, Hutchinson M, Chemining'wa G, Mwachoni E, Hansen B, Wasilwa L, Owino W, Nenguwo N. "Cold chain management in horticultural crops value chains: options for smallholder farmers in Africa.". In: III All Africa Horticultural Congress 1225.; 2016:. Abstract
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N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Cold solvent extraction and physico-chemical study of Avocado oil," J. Biochemiphysics, 2, 75.". In: Submitted, East Africa Medical Journal. Survey Review; 1993. Abstract
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NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Coliform counts and E. coli in raw commercial milk from dairy farmers in Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1994. Abstract
The rate of contamination with coliforms and incidence of Escherichia coli(E.coli) in raw milk supplied by farmers to dairy cooperative societies for marketing was investigated. About forty two percent(42.2%) of milk samples from farmers cans and 10.3 % of samples from cooperative cans were found to be free of coliforms, while 89.5% of the samples from farmers cans and 50% samples from cooperative cans could be considered to be of good quality with no more 500,000 coliforms/ml of milk. Forty-two E.coli strains were isolated from the milk samples, five of which were found to be enteropathogenic. None of the isolates was found to be of serogroup 0157. The results indicated that a good number of farmers draw milk under satisfactory conditions, but awareness campaigns on clean milking, milk handling and storage practices should be stepped up in order to reach farmers who may not be informed. Again the study showed that raw milk can get contaminated with enteropathogenic E. coli that can pose a potential risk to humans, thus calls for extra care when preparing millk and milk products that are to be consumed by humans beings.
J.J. Muturi, J.P. Mbugi, J.M. Mueke, Jan Langerlof, J.K. Mungatu, Nyamasyo GHN, Gikungu M. "Collembola density and diversity along a gradient of land-use types in Embu District, Eastern Kenya,." Tropical & Sub-tropical Agroecosystems. 2009:361-369.
Gikungu M, Nyamasyo G, Muturi J, Mbugi JP, Mueke J, Jan Langerlof, Mungatu J. "Collembola Richness And Diversity Along A Gradient Of Land-use Intensity And Soil Abiotic Factors In Taita, Kenya.". 2009.Website
Luambano N;, Kimenju JW;, Narla R;, Waceke JW. "Colonisation of the Rhizosphere of plants which are poor host to root-knot nematodes by the biological agent Pochonia chlamydosporia."; 2011. Abstract

Management of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.,) using fungi that parasitize eggs of root-knot and cyst nematodes has been gaining popularity. Application of this fungus to plants that are poor host to root-knot nematodes has shown good results. This study was conducted to screen plants that support growth of Pochonia chlamydosporia on its rhizosphere. Seedlings of cabbage, sunhemp, maize, velvet bean, African marigold and tomato were planted in pots containing sterilized soil which had Pochonia chlamydosporia. Thirty days after planting, the fungal propagules in the soil and roots increased significantly (P<0.05) in all plants with the exception of velvet beans. Ninety days after planting, the counts of the fungal propagules taken from the soil were significant higher (P<0.05) in the rhizosphere where maize was planted than in other plants. This study concluded that maize is a promising rotational in system where P. chlamydosporia is used as a biocontrol agent.

Luambano N;, Kimenju JW;, Narla R;, Waceke JW. "Colonisation of the Rhizosphere of plants which are poor host to root-knot nematodes by the biological agent Pochonia chlamydosporia."; 2011. Abstract

Management of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.,) using fungi that parasitize eggs of root-knot and cyst nematodes has been gaining popularity. Application of this fungus to plants that are poor host to root-knot nematodes has shown good results. This study was conducted to screen plants that support growth of Pochonia chlamydosporia on its rhizosphere. Seedlings of cabbage, sunhemp, maize, velvet bean, African marigold and tomato were planted in pots containing sterilized soil which had Pochonia chlamydosporia. Thirty days after planting, the fungal propagules in the soil and roots increased significantly (P<0.05) in all plants with the exception of velvet beans. Ninety days after planting, the counts of the fungal propagules taken from the soil were significant higher (P<0.05) in the rhizosphere where maize was planted than in other plants. This study concluded that maize is a promising rotational in system where P. chlamydosporia is used as a biocontrol agent.

Lin J, Xia Y-J, Tang C, Yin K, Zhong G-Y, Ni G, Peng B, Hou X-Y, Gan F-X, Huang W. "The colour-tuning effect of 2, 9-dimethyl-4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline in blue–red organic light-emitting devices." Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 2007;40:4442. Abstract
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NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Combating HIV/AIDS in Kenya: Priority setting and resource allocation. Christopher Onyango & Enos Njeru. 64p. ISBN 9966-948-06-6.". In: Discussion Paper No. DP059/2004. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract

The HIV/AIDS pandemic has emerged as one of the leading challenges to global public health and development. Sub-Saharan Africa, in particular, has become the epicenter of the pandemic, with over 29.4 million people currently living with the virus and more than 2.4 million people having succumbed to the
disease. In Kenya, the agonies of the HIV/AIDS to individuals, families and societies are overwhelming. Much of the hard-won gains in economic growth, life expectancy and child survival have been wiped out. Besides, many sectors, including education, agriculture, industry and health are staggering under the
burden of the disease. These sectors lose trained professionals and have to contend with higher costs of production and delivery of services.

In Kenya, the Sessional Paper No.4 of 1997 on AIDS lays down the contemporary long-term framework for response to the pandemic. After declaring AIDS a national disaster in 1999, the government established the National AIDS Control Council (NACC) to guide implementation of the National HIVIAIDS Strategic
Plan 2000-2005, within the framework of the multi-sectoral approach. But despite these efforts, successes have been far too few and on too small a scale to reverse the pandemic. This study looked into the priorities and allocation of resources among alternative HIV-related interventions within the framework of the AIDS strategic plan. It also examined the link between the national HIV/AIDS Programme, the macroeconomic framework and the participatory role played by various actors in HIVIAIDS-related activities. Finally, the study
assessed the impacts of alternative patterns of resource allocation with regard to reduction of HIV prevalence, programme coverage and future expenditures averted.

The study entailed the use of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. HIV related demographic, behavioral and financial data, gathered by the National AIDS Control Council during the year 2002 was heavily used. In particular, we used the GOALS simulation model to assess the consequences and trade-offs
of HIVIAIDS resource allocation options. The study also investigated the policies, planning and budgetary commitments to HIV/AIDS-related priorities using secondary data sources, complemented with primary data collected mainly through in-depth interviews with key informants based in Nairobi.

The study established that the costing of the multi-sectoral HIVIAIDS strategic plan lies outside the center of the national budget allocation decisions and the Mid Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF), despite the existence of a strong institutional framework and enabling policy environment. Further, our analysis showed that given available resources, there is great potential to improve the national response to HIV/AIDS by increasing expenditures on preventive measures and treatment and care services as opposed to policy development and management in the coming years. The study therefore strongly recommends,
among others, the need to fully integrate the HIV/AIDS strategic plan into the national framework of the poverty reduction and economic recovery strategies in order to achieve a more comprehensive and effective response to the pandemic. An effective way of mainstreaming HIV/AIDS and supporting an
effective multi-sectoral response to illY/AIDS will be through ensuring that HIV/AIDS is adequately addressed as part of the poverty reduction agenda and economic recovery strategies, the objective being to get HIV/AIDS routinely mainstreamed into government planning, programming and budgeting processes
(ERS and MTEF). This will ultimately result in HIV/AIDS being mainstreamed into sector strategies.

Kirui JK, Ngure R, Bii C, Karimi PN, Mutai C, Amugune BK. "Combined Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Eucalyptus citriodora and Syzygium aromaticum Essential oils." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2014;3(1):29-37.
NO A. "A combined sensitivity factor based GA-IPSO approach for system loss reduction and voltage profile enhancement." International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering and Science. 2013;12(2):2319-5665. Abstractabungupaper.pdfWebsite

Though several algorithms for optimizing DG location and size in a network with the aim of reducing system power losses and enhancing better voltage profile have already been proposed, they still suffer from several drawbacks. As a result much can be done in coming up with new algorithms or improving the already existing ones so as to address this important issue more efficiently and effectively. Majority of the proposed algorithms have emphasized on real power losses only in their formulations. They have ignored the reactive power losses which is key in the operation of power systems. In modern practical power systems reactive power injection plays a critical role in voltage stability control, thus the reactive power losses need to be incorporated in
optimizing DG allocation for voltage profile improvement. The results of the few works which have considered reactive power losses in their optimization can be improved by using more recent and accurate algorithms. This research work aimed at solving this problem by proposing a hybrid of GA and IPSO to optimize DG location and size while considering both real and reactive power losses. Both real and reactive power flow and power loss sensitivity factors were utilized in identifying the candidate buses for DG allocation. This reduced the search space for the algorithm and increasing its rate of convergence. This research considers a multi-type DG; type 1 DG (DG generating real power only), type 2 DG (DG generating both real and active
power) and type 3 DG (DG generating real power and absorbing reactive power)."

Nzuve F, Githiri S, Mukunya DM, Gethi J. "Combining abilities of maize inbred lines for grey leaf." Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science. 2013;5(3):41-47.
Karaya H, Njoroge K, Mugo S, Nderitu H. "Combining ability among twenty insect maize inbred lines resistant to Chilo partellus and Busseola fusca stem borers." International Journal of Plant Production. 2009;3(1):115-127.
Karaya H;, Njoroge K;, Mugo S;, Nderitu H. "Combining Ability among Twenty Insect Resistant Maize inbred lines Resistant to Chilo partellus and Busseola fusca Stem borers."; 2006. Abstract

A partial diallel design was used among 20 maize inbred lines to form 110 F1 hybrids to generate information on the values of these lines for developing insect resistant maize varieties during the short rains season of 2006. The hybrids were evaluated for resistance to the C. partellus and B. fusca, and for agronomic performance over two seasons during long and short rains of 2007 at a mid-altitude dry early maturity site at KARI Kiboko, and the moist mid-altitude medium maturity site at KARI Embu. leaf damage score (using a scale of 1-9 where: 1= No damage and 9= extremely damaged), number of exit holes, cumulative tunnel length, and grain yield were measured as resistance traits. The genotype sum of square was partitioned into general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects. Maize inbred lines with good general combining ability for insect resistance including maize inbred lines with significant and negative GCA`s for leaf damage were identified as lines 12,16,18,19 and 20 at Kiboko and lines 8, 17, 18, and 20 in Embu. Results showed that the problem of stem borers intensified by over 40% within four years in the experimental region of Eastern Kenya; currently mean yield loss due to stem borers was assessed to be about 56%. Several hybrids had significant negative SCA for leaf damage and significant positive SCA for grain yield. The maize inbred lines studied revealed their potential for use in breeding programs for insect resistance that could result in a correlated response for increased grain yield. Recurrent selection would be the best option to develop high yielding insect resistant germplasm for this region of Kenya considering that additive gene action were predominant. Evidently, it would be more difficult to develop host plant resistance to B. fusca than to C. partellus

Yuga ME, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Kimani PM, Olubayo MF, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "Combining Ability and Heterosis for Agronomic and Yield Traits in Indica and Japonica Rice Crosses." Journal of Agricultural Science . 2018;10(12):92-103.
Malemba GM, Nzuve FM, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Olubayo MF, Muthomi JW. "Combining Ability for Drought Tolerance in Upland Rice Varieties at Reproductive Stage." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(3):138-150.
Maluk MD, Kahiu N, Olubayo F, Eric M, Muthomi J, Nzuve F, Ochanda N. "Combining ability for earliness and yield among south sudanese F1 sorghum genotypes." Journal of Agriculture. 2019;6(3):1-13.
Rono S, Nzuve F, Muthomi J, Kimani J. "Combining Ability of Agronomic and Yield Traits in Rice Genotypes." Journal of Plant Physiology & Pathology. 2018;6:2.
L. G, Njoroge K, Ininda J, Lorroki P. "Combining ability of grain yield and agronomic traits in diverse maize lines with maize streak virus resistance for Eastern Africa region." Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 2011;2(3):432-439.
Gakunga 24 J, Mugo S, Njoroge K, Olubayo F. "Combining ability of maize inbred lines resistant to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) in the mid-altitude environment of Kenya." Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science. 2012;4(10):161-168.
Karaya H, Kiarie N, Mugo S, Nderitu H, Kanampiu F, Ariga E. "Combining ability of maizeinbred lines resistant to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. evaluated under artificial Striga infestation in Kenya. .". In: 11th World Congress on parasitic weeds. Martina, Franca, Italy.; 2011.
Kataliko RK, Kimani PM, Muthomi JW, Wanderi SW, Olubayo FM, Nzuve FM. "Combining ability of resistance to pod shattering and selected agronomic traits of soybean." International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research. 2018;6(10):176-188.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "A comment on Militarization". Paper prepared for Conference on Militarization: World Council of Churches, Geneva, November 1977.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1977. Abstract
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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Commerce and Industry," with Dr. R.O. Arunga, Director, KIRDI. Chapter 7 in Kenya, and Official Handbook, 25th Independence Anniversary.". In: Government Printer, Nairobi,. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1989. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Commerce and Industry," with Dr. R.O. Arunga, Director, KIRDI. Chapter 7 in Kenya, and Official Handbook, 25th Independence Anniversary.". In: Government Printer, Nairobi,.; 1989. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

Nderitu JH;, Kasina M;, Muchirah N. "Commercialization Of Patented Herbal Medicinal Products In Kenya."; 2011.
Karanja DN;, Ngatia TA;, Wandera JG;, Njomo. "Common Gastrointestinal Parasites In Donkeys In Kenya.".; 1993.
Lewa, A. K., Munyua, W.K., Ngatia, T.A., Maingi N. "The common internal parasites encountered in donkeys in Kiambu District and the pathological lesions associated with them.". In: The Kenya Veterinary Association Scientific Conference. Embu Kenya; 1998.
Obondo A, Khasakhala L, editor Ndetei DM, Mutiso V, Ongecha-Owuor F. "Communication and Communication Skills."; 2006.
Mwinzi, R., Mberia H, Ndeti N. "Communication Methods used to Disseminate Corporate Identity to Employees by Public Universities in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2016;Vol. 6(Issue 2):pp.183-191.
Ngugi M. "Communication Training Opportunities: Suggestions for UNFPA on Communications Capacity Building.". In: Media Consultation on Accelerating Maternal Mortality Reduction in Africa. Speke Resort Munyonyo, Kampala, Uganda; 2013.
Nzioka C, aul Mbatia P, and(eds.) BJSN. "Community - based research methodologies.". In: Women: Basic educa tion, community health and sustainable d evelopment. UNESCO: Women: Basic educa tion, community health and sustainable d evelopment; 2002.
Heylen D, Day M, Schunack B, Fourie J, Labuschange M, Johnson S, Samuel Maina Githigia, Akande FA, Nzalawale JS. "A community approach of pathogens and their arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas) in dogs of African Sub-Sahara." Parasites & Vectors. 2021;2021(14:576):1-20.
Chimoita EL, Njuguna EK, Khaleha CM. "Community Efforts Towards Farms Management Through Agroforestry Activities in Western Kenya." The Asian Academic Research Journal of Multidiciplinary. 2014;1(27).published_paper2.pdf
Lund JF;, Bhandari NS;, Baral K;, Kharel KK;, KK; Puri L;, Chhetri BBK;, Nielsen, Ø.J; Upadhyaya CP, Upadhyaya CP. "Community forestry common funds in Nepal."; 2010.
Lund JF;, Bhandari NS;, Baral K;, Kharel KK;, Puri L;, Chhetri BBK;, Nielsen, Ø.J; Upadhyaya CP, Nielsen, Ø.J; Upadhyaya CP. "Community forestry common funds in Nepal."; 2010.
E.N. PN, Hirschfeld M, Lindsey E, Kimani V, Mwanthi M, Olenja J, Pigott W, Messervy P, Mudongo K, Ncube E, Rantona K, Bale S, Limtragool P, Nunthachaipun P. COMMUNITY HOME-BASED CARE IN RESOURCE-LIMITED SETTINGS. Geneva: THE CROSS CLUSTER INITIATIVE ON HOME-BASED LONG-TERM CARE, NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND MENTAL HEALTH AND THE DEPARTMENT OF HIV/AIDS, FAMILY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION; 2002. AbstractWebsite

COMMUNITY HOME-BASED CARE IN RESOURCE-LIMITED SETIINGS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
6
his document provides a systematic framework for establishing and maintaining community home-based care (CRBC) in resource-limited
settings for people with RIV / AIDS and those with other chronic or disabling conditions. Most CRBC services so far have been established through unsystematic, needs-based efforts. As the RIV / AIDS epidemic continues to grow, many organizations and communities are now considering expanding in a more programmatic approach, and countries are looking for scaled-up responses and national strategies for CRBe. This document therefore provides an important framework to guide governments, national and international donor agencies and community-based organizations (including nongovernmental organizations, faith-based organizations and community groups) in developing or expanding CRBC programmes. The need for such a document has been clearly identified.
CRBC is defined as any form of care given to ill people in their homes. Such care includes physical, psychosocial, palliative and spiritual activities. The goal of CRBC is to provide hope through high-quality and appropriate care that helps ill people and families to maintain their independence and achieve the best possible quality of life.
This document targets three important audiences: policy-makers and senior administrators, middle managers and those who develop and run CRBC programmes. Although the roles and responsibilities of these target audiences differ somewhat, developing effective partnerships among the three is essential. Policy-makers and senior administrators must be involved in developing and monitoring CRBC programmes, and the people who manage and run the programmes must share information and feedback with senior administrators. In this sense, policy and action are interrelated as each partner learns from and guides the other. To this end, this document is divided into four interrelated sections: a policy framework for CRBC; the roles and responsibilities for CRBC at the national, district and local levels of administration; the essential elements of CRBC; and the strategies for action in establishing and maintaining CRBC in resource-limited settings.

Ndegwa PN, Ogodo J. "Community structure and diel activity patterns of peridomestic Stomoxyinae in Nairobi, Kenya ." Insect Science & it’s Application. 2002;22:275-280.Website
Mwakaje AG, Manyasa E, Wawire N, Muchai M, Ongare D, Mugoya C, Clet Wandui Masiga, Nikundiwe A. "Community-based conservation, income governance, and poverty alleviation in Tanzania: the case of Serengeti ecosystem." The Journal of Environment & Development. 2013;22:51-73. Abstract
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Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Olesarioyo JS, Van Ranst E. "Community-Based Conservation: An Emerging Land Use at the Livestock-Wildlife Interface in Northern Kenya. .". In: In Wildlife Management-Failures, Successes and Prospects. London: IntechOpen Limited; 2019.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Olesarioyo JS, Van Ranst E. "Community-Based Conservation: An Emerging Land Use at the Livestock-Wildlife Interface in Northern Kenya. .". In: In Wildlife Management-Failures, Successes and Prospects. London: IntechOpen Limited; 2019.
Wasonga, V.O. KD, Ngece N. "Community-Based Natural Resource Management.". In: Managing Natural Resources for Development in Africa: A Resource Book. University of Nairobi Press; 2010. Abstract
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Nzioka C, P M. "Community-Based Research Methodologies.". In: Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO; 2002.
Patel A, Sethuraman R, Prajapati P, Naveen YG. "A comparative analysis of staining characteristics of mouthrinses on provisional acrylic resin: An in vitro study." Journal of Interdisciplinary Dentistry. 2013;3(3):167-173. Abstract

Aim and Objective: Provisionalization is essential for tooth protection and treatment outcome evaluation. Utmost care should be taken to maintain the soft tissue health when provisionals are cemented. Mouthrinses are commonly used as an adjunct to protect against caries and periodontal diseases. Thesesolutions are responsible for discolouration of provisional materials. In the present study, the aim is to assess the staining potentials of a chlorhexidine gluconate rinse, a benzydamine hydrochloride rinse and a tea tree oil rinse on a provisional acrylic material in vitro by application of a digital system for colour analysis Materials and Method: In this study, the staining potentials of a tea tree oil, a chlorhexidine gluconate rinse, and a benzydamine hydrochloride rinse was investigated; whereas distilled water was used as the control. Results: Color change of a commercially available provisional restorative material was evaluated after 24 hours immersion in three different mouthrinses. ∆E values obtained were 1.76 for chlorhexidine gluconate, 1.55 for benzydamine hydrochloride and 1.88 for TTO. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it is concluded that benzydamine hydrochloride exerts the least perceptible change in colour of bisacryl composite provisional resin material.
Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry

Dentistry today is vastly different from what it was before.
Today it is in the era of interdisciplinary approach from independent to interdependent.
It is more result oriented and more successful when any case or situation is handled combined by interdisciplinary experts.
Action and role of mouthrinses and their interdisciplinary outcome is evaluated in the present study.

Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Otieno RO, Ngotho JW, Bogh HO. "Comparative efficacies of closantel, ivermectin, oxfendazole, thiophanate and levamisole against thiabendazole resistant H. Contrortus in sheep." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 1996;28:216-220.
Nakami WN, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Kipyegon AN’eno, Ogugo M, Muteti C, Kemp S. "Comparative Efficiency for in vitro Transfection of Goat Undifferentiated Spermatogonia Using Lipofectamine Reagents and Electroporation." Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications. 2022;15:11-20.
Nakami WN, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Kipyegon AN’eno, Ogugo M, Muteti C, Stephen K. "Comparative Efficiency for in vitro Transfection of Goat Undifferentiated Spermatogonia Using Lipofectamine Reagents and Electroporation." Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications. 2022;15:11. Abstract

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Nakami WN, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Kipyegon AN’eno, Ogugo M, Muteti C, Stephen K. "Comparative Efficiency for in vitro Transfection of Goat Undifferentiated Spermatogonia Using Lipofectamine Reagents and Electroporation." Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications. 2022;15:11.
OdongoMahacla, BeboraLillyCaroline, NjorogeGS. "Comparative evaluation of five Widal test kits in Kenya for the serological diagnosis of typhoid fever." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2005;29:94-98.
Chaudhari J, Prajapati P, Sethuraman R, Naveen YG. "Comparative evaluation of the amount of gingival displacement produced by three different gingival retraction systems: An in vivo study." Contemporary Clinical Dentistry. 2015. Abstract

Statement of Problem:

Tetrahydrozoline has been introduced as new gingival retraction agent but its clinical efficacy with widely used conventional retraction agents has not been tested.

Purpose:

The study was designed to clinically evaluate efficacy of newer retraction agent tetrahydrozoline with two widely used retraction systems i.e., Expasyl retraction system and medicated retraction cords on basis of amount of gingival retraction.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Comparative Examination of Two Zanthoxylum Benzophenanthridine Alkaloids for Cardiovascular Effects in Rabbits.". In: EAST AND CENTRAL AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES - VOL. 1. Ivan Addae-Mensah,t Rahab Munenge and Anastasia N. Guantai; 1989. Abstract

Cardiovascular activities of nitidine chloride from Zanthoxylunt chalybeum have been compared with those of 9-methoxychelerythrine. Whereas nitidinc chloride was found to show significant hypotensive activity in rabbits, 9-methoxychelerythrine chloride showed no hypotensive activity. The effect of nitidine chloride on isolated rabbit heart was also compared with those of adrenaline and acetylcholine. 9-Methoxychelerythrine, which has hitherto been regarded as an artefact formed by recrystallization of chelerythrine base from methanol, has been shown in this work to be a true natural constituent of Zanthoxylum chalybeum. Keywords: 9-inethoxychelerythrine; nitidine chloride; cardiovascular properties; hypotensive effect; Zanthoxylum chalybeum.

Mathenge EM, Omweri GO, Irungu LW, Ndegwa PN, Welczak E, undefined, Kileen GF, Knols BJG. "Comparative field evaluation of Mbita trap, CDC light trap and the Human Landing Catch for sampling of malaria vectors." American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene . 2004;70:33-37.Website
Mathenge EM, Omweri GO, Irungu LW, Ndegwa PN, Walczak E, Smith TA, Killeen GF, Knols BG. "Comparative field evaluation of the Mbita trap, the Centers for Disease Control light trap, and the human landing catch for sampling of malaria vectors in western Kenya." The American journal of tropical medicine & hygiene. 2004;70(1):33-37. AbstractThe American journal of tropical medicine &amp; hygiene

The mosquito sampling efficiency of a new bed net trap (the Mbita trap) was compared with that of the Centers for Disease Control miniature light trap (hung adjacent to an occupied bed net) and the human landing catch in western Kenya. Overall, the Mbita trap caught 48.7 +/- 4.8% (mean +/- SEM) the number of Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu lato caught in the human landing catch and 27.4 +/- 8.2% of the number caught by the light trap. The corresponding figures for Anopheles funestus Giles were 74.6 +/- 1.3% and 39.2 +/- 1.9%, respectively. Despite the clear differences in the numbers of mosquitoes caught by each method, both the Mbita trap and light trap catches were directly proportional to human landing catches regardless of mosquito density. No significant differences in parity or sporozoite incidence were observed between mosquitoes caught by the three methods for either An. gambiae s.l. or An. funestus. Identification of the sibling species of the An. gambiae complex by a polymerase chain reaction indicated that the ratio of An. gambiae Giles sensu stricto to An. arabiensis Patton did not vary according to the sampling method used. It is concluded that the Mbita trap is a promising tool for sampling malaria vector populations since its catch can be readily converted into equivalent human biting catch, it can be applied more intensively, it requires neither expensive equipment nor skilled personnel, and it samples mosquitoes in an exposure-free manner. Such intensive sampling capability will allow cost-effective surveillance of malaria transmission at much finer spatial and temporal resolution than has been previously possible.

Kimani SM, Ogeng'o JA, Saidi H, Ndung'u B. "Comparative intimal-media morphology of the human splenic and common hepatic arteries." J. Morphol. Sci. 2011;28(1):52-56.
Mathenge EM, Misiani GO, Oulo DO, Irungu LW, Ndegwa PN, Smith TA, Killeen GF, Knols BGJ. "Comparative performance of the Mbita trap, CDC light trap and the human landing catch in the sampling of Anopheles arabiensis, An. funestus and culicine species in a rice irrigation in western Kenya." Malaria Journal . 2005;4(doi:10.1186/1475-2875-4-7):4-7. AbstractMalaria journal link

Abstract
Background
Mosquitoes sampling is an important component in malaria control. However, most of the methods used have several shortcomings and hence there is a need to develop and calibrate new methods. The Mbita trap for capturing host-seeking mosquitoes was recently developed and successfully tested in Kenya. However, the Mbita trap is less effective at catching outdoor-biting Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis in Madagascar and, thus, there is need to further evaluate this trap in diverse epidemiological settings. This study reports a field evaluation of the Mbita trap in a rice irrigation scheme in Kenya

Methods
The mosquito sampling efficiency of the Mbita trap was compared to that of the CDC light trap and the human landing catch in western Kenya. Data was analysed by Bayesian regression of linear and non-linear models.

Results
The Mbita trap caught about 17%, 60%, and 20% of the number of An. arabiensis, An. funestus, and culicine species caught in the human landing collections respectively. There was consistency in sampling proportionality between the Mbita trap and the human landing catch for both An. arabiensis and the culicine species. For An. funestus, the Mbita trap portrayed some density-dependent sampling efficiency that suggested lowered sampling efficiency of human landing catch at low densities. The CDC light trap caught about 60%, 120%, and 552% of the number of An. arabiensis, An. funestus, and culicine species caught in the human landing collections respectively. There was consistency in the sampling proportionality between the CDC light trap and the human landing catch for both An. arabiensis and An. funestus, whereas for the culicines, there was no simple relationship between the two methods.

Conclusions
The Mbita trap is less sensitive than either the human landing catch or the CDC light trap. However, for a given investment of time and money, it is likely to catch more mosquitoes over a longer (and hence more representative) period. This trap can therefore be recommended for use by community members for passive mosquito surveillance. Nonetheless, there is still a need to develop new sampling methods for some epidemiological settings. The human landing catch should be maintained as the standard reference method for use in calibrating new methods for sampling the human biting population of mosquitoes.

Muchiri PD, Njogu MK, Nyankanga RO, Hutchinson JM, Ambuko J, Landeo JA. "Comparative performance of true Potato seed (tps) propagated through nursery transplants, tubers and minitubers.". 2014. Abstract
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Mwaniki SW, Nderitu JH, Olubayo F, Kimenju JW. "Comparative resistance /tolerance of commercial potato cultivars in Kenya to major aphid pests.". In: Africa crop Science Conference .; 2005.
Munyua LW;, Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH;, Shibairo S;, Obudho E. "Comparative resistance/tolerance of commercial potato cultivars in Kenya to major aphid pests."; 2005.
Munyua LW;, Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH;, Shibairo S;, Obudho E. "Comparative resistance/tolerance of commercial potato cultivars in Kenya to major aphid pests."; 2005.
Munyua LW;, Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH;, Shibairo S;, Obudho E. "Comparative resistance/tolerance of commercial potato cultivars in Kenya to major aphid pests."; 2005.
Maichomo MW;, Gitau GK;, Gathuma JM;, Ndung'u JM;, Kosura WO;, Nyamwaro SO. "Comparative returns from livestock and crops among the agro-pastoralists of Magadi division, Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2009. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kajiado District in August 2003 to estimate incomes from livestock and crop agricultural enterprises, and assess important factors associated with them. Purposive and random selection of pastoralists and their animals was used in order to collect data which were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and Generalized Linear Models from the households (HHs) that were all headed by men. These pastoralists were considered generally wealthy with an average livestock holding of 232 heads of livestock and annual total profit margins of Kshs 436,300 from both livestock and crops, demonstrating their complementarity and livelihood diversification for risk aversion. Cost of inputs and value of income were significantly associated with profit from either crop or livestock production enterprises. This study revealed that livestock production still remained the major source of livelihood in Kajiado District compared to crop production. While reducing cost of livestock and crop production could increase profit for the large and small scale pastoralists respectively, complementarity of crop and livestock production could be exploited by medium scale pastoralists to harness existing opportunities for significant wealth generation and achieve food security.

Maichomo MW;, Gitau GK;, Gathuma JM;, Ndung'u JM;, Kosura WO;, Nyamwaro SO. "Comparative returns from livestock and crops among the agro-pastoralists of Magadi division, Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2009. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kajiado District in August 2003 to estimate incomes from livestock and crop agricultural enterprises, and assess important factors associated with them. Purposive and random selection of pastoralists and their animals was used in order to collect data which were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and Generalized Linear Models from the households (HHs) that were all headed by men. These pastoralists were considered generally wealthy with an average livestock holding of 232 heads of livestock and annual total profit margins of Kshs 436,300 from both livestock and crops, demonstrating their complementarity and livelihood diversification for risk aversion. Cost of inputs and value of income were significantly associated with profit from either crop or livestock production enterprises. This study revealed that livestock production still remained the major source of livelihood in Kajiado District compared to crop production. While reducing cost of livestock and crop production could increase profit for the large and small scale pastoralists respectively, complementarity of crop and livestock production could be exploited by medium scale pastoralists to harness existing opportunities for significant wealth generation and achieve food security.

Maichomo MW;, Gitau GK;, Gathuma JM;, Ndung'u JM;, Kosura WO;, Nyamwaro SO. "Comparative returns from livestock and crops among the agro-pastoralists of Magadi division, Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2009. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kajiado District in August 2003 to estimate incomes from livestock and crop agricultural enterprises, and assess important factors associated with them. Purposive and random selection of pastoralists and their animals was used in order to collect data which were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and Generalized Linear Models from the households (HHs) that were all headed by men. These pastoralists were considered generally wealthy with an average livestock holding of 232 heads of livestock and annual total profit margins of Kshs 436,300 from both livestock and crops, demonstrating their complementarity and livelihood diversification for risk aversion. Cost of inputs and value of income were significantly associated with profit from either crop or livestock production enterprises. This study revealed that livestock production still remained the major source of livelihood in Kajiado District compared to crop production. While reducing cost of livestock and crop production could increase profit for the large and small scale pastoralists respectively, complementarity of crop and livestock production could be exploited by medium scale pastoralists to harness existing opportunities for significant wealth generation and achieve food security.

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