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Kabura S, Otieno SP. Bury My Bones But Keep My Words I . Mbuga E, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2014.
Kabura S, Otieno SP. Bury My Bones But Keep My Words II. Mbuga E, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2014.
Nyamongo IK. "Burying the dead, culture and economics: an assessment of two Kenyan cases.". In: International Social Sciences Journal, Vol. 160: 255-261. Wiley Interscience; 1999. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

Ndung’u CW, Ogutu M, Yabs J, Muranga NJ, Kinoti M. "Business Environment, Corporate Image, Competitive Strategies And Performance Of Large Manufacturing Firms In Kenya." African Journal of Business and Management (AJBUMA). 2020;6(1):215-233. Abstractbusiness_environment_corporate_image_competitive_strategies_and_performance_of_large_manufacturing_firms_in_kenya.pdf

Firms’ performance differs from firm to firm in the same industry with some firms achieving higher
levels of performance than others which can be connected to the type of competitive strategies a
firm adopts. The never-ending changes today calls for firms to continuously monitor their business
environment with a view to creating strategies that will make them different from their competitors
and improve their corporate image in the eyes of their customers. The study sought to determine
how business environment and corporate image affect the relationship between competitive
strategies and the performance of large manufacturing firms in Kenya. It was guided by positivist
philosophy and a cross-sectional descriptive survey. The target population was large
manufacturing firms in Kenya where a structured questionnaire was utilized to collect data.
Regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The study found that the joint influence of
competitive strategies, business environment and corporate image on performance of large
manufacturing firms in Kenya was statistically significant. Manufacturing firms should adopt
competitive strategies in response to business environment and craft strategies to enable them
position themselves better than competitor. The firms can indirectly improve performance by
maintaining a good corporate image also.

Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, E. O, Olago D, Opere A, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability . 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, Odada E, Olago D, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability. 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

Gannon, Kate Elizabeth, Conway, Declan, Pardoe, Joanna, Ndiyoi, Mukelabai, Batisani, Nnyaladzi, Odada, E.O., Kgosietsile, Sinah, Opere, Alfred, Nyambe, Mubita, Omukuti, Jessica, Siderius, Christian, Olago DO. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability.. 2018; ISSN 2059-4798.
NZUVE SNM. Business Policy and Strategic Management. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1992.
Namu FN, Githaiga JM, Kioko EN, Ndegwa PN, Häuser CL, Kühn L. "The butterfly, Hypolimnas salmacis magnifica.". 2008.Website
F.N. Namu, J.M. Githaiga, E.N. Kioko, Ndegwa PN, C.L. Häuser, L.Kühn. "The butterfly, Hypolimnas salmacis magnifica (Drury, 1773) in Kakamega Forest National Reserve (KFNR) Kenya." Metamorphosis. 2008;18(4):142-143. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT: Several strategies are employed in management of insect pests. Among these, chemical control is a priority to most farming communities where pest incidences occur while other existing options such as biological control are rarely considered. In coffee farming agro ecosystems, there are indigenous biological control agents such as the predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa) that have the potential to manage secondary pests like coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae Williams. This study was conducted to assess the population dynamics of E. kenyae and D. coffeae as well as theirinteractions under coffee agro ecosystems where various soil fertilizer sources and selective insecticides were applied as treatments. The populations of both E. kenyae and D. coffeae fluctuated during the three years study period. The E. kenyae suppressed the population of D. coffeae under various treated coffee blocks. There was negative correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae in year 2006 and 2008 where the increasing population of E. kenyae decreased that of D. coffeae. In year 2007, positive correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae was observed in some of the treatments where increased population of D. coffeae caused an increased population of E. kenyae. Euseius kenyae managed to contain the D. coffeae population to below economical injury levels (1-2 thrips per leaf) during the three years under the various coffee agro ecosystems. The use of chlorpyrifos never affected E. kenyae. Their survival and increased in number under chlorpyrifos treated coffee blocks indicated the development of resistance by the population of E. kenyae, hence the possibility of using them as a component in an Integrated Pest Management strategy in coffee.

C
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "C. J. NGANGA, P. W. N. KANYARI, W. K. MUNYUA (1994). " Isolation of Besnoitia wallacei in Kenya". Veterinary Parasitology, 52: 203- 206.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "C. J. NGANGA, W. K. MUNYUA and P. W. N. KANYARI (1994). "Recovery and identification of Besnoitia and other coccidia from cat feaces around Kabete in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 42:187 - 191.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "C. J. NGANGA, W. K. MUNYUA and P. W. N. KANYARI (1994). "Recovery and identification of Besnoitia and other coccidia from cat feaces around Kabete in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 42:187 - 191.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFNYAGAP. "C.G. Gitao and P.N. Nyaga (1996): A comparison of field outbreaks of camelpox and Camel contagious ecthyma in Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. and Prod. Afric. 44: 73-78.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 1996. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "C.G. Gitao, P.N. Nyaga and J. O. Evans (1996): Pathogenicity of Sheep Skin- cell-propagated camel-pox virus in camels (Camelus dromedarius): Indian Journ. of Animal Sciences 66(6): 535-538.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 1996. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "C.G. Ndiritu, P.N. Nyaga and G.N. Mugera. Evaluation of Ancylostoma caninum antigens using the isoelectro-focusing techniques (1985). Kenya Vet.(9) :8-10.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "C.G.Gitao and P.N. Nyaga (1997): Pathogenicity of Camelpox virus adapted to sheep skin and sheep kidney derived cell cultures in camels. Indian Vet. J. 74: 872-874.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 1997. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS, N PROFGUANTAIA. "C.K. Maitai, A.N. Guantai and J.W. Mwangi (1981). Self-medication in management of minor health problem in Kenya. E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600.". In: E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600. A.N. GUANTAI and C.K. MAITA; 1981. Abstract
he distribution of cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edit/is plants from 2 different geographical localities has been investigated. There was no difference in the chemical constituents of Catha material from 2 locali-ties. D-norpseudoephedrine was present in all parts of the plant examined except the root but cathinone was only detected in the young shoots and bran-chlets. It is concluded that the psychostinaulant effect following chewing of young Catha shoots is due to both cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine with the cathinone being more important since it is 7-10 times more potent than d-norpseudoephedrine.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS, N PROFGUANTAIA. "C.K. Maitai, A.N. Guantai and J.W. Mwangi (1981). Self-medication in management of minor health problem in Kenya. E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600.". In: E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600. The Kenya Medical Association; 1981. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
Maitai CK, Kibwage IO, Guantai AN, Ombega JN, Ndemo FA. "C.K. Maitai, I.O. Kibwage, A. N. Guantai, J. N. Ombega and F.A. Ndemo (1998). A retrospective study of childhood poisoning in Kenya in 1991- 93." East Cent Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 1998;1(1):7-10. AbstractWebsite

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

Kayongo SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Nyagah PN;, Maitho TE;, Mbugua PN. "Caged-layer waste as a nitrogen source in crop-residue utilization."; 1992. Abstract

Examine the effect of processing methods on the composition and degradability of caged-layer waste (CLW). Investigate the effect of ensiling CLW (as a nitrogen source) with crop residues on the chemical composition and degradability of the silage. The proximate composition of unprocessed, sun-dried, ensiled, deep-stacked and fumigated CLW are shown in Table 1. Assesses the effect of sun-drying, ensiling, deep-stacking and fumigating with formaldehyde gas on the nutritional value of caged-layer waste (CLW). Deep-stacking resulted in a higher (P0.01) ash content and undesirable odour, but also in a higher (P0.01) dry-matter degradability (DMD) than the other treatment methods. Duration of sun-drying or deep-stacking or the number of times the CLW was fumigated did not affect (P0.05) DMD in the rumen. However, ensiling CLW for 42 days resulted in a higher (P0.01) DMD than ensiling for 21 days and also reduced odour. Ensiling fibrous crop residues with caged-layer waste could provide a means of more efficiently utilising caged-layer wastes and crop residues as livestock feed.

Kayongo SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Nyagah PN;, Maitho TE;, Mbugua PN. "Caged-layer waste as a nitrogen source in crop-residue utilization."; 1992. Abstract

Examine the effect of processing methods on the composition and degradability of caged-layer waste (CLW). Investigate the effect of ensiling CLW (as a nitrogen source) with crop residues on the chemical composition and degradability of the silage. The proximate composition of unprocessed, sun-dried, ensiled, deep-stacked and fumigated CLW are shown in Table 1. Assesses the effect of sun-drying, ensiling, deep-stacking and fumigating with formaldehyde gas on the nutritional value of caged-layer waste (CLW). Deep-stacking resulted in a higher (P0.01) ash content and undesirable odour, but also in a higher (P0.01) dry-matter degradability (DMD) than the other treatment methods. Duration of sun-drying or deep-stacking or the number of times the CLW was fumigated did not affect (P0.05) DMD in the rumen. However, ensiling CLW for 42 days resulted in a higher (P0.01) DMD than ensiling for 21 days and also reduced odour. Ensiling fibrous crop residues with caged-layer waste could provide a means of more efficiently utilising caged-layer wastes and crop residues as livestock feed.

Kayongo SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Nyagah PN;, Maitho TE;, Mbugua PN. "Caged-layer waste as a nitrogen source in crop-residue utilization."; 1992. Abstract

Examine the effect of processing methods on the composition and degradability of caged-layer waste (CLW). Investigate the effect of ensiling CLW (as a nitrogen source) with crop residues on the chemical composition and degradability of the silage. The proximate composition of unprocessed, sun-dried, ensiled, deep-stacked and fumigated CLW are shown in Table 1. Assesses the effect of sun-drying, ensiling, deep-stacking and fumigating with formaldehyde gas on the nutritional value of caged-layer waste (CLW). Deep-stacking resulted in a higher (P0.01) ash content and undesirable odour, but also in a higher (P0.01) dry-matter degradability (DMD) than the other treatment methods. Duration of sun-drying or deep-stacking or the number of times the CLW was fumigated did not affect (P0.05) DMD in the rumen. However, ensiling CLW for 42 days resulted in a higher (P0.01) DMD than ensiling for 21 days and also reduced odour. Ensiling fibrous crop residues with caged-layer waste could provide a means of more efficiently utilising caged-layer wastes and crop residues as livestock feed.

Kayongo SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Nyagah PN;, Maitho TE;, Mbugua PN. "Caged-layer waste as a nitrogen source in crop-residue utilization."; 1992. Abstract

Examine the effect of processing methods on the composition and degradability of caged-layer waste (CLW). Investigate the effect of ensiling CLW (as a nitrogen source) with crop residues on the chemical composition and degradability of the silage. The proximate composition of unprocessed, sun-dried, ensiled, deep-stacked and fumigated CLW are shown in Table 1. Assesses the effect of sun-drying, ensiling, deep-stacking and fumigating with formaldehyde gas on the nutritional value of caged-layer waste (CLW). Deep-stacking resulted in a higher (P0.01) ash content and undesirable odour, but also in a higher (P0.01) dry-matter degradability (DMD) than the other treatment methods. Duration of sun-drying or deep-stacking or the number of times the CLW was fumigated did not affect (P0.05) DMD in the rumen. However, ensiling CLW for 42 days resulted in a higher (P0.01) DMD than ensiling for 21 days and also reduced odour. Ensiling fibrous crop residues with caged-layer waste could provide a means of more efficiently utilising caged-layer wastes and crop residues as livestock feed.

Lamuka P, Njeru F, Gitao C, Khalif A. "Camel health management and pastoralists’ knowledge and information on zoonoses and food safety risks in Isiolo County, Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2017;7(20, DOI 10.1186/s13570-017-0095-z).
Wamola IA, Mirza NB, Ngugi JM, Bwibo NO. "Campylobacter gastroenteritis in Nairobi.". 1983.Website
Calatayud P-A, Njuguna E, Mwalusepo S, Gathara M, Okuku G, Kibe A, B M, Williamson D, Ong’amo G, Juma G, Johansson T, Subramanian S, Gatebe E, BP LR. "Can climate-driven change influence silicon assimilation by cereals and hence the distribution of lepidopteran stem borers in East Africa? ." AGRICULTURE, ECOSYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT. 2016;224:95-103.
Ntwiga DB. "Can FinTech Shape the Dynamics ofConsumer Credit Usage among theUn(der)banked?". In: Kenya Bankers Association Working Paper Series.; 2019. Abstract

We use the 2016 FinAccess Household survey data of 2015 from 8665 households and desktop reviews to examine how perceptions, behaviour, financial literacy and socio-economic characteristics of un(der) banked consumers can shape their dynamics towards credit usage. The challenges and opportunities for the market players are examined using desktop reviews and their role towards an increase in financial inclusion and credit usage through FinTech. The disruptive innovations have provided new possibilities, challenges and opportunities to boost financial and credit usage in the market. Consumer perceptions on cost, trust, source of financial advice, financial literacy and socio-economic characteristics influences credit usage. The business models being developed by the FinTech providers are taunted to change the landscape of lending to the un(der) banked

Nathan, Iben; Thomsen K, Thomsen K. "Can smallholders be supplied with quality tree seed through commercial distribution of tree seed in small bags."; 2010. Abstract

This paper discusses the possibility for retail sale of small quantities of tree seed to smallholders through private enterprises already dealing with horticultural and agricultural seed. It is suggested that the private enterprises purchase tree seed at national tree seed programmes, pack the seed in small bags and distribute and sell the bags through their networks of local seed dealers. A picture of the tree will be printed on the front of the bag, and guidelines for using the seed will be printed on the back. The aim is to increase smallholders' access to high quality tree seed. The discussion will focus on seed-physiological, genetic and financial aspects.

Ondieki-Mwaura FN;, Njoroge LM;, Okello JJ;, Bahemuka JM. "Can Smallholders Continue To Effectively Participate In Global Commodity Chains? The Case Of French Bean Production In Kirinyaga Region Of Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

The participation of smallholders in global commodity chains such as export horticulture has often been characterised as problematic given the high transaction costs that these farmers face. The involvement of small holders in Kenya’s export sector has therefore been hailed as an exception rather than the rule success story especially given the fact that it has developed largely under the private sector. However, changes in certain standards in export markets such food safety standards have posed a threat to these farmers’ participation. For example, there is increasing evidence that exporters of fresh produce prefer to work with larger farmers or even engage in production rather than work with small farmers. If smallholders are going to continue participating in export horticulture value chains, they will have to among other things develop and participate in institutional arrangements that reduce the increasing transaction costs brought about by international food safety standards. This study aims to describe the various institutional arrangements that small farmers use to participate in export horticulture and the challenges and constraints they face within these arrangements. In addition, it will determine factors that affect farmers’ choice of alternative institutional arrangements that exist. A survey of 240 farmers was carried out in Kirinyaga to obtain household data and 4 focus group discussions were held in each of the four districts in Kirinyaga. The case study methodology was used to gather in-depth information on the key institutional arrangements used by farmers. The study found that the most dominant institutional arrangements were selling individually to brokers, followed by selling as part of a group to an exporter. Some farmers were involved in more than one arrangement perhaps as a strategy to overcome the inherent disadvantages found in some arrangements.

NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Canadian International Development Agency's Assistance in Kenya", February 1974.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1974. Abstract
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Grossheim L, Ruff P, Ngoma T, Vanderpuye V, Wango GM, Ochieng P, Palmer D, Kouya F, Lasebikan N, Ntekim A, Ngoma M, Bih N, Malloum A, Elzawawy A, Kerr D, Ngwa W. "Cancer and Covid-19 Experiences at African Cancer Centers: The Silver Lining." JCO Global Oncology. 2021;7:410-415.
Magoha GA, Ngumi ZW. "Cancer of the penis at Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVES:
To determine how common cancer of penis is in this locality compared to all other malignant tumours and urological malignancies, and to determine and comment on the various methods of treatment available at KNH.
DESIGN:
A retrospective case study.
SETTING:
Kenyatta National Referral Hospital, Nairobi.
SUBJECTS:
All patients with histologically confirmed cancer of penis at the Kenyatta National hospital between January 1970 and December 1999.
RESULTS:
There were 55 patients with penile cancer representing 0.1% of all malignancies during the study period. The mean age was 47.9 years with a peak incidence between 40-61 year age groups. Penile cancer was the most rare urological tumour representing 5.1%. The most common was prostate cancer (56.0%), followed by bladder cancer (25.0%), kidney cancer (7.9%), and testicular cancer (6.1%). Thirty eight patients (69.1%) presented with advanced disease, Jacksons stages III and IV. The majority (96.4%) of the patients had glandular and preputial involvement. Histologically, 56.4% had well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, (23.6%) had moderately differentiated and (20.0%) had undifferentiated carcinoma. Forty patients (72.7%) were circumcised, nine patients (16.4%) were circumcised as adolescents and three patients (5.5%) circumcised as adults. Twenty five patients had partial penectomy with radiotherapy and or chemotherapy. Eight patients had total penectomy and radiotherapy while four patients had local excision and radiotherapy. Eleven other patients had radiotherapy either alone or combined with chemotherapy. Two patients had circumcision only and inguinal lymphadenectomy was effected on five patients after penectomy and radiotherapy.
CONCLUSION:
Penile cancer is rare and the least common urological malignancy in this locality. It occurs in younger men with a mean age of 47.9 years, and presents as advanced Jackson's stages III and IV disease. The majority of patients had penectomy and local excision followed by radiotherapy.

Kiptoon DK, Ngugi PM, Rana FS. "Cancer of the penis: case report.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Two patients with penile carcinoma are presented after management at a district hospital in Kenya. Both had undergone ritual circumcision as teenagers and presented late. HR was a 73 year old who presented with a fungating penile mass for which a partial penectomy was performed after wedge biopsy confirmed malignancy. He thereafter declined to have the surgical specimen sent for histology and took the amputated stump for burial in his compound to avoid bad omen. GK was 25 years old and presented with a fungating mass and underwent partial penectomy after a histological diagnosis was made. He absconded from follow-up after being informed of the need for further surgery due to tumour infiltration of the surgical margins. The history and clinical images are presented and we discuss the difficulties of cancer management at a rural district hospital

Kiptoon DK, Ngugi PM, Rana FS. "Cancer of the penis: case report." East Afr Med J. 2009;86(4):196-200. Abstract

Two patients with penile carcinoma are presented after management at a district hospital in Kenya. Both had undergone ritual circumcision as teenagers and presented late. HR was a 73 year old who presented with a fungating penile mass for which a partial penectomy was performed after wedge biopsy confirmed malignancy. He thereafter declined to have the surgical specimen sent for histology and took the amputated stump for burial in his compound to avoid bad omen. GK was 25 years old and presented with a fungating mass and underwent partial penectomy after a histological diagnosis was made. He absconded from follow-up after being informed of the need for further surgery due to tumour infiltration of the surgical margins. The history and clinical images are presented and we discuss the difficulties of cancer management at a rural district hospital.

T
C
Rogito DO, Maitho T, Nderitu A. "Capacity Building in Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation on Sustainability of Food Security Irrigation Projects. Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management 2020, 10(2), 94-102.". 2020. Abstract

Project, and Production Management 2020, 10(2), 94-102
Abstract: health-related problems and even death among animals and human beings. Agriculture is the main food source; thus, many interventions are made such as that of irrigation by the local county and national government initiated through the National Irrigation Board (NIB). Despite the irrigation projects food insufficiency still persists, therefore their sustainability is questionable. One such approach to improving the sustainability of irrigation projects is participatory monitoring and evaluation which leads to ownership and then higher sustainability. In the study, the objective was to asses if taking corrective action after participatory monitoring and evaluation (PME) influence project sustainability. The study used a descriptive survey and correlation designs to collect data from 316 respondents selected using stratification sand purposeful with strict randomization. Questionnaires were administered and interviews were conducted on selected sample respondents on appointed dates. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0 to get descriptive statistics, correlations coefficients were obtained to test association and degree of strength. Testing of the hypothesis was done using linear regression. The study findings were that a large number of respondents were between ages 31 to 40 years and most were female with their highest level of education being primary school. The influence of PME capacity building on the dependent variable and irrigation projects sustainability found that the farmers were not taken for exposure visits and project officers were not accountable for money use. Age, gender, and education level have very minimal influence on PME capacity building. PME capacity building had a weak positive influence of r = 0.290 and it explained only 8.4% of irrigation projects sustainability in Kitui County. The study recommends that to improve project capacity building: project revenue must be controlled on use, farmers must be taken for exposure visits to learn from successors, project officers should be accountable for funds use, and project guidelines should be improved to increase sustainability. Implementation of these recommendations will reduce the loss of Arid and Semi-Srid Lands (ASALs) and attain higher and longer sustainability in food projects, thus, reducing the recurrence rate of food shortage, improve and hasten the implementation of irrigation projects, show the need to involve primary stakeholders in project monitoring and appraisal for sustainability, better and efficient decisions by policymakers to increase chances of project's success. Keywords: Food security, Participatory monitoring and evaluation, irrigation, taking corrective action, capacity building, sustainability, funds management, projects

N. DRIRAKIW, NJOKI MRSKIRUTHIZIPPORAH. "Capacity Building In The Kenya Dairy Industry.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2008.
KYALO DN, Nyonje R. Capacity Development for Secondary School Principals in Kenya.. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller Aktierge Sellschaft & CO.KG, ISBN:978-3-639-349368; 2011.
Wangombe JK, Mwanili D, Mitula P, Mugo M, Nzoya D, Muasya I, Muchunga E. "Capacity of Non-Governmental (NGoK) Providers in Delivery of Health Care in Kenya." Informing and reforming. 1998;7:2-6. Abstract
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Muasya MK, Dienya TM, Wagaiyu EG, Nduati R, Kiarie JN. "Capacity of non-tertiary Kenyan health facilities selected for decentralised dental training." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(2). Abstract

Objective: To determine the capacity of six non-tertiary Kenyan hospitals enrolled as sites for decentralised dental education.

Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

Setting: The Dental departments of six non-tertiary Kenyan health facilities.

Main outcome measures: Capacity of the hospitals to be used as sites for decentralised dental education.

Results: Five out of the six facilities had capacity for final year undergraduate students to gain learning experiences in more than 60% of the clinical disciplines studied. All the selected facilities had challenges of lack of specialists, broken down dental equipment and inadequate materials.

Conclusion: Although the six hospitals faced various challenges in maintenance of equipment, availability of dental materials and specialist staff, five out of the six facilities had the capacity for dental student learning in more than 60% of the clinical disciplines studied.

Sanchez JL, Johns MC, Burke RL, Vest KG, Fukuda MM, Yoon IK, Lon C, Quintana M, Schnabel DC, Pimentel G, Mansour M, Tobias S, Montgomery JM, Gray GC, Saylors K, Ndip LM, Lewis S, Blair PJ, Sjoberg PA, Kuschner RA, Russell KL, Blazes DL, Witt CJ, Money NN, Gaydos JC, Pavlin JA, Gibbons RV, Jarman RG, Stoner M, Shrestha SK, Owens AB, Iioshi N, Osuna MA, Martin SK, Gordon SW, Bulimo WD, Waitumbi DJ, Assefa B, Tjaden JA, Earhart KC, Kasper MR, Brice GT, Rogers WO, Kochel T, Laguna-Torres VA, Garcia J, Baker W, Wolfe N, Tamoufe U, Djoko CF, Fair JN, Akoachere JF, Feighner B, Hawksworth A, Myers CA, Courtney WG, Macintosh VA, Gibbons T, Macias EA, Grogl M, O'Neil MT, Lyons AG, Houng HS, Rueda L, Mattero A, Sekonde E, Sang R, Sang W, Palys TJ, Jerke KH, Millard M, Erima B, Mimbe D, Byarugaba D, Wabwire-Mangen F, Shiau D, Wells N, Bacon D, Misinzo G, Kulanga C, Haverkamp G, Kohi YM, Brown ML, Klein TA, Meyers M, Schoepp RJ, Norwood DA, Cooper MJ, Maza JP, Reeves WE, Guan J. "Capacity-building efforts by the AFHSC-GEIS program." BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S4. AbstractWebsite

Capacity-building initiatives related to public health are defined as developing laboratory infrastructure, strengthening host-country disease surveillance initiatives, transferring technical expertise and training personnel. These initiatives represented a major piece of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) contributions to worldwide emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance and response. Capacity-building initiatives were undertaken with over 80 local and regional Ministries of Health, Agriculture and Defense, as well as other government entities and institutions worldwide. The efforts supported at least 52 national influenza centers and other country-specific influenza, regional and U.S.-based EID reference laboratories (44 civilian, eight military) in 46 countries worldwide. Equally important, reference testing, laboratory infrastructure and equipment support was provided to over 500 field sites in 74 countries worldwide from October 2008 to September 2009. These activities allowed countries to better meet the milestones of implementation of the 2005 International Health Regulations and complemented many initiatives undertaken by other U.S. government agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of State.

Bulimo W, JL S, MC J, RL B, KG V, MM F, IK Y, C L, M Q, DC S, G P, M M, S T, JM M, GC G, K S, LM N, S L, PJ B, PA S, RA K, KL R, DL B, Group AFHSC-GEISCBW, CJ W, NN M, JC G, JA P, RV G, RG J, M S, SK S, AB O, N I, MA O, SK M, SW G, WD B, DJ W, B A, JA T, KC E, MR K, GT B, WO R, T K, VA L-T, J G, W B, N W, U T, CF D, JN F, JF A, B F, A H, CA M, WG C, VA M, T G, EA M, M G, ' O, AG L, HS H, L R, A M, E S, R S, W S, TJ P, KH J, M M, B E, D M, D B, F W-M, D S, N W, D B, G M, C K, G H, YM K, ML B, TA K, M M, RJ S, DA N, MJ C, JP M, WE R, J G. "Capacity-building efforts by the AFHSC-GEIS program.". 2011. AbstractWebsite
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Ngugi RW, Maana I, Amanja D, Adam CS, Collier P, Ndung’u N. "Capital market and economic growth in Kenya.". In: Kenya Policies for Prosperity. Oxford University Press; 2010.
O’Connell SA, Maturu BO, Mwega FM, Ndung’u N, Ngugi RW, Adam CS, Collier P. "Capital mobility, monetary policy and exchange rate management in Kenya.". In: Kenya Policies for Prosperity. Oxford University Press; 2010.
Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Olum M, Attah-Poku S, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Potter A, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Wesonga H, Soi R, Naessens J. "Capsular polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides shows potential for protection against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2016;178:64-69. Abstract

Abstract Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease
caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa.
The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Mmm is one of the few identified virulence
determinants. In a previous study, immunization of mice against CPS generated antibodies,
but they were not able to prevent multiplication of Mmm in this model animal. However, mice
cannot be considered as a suitable animal model, as Mmm does not induce pathology in ...

Mukuwa M, Njeru A, Martin Inyimili. Car Hire and Tracking Management System. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Uninersity of Agriculture and Technology; 2012. Abstract

JABULANI CAR HIRE AND TRACKING SYSTEM MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
By Mary Mukuwa, Ambrose Njeru,Martin Inyimili

ABSTRACT
Nowadays, there are online car reservations which give much benefit to user. The existence of this online system can overcome the problem of availability and provide convenience to the user in renting, car yet users still need more convenience system such as helping them in recommending car to be rent based on car specific requirements.
The user selects their preferred car from the car catalogue. Reservation can be done through online and users have to come to the service center to make payment and pick the reserved car. This system is functioned in retrieving, creating, updating and deleting the data or information depends on the security level and allows the organization to search user information from the database based on their identification card number. Besides that, this system may produce reports such as payment receipt, renting information and statistics of car renting by year, month, or week. The finding of this project is the web-based car rental system with recommended car to be rent and the output that will produce the information by following the user requirements. In conclusion, the system may need some enhancement and improvement in the future

Roger B. Austin, Peter Q. Craufurd, Michael A. Hall, Edmundo Acevedo, da & BSP, Ngugi ECK. "Carbon isotope discrimination as a means of evaluating drought resistance in barley, rice and cowpeas." Bull. Soc. bot. Fr.l37, Actual. bot. 1990;1:21-30.carbon_isotope_discrimination_as_a_means_of_evalua.pdf
Nyunja J, M. Ntiba, J. Onyari, K. Mavuti, Bouillon S. "Carbon sources supporting a diverse fish community in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Gazi Bay, Kenya)." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 2009;83(3):265-378 .
Nyunja NJM, Onyari J, Mavuti K, SK, Bouillon S. "Carbon sources supporting a diverse fish community in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Gazi Bay, Kenya)." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 83 . 2009:333-341 .
McCauley DJ, Dawson TE, Power ME, Finlay JC, Ogada M, Gower DB, Caylor K, WD Nyingi, Githaiga JM, Nyunja J, Joyce FH, Lewison RL. "Carbon stable isotopes suggest that hippopotamus-vectored nutrients subsidize aquatic." Issue: Ecosphere, 6 (4). 2015.
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Cardiovascular risk factor profile of black Africans undergoing coronary angiography. Kamotho C,Ogola E N,Joshi M D,Gikonyo D.". In: East Afr Med J.2004;81:82-86. Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a growing epidemic on the African continent. It remains uncertain whether the risk factors identified as contributing to CAD in white populations contribute to a similar extent to CAD incidence in black populations. No data of the local population exists that is based on the coronary angiogram (CA). OBJECTIVES: To analyse the relationship of conventional cardiovascular risk factors with presence of CAD in black Africans. DESIGN: This was a dual-armed study, consisting of retrospective and prospective comparative arms. SUBJECTS: Black Africans who underwent coronary angiography. SETTING: Nairobi Hospital, Cathereterization laboratory. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The conventional risk factors: age, male gender, hypertension, obesity, smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, alcohol use and interventricular septum (IVS) hypertrophy, as a marker of LVH. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty nine patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 144 in the retrospective arm and 25 in the prospective. The larger retrospective arm showed that the group with CAD, compared to the normal group, was significantly older, with a higher mean age of 54.4 years compared to 49.8 years (P=0.005); had significantly more males, with a male to female ratio of 5.5:1 compared to 2.3:1 (P=0.045); had a very significantly larger proportion of diabetics (38.5% compared to 12%
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Cardiovascular risk factor profile of black Africans undergoing coronary angiography. Kamotho C,Ogola E N,Joshi M D,Gikonyo D.". In: East Afr Med J.2004;81:82-86. Institute of Health Research & Services; 2004. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a growing epidemic on the African continent. It remains uncertain whether the risk factors identified as contributing to CAD in white populations contribute to a similar extent to CAD incidence in black populations. No data of the local population exists that is based on the coronary angiogram (CA). OBJECTIVES: To analyse the relationship of conventional cardiovascular risk factors with presence of CAD in black Africans. DESIGN: This was a dual-armed study, consisting of retrospective and prospective comparative arms. SUBJECTS: Black Africans who underwent coronary angiography. SETTING: Nairobi Hospital, Cathereterization laboratory. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The conventional risk factors: age, male gender, hypertension, obesity, smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, alcohol use and interventricular septum (IVS) hypertrophy, as a marker of LVH. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty nine patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 144 in the retrospective arm and 25 in the prospective. The larger retrospective arm showed that the group with CAD, compared to the normal group, was significantly older, with a higher mean age of 54.4 years compared to 49.8 years (P=0.005); had significantly more males, with a male to female ratio of 5.5:1 compared to 2.3:1 (P=0.045); had a very significantly larger proportion of diabetics (38.5% compared to 12%
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS, N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Cardiovascular risk factor profiles in mild to moderate hypertensives seen at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):693-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):693-5. UN-HABITAT; 1993. Abstract
Sixty newly diagnosed adult patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were assessed to determine their cardiovascular risk factor profiles. Detailed history and physical examinations were done. Resting 12-lead ECG was done and serum levels of uric acid, fasting cholesterol, and fasting glucose were determined. Twenty nine patients had hypertension and two or more cardiovascular risk factors. The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors other than hypertension were electro-cardiovascular left ventricular hypertrophy (31.7%), obesity (28.3%) and hypercholesterolaemia (28.3%). About a half of these patients (48.3%) can be classified as high risk hypertensives. This calls for aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors as a whole and not just hypertension alone if we are to reduce incidence of hypertensive complications.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS, N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Cardiovascular risk factor profiles in mild to moderate hypertensives seen at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):693-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):693-5. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Sixty newly diagnosed adult patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were assessed to determine their cardiovascular risk factor profiles. Detailed history and physical examinations were done. Resting 12-lead ECG was done and serum levels of uric acid, fasting cholesterol, and fasting glucose were determined. Twenty nine patients had hypertension and two or more cardiovascular risk factors. The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors other than hypertension were electro-cardiovascular left ventricular hypertrophy (31.7%), obesity (28.3%) and hypercholesterolaemia (28.3%). About a half of these patients (48.3%) can be classified as high risk hypertensives. This calls for aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors as a whole and not just hypertension alone if we are to reduce incidence of hypertensive complications.
Geere JL, Gona J, Omondi FO, Kifalu MK, Newton CR, Hartley S. "Caring for children with physical disability in Kenya: potential links between caregiving and carers' physical health.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The health of a carer is a key factor which can affect the well-being of the child with disabilities for whom they care. In low-income countries, many carers of children with disabilities contend with poverty, limited public services and lack assistive devices. In these situations caregiving may require more physical work than in high-income countries and so carry greater risk of physical injury or health problems. There is some evidence that poverty and limited access to health care and equipment may affect the physical health of those who care for children with disabilities. This study seeks to understand this relationship more clearly. Methods  A mixed methods study design was used to identify the potential physical health effects of caring for a child with moderate-severe motor impairments in Kilifi, Kenya. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were thematically analysed and triangulated with data collected during structured physiotherapy assessment. Results  Carers commonly reported chronic spinal pain of moderate to severe intensity, which affected essential activities. However, carers differed in how they perceived their physical health to be affected by caregiving, also reporting positive benefits or denying detrimental effects. Carers focussed on support in two key areas; the provision of simple equipment and support for their children to physically access and attend school. Conclusions  Carers of children with moderate-severe motor impairments live with their own physical health challenges. While routine assessments lead to diagnosis of simple musculoskeletal pain syndromes, the overall health status and situation of carers may be more complex. As a consequence, the role of rehabilitation therapists may need to be expanded to effectively evaluate and support carers' health needs. The provision of equipment to improve their child's mobility, respite care or transport to enable school attendance is likely to be helpful to carers and children alike.

Nyangweso DO, Tabitha M. Njoroge, Siriba DN. "Cartographic Generalization in Multi-scale Environment: Case study of Lamu County, Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research. 2016;5(9):804-811.
Moturi CA, Mburu R, Ngaruiya N. "A Case for Judicial Data Warehousing and Data Mining in Kenya." American Journal of Computing Research Repository. 2016;4(1):7-14. AbstractWebsite

This aim of this study was to demonstrate how the Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) process can be utilized to assist the Kenyan Judiciary address challenges of data integration in its operational systems and hence provide better mechanisms for extracting data to allow easier reporting and generating judicial intelligence. The research determined the common data sources and operational systems, demonstrated, using case returns data, how the ETL process can be used to migrate data from sources to a data warehouse, proposed a framework for an ETL environment, and developed guidelines for creating a data warehouse for the Kenya Judiciary. This is in line with the Kenya Judiciary Transformation Framework that seeks to harness Information and Communications Technology as an enabler in the justice system in order to achieve expeditious delivery of justice. The practical implication of this work is the better preparation of judiciaries with limited adoption and utilization of ICT in laying the groundwork for judicial knowledge discovery.

Ndegwa W. "Case for Pre-Trials in Criminal Procedure in Kenya.". In: Liverpool Law Society Journal .; 2009.
C BL, Njagi L W. "A case of Newcastle disease in parrots in Nairobi, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and production in Africa. 2007;55:292-295. Abstractabstract-_nd_in_parrots-2007.pdf

Bull.Anim.Hlth.Prod.Afr.,(2007),55,292-295

Maribei JM;, Njoroge EM;, Njiro SM. "A case of ovine lymphosarcoma in Kenya.".; 1998. Abstract

Ovine lymphosarcoma was diagnosed clinically in a 5-year-old Blackhead sheep in Kenya, and confirmed on blood smear, leukocyte count and macroscopic pathology. Four progeny of the ewe were examined. They were normal haematologically but 2 revealed bilaterally enlarged lymph nodes.

Nyenze E, Muchai M IBDM. "A CASE OF RETROBULBAR HAEMORRHAGE IN A NEWLY DIAGNOSED CASE OF HAEMOPHILIA." Journal of ophthalmology. 2013;17(2):77-80. Abstract

Abstract.
Haemophilia is a congenital disorder of coagulation. It presents with numerous and varied systemic manifestations depending on the severity of coagulation factor deficiency. There are also ocular manifestations ranging from simple subconjunctival haemorrhage to more debilitating complications like retinal, vitreous and retrobulbar haemorrhage which are potentially blinding.
We present this case due to the unique presentation of haemophilia for the first time to a medical institution with ocular manifestations that progressed to complicate with eventual loss of vision in the affected eye.

Maweu JM, Ndohvu JB. "A Case of Voice Poverty? Towards a New Paradigm in the Fight Against Poverty in Kenya.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ltd; 2017.
Ogutu O, J A, POR O, N N, Rogena E. "Case report of spontaneous rapture of the ceacum following ceasarean section." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93.
Buruchara R;, Otsyula R;, Opiyo F;, Musoni A;, Kantengwa S;, Nderitu J;, Nekesa P;, Wortman C. "A case study on developing and disseminating Integrated Pest Management technologies for bean root rots in Eastern and Central Africa.".; 2000.
Sobry A, Kizito W, Van den Bergh R, Tayler-Smith K, Isaakidis P, Cheti E, Kosgei RJ, Vandenbulcke A, Ndegwa Z, Reid T. "Caseload, management and treatment outcomes of patients with hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus in a primary health care programme in an informal setting." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2014;19(1):47-57. Abstractcaseload_management_and_treatment_outcomes_of_patients_with_hypertension_andor_diabetes_mellitus_in_a_primary_health_care_programme_in_an_informal_setting_.pdf

In three primary health care clinics run by Médecins Sans Frontières in the informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, we describe the caseload, management and treatment outcomes of patients with hypertension (HT) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) receiving care from January 2010 to June 2012.

Kuria JKN, Ngatia TA. "Caseous Lymphadenitis of sheep and goats in Kenya." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 1990;38:15-18.
Olembo NK, Obungu VH, Kiaira JK, Njogu RM. "Catabolism of proline by procyclic culture forms of Trypanosoma congolense.". 1999. AbstractWebsite

The effect of various metabolic inhibitors on the rate of oxygen consumption by procyclic culture forms of Trypanosoma congolense utilizing proline as substrate was investigated. Cyanide inhibited the rate of oxygen consumption by 81.0 +/- 6.7%, malonate inhibited the rate by 51.6 +/- 1.6% and Antimycin A by 73.1 +/- 5.9%. A combination of cyanide and malonate inhibited the rate of oxygen consumption by 84.9 +/- 6.7% while a combination of antimycin A and malonate inhibited the rate by 81.6 +/- 7.6%. Rotenone had no effect on the rate of respiration except when the intact cells were first permeabilized by digitonin after which rotenone decreased the rate of respiration by 20-30%. Salicylhydroxamate (SHAM) did not have any effect on the rate of oxygen consumption. Enzymes involved in the catabolism of proline with high activities were: proline dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarase, NADP-linked malic enzyme, alanine aminotransferase and malate dehydrogenase. Activities of 1-pyrroline-5 carboxylate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and NAD-linked malic enzyme were detectable but lower. The end products of proline catabolism were alanine and glutamate. Unlike the case in Trypanosoma brucei brucei aspartate was not detected. Possible pathways of proline catabolism in procyclic culture forms of T. congolense and of electron transfer are proposed

Njogu REN, Njenga LW, Kariuki DK, Amir O. Yusuf, Wendt OF. "Catalytic Properties of Luminescent Tris-Homoleptic Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes in the Oxidation of Morin in Visible Light. ." Journal of Physical Sciences. 2020;5. AbstractJournal of Physical Sciences

The photo-oxidation of Morin, 2′,3,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone by six luminescent homoleptic tris-cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes was investigated with the aim of evaluating the catalytic properties of the complexes. The Iridium complexes were synthesized using 2-(1-naphthyl)-pyridine (npy) ligand and its derivatives such as npy-OMe, npy-CF3 and npy-Me to form Tris-homoleptic cyclometalated complexes; Ir(npy)3, Ir(npy-OMe)3, Ir(npy-CF3)3, Ir(npy-Me)3, Ir(Me-npy-Me)3, and Ir(Me-npy)3 with substitution at para position relative to nitrogen. The ligand substitution positions were found to influence the excited state lifetimes, where the complexes exhibited long lifetimes, τ, 1.4 – 3.6 μs, ensuring time for substrates to react before relaxation to ground state. All the six complexes displayed reversible or pseudo reversible redox processes with ground state oxidation potential range of 0.57 to 0.93V compared to Standard Calomel Electrode in CH2Cl2. The complexes degraded morin with rate constants kobs between 0.023-0.036 s -1 within a timescale of 12 minutes. The Ir(npy-Me)3 complex was found to have a high degradation with a rate constant of kobs = 0.036 s -1. Degradation reactions using all the six Iridium (III) complexes photoredox catalysts were found to follow first order kinetics and ca. 10-fold faster compared to similar oxidative reaction

NZOMO PROFMARIA. "Caught Between a Rock and a Hard Place’ ."; 2003.
Njeru A, Ombati V, Ngesu L. "Causes and effects of drugs and substance abuse among secondary school students in Dagoreti division, Nairobi West district." Journal of Disaster Management and Risk Deduction, . 2014;6(1):1992-2744.
NW M. Causes of increased drop out in primary school in Nyandarua District, Kenya’.. F A, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
NZUVE SNM, LM.KIILU. "Causes Of Industrial Dispute: A Case Of The Garment Factories At The Athi-River Export Processing Zones In Kenya." Problems of Management in the 21st Century. 2013;6:48-59. AbstractWebsite

An industrial dispute may be defined as a conflict or difference of opinion between management and Workers on the terms of employment (Kornhauser, Dubin and Ross, 1954). In today`s business world, competition is the order of the day. Production, quality, profits and corporate social responsibility are critical areas where companies can improve competitive edge. To attain competitive edge, companies must first ensure cooperation and harmonious relationship between all stakeholders.
The general aim of the study was to investigate the causes of industrial disputes in the garment factories in the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) Athi-River, Kenya. The study employed a descriptive research design to determine what caused the disputes and what the possible solutions were. The study population consisted of the shop stewards and human resource managers working at the four garment factories that were in operation at the time of the study. The research instrument used was a questionnaire administered to the respondents.
It was established that working conditions, pay rates, terms of employment and employee relations were the main causes of the disputes. Weak trade union movement, inefficient and inadequate social security, lack of employment benefits, opportunities for training, promotion, trained personnel at the health service, short contract and low pay are the main problems encountered by those working at the EPZ.
The study recommended that employee’s welfare and working conditions are important factors to be considered by any employer. Both supervisors and workers should work on their relationship and change attitude towards each other. The terms of employment should be looked into as many employees are unhappy with the terms of employment especially the short contracts and majority feel they are not recognized or awarded for their contribution to the organization.
On the other hand, employees need to understand clearly the company policies, rules, regulations and procedures in place. This can be initiated by management providing employee with manuals or handbooks. There should also be clear channels of communication in the organization to enhance smooth operation, understanding and enhance healthy industrial relationships.

Keywords:export processing zone, industrial disputes, industrial relations

Achollah AM, Karanja DN, Ng’ang’a CJ, Bebora LC. "Causes of organ condemnations in cattle at slaughter and associated financial losses in Siaya County, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health . 2020;12(2):27-35.
Achollah AM, Karanja DN, Ng’ang’a CJ, Bebora LC. "Causes of organ condemnations in cattle at slaughter and associated financial losses in Siaya County, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2020;12:27-35.
Munyua SJM;, Agumbah, G.J.O; Njenga KKMN; KJ, Njenga MN;, Njenga MN;, Kuria KJ;, Kamau JA. "Causes Of Pre-Weaning Mortality In Small And Medium Scale Intensive Piggeries In Central Kenya."; 1987.
Munyua SJM;, Agumbah GJO;, Njenga MN;, Kuria KJ;, Kamau JA. "Causes Of Pre-Weaning Mortality In Small And Medium Scale Intensive Piggeries In Central Kenya."; 1987.
Munyua SJM;, Agumbah GJO;, Njenga MN;, Kuria KJ;, Kamau JA. "Causes Of Pre-Weaning Mortality In Small And Medium Scale Intensive Piggeries In Central Kenya."; 1987.
Tyndall M, Malisa M, Plummer FA, Ombetti J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ronald AR. "Ceftriaxone no longer predictably cures chancroid in Kenya.". 1993. AbstractWebsite

Ceftriaxone in a dose of 250 mg given intramuscularly is currently recommended for the treatment of chancroid. Among 133 men in Nairobi, Kenya, with culture-proven chancroid, who were treated with ceftriaxone, treatment failed in 35%. Poor outcome was associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seropositivity. Thus, treatment recommendations for chancroid should be reevaluated.

Lewis P, Nduati R, Kreiss JK, John GC, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha D, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J. "Cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in breast milk." J Infect Dis. Jan;177. 1998;(1)::34-9.Website
Nelson K, Muge E, Wamalwa B. "Cellulolytic Bacillus species isolated from the gut of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria." Scientific African. 2021;11:e00665. Abstract
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Nyambok IO, Konoti HW, Nzioki NM. "Center For Urban Research Print Series Presents.". 1991.Website
Morrison SF, Nakamura K. "Central neural pathways for thermoregulation." Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library. 2011;16:74-104. AbstractWebsite

Central neural circuits orchestrate a homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and to alter body temperature during the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the functional organization of the neural pathways through which cutaneous thermal receptors alter thermoregulatory effectors: the cutaneous circulation for heat loss, the brown adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and heart for thermogenesis and species-dependent mechanisms (sweating, panting and saliva spreading) for evaporative heat loss. These effectors are regulated by parallel but distinct, effector-specific neural pathways that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The thermal afferent circuits include cutaneous thermal receptors, spinal dorsal horn neurons and lateral parabrachial nucleus neurons projecting to the preoptic area to influence warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons which control thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus that project to premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, that descend to provide the excitation necessary to drive thermogenic thermal effectors. A distinct population of warm-sensitive preoptic neurons controls heat loss through an inhibitory input to raphe pallidus neurons controlling cutaneous vasoconstriction.

Onyambu CK, Muriithi IM, Ngare SM. "Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis: A Report of Two Cases." EAMJ. 2010;87(5):220-224. AbstractWebsite

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is an uncommon yet potentially life threatening condition which is often under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of the variability of the clinical signs and symptoms. The imaging findings are often subtle thus the need for a high index of suspicion. The superior sagittal and transverse sinuses are the most frequently involved. The correct diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis relies on neuroimaging studies. The two cases reported highlight the fact that the radiologist may be the first clinician to suspect and diagnose this condition. This ultimately affects prognosis as early diagnosis and treatment reduces morbidity and mortality.

S. N, M. V, F. K, M. K, F. B, C. O’, A. M, N. H. "Challenges and prospects of integrating livestock into smallholder organic pineapple production in Uganda. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2015;26(#113).
Odera S, Julius Oyugi, Kirui A, Aballa A, Noel Onyango, others. "Challenges Faced by House-Hold Contacts of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in an Urban Setting in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Infectious Diseases & Case Reports. SRC/JIDSCR-165. DOI: doi. org/10.47363/JIDSCR/2021 (2). 2021;146:2-4. Abstract
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NAFUNA TERESAM, Waweru PW, Kimathi BM, Njiru LN, Osuala TM, Osiemo MR, Orucho MN, Koimur S, Mwenje SN, Njeru FM, Okoola RE, Ininda JM, Mugo RM, Ombaka EO, Muthama NJ, Manene MM, Mutai BK, Ang’u C, Opere AO, Nzioka JM, Ouma JO, Andang’o HA, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Kimani NM. Challenges Faced By Kenya Sugar Board In Implementing Strategy On Service Delivery To Sugar Cane Millers In Kenya.; 2012. AbstractUniversity of Nairobi

A company's strategy is management's action plan for running the business and conducting its operations. Strategy on service delivery is thus an important element of this management process. For global business market acceleration, business must respond to customers faster than ever with value added products and services, while they struggle to maintain temporary competitive advantage. The study was guided by the main objective which was to identify the challenges of implementation of strategy on service delivery by Kenya Sugar Board to Sugar Millers and to determine possible solutions to these Challenges. It utilized a case study on the Kenya Sugar Board. The target population was the managerial personnel at KSB and a total of eight representatives (one from eight sugar factories). Primary data was collected by the use of interview guide.

mary g., john m., lewis n., isaac m., ambrose v. "The challenges facing adult and continuing education in Kenya. ." International Journal of Education and Social Sciences. 2016;10(3):53-57.
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Nyamongo GB. "Challenges facing humanity in contemporary Society.". In: International Seminar on Knowledge and Spirituality Religious Dimension of man In the Horizons of contemporary Challenges. Vatra- Dornei, Romania ; 2016.
Nyaga JN, Ogollah K. "Challenges Facing Penetration of New Mobile Money Transfer Services In Nairobi ." Journal of Economics and Finance. 2015;6(3):26-32.
Aleri JW;, Nguhiu JM;, Mogoa, E.M; Mulei CM, Mogoa, E.M; Mulei CM. "Challenges In The Smallholder (zero - Grazing) Production Systems Of Nairobi And Its Environs: A Welfare Perspective.".; 2012.
Oredo J, Njihia J. "Challenges of Cloud Computing in Business: Toward New Organizational Competencies." International Journal of Business and Social Science . 2014;5(3).
Oredo J, Njihia J. "Challenges of Cloud Computing in Business: Toward New Organizational Competencies.". In:  African International Business Management (AIBUMA) Conference . Nairobi; 2013.
Oredo JO, Njihia J. "Challenges of Cloud Computing in Business: Towards New Organizational Competencies." International Journal of Business and Social Science . 2014;5:150-160. Abstractchallenges_of_cloud_computing_in_business_towards_new_organizational.pdfWebsite

Cloud computing is a nascent but fast growing innovation that has attracted increasing attention from both
researchers and practitioners as a new Information Technology (IT) paradigm. Cloud computing cannot be
sufficiently understood as a standalone phenomenon in the IT market, but rather as a core ingredient of a larger
transformation of the IT industry that impacts the entire IT ecosystem. Due to the change from enterprise
computing to cloud computing, organizations and individuals need to develop new skills and competencies.
Extant literature in cloud computing has mainly focused on its affordances and challenges with scant attention
given to organizational resources that enable efficient and effective adoption. This paper addresses how
organizations can identify their own local cloud adoption challenges and how to overcome those challenges by
developing new competencies. The paper draws on resource-based theory to propose new organizational
competencies required for seamless migration from enterprise computing to cloud computing. This study was
conducted through an extensive review of academic publications on cloud computing as well as professional
literature such as industry white papers and technical reports.
Keywords: Cloud computing; Resource based theory; Cloud competencies; Service models; Delivery Models;
Cloud brokerage.

MWANGI CM, Kiptoon D, NABULINDO S, Chokwe T. "Challenges of Parathyroidectomy in a Patient with Primary Hyperparathyroidism and End Stage Renal Disease- Case Report ." African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 2013;13(2):57-61.
Mganga KZ, Nyangito MM, Musimba NKR, Nyariki DM, Mwangombe AW, Ekaya WN, Muiru WM, Daniele Clavel4, Francis J, von Kaufmann R, Verhagen J. "The challenges of rehabilitating denuded patches of a semi-arid environment in Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science & Technology . 2010;4(7):430-466. Abstract

Land degradation is a major problem in the semi-arid environments of Sub-Saharan Africa. Fighting land degradation is essential to ensure the sustainable and long-term productivity of the habited semi-arid lands. In Kenya, grass reseeding technology has been used to combat land degradation. However, despite the use of locally adapted perennial grass species namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) failure still abound. Therefore, more land is still being degraded. The aim of this study was to determine the main factors which contribute to failures in rehabilitating denuded patches in semi-arid lands of Kenya. A questionnaire was administered to capture farmer perceptions on failures on rangeland rehabilitation using grass reseeding technology. Rainfall data was collected during the study period. Moreover, rehabilitation trials using the three grasses were done under natural rainfall. Results from this study show that climatic factors mainly low amounts of rainfall to be the main contributor to rehabilitation failures. 92% of the respondents asserted that reseeding fails because of low rainfall amounts received in the area. The study area received a total of 324 mm of rainfall which was low compared to the average annual mean of 600mm. Reseeded trial plots also failed to establish due to the low amounts of rainfall received. This showed how low rainfall is unreliable for reseeding. Other factors namely destruction by the grazing animals, pests and rodents, flush floods, poor sowing time, poor seed quality, lack of enough seed and weeds also contribute to rehabilitation failures in semi-arid lands of Kenya.

Key words: Land degradation, grass reseeding, rehabilitation failures, low rainfall.

NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Change Management a natural Partner of Information Technology in Power Up with Information Technology, Catherine Getao and Marcel Werner (Eds).". In: Information Technology for Development, Vol 15, 3, pp224-232. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Change Management a natural Partner of Information Technology in Power Up with Information Technology, Catherine Getao and Marcel Werner (Eds).". In: UK Development studies Association conference, Open University, Milton Keynes, 7-9 September 2006. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004. Abstract
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Nyang’au TN, Ng’ethe, N. and Omosa M(eds.). Changing Social Structure. Nairobi: Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi.; 2009.
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Chapter 4. Global ozone: Past and Future.". In: In UNEP/WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, pp. 4.1-4.9, 2003. Eastern and South African Journal; 2003. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
NYAMBURA DRKARIUKI. "Characterisation of community acquired non-typhoidal Salmonella from bacteraemia and diarrhoeal infections in children admitted to hospital in Nairobi, Kenya Samuel Kariuki, Gunturu Revathi, Nyambura Kariuki, John Kiiru, Joyce Mwituria, and Charles A Hart.". In: BMC Microbiol. 2006 Dec 15;6:101. Elsevier; 2006. Abstract
Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. skariuki@kemri.org BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa community-acquired non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a major cause of high morbidity and death among children under 5 years of age especially from resource poor settings. The emergence of multidrug resistance is a major challenge in treatment of life threatening invasive NTS infections in these settings. RESULTS: Overall 170 (51.2%) of children presented with bacteraemia alone, 28 (8.4%) with gastroenteritis and bacteraemia and 134 (40.4%) with gastroenteritis alone. NTS serotypes obtained from all the cases included S. Typhimurium (196; 59%), S. Enteritidis (94; 28.3%) and other serotypes in smaller numbers (42; 12.7%); distribution of these serotypes among cases with bacteremia or gastroenteritis was not significantly different. A significantly higher proportion of younger children (< 3 years of age) and those from the slums presented with invasive NTS compared to older children and those from upper socio-economic groups (p < 0.001). One hundred and forty-seven (44.3%) NTS were resistant to 3 or more antibiotics, and out of these 59% were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. There was no significant difference in antibiotic resistance between the two serotypes, S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were the only antibiotics tested to which all the NTS were fully susceptible. Using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) there were 3 main patterns of S. Typhimurium and 2 main patterns of S. Enteritidis among cases of bacteraemia and gastroenteritis. CONCLUSION: Serotype distribution, antibiotic susceptibility and PFGE patterns of NTS causing bacteraemia and gastroenteritis did not differ significantly. The high prevalence of NTS strains resistant to most of the commonly used antimicrobials is of major public health concern.
Njoroge K, Wafula B, Ransom JK. "Characterisation of drought in the major maize production zones in Kenya." Symposium on developing drought and low nitrogen tolerant maize, El-Batan, Mexico. CIMMYT. 1996:35-38.
Kanoti J, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo SI, Taylor R. "Characterisation of geogenic controls on groundwater quality in a volcano-sedimentary aquifer in Kenya using graphical and statistical methods.". In: 46th IAH Congress. Malaga, Spain; 2019. Abstractcontribution.pdf

Geogenic controls on groundwater quality are often dominant but remain inadequately characterized for many aquifer systems. The volcano-sedimentary aquifer of Kisumu (Kenya) is used widely to provide safe water to the informal settlements and acts as a strategic, supplementary supply to the city during interruptions in service from the main piped water supply network drawing from Lake Victoria. Little is known, however, of the geogenic controls on groundwater quality in the Kisumu aquifer. We characterize the origin and composition of solutes in groundwaters sampled from the Kisumu aquifer using a range of techniques. Classical graphical methods (i.e. Durov, Piper, Schoeller, Stiff and Ternary plots) were used as interpretative tools of the main hydrogeochemical processes whereas principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) methods were used to assess hydrochemical variations and water types. An agglomeration schedule with five cluster solutions and between-groups linkage method of clustering using the squared Euclidian distance was employed. Variables were standardized to z-scores so that each variable contributed equally to the clusters. The study identifies three main groundwater geochemical signatures in the Kisumu study area: cation exchange (Ca-Na, Ca-Mg) between aqueous and solid phases, the chemistry of recharge water, and groundwater mixing. The concentration of major ions in groundwater varies with geology and also seasonally. The dominant water facies is Na-Ca-HCO3 type; other hydrochemical facies include Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-HCO3. Hydrochemical plots suggest that dissolution of carbonates and halite are the other major chemical processes, in addition to cation exchange, that control the groundwater chemistry in the Kisumu aquifer. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the main cations and anions discriminated satisfactorily the various water types in the study area.

Nakanwagi-Mukwaya A, Reid AJ, Fujiwara PI, Mugabe F, Kosgei RJ, Tayler-Smith K. "Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis retreatment cases in three regional hospitals, Uganda." Public Health Action . 2013;3(2):149-155.characteristics_and_treatment_outcomes_of_tuberculosis_3_regions_uganda.pdf
Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Barnes L, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kidoguchi L, Panteleeff D, Krows M, Shah H, Revall J, Morrison S, Ondrejcek L, Ingram C, Coombs RW, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(10):e25828. Abstract

Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.

Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Barnes L, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kidoguchi L, Panteleeff D, Krows M, Shah H, Revall J, Morrison S, Ondrejcek L, Ingram C, Coombs RW, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(10):e25828. Abstract

Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.

Kagira J.M., Maingi, N., Kanyari. P.W.N., Githigia, S.M., Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Characteristics of pig trade in low income settings in Busia District, Kenya." Tanzanian Veterinary Journal. 2009;27:27-36.2010_charateristics_of_pig_trade_in_low_income_settings_in_busia_district.pdf
Kagira JM, Maingi N, Kanyari PWN, Githigia SM, Nganga JC, Gachohi JM. "Characteristics of pig trade in low income settings in Busia District, Kenya." Tanzanian Veterinary Journal. 2010;27:27-36.10_kagira_et_al_2010_3.pdf
Kagira J.M, Maingi, N., Kanyari. P.W.N, Githigia, S.M., Ng’ang’a, J.C., Gachohi JM. "Characteristics of pig trade in low income settings in Busia District, Kenya." Tanzanian Veterinary Journal. 2009;27:27-36.
Elijah Njuguna, Gathara M, Nadir S, Mwalusepo S, Williamson D, Mathé P-E, Kimani J, Landmann T, Juma G, Ong’amo G, Gatebe E, Ru BL, Calatayud P-A, Calatayud P-A. "Characteristics of soils in selected maize growing sites along altitudinal gradients in East African highlands." Data in brief. 2015:138-144.
Tan AW, Nuttall FQ. "Characteristics of the dephosphorylated form of phosphorylase purified from rat liver and measurement of its activity in crude liver preparations." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):45-60. Abstract

The phosphorylated form of liver glycogen phosphorylase (alpha-1,4-glucan : orthophosphate alpha-glucosyl-transferase, EC 2.4.1.1) (phosphorylase a) is active and easily measured while the dephosphorylated form (phosphorylase b), in contrast to the muscle enzyme, has been reported to be essentially inactive even in the presence of AMP. We have purified both forms of phosphorylase from rat liver and studied the characteristics of each. Phosphorylase b activity can be measured with our assay conditions. The phosphorylase b we obtained was stimulated by high concentrations of sulfate, and was a substrate for muscle phosphorylase kinase whereas phosphorylase a was inhibited by sulfate, and was a substrate for liver phosphorylase phosphatase. Substrate binding to phosphorylase b was poor (KM glycogen = 2.5 mM, glucose-1-P = 250 mM) compared to phosphorylase a (KM glycogen = 1.8 mM, KM glucose-1-P = 0.7 mM). Liver phosphorylase b was active in the absence of AMP. However, AMP lowered the KM for glucose-1-P to 80 mM for purified phosphorylase b and to 60 mM for the enzyme in crude extract (Ka = 0.5 mM). Using appropriate substrate, buffer and AMP concentrations, assay conditions have been developed which allow determination of phosphorylase a and 90% of the phosphorylase b activity in liver extracts. Interconversion of the two forms can be demonstrated in vivo (under acute stimulation) and in vitro with little change in total activity. A decrease in total phosphorylase activity has been observed after prolonged starvation and in diabetes.

Kagira J.M., Kanyari P.W.N., Maingi N., Githigia S.M., Ng’ang’a J.C., J.W. K. "Characteristics of the smallholder free-range pig production system in western Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 2009;42(5):865-873.2009_charateristics_of_smallholder_free-range_pig_production_system_in_western_kenya4-pdf.pdf
Kagira JM, Kanyari PWN, Maingi N, Githigia SM, Nganga JC, Karuga JW. "Characteristics of the smallholder free-range pig production system in western Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2010;42:865-873.9_kagira_et_al_2010_2.pdf
L Z, ME E, G K, S R, P M, B C, K M, S I, A J, R D, V F, S O, B G, C M, E O, P L, MM A-K, C H-H, SS S, A H, W D, DY G, SG A, AG D, BA S, DM B, A ES, AS I, J M, F B-T, BN O, O I, C S, R M, A AF, N K, A D, M S, OS O, T O, HH E, AO M, AM A, P M, D O, J M, S Y, BM M. "Characteristics, complications, and gaps in evidence-based interventions in rheumatic heart disease: the Global Rheumatic Heart Disease Registry (the REMEDY study)." Eur Heart J. . 2014.
N NC, M WP, N MJ, Okoth S, P M. "Characterization and pathogenicity of symbiotic bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematode: Steinernema species KALRO." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2 (4):1-13.
N NC, M WP, N MJ, Okoth S, P M. "Characterization and pathogenicity of symbiotic bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematode: Steinernema species KALRO." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2 (4):1-13.
Ngugi CN, Wachira PM, Mbaka JN, Okoth S, Haukeland S, Thuranira EG. "Characterization and Pathogenicity Test of Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema Species-Kalro ." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2021;13(3):93-101.
Ngugi HN, Mutuku FM, Ndenga BA, Musunzaji PS, Mbakaya JO, Aswani P, IRUNGU LUCYW, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U, LaBeaud AD. "Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2017;10(1):331.
Mutuku FM, Ngugi HN, Ndenga BA, Musunzaji PS, Mbakaya JO, Aswani P, IRUNGU LUCYW, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U, LaBeaud AD. "Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya.". 2017.
Edith Wairimu, Mburu J, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Ndambi A. "Characterization of dairy innovations in selected milksheds in Kenya using a categorical principal component analysis." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2021;53(2):1-12.
Njoroge K;, Wafula B;, Ransom JK. "Characterization of drought stress in the major maize production zones of Kenya."; 1997. Abstract

Maize, the most important cereal crop in Kenya, is grown from sea level to more than 2300 m elevation. With the use of geographic information system (GIS) techniques, six distinct maize agro- climatic zones have been defined for the main rainy season in Kenya. The objective of this study was to characterize each of these zones for the degree and timing of drought stress. For each of the six maize zones, two representative sites with extensive weather records were used. Long term means for rainfall for 10 d periods were compared to the potential evapotranspiration of the same period at each site. Maize phenological development was superimposed on these data. In the highland and moist transitional zones, which comprise 75 Per cent of the maize area, drought occurrences were limited. The moist midaltitude zone had the greatest variability in moisture stress between sites, and late season drought is consistently a problem. The dry midaltitude and dry transitional zones experience the most severe drought, especially during grain filling and early in the season. In the lowland tropics, significant moisture stress occurs during the first 20 d of the season and during the last 40 d of growth. These data suggest that drought tolerance is needed for germplasm being developed for four of the six zones.

N DRKIMANIJOHN. "Characterization of East African Clays.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
John Ndung, Stephen Mwangi Mureithi OVW, Nyberg G. "Characterization of enclosure management regimes and factors influencing their choice among agropastoralists in North-Western Kenya." Pastoralism: Research Policy and Practice. 2015;5. Abstract
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John Ndung’u Wairore, Mureithi SM, Wasonga OV, Nyberg G. "Characterization of enclosure management regimes and factors influencing their choice among agropastoralists in North-Western Kenya." PastoralismPastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2015.
Ngugi HN, Mutuku F, Ndenga B, Siema P, Maleka H, IRUNGU LUCY, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U. "CHARACTERIZATION OF LARVAL HABITATS OF AEDES AEGYPTI IN KENYA.". 2017;95(5):56-57.
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. Abstract47529-51080-1-pb.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb1.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environmental Earth Science.. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb2.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. AbstractWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. AbstractWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Nyirakanani C, Chibvongodze R, Kariuki L, Habtu M, Masika M, Mukoko D, Njunwa KJ. "Characterization of malaria vectors in Huye District, Southern Rwanda." Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2017;19(3). AbstractWebsite

Background: Effective control of malaria requires knowledge of vector species, their feeding and resting behaviour as well as breeding habitats. The objective of this study was to determine malaria vector species abundance and identify their larval habitats in Huye district, southern Rwanda.

Methods: Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors using light trap and pyrethrum spray catch techniques, and outdoors using light traps. Female Anopheles mosquitoes were identified to species level by morphological characteristics. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to screen for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein and host blood meal sources. Anopheles larvae were sampled using dippers and raised into adult mosquitoes which were identified morphologically.

Results: Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised of 70% of the 567 Anopheles collected. Other Anopheles species identified were An. funestus 4%, An. squamosus 16.5%, An. maculipalpis 6.5%, An. ziemanni 1.7%, An. pharoensis 1.2 % and An. coustani 0.1%. The majority, 63.5% of the collected mosquitoes were from indoors collections. The overall human blood index was 0.509. The P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein was found in 11 mosquitos including 8 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 3 secondary vectors out of the 567 tested. The overall sporozoite rate was 1.9%. A total of 661 Anopheline larvae from 22 larval habitats were collected. They comprised of An. gambiae s.l. (89%) and An. ziemanni (11%). The absolute breeding index was 86.4%. The most common larval habitats were in full sunlight with still water like rice paddies and pools of stagnant water.

Conclusion: These findings show that Anopheles gambiae s.l. is the dominant malaria vector in the area with other vectors playing a secondary role in malaria transmission. Malaria interventions need to be strengthened to reduce even further the malaria transmission in the area.

Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Mukunzi S, Majanja J, Opot B, Osuna F, Muthoni J, Njiri J, Mwangi J, Kibet K, Ocholla S, Wurapa E. "Characterization of neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility of influenza A isolates obtained in Kenya, 2008-2011.". In: Options for the Control of Influenza VII. Cape Town, South Africa; 2013:. Abstract

Background: Vaccines and antivirals are the mainstay for mitigation and clinical management of influenza infections. However, due to the ever-changing antigenic profile, vaccine formulations are revised every year to make them efficacious. Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, mainly oseltamivir and zanamivir, function both as prophylactic and as treatment agents. In NA inhibition by antivirals, inhibitor molecules mimic NA’s natural substrate and bind to the active site, preventing NA from cleaving host cell receptors and releasing new virus. Currently, there exist no data on antiviral susceptibility profiles of influenza A isolates circulating within the Eastern African region. Here we characterised the antiviral susceptibility of the 2008-2011 influenza A viruses circulating in Kenya by combining both the genotypic data involving known molecular markers in NA protein responsible for drug resistance and IC50 data generated from NA inhibition assays. Materials and Methods: Nasopharyngeal swab specimens from consenting outpatients aged ≥ 2 months were obtained and transported to the National Influenza Centre and screened by real-time RT-PCR using primers targeted at the matrix and haemagglutinin genes of influenza A subtypes. Positive specimens were inoculated onto MDCK monolayers to isolate virus. RNA was extracted from virus isolates followed by PCR amplification of NA gene segments. Nucleotide sequencing was performed using the BigDye chemistry prior to analyses using a suite of bioinformatics tools. Drug susceptibility was determined by enzyme inhibition assay using fluorescent substrate with known NA inhibitor–resistant and –sensitive viruses as controls. IC50 values were determined using curve-fitting software (Grafit 7.0), which is based on 50% of fitted upper asymptote. Results: Of 836 influenza A virus isolates obtained (2008- 2011), 108 (13%) were analysed for markers of resistance to NA inhibitors: 64% (7/11) of the 2008 seasonal influenza A/H1N1 isolates analysed showed oseltamivir-resistant marker H275Y, while all 33 (100%) influenza A/H3N2 isolates obtained showed sensitivity to oseltamivir. Genetic analyses of the A (H1N1) pdm09 isolates obtained in 2009-2010 showed that all were sensitive to oseltamivir. All 14 influenza A/H3N2 isolates obtained in 2011 were also shown to be sensitive to oseltamivir. A total of 28 isolates were further subjected to phenotypic susceptibility assay. The mean zanamivir IC50 values were 1.75, 2.53 and 1.84 nM for the subtypes H1N1, pH1N1 and H3N2, respectively. Two of the 2008 sH1N1 and one of the sH1N1 obtained in 2009 showed normal sensitivity to oseltamivir in the NA inhibitor susceptibility assay (mean IC50 of 1.28 nM). The rest of the 2008-2009 sH1N1 analysed (n = 8) showed highly reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir. The IC50 values in the fluorescent assay ranged from 73 to 984 nM. Pandemic A/H1N1 strains obtained between 2009 and 2011 indicated oseltamivir IC50 values of 1.60 to 6.32 nM—categorised as normal sensitivity. All 8 candidate influenza A/H3N2 isolates obtained between 2008 and 2011 were sensitive to oseltamivir, with IC50 values ranging from 0.16 to 0.94 nM. The 2011 WHO ranges and median IC50 values for oseltamivir carboxylate were 0.4 to 10 nM and 0.5 nM, 0.1 to 5 nM and 0.2 nM, and 0.2 to 10 nM and 0.6 nM for wild-type sH1N1, sH3N2 and pH1N1, respectively. The 2011 WHO ranges and median IC50 values for oseltamivir carboxylate were 257 to 3455 nM and 458.2 nM and 132 to 2179 nM and 191.3 nM for mutant types sH1N1 and pH1N1, respectively. The WHO IC50 values for zanamivir, both for mutant and wild-type strains, ranged from 0.2 to 3 nM for all subtypes, with no significant differences between the mutant and wild-type strains for each subtype. Conclusion: Overall, our genotypic data demonstrate that there was oseltamivir resistance in seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses isolated in Kenya in 2008-2009. Most of the 2008-2009 sH1N1 isolates depicted highly reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir. This was due to the presence of the H275Y mutation in the NA protein sequence. H275Y mutation increased the IC50 value by 50- to 100-fold. Resistance to NA inhibitors was found to be specific to both drug and virus subtype. The drug susceptibility profile will be best informed using both elevated IC50 vales and known molecular markers of resistance.

Mwendwa R, Owino OW, Ambuko J, Wawire M, Nenguwo N. "Characterization of postharvest physiology attributes of six commercially grown tomato varieties in Kenya." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:10613-10631. Abstract
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Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Njage PMK, Dolci S, Jans C, Wangoh J, Lacroix C, Meile L. "Characterization of Yeasts Associated with Camel Milk using Phenotypic and Molecular Identification Techniques." Research Journal of Microbiology DOI: 10.3923/jm. 2011.2011-characterization_of_yeasts_associated_with_camel_milk.pdf
Mamah D, Musau A, Mutiso VN, Owoso A, Abdallah AB, Cottler LB, Striley CW, Walker EF, Ndetei DM. "Characterizing psychosis risk traits in Africa: A longitudinal study of Kenyan adolescents." Schizophr. Res.. 2016;176(2-3):340-8. AbstractWebsite

The schizophrenia prodrome has not been extensively studied in Africa. Identification of prodromal behavioral symptoms holds promise for early intervention and prevention of disorder onset. Our goal was to investigate schizophrenia risk traits in Kenyan adolescents and identify predictors of psychosis progression. 135 high-risk (HR) and 142 low-risk (LR) adolescents were identified from among secondary school students in Machakos, Kenya, using the structured interview of psychosis-risk syndromes (SIPS) and the Washington early recognition center affectivity and psychosis (WERCAP) screen. Clinical characteristics were compared across groups, and participants followed longitudinally over 0-, 4-, 7-, 14- and 20-months. Potential predictors of psychosis conversion and severity change were studied using multiple regression analyses. More psychiatric comorbidities and increased psychosocial stress were observed in HR compared to LR participants. HR participants also had worse attention and better abstraction. The psychosis conversion rate was 3.8%, with only disorganized communication severity at baseline predicting conversion (p=0.007). Decreasing psychotic symptom severity over the study period was observed in both HR and LR participants. ADHD, bipolar disorder, and major depression diagnoses, as well as poor occupational functioning and avolition were factors relating to lesser improvement in psychosis severity. Our results indicate that psychopathology and disability occur at relatively high rates in Kenyan HR adolescents. Few psychosis conversions may reflect an inadequate time to conversion, warranting longer follow-up studies to clarify risk predictors. Identifying disorganized communication and other risk factors could be useful for developing preventive strategies for HR youth in Kenya.

Fualal J, Moses W, Jayaraman S, Nalugo M, Ozgediz D, Duh Q-Y, Kebebew E. "Characterizing thyroid disease and identifying barriers to care and treatment in {Uganda}." World J Endoc Surg. 2012;4:47-53. AbstractWebsite
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Njenga M, Karanja N, Munster C, Iiyama M, Neufeldt H, Kithinji J, Jamnadass R. "Charcoal production and strategies to enhance its sustainability in Kenya." Development in Practice. 2013;23(3):359-371.
Njenga M, Karanja N, Munster C, Iiyama M, Neufeldt H, Kithinji J, Jamnadass R. "Charcoal production and strategies to enhance its sustainability in Kenya." Development in Practice. 2013;23(3):359-371. AbstractDevelopment in Practice

Description
In sub-Saharan Africa, 72 per cent of urban and 98 per cent of rural households use fuelwood for energy. In Kenya use of charcoal in urban areas has risen by 64 per cent in two decades. Despite the charcoal industry providing employment to 500,000 people and generating over US $427 million that benefits grassroots communities, it has been kept out of the formal economies of this country. This review presents the status of the charcoal industry in Kenya, highlighting its contribution to livelihoods, production, utilisation, and implications for the environment; policy issues; and stakeholders' involvement. The review also proposes strategies to improve the sustainability of this sector.

Feldmann S, Gangishetty MK, Bravić I, Neumann T, Peng B, Winkler T, Friend RH, Monserrat B, Congreve DN, Deschler F. "Charge Carrier Localization in Doped Perovskite Nanocrystals Enhances Radiative Recombination." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2021;143:8647-8653. Abstract
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