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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Woomer, P.L., Mateete A. Bekunda, Nancy K. Karanja, Thomas Moorehouse and Robert Okalebo, 1998. Agricultural Resource Management by smallholder farmers in East Africa. Nature and Resources, UNESCO Journal on the Environmental and Natural Resources Researc.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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Nganga W. Word Sense Disambiguation of Swahili: Extending Swahili Language Technology with Machine Learning. Helsinki University Press; 2005. Abstract

This thesis addresses the problem of word sense disambiguation within the context of Swahili-English machine translation. In this setup, the goal of disambiguation is to choose the correct translation of an ambiguous Swahili noun in context. A corpus based approach to disambiguation is taken, where machine learning techniques are applied to a corpus of Swahili, to acquire disambiguation information automatically. In particular, the Self-Organizing Map algorithm is used to obtain a semantic categorization of Swahili nouns from data. The resulting classes form the basis of a class-based solution, where disambiguation is recast as a classification problem. The thesis exploits these semantic classes to automatically obtain annotated training data, addressing a key problem facing supervised word sense disambiguation. The semantic and linguistic characteristics of these classes are modelled as Bayesian belief networks, using the Bayesian Modelling Toolbox. Disambiguation is achieved via probabilistic inferencing.The thesisdevelops a disambiguation solution which does not make extensive resource requirements, but rather capitalizes on freely-available lexical and computational resources for English as a source of additional disambiguation information. A semantic tagger for Swahili is created by altering the configuration of the Bayesian classifiers. The disambiguation solution is tested on a subset of unambiguous nouns and a manually created gold standard of sixteen ambiguous nouns, using standard performance evaluation metrics.

Manda DK, Nyongesa E. "Workers Rights and the Global Economy” ICFTU Background Paper for the Conference on Defending Workers.". In: Human Rights in the Economy. Nairobi, Kenya; 1998.
Maj M, Janssen R, Satz P, Zaudig M, Starace F, Boor D, Sughondhabirom B, Bing EB, Luabeya MK, Ndetei MD, et al. "The World Health Organization's cross-cultural study on neuropsychiatric aspects of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1).". 1991.
Maingi, N., Bjørn, H., Thamsborg SM, Nansen P. "Worm control practices on sheep farms in Denmark.". In: 8th International Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA) . Izmir, Turkey; 1994.
Moindi SK, Pokhariyal GP, Nzimbi BM. "W_2-Recurrent LP-Sasakian manifold." Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UJMMS). 2013;3(2):119-128.
Moindi SK, Pokhariyal GP, Nzimbi BM. "w_4-curvature tensor on A-Einstein Sasakian manifold." Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). 2013.
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Wafula EM, Ngamau DW, Onyango FE, Mirza NM, Njeru EK. "X-ray diagnosable pneumonia in children with severe malnutrition at Kenyatta National Hospital." East Afr Med J. 1998;75(10):567-71. Abstract

To estimate the prevalence of radiologically evident pneumonia among children with severe malnutrition and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of commonly used clinical indicators of pneumonia among children with severe malnutrition.

Kimiywe J, Namutebi A. "X-Ray Fluorescence Detected Variation in Nutraceutic-Implied Mineral Density in Underutilized Plants Mapped as Women-Operated Smallholder Units in the Lake Victoria Basin.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Indigenous plant biodiversity plays a key role in providing nutritional and medicinal (nutraceutical) need for smallholder farming communities. The objective of this paper was to relate farming decisions, farm landscape morphology, crop species placement points, and the nutraceutical-implied micronutrient mineral (NIMM) density. The Kisumu (Kenya), Iganga (Uganda) and Bukoba (Tanzania) lake basins were the three eco-regional environs studied and were treated as the primary hierarchical level. Two visited sites (secondary level) for reconnaissance/collection were nested within the primary level. Fifteen dominantly female households were further nested within sites (tertiary level). By means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, indigenous variant plants (accessions) encountered were collected for density. XRF analyses were backed by key informant interviews. Empirically, indigenous/traditional plant species and, by extension, their diversity in NIMM density, was a three-factor dependent variable in terms of: (a) the ethnobotanic-based farming decisions by which the NIMM indigenous/ underutilized plant bio-resources encountered were purposively grown; (b) choices that were dictated by the topographic soil surface characteristics (terrain upland, steep and valley land properties); (c) near residence-referenced sequent activity occupancy (NR-SACO) episodes; and (d) natural cum farmer-guided plant selections.

Negera A, Matthias H, Midiwo JO, Ndakala A, Majer Z, Neumann B, Stammler H, Sewald N, Yenesew A. "A xanthone and a phenylanthraquinone from the roots of Bulbine frutescens and the revision of six seco-anthraquinones into xanthones." Phytochemistry Letters. 2014;9:67-73.
Ndiba PK, Axe L, Jahan K, Ramanujachary V. XRF measurement of heavy metals in highway marking beads..; 2009.Website
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Cris Theron, Khajamohiddin Syed, Andreas Shiningavamwe, Evodia Setati, Obiero G, Newlande van Rooyen, Limpho Ramarobi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Jacobus Albetyn, Jean-Marc Nicaud,. MS. Yarrowia Lipolytica as a host for heterologous expression of cytochrome P450 monoxygenase. Grahamstown, South Africa; 2008.
Cris Theron, Khajamohiddin Syed, Andreas Shiningavamwe, Evodia Setati, Obiero G, Newlande van Rooyen, Limpho Ramarobi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Jacobus Albetyn,. J-M. Yarrowia Lipolytica as a host for heterologous expression of cytochrome P450 monoxygenase. Oviedo, Spain; 2008.
Nyawade SO, Gitari HI, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker ML. "Yield and evapotranspiration characteristics of potato-legume intercropping simulated using a dual coefficient approach in a tropical highland." Field Crops Research . 2021;274 :108327.
Njoroge K, M’ragwa LR, Ngure M. "Yield stability in F1 hybrid composite varieties of maize in semi-arid Kenya." Africa Crop Science Conference Proceedings. 1997;Vol.3:221-224.
N DRMBATIAPAUL. "Ynalvez, Marcus, Ricardo B. Duque, Paul Mbatia, R. Sooryamoorthy, Antony Palackal, and Wesley Shrum. "When do scientists adopt the internet? Dimensions of connectivity in developing areas" in Scientometrics Vol. 63 (1).". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Conference, September 1990 Kabete Campus. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Yonga G.O OGOLA E.N. Juma F.D Metabolic effects of popranolol and hydroflumethiazide in Kenyans with mild to moderate hypertension. East Africa Med J.70: 696,199Yonga G.O OGOLA E.N. Juma F.D Metabolic effects of popranolol and hydroflumethiazide in Kenyan.". In: East Africa Med J.70: 696,1993. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Sixty newly diagnosed adult patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were assessed to determine their cardiovascular risk factor profiles. Detailed history and physical examinations were done. Resting 12-lead ECG was done and serum levels of uric acid, fasting cholesterol, and fasting glucose were determined. Twenty nine patients had hypertension and two or more cardiovascular risk factors. The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors other than hypertension were electro-cardiovascular left ventricular hypertrophy (31.7%), obesity (28.3%) and hypercholesterolaemia (28.3%). About a half of these patients (48.3%) can be classified as high risk hypertensives. This calls for aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors as a whole and not just hypertension alone if we are to reduce incidence of hypertensive complications.
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Yonga GO, Ogola EN, Orinda DA.Metabolic effects of propranolol and hydroflumethiazide treatment in Kenyans with mild to moderate essential hypertension.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
In a prospective single-blind comparative trial, sixty newly diagnosed mild to moderate hypertensives were randomly assigned to either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide monotherapy. Baseline fasting serum glucose lipid profiles, serum uric acid and potassium levels, were determined at the beginning of the trial. Repeat levels were determined at completion of twelve weeks of treatment. Propranolol treatment significantly reduced HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) and increased both VLDL and total serum triglycerides (p < 0.01). Hydroflumethiazide significantly increased total and LDL-chole-sterol, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels (p < 0.01); potassium levels were significantly lowered (p < 0.01). Treatment with either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide is associated with significant metabolic side-effects which require regular monitoring and intervention as appropriate.
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Yonga GO, Ogola EN, Orinda DA.Metabolic effects of propranolol and hydroflumethiazide treatment in Kenyans with mild to moderate essential hypertension.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1993. Abstract
In a prospective single-blind comparative trial, sixty newly diagnosed mild to moderate hypertensives were randomly assigned to either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide monotherapy. Baseline fasting serum glucose lipid profiles, serum uric acid and potassium levels, were determined at the beginning of the trial. Repeat levels were determined at completion of twelve weeks of treatment. Propranolol treatment significantly reduced HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) and increased both VLDL and total serum triglycerides (p < 0.01). Hydroflumethiazide significantly increased total and LDL-chole-sterol, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels (p < 0.01); potassium levels were significantly lowered (p < 0.01). Treatment with either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide is associated with significant metabolic side-effects which require regular monitoring and intervention as appropriate.
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "YongaG.O OGOLA E.N Juma F.D Cardiovascular risk factor profiles in patients seen at Kenyatta National hospital with mild to moderate hypertension. East Africa J.70: 693,1993.". In: East Africa J.70: 693,1993. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Sixty newly diagnosed adult patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were assessed to determine their cardiovascular risk factor profiles. Detailed history and physical examinations were done. Resting 12-lead ECG was done and serum levels of uric acid, fasting cholesterol, and fasting glucose were determined. Twenty nine patients had hypertension and two or more cardiovascular risk factors. The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors other than hypertension were electro-cardiovascular left ventricular hypertrophy (31.7%), obesity (28.3%) and hypercholesterolaemia (28.3%). About a half of these patients (48.3%) can be classified as high risk hypertensives. This calls for aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors as a whole and not just hypertension alone if we are to reduce incidence of hypertensive complications.
Saidi H, Nyaim EO, Karuri D, Githaiga JW. "Young patients with colorectal cancer at a tertiary hospital in Kenya, 1993–2005." Annals of African Surgery. 2007;1. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: The onset of colorectal cancer appears to be two to three decades earlier in developing countries. Data on whether colorectal cancer in the young has worse prognosis than in older patients is conflicting.
METHOD: Clinical charts of 70 patients ≤40 years old were reviewed to determine clinical and pathological patterns and treatment outcomes. Their data were compared with a
larger group of older patients treated between 1993-2005 at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.
RESULTS: The data retrieval was highest for sub-site distribution and lowest for pathology information. Patients ≤ 40 years of age comprised 27.3% of all colorectal cancer
cases treated over the study period. There were 41 males (58.6%) and 29 (41.4%) females patients. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain (76.9%), change in bowel habit
(71.4%) and rectal bleeding (54.3%). The mean duration of symptoms was 24.6 ± 30 months. The rate of advanced colorectal disease (Duke C and D) was 73.5%. Mean follow-up time was 5.8 months with median survival of only 6.9
months. The Duke staging, histology, symptom duration, locations of tumours, follow-up and the complication rates were similar for young and older patients.
CONCLUSION: Younger patients form a significant proportion of colorectal cancer burden. Both the clinico-pathological
characteristics and treatment outcome correspond to older individuals. It is suggested that the concluded colorectal symptoms in younger patients should also be aggressively
evaluated including early endoscopy. A prospective follow-up study of patients with the disease will unravel the true survival picture.

Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Mutiso V, Mbwayo A. "Your A-Z on Mental Health.". 2010.
Mutua E, Bukachi S, Bett B, Estambale B, Nyamongo I. "Youth Participation in Smallholder Livestock Production and Marketing." IDS Bulletin . 2017;48(3):95-108.
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Ngugi RW. "Zacchaeus Nicholas Vundi, Time Varying Risk Premium: An Empirical Investigation on the Nairobi Stock Exchange, University of Nairobi." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005.
Kemunto N, Mogoa E, Osoro E, Bitek A, Njenga MK, Thumbi SM. "Zoonotic disease research in East Africa." BMC Infectious Diseases . 2018;18(1):545.
Nthiwa D, Alonso S, Odongo D, Kenya E, Bett B. "Zoonotic Pathogen Seroprevalence in Cattle in a Wildlife-Livestock Interface, Kenya." Ecohealth. 2019;16(4):712-725. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. and risk factors of exposure in cattle in three zones with varying land use types and wildlife-livestock interactions. Five villages were selected purposively; two in areas with intensive livestock-wildlife interactions (zone 1), another two in areas with moderate livestock-wildlife interactions (zone 2) and one in areas where wildlife-livestock interactions are rarer (zone 3). Sera samples were collected from 1170 cattle belonging to 390 herds in all the zones and tested for antibodies against Brucella abortus and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo using ELISA kits. Data on putative risk factors for seropositivity of these pathogens in cattle were collected using a questionnaire. The overall apparent animal-level seroprevalence of brucellosis and leptospirosis was, respectively, 36.9% (95% CI 34.1-39.8) and 23.5% (95% CI 21.1-26.0). Brucella spp. seroprevalence was higher in zone 1 than in zones 2 and 3 (χ = 25.1, df = 2, P < 0.001). Zones 1 and 2 had significantly higher Leptospira spp. seroprevalence than zone 3 (χ = 7.0, df = 2, P = 0.029). Results of multivariable analyses identified animal sex (female) and zones (high interface area) as significant predictors (P < 0.05) of animal-level seropositivity of Brucella spp. For Leptospira spp., important predictors of animal-level seropositivity were animal sex (female), zones (moderate interface area) and herds utilizing a communal grazing reserve. The seroprevalences of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. in cattle were higher in areas with moderate to high wildlife-livestock interactions than those with rare interactions.

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Ndoye JM, Ndiaye A, Dia A, Fall B, Diop M, Sow ML. "[{Cadaveric} topography and morphometry of the vermiform appendix]." Morphologie: bulletin de l'Association des anatomistes. 2005;89:59-63. AbstractWebsite
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Stenmark KR, Yeager ME, El Kasmi KC, Nozik-Grayck E, Gerasimovskaya EV, Li M, Riddle SR, Frid MG. "The {Adventitia}: {Essential} {Regulator} of {Vascular} {Wall} {Structure} and {Function}." Annual Review of Physiology. 2013;75:23-47. AbstractWebsite

The vascular adventitia acts as a biological processing center for the retrieval, integration, storage, and release of key regulators of vessel wall function. It is the most complex compartment of the vessel wall and is composed of a variety of cells, including fibroblasts, immunomodulatory cells (dendritic cells and macrophages), progenitor cells, vasa vasorum endothelial cells and pericytes, and adrenergic nerves. In response to vascular stress or injury, resident adventitial cells are often the first to be activated and reprogrammed to influence the tone and structure of the vessel wall; to initiate and perpetuate chronic vascular inflammation; and to stimulate expansion of the vasa vasorum, which can act as a conduit for continued inflammatory and progenitor cell delivery to the vessel wall. This review presents the current evidence demonstrating that the adventitia acts as a key regulator of vascular wall function and structure from the outside in.

Seki M, Nawa H, Fukuchi T, Abe H, Takei N. "{BDNF} is upregulated by postnatal development and visual experience: quantitative and immunohistochemical analyses of {BDNF} in the rat retina." Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003:3211-3218. Abstract

PURPOSE. This study sought to elucidate changes in the levels and distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the retina throughout aging and depending on visual experience. METHODS. Protein and mRNA levels of BDNF were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Levels were assayed in the retinas of rats on postnatal day (P)2, P7, and P14 (approximate time of eye opening) and at 1 month (M), 3M, 8M, and 18M of age. Changes in BDNF expression and localization in the retina were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of monocular deprivation during infancy on retinal BDNF expression was also examined, by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS. Both protein and mRNA levels of BDNF in the rat retina increased after P14. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed

Seki M, Nawa H, Fukuchi T, Abe H, Takei N. "{BDNF} is upregulated by postnatal development and visual experience: quantitative and immunohistochemical analyses of {BDNF} in the rat retina." Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003:3211-3218. Abstract

PURPOSE. This study sought to elucidate changes in the levels and distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the retina throughout aging and depending on visual experience. METHODS. Protein and mRNA levels of BDNF were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Levels were assayed in the retinas of rats on postnatal day (P)2, P7, and P14 (approximate time of eye opening) and at 1 month (M), 3M, 8M, and 18M of age. Changes in BDNF expression and localization in the retina were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of monocular deprivation during infancy on retinal BDNF expression was also examined, by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS. Both protein and mRNA levels of BDNF in the rat retina increased after P14. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed

Seki M, Nawa H, Fukuchi T, Abe H, Takei N. "{BDNF} is upregulated by postnatal development and visual experience: quantitative and immunohistochemical analyses of {BDNF} in the rat retina." Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003:3211-3218. Abstract

PURPOSE. This study sought to elucidate changes in the levels and distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the retina throughout aging and depending on visual experience. METHODS. Protein and mRNA levels of BDNF were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Levels were assayed in the retinas of rats on postnatal day (P)2, P7, and P14 (approximate time of eye opening) and at 1 month (M), 3M, 8M, and 18M of age. Changes in BDNF expression and localization in the retina were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of monocular deprivation during infancy on retinal BDNF expression was also examined, by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS. Both protein and mRNA levels of BDNF in the rat retina increased after P14. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed

Githui EK, Kibegwa FM, Kamau JM, Mutura SK, Okwany ZA, Ngigi DM, Mwangi EW. "{Genetic relationships of indigenous goats reared by pastoralists in Kenya based on mitochondria D-loop sequence}." Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales. 2016:1-8. AbstractWebsite

Kenya indigenous goat breeds ( Capra hircus ) have not been accurately described. Therefore, there is threat of erosion of unique genotypes such as those associated with adaptability and disease resistance, through indiscriminate crossbreeding. The Kenyan goats classification based on phenotype/morphology identifies three breeds: Small East African (SEA) goats, the Galla goat and crosses of SEA and the Galla. In the present study, we sampled goats from two main geographic regions of Kenya with pastoralist communities, the Maasai and Somali/Boran. DNA was extracted from whole blood and polymerase chain reaction amplified using primers flanking a fragment of Cytocrome-b and D-loop regions of mitochondria DNA. The sequences derived were analysed both within Kenya goat populations and also compared with phylogeographic-related datasets. These data show that the majority of Kenyan indigenous goats are not distinct and their genetic structure is very diverse; however, distinct haplogroups were present. Genetic diversity showed weak positive in Tajima D test for Kenyan indigenous goats, while the Iberian/Mediterranean/Middle-East dataset had a more pronounced negative value indicating that the two populations are under different selection pressure. These analyses enabled phylogenetic relationships between and within species and the comparisons of local goats to related breeds geographically. The information can be applied management of conservation-guided breeding programmes by crossing the indigenous breed's unique genes with high productivity traits from another source.

Naraynsingh V, Ramdass M, Singh J, Singh-Rampaul R, Maharaj D. "{McBurney}'s point: {Are} we missing it?" Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2002;24:363-365. AbstractWebsite

A prospective study of 100 post-evacuation barium enemas was done. Films were centered at McBurney's point, with an opaque skin marker at that point. Analysis of these revealed that in only one case (1%) was the base of the appendix at McBurney's point. In 67% it was cephalic and in 32% it was caudal to this point. The limitations of McBurney's point as an anatomical landmark should be recognized. This needs to be highlighted in teaching anatomy, especially to surgical trainees. Planning and choice of surgical incisions should be based on an understanding of these anatomical variations since McBurney's original description was clinical rather than anatomical. The French version of this article is available in the form of electronic supplementary material and can be obtained by using the Springer Link server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-002-0069-7

Kibegwa FM, Githui KE, Jung'a JO, Badamana MS, Nyamu MN. "{Mitochondrial DNA variation of indigenous goats in Narok and Isiolo counties of Kenya}." Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics. 2015;133:238-247. Abstract

Phylogenetic relationships among and genetic variability within 60 goats from two different indigenous breeds in Narok and Isiolo counties in Kenya and 22 published goat samples were analysed using mitochondrial control region sequences. The results showed that there were 54 polymorphic sites in a 481-bp sequence and 29 haplotypes were determined. The mean haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.981 ± 0.006 and 0.019 ± 0.001, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis in combination with goat haplogroup reference sequences from GenBank showed that all goat sequences were clustered into two haplogroups (A and G), of which haplogroup A was the commonest in the two populations. A very high percentage (99.90{%}) of the genetic variation was distributed within the regions, and a smaller percentage (0.10{%}) distributed among regions as revealed by the analysis of molecular variance (amova). This amova results showed that the divergence between regions was not statistically significant. We concluded that the high levels of intrapopulation diversity in Isiolo and Narok goats and the weak phylogeographic structuring suggested that there existed strong gene flow among goat populations probably caused by extensive transportation of goats in history.

Nyunja C, Maina J, Amimo J, Kibegwa F, Harper D, Junga J. "{Stock Structure Delineation of the African Catfish (Clarius gariepinus) in Selected Populations in Kenya Using Mitochondrial DNA (Dloop) Variability}." Journal of Aquaculture Research {&} Development. 2017;08. AbstractWebsite

This study genetically characterized five populations of the African catfish (Clarius gariepinus) in Kenya. Samples were obtained from five sites in the country–Athi River hatchery, Kisii Fingerling Production Centre (FPC), Jewlett hatchery, Sagana Hatchery Station and Lake Baringo. DNA was extracted from tissue samples, followed by amplification and sequencing of the dloop region. Haplotype diversities, phylogenetic structure and variation at the dloop region of mitochondrial DNA were assessed. Mitochondrial DNA analyses indicated that the sampled species showed genetic diversity between its populations. The genetic results were congruent indicating the differences in diversities and haplotype similarities of catfish samples from different sites. The Sagana, Kisii FPC, Jewlett and Baringo population cluster overlapped indicating possibly shared source of brood stock. The Athi river population was in a different cluster and its distinctiveness is attributed to imported brood stock. Both Athi River hatchery and Lake Baringo populations were highly variable and has great potential for production.

Maweu JM, Ndohvu JB. "‘A case of Voice Poverty? Towards a new Paradigm in the fight against Poverty in Kenya’.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers Ltd; 2017.
Njoroge WI, Irandu EM, Moronge JM. "‘An Assessement of the Impacts of Cleaner Production in Manufacturing Industries in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2017;Volume 5(Issue No. 7):pp 173-186 .
Njiru B, Ikamari L, Gachigua J. "‘Climate Change, Resource Competition and Conflict Among Pastoral Communities in Kenya’.". In: Conference on’ Social Stress, and Violent Conflicts- State of the Art and Research Needs. University of Hamburg, Germany; 2010.
Esho T, Kimani S, Nyamongo I, Kimani V, Muniu S, Kigondu C, Ndavi P, jaldesa Guyo. "The ‘heat’goes away: sexual disorders of married women with female genital mutilation/cutting in Kenya." Reproductive health. 2017;14(1):1-9.
Ndiritu DAW, Kidombo DH, Gakuu PC. "‘Institutional Management and Integration of ICT InTeaching and Learning in Selected Kenyan Schools’,." Journal of Open, Continuing and Distance Education.. 2012;Volume 2 (Issue 1):151-174. Abstract

A number of studies have identified the school principal as a critical and pivotal person for establishing and maintaining learning environments driven by technology. This paper examines the function of school principals as institutional managers and the role they play in the adoption and integration of Information and Communication Technologies in the process of teaching and learning. It was conceptualized that presence of ICT integration plans, maintenance and renewal plans, extent of community access to ICTs and proficiency in ICTs of school managers have an influence on extent of ICT integration in teaching and learning . Ten principals of selected schools and one teachers’ training college from Nairobi and its environs were interviewed. To obtain a detailed and clear picture of the use of ICT, the mixed methods approach was used. Semi directed interviews, focus group discussions audiotapes of discussions, videotaped classroom observations and photographs of school environments, review of school documents on ICT and teacher and student productions were used to collect data. Out of the ten schools studied, five schools had ICT integration and maintenance and renewal plans, while only two schools shared their computers with the community and eight head teachers reported that they had the ability to use ICT skills. From the findings, it appears the development of ICT skills and knowledge among school principals is slow and may explain the low levels of ICT integration in the selected schools. It seems the success or failure of integration of ICT in teaching and learning rests largely on institutional managers and school managers need to take professional responsibility and accountability to ensure that they are well trained in ICT and that their institutions have management strategies to enable them achieve appropriate ICT integration in teaching and learning.

Nyamongo GB. "‘New Sexualities’: The Situation of LGBTQ People in Africa." Cognella Academic Publishing. 2016.
N. KP, C.M. G, H.J. K. "‘Relationship Between School Environment and Use of ICT in Teaching Science Curriculum in Nepad and Cyber e-Schools in Kenya’." Journal of Open, Continuing and Distance Education. 2011;Vol 1(Issue 2):85-110.
Ngesa PO. “A History of African Women Traders in Nairobi, 1899-1952”. Nirobi: University of Nairobi; 1996.
Sinja J, Karugia J, Waithaka M, Miano D, Baltenweck L, Franzel S, Nyikal R. "“Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer extension approach”." Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, . 2004;9(1):222-226.134898-article_text-362029-1-10-20160503.pdfWebsite
Ngugi M. "“Can the media do it alone? Different Stakeholders’ Challenges and the Role of Technology and Citizen Reporting.” .". In: Presentation at Conflict Sensitive Journalism Experts’ Roundtable organized by the International Media Support. Silver Springs Hotel.; 2011.
Thuo J K, N KF, et al. "“Customer Relationship Management Practices and the Marketing Productivity of Commercial Banks in Kenya”,.". In: : 3rd African International Business and Management Conference (AIBUMA). Nairobi; 2012.
Ngugi CM. "“Democratic Culture, Political Stability and the Mass Media in Africa” .". In: Paper Presented at the African Studies Association. Washington, DC ; 2005.
Ngugi M. "“Development Communication: A Clarification of Constructs”.". In: in Okigbo, C (ed), 1996: Development Communication Principles. Nairobi: ACCE; 1996.
Ngugi CM. "“Freedom of Expression in African Constitutions”.". In: Presented at Washington College International Week Faculty Panel.; 2007.
Nzioka C., Kibuka T., Oyugi S., Kimutai E., Orago A., Kilonzo N., Mwesigye I., Alwan F., Hassan A, A K. "“HIV and AIDS in cross border mobile populations: behavioral surveillance survey among truckers in the IRAPP – supported hotspots in Kenya.". 2014.
Ngugi M. "“Journalism Training in Kenya: Putting a Finger on the Problem.”." Media Focus: Journal of the Media Development Association.. 1996;Vol 1(No 2).
and Naomi A. “Kuwa Smart” .; 2020.
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Ng'ang'a] JM. “Market Segmentation by Medium and Large Scale Manufacturing Firms in Kenya”. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

The study contained in this report investigated the use of market segmentation by the medium and large scale manufacturing firms in Nairobi with the aim of generalizing the findings to similar firms’ throughput Kenya. It had a further aim of identifying the specific segmentation variables which influence the production and marketing of the firm’s product and also isolating the problem encountered in the practice of market segmentation.
To achieve these objectives a questionnaire was constructed and administered. The respondents were marketing managers, product managers or any other person conversant with the product and marketing strategies in the particular firm. The respondents had to rate the various segmentation variables indicating the extent to which such variables influence the product and marketing strategy in their firm.
The data so collected was analyzed by use of tables, percentages and proportions. A further statistical test was carried out using the t - test to find out whether the scores for the various variables were statistically different among the different industries.

Nyabuga, Kiai W. "“Media Veterans in Kenya." Media Veterans in Kenya,School of Journalism and Mass Communication Press, University of Nairobi. 2012.
Stigter CJ, den Van B, Daane JRV, Adam HS, Mohammed AE, Ng'ang'a JK, Mungai DN. "The “picnic” model for research training at African Universities: evaluation and preliminary comparison.". 1998. AbstractThe “picnic” model for research training at African Universities: evaluation and preliminary comparison

What distinguishes the “Picnic” model for research training at African universities from more classical models is reviewed and it is shown how the “Picnic” model deals with remaining drawbacks from the now popular “Sandwich” model. Starting with managerial experiences, criteria guiding this evaluation are used as sub-headings: realistic planning; adequate resource provision; partnership instead of aid; long term impact; high quality supervision; quality and quantity of student input; open and interactive communication; willingness to adapt to local circumstances; ongoing critical reflection; gradual expatriate withdrawal. The training output of the “Picnic” model tests in the four TTMI-countries is assessed after the actual and prospective jobs of its former students. The on-farm quantification of protecting systems/structures led in many TTMI PhD-research cases to improved design criteria for such systems/structures, with direct increases of yield or its preservation. In comparison with the “Sandwich” model, the “Picnic” model particularly incorporates institutional strengthening in the aim that the southern countries will become able to provide adequate education at the postgraduate level, teaching their students how to apply knowledge in their own environment. Degrees obtained at southern universities, therefore, have distinct advantages but joint responsibilities of universities for such degrees are difficult to organize, given the presently existing modes of output-related financing of Dutch universities. In a situation of institutional deterioration, such as Africa is experiencing, the best hope probably lies in strengthening networks of individuals and a collective sense of academic commitment, pending the revival of universities themselves. Emergency research related to the protection of the African agricultural environment by African universities, training NARS staff, must in the long run contribute to restoring an agricultural basis for part of the economies of the many poor African countries. Knowledge developed locally remains the most powerful vehicle for change from within.

and Njogu KWMW. "“Reclaiming my Dreams: Oral Narratives,” by W.M. Kabira and W. Njogu,." University of Nairobi Press (2010).
Nyikal RA, Olouch-Kosura W. "“Risk Preference and Optimal Crop Combinations in Kahuro Division of Murang’a District, Kenya” ." Agricultural Economics . 2005;32(2):131-140 . AbstractWebsite

Financing smallholder farming has been one of the major concerns of Kenya's agricultural development efforts. Many credit programs have evolved over the years but with dismal performance. In a study that sought to find the best way to finance smallholder agriculture, it became necessary to analyze and document, in the first place, the farmers' preferred enterprise patterns. Any financial innovations would hence address the preferred patterns. Of particular interest was the effect of risk preference on such patterns, which had been ignored in many previous farm management studies. Murang'a district was chosen as a typical smallholder district. Sample farmers, obtained through cluster sampling, were visited and structured questionnaires administered to cover farm events and physical resources of short rains 1995 to long rains 1996. This formed a basis for formulating the farm patterns. A quadratic programming model was used to analyze observed farm plans. The model incorporates farmers' risk preferences, revenue fluctuations, and resource and subsistence restrictions. The results showed that: (1) changes in risk preference do affect the optimal crop combinations; (2) the typical cropping pattern is rational as the farmer meets both food and cash under modest variability of income; (3) insisting on producing most subsistence food requirements by the farmers reduces efficiency and limits the feasible plans.

Ndiritu A, J. M, C. N. "“Rowing The Boat in The Same Direction: A Must for Transformational Leaders.". IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME)e- ISSN: 2320–7388,p-ISSN: 2320–737X Volume 9, Issue 1Ser. II. (Jan. – Feb. 2019), PP 32-36.www.iosrjournals.org.". 2019. Abstract

Teamwork is the lubricant that makes the team to work efficiently. This only happens when the team members share and understand their common vision. This study sort to investigate the influence of Principals’ transformational leadership characteristic of “Inspiring a shared vision” and academic performance in secondary schools. The study was carried out in Nairobi County, Kenya. Stratified random sampling was used in selection of respondents to ensure that principals from both public and private schools were included in the sample. Transformational leadership was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-self developed by Kouzes and Posner (1993). Principal’s responses were triangulated usingKouzes and Posner’s Leadership Practices Inventory-others on teachers. To test relationships between principals’ ratings and teachers’ ratings, t-test was used. Results indicated a modest correlation between leadership characteristic of “inspiring a Shared Vision” and students’ academic performance. This relationship was statistically significant (r=0.477 n=40 p=0.002). Based on the findings, it is recommended that principals should ensure that all the stakeholders are moving in the same direction by practicing transformational leadership characteristic of “inspiring others to act”.

Njihia JM, Mbeche IM. "“Soft" Systems Analysis: Road Construction and Maintenance: A Soft Systems Approach.". In: All Africa Engineers Conference. Kenyatta Conference Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; 1994. Abstract
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Ngugi M. "“The Dangers of Disciplinary Knowledge.”." Expression Today (1999).
Ngugi CM. "“The Kikuyu of Kenya” .". In: Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora. Los Angeles: ABC-CLIO; 2008.
Ngugi CM. "“The Maasai of Kenya”.". In: “Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora. Los Angeles: ABC-CLIO; 2007.
Ngugi CM. "“The Mass Media and the Sustenance of Collective Identifications in Africa.”." Queen: Journal of Rhetoric and Power. 2005;5(Special Issue).
Ngugi M. "“Towards Professionalization in Kenyan Journalism.”.". In: Presentation at the Media Forum of the Media Council of Kenya.; 2012.
D K, W. O, P. M, N L, E A. "“Upper Echelons Theory and Research: A review of Theory and Empirical Literature 28 Years Later”." Business Administration Management. 2012;2(10):697-703.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "“We don’t want our clothes to smell smoke”: changing malaria control practices and opportunities for integrated community-based management in Baringo, Kenya." BMC public health. 2018;18(1):609. AbstractFull Text

Background

The decline in global malaria cases is attributed to intensified utilization of primary vector control interventions and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These strategies are inadequate in many rural areas, thus adopting locally appropriate integrated malaria control strategies is imperative in these heterogeneous settings. This study aimed at investigating trends and local knowledge on malaria and to develop a framework for malaria control for communities in Baringo, Kenya.

Methods

Clinical malaria cases obtained from four health facilities in the riverine and lowland zones were used to analyse malaria trends for the 2005–2014 period. A mixed method approach integrating eight focus group discussions, 12 key informant interviews, 300 survey questionnaires and two stakeholders’ consultative forums were used to assess local knowledge on malaria risk and develop a framework for malaria reduction.

Results

Malaria cases increased significantly during the 2005–2014 period (tau = 0.352; p < 0.001) in the riverine zone. March, April, May, June and October showed significant increases compared to other months. Misconceptions about the cause and mode of malaria transmission existed. Gender-segregated outdoor occupation such as social drinking, farm activities, herding, and circumcision events increased the risk of mosquito bites. A positive relationship occurred between education level and opinion on exposure to malaria risk after dusk (χ2 = 2.70, p < 0.05). There was over-reliance on bed nets, yet only 68% (204/300) of respondents owned at least one net. Complementary malaria control measures were under-utilized, with 90% of respondents denying having used either sprays, repellents or burnt cow dung or plant leaves over the last one year before the study was conducted. Baraza, radios, and mobile phone messages were identified as effective media for malaria information exchange. Supplementary strategies identified included unblocking canals, clearing Prosopis bushes, and use of community volunteers and school clubs to promote social behaviour change.

Conclusions

The knowledge gap on malaria transmission should be addressed to minimize the impacts and enhance uptake of appropriate malaria management mechanisms. Implementing community-based framework can support significant reductions in malaria prevalence by minimizing both indoor and outdoor malaria transmissions.

Keywords

Local knowledgeMalaria trendsCommunity-based strategiesFramework

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