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Kabuage LW;, Mbugua PN;, Mitaru BN;, Ngatia TA. "Utilisation Of Minerals In Grain Amaranth Diets By Broiler Chickens."; 1998.
Njoroge N, Njenga PK, Odhiambo PO, Kaibui IM. "Utilisation of priority traditional medicinal plants and local people's knowledge on their conservation status in arid lands of Kenya (Mwingi District).". 2010. Abstract

Mwingi District lies within the Kenyan Arid and Semiarid lands (ASALs) in Eastern Province. Although some ethnobotanical surveys have been undertaken in some arid and semiarid areas of Kenya, limited studies have documented priority medicinal plants as well as local people's awareness of conservation needs of these plants. This study sought to establish the priority traditional medicinal plants used for human, livestock healthcare, and those used for protecting stored grains against pest infestation in Mwingi district. Further, the status of knowledge among the local people on the threat and conservation status of important medicinal species was documented. This study identified 18 species which were regarded as priority traditional medicinal plants for human health. In terms of priority, 8 were classified as moderate, 6 high, while 4 were ranked highest priority species. These four species are Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. (Mimosacaeae), Aloe secundiflora (Engl. (Aloaceae), Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. (Euphorbiaceae) and Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae). In regard to medicinal plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes, eleven species were identified while seven species were reported as being important for obtaining natural products or concoctions used for stored grain preservation especially against weevils. The data obtained revealed that there were new records of priority medicinal plants which had not been documented as priority species in the past. Results on conservation status of these plants showed that more than 80% of the respondents were unaware that wild medicinal plants were declining, and, consequently, few of them have any domesticated species. Some of the species that have been conserved on farm or deliberately allowed to persist when wild habitats are converted into agricultural lands include: Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Aloe secundiflora, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Warburgia ugandensis Sprague, Ricinus communis L. and Terminalia brownie Fresen. A small proportion of the respondents however, were aware of the threats facing medicnal plants. Some of the plants reported as declining include, Solanum renschii Vatke (Solanaceae), Populus ilicifolia (Engl.) Rouleau (Salicaceae), Strychnos henningsii Gilg (Loganiaceae) and Rumex usambarensis (Dammer) Dammer (Polygonaceae). Considering the low level of understanding of conservation concerns for these species, there is need therefore, to build capacity among the local communities in this area particularly in regard to sustainable use of natural resources, conservation methods as well as domestication processes

Nyagah PG, Onyambu CK, Kimani NM, Wambugu M, Aywak AA. "Utility of chest radiographs in management of patients in the intensive care unit at Kenyatta National Hospital." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(9):718-734.
Zephania B, Mwangi PW, Sehmi PK, Chege BM, Nyaga NM. Utility of Raman Spectroscopy in obesity detection with bands associated with fructose and branched chain amino acids as biomarkers. Washington, DC United States; 2019.
Ndii MK, Kimani NM, Onyambu CK. "Utility of routine chest radiographs in Kenya." EAMJ. 2014;91(7):216-218.EAMJ
Ndii MK, Kimani NM, Onyambu CK. "Utility of routine chest radiography in Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2014;91(7):216-218.
Githinji N, Maleche-Obimbo E, Nderitu M, Wamalwa DC, Mbori-Ngacha D. "Utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 counts in HIV-1 infected children in Kenya ." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2011. Abstractutility_of_total_lymphocyte_count.pdf

Abstract
Background: In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of
less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children.
Objectives: To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC) as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected
children.
Methods: This was a hospital based retrospective study conducted in three HIV clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi in
Kenya. TLC, CD4 count and CD4 percent data were abstracted from hospital records of 487 antiretroviral-naïve HIVinfected
children aged 1 month - 12 years.
Results: TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) with highest correlation seen in
children with severe immuno-suppression (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) and children >59 months of age (r = 0.68, p <
0.001). Children were considered to have severe immuno-suppression if they met the following WHO set CD4
count thresholds: age below 12 months (CD4 counts < 1500 cells/mm3), age 12-35 months (CD4 count < 750
cells/mm3), age 36-59 months (CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3, and age above 59 months (CD4 count < 200 cells/
mm3). WHO recommended TLC threshold values for severe immuno-suppression of 4000, 3000, 2500 and 2000
cells/mm3 for age categories <12, 12-35, 36-59 and >59 months had low sensitivity of 25%, 23%, 33% and 62%
respectively in predicting severe immuno-suppression using CD4 count as gold standard. Raising TLC thresholds to
7000, 6000, 4500 and 3000 cells/mm3 for each of the stated age categories increased sensitivity to 71%, 64%, 56%
and 86%, with positive predictive values of 85%, 61%, 37%, 68% respectively but reduced specificity to 73%, 62%,
54% and 68% with negative predictive values of 54%, 65%, 71% and 87% respectively.
Conclusion: TLC is positively correlated with absolute CD4 count in children but current WHO age-specific
thresholds had low sensitivity to identify severely immunosuppressed Kenyan children. Sensitivity and therefore
utility of TLC to identify immuno-suppressed children may be improved by raising the TLC cut off levels across the
various age categories.

Mbori-Ngacha DA, Wamalwa DC, Nderitu M, Maleche-Obimbo E, Githinji N. "Utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 counts in HIV-1 infected children in Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children. Objectives: To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC) as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected children. Methods: This was a hospital based retrospective study conducted in three HIV clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi in Kenya. TLC, CD4 count and CD4 percent data were abstracted from hospital records of 487 antiretroviral-naïve HIVinfected children aged 1 month - 12 years. Results: TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) with highest correlation seen in children with severe immuno-suppression (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) and children >59 months of age (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). Children were considered to have severe immuno-suppression if they met the following WHO set CD4 count thresholds: age below 12 months (CD4 counts < 1500 cells/mm3), age 12-35 months (CD4 count < 750 cells/mm3), age 36-59 months (CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3, and age above 59 months (CD4 count < 200 cells/ mm3). WHO recommended TLC threshold values for severe immuno-suppression of 4000, 3000, 2500 and 2000 cells/mm3 for age categories <12, 12-35, 36-59 and >59 months had low sensitivity of 25%, 23%, 33% and 62% respectively in predicting severe immuno-suppression using CD4 count as gold standard. Raising TLC thresholds to 7000, 6000, 4500 and 3000 cells/mm3 for each of the stated age categories increased sensitivity to 71%, 64%, 56% and 86%, with positive predictive values of 85%, 61%, 37%, 68% respectively but reduced specificity to 73%, 62%, 54% and 68% with negative predictive values of 54%, 65%, 71% and 87% respectively. Conclusion: TLC is positively correlated with absolute CD4 count in children but current WHO age-specific thresholds had low sensitivity to identify severely immunosuppressed Kenyan children. Sensitivity and therefore utility of TLC to identify immuno-suppressed children may be improved by raising the TLC cut off levels across the various age categories.

Mbori-Ngacha DA, Wamalwa DC, Nderitu M, Maleche-Obimbo E, Githinji N. "Utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 counts in HIV-1 infected children in Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children. Objectives: To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC) as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected children. Methods: This was a hospital based retrospective study conducted in three HIV clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi in Kenya. TLC, CD4 count and CD4 percent data were abstracted from hospital records of 487 antiretroviral-naïve HIVinfected children aged 1 month - 12 years. Results: TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) with highest correlation seen in children with severe immuno-suppression (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) and children >59 months of age (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). Children were considered to have severe immuno-suppression if they met the following WHO set CD4 count thresholds: age below 12 months (CD4 counts < 1500 cells/mm3), age 12-35 months (CD4 count < 750 cells/mm3), age 36-59 months (CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3, and age above 59 months (CD4 count < 200 cells/ mm3). WHO recommended TLC threshold values for severe immuno-suppression of 4000, 3000, 2500 and 2000 cells/mm3 for age categories <12, 12-35, 36-59 and >59 months had low sensitivity of 25%, 23%, 33% and 62% respectively in predicting severe immuno-suppression using CD4 count as gold standard. Raising TLC thresholds to 7000, 6000, 4500 and 3000 cells/mm3 for each of the stated age categories increased sensitivity to 71%, 64%, 56% and 86%, with positive predictive values of 85%, 61%, 37%, 68% respectively but reduced specificity to 73%, 62%, 54% and 68% with negative predictive values of 54%, 65%, 71% and 87% respectively. Conclusion: TLC is positively correlated with absolute CD4 count in children but current WHO age-specific thresholds had low sensitivity to identify severely immunosuppressed Kenyan children. Sensitivity and therefore utility of TLC to identify immuno-suppressed children may be improved by raising the TLC cut off levels across the various age categories.

Beinah A, Kunyanga C, Ngugi K. "Utilization and Processing of Sorghum by Small Holder Farmers in Drought Prone Agro-Ecological Zones of Kenya." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal. 2020;7(10):116-121.
Nderitu JH, Kibaru A, Njeru R, Yobera D, Kasina M. "Utilization Of Border Crops To Manage Aphid Colonization And PVY Incidence On Potato(Solanum tuberosum L).". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolorL.), wheat (Triticum aestivumL.), maize(Zea MaysL.), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and garden pea (Pisum sativumL.) were tested as border crops for their ability to reduce the number of colonizing aphids and Potato Virus Y (PVY) incidence in seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosumL.). The experiment was done at Tigoni, Central Kenya for two seasons, from 03 May 2002 and from 17 October 2002. Apterae aphids were monitored weekly by picking 15 leaves from 5 randomly selected plants per plot while alate aphids were collected using yellow sticky traps mounted 0.5 m from the ground level at the edge of border crops. Three aphid species were recorded: Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). PVY incidence in the inner rows of potatoes surrounded by fallow and the border crops was statistically insignificant (P>0.05) but outer rows in crop-bordered plots had significantly less PVY than outer rows of fallow-bordered plots. The DAS- ELISA test used to confirm presence of PVY showed that the disease had the highest and lowest incidence in fallow and wheat bordered plots, respectively. This study shows that the effective border-crops can be used to manage aphids and PVY disease in potatoes. In addition, since most Kenyan potato growers are low income earners, adoption of border cropping technology can improve immensely the production success of the crop

Njuguna E, Ilovi CS, Mutai K, Kunithia J, Muiruri P. Utilization of Cervical Cancer Screening Among HIV Infected Women in Nairobi, Kenya. Seattle, Washington: Virology Education; 2015.
Odhiambo MA, Njuguna S, Waireri-Onyango R, Mulimba J, Ngugi PM. "Utilization of day surgery services at Upper hill Medical Centre and the Karen hospital in Nairobi: the influence of medical providers, cost and patient awareness." Pan Afr Med J. 2015;22:28. Abstract

Health systems face challenges of improving access to health services due to rising health care costs. Innovative services such as day surgery would improve service delivery. Day surgery is a concept where patients are admitted for surgical procedures and discharged the same day. Though used widely in developed countries due to its advantages, utilization in developing countries has been low. This study sought to establish how utilization of day surgery services was influenced by medical providers, patient awareness and cost among other factors.

M T, N G, A M. "Utilization of extension services and performance of hybrid sweet potato projects IN Kenya. a case of Njoro Sub-county, Nakuru County." Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. 2020;(1144).
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Odongo D, Kamau L, Skilton R, Mwaura S, Nitsch C, Musoke A, Taracha E, Daubenberger C, Bishop R. "Vaccination of cattle with TickGARD induces cross-reactive antibodies binding to conserved linear peptides of Bm86 homologues in Boophilus decoloratus." Vaccine. 2007;25(7):1287-96. Abstract

Vaccines based on recombinant Bm86 gut antigen from Boophilus microplus are a useful component of integrated control strategies against B. microplus infestations of cattle. The capacity of such vaccines to control heterologous infestations by two African tick species was investigated. The mean weight of engorged female ticks and mean egg mass per tick were significantly reduced in B. decoloratus infestations, but there was no effect of the vaccine against adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. We cloned, sequenced and expressed two Bm86 homologues (Bd86) from B. decoloratus. Amino acid sequence identity between Bd86 homologues (Bd86-1 and Bd86-2) and Bm86 was 86% and 85%, respectively, compared to 93% identity between the variants. Native Bd86 protein in B. decoloratus tick mid-gut sections and recombinant Bd86-1 reacted strongly with sera from TickGARD vaccinated cattle. TickGARD can therefore protect against a heterologous tick species with multiple antigen sequences. Epitope mapping using sera from TickGARD-vaccinated cattle identified two linear peptides conserved between the Bd86 homologues and Bm86. These epitopes represent candidate synthetic peptide vaccines for control of Boophilus spp. and the pathogens transmitted by these tick vectors.

Elkanah O, Jonathan Y, Shanthi M, Campbell Z€A, Thumbi SM, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Palmer GH. "Vaccination of household chickens results in a shift in young children’s diet and improves child growth in rural Kenya." PNAS. Economic Sciences Agricultural Sciences. 2022;Volume 119(No. 24).
de Llano-Pérula C, Kihara E, Thevissen P, Nyamunga D, Fieuws S, Kanini M, Willems G. "Validating dental age estimation in Kenyan black children and adolescents using the Willems method. ." Medicine, Science and the Law. . 2020;(https://doi.org/10.1177/0025802420977379).
N PROFGUANTAIA, N PROFGUANTAIA, N PROFGUANTAIA, N PROFGUANTAIA. "Validation of a competitive chloramiphenicol enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for determination of residues in Ovine tissues.". In: 12 East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. G. A MURILLA, J.O WESONGA, T. FODDEY, S. CROOKS, A.N GUANTAI, W,M KARANJA, T.E MAITHO; 2010.
Njoroge EM, Muthama NJ, Ouma GO, Lukorito CB. "Validation of Satellite Derived Rainfall Estimates over Kenya." Second RUFORUM Biennial Regional Conference on" Building capacity for food security in Africa", Entebbe, Uganda, 20-24 September 2010. 2010:1445-1449. Abstractvalidation_of_satellite_derived_rainfall_estimates_over_kenya.pdfCAB Direct

Precipitation is one of the major components of the earth’s climate system. Many countries in the tropics depend on rainfall for the agricultural and hydrological activities which are dominant in their economies. Rainfall information is a crucial aspect not only for sustainable social-economic development of many countries but also for study of atmospheric circulations, climate analysis and global energy balance. Hence it is important to use reliable and accurate rainfall data in any planning. This study aims at validating satellite-derived rainfall estimates
retrieved from TRMM’s monthly rainfall retrieval algorithm, (3B-43 algorithm), over Kenya. The study analyzes eleven years of monthly rainfall estimates (1998-2008) produced by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)’s 3B-43 algorithm and compares them with gridded monthly rainfall totals from 26 synoptic and Agrometeorological stations in Kenya for the same period. Preliminary results suggest that satellite rainfall estimates can be modeled to represent areal rainfall in areas with inadequate ground based rainfall observations, especially over Northwestern, Northern, Northeastern and Southern Kenya.

Key words: Agrometeorology, rainfall data, remote sensing

O. DROUMAGILBERT, N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN, O DROPEREALFRED. "Validation of Satellite-Derived Rainfall Estimates: The Ethiopian Case Study.". In: Proc. 7th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, Nairobi, 17-21 0ctober 2005. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2005. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O. OUMAG, N MUTHAMAJ, O. OPEREA. "Validation of Satellite-Derived Rainfall Estimates: The Ethiopian Case Study.". In: Proc. 7th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, Nairobi, 17-21 0ctober 2005. Eastern and South African Journal; 2005. Abstract

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

O. DROUMAGILBERT, N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN, O DROPEREALFRED. "Validation of Satellite-Derived Rainfall Estimates: The Ethiopian Case Study.". In: Proc. 7th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, Nairobi, 17-21 0ctober 2005.; 2005. Abstract
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Mark A, Nikita M, Fred M, Jimmy M, Hassan M, Paul O. "Validation of the Euroscore on Cardiac Surgery Patients in Nairobi." Annals of African Surgery. 2017;14. Abstract
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Kariuki M, Otieno CF, Ng'anga M. "Validity of random blood glucose as a predictor of the quality of glycaemic control by glycated haemoglobin in out-patient diabetic patients at kenyatta national hospita.". 2002. Abstract

Patients with diab etes mellitus in Kenya come to the hospital for followup visits very infrequently. For most of these patients their blood glucose monitoring is done only on the day of visit to the doctor. Objective: To determine how well the physician - based morning random blood level determines or reflects the quality of glycaemic control. Design: Cross - sectional study (morning, random blood glucose taken between 8.00 a.m. and 12.00 noon). Setting: Out - patient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. Subjects: Patien ts with diabetes mellitus either type 1 or type 2 attending the out - patient clinic. Main outcome measures: Random blood glucose (morning) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Results: The morning random glucose level had a linear relationship with glycated ha emoglobin levels taken simultaneously. A blood glucose level of 7 mmol/l had 92.7% sensitivity for good control (HbA1c£7.8%) on a blood sample which was taken simultaneously and 59.8% specific for the same. When blood glucose cut - off level was raised to 10 mmol/l sensitivity fell to 66.3% for HbAlc£7.8%, and 83.2% specificity for poor glycaemic control (HbAlc>7.8%). There was marked fall in sensitivity of rising random blood glucose level in predicting good glycaemic control in our study, with concomitant r ise in specificity of those high cut - off levels of blood glucose in predicting poor glycaemic control. Conclusion: Morning random blood glucose in the ambulatory diabetic patients related well to simultaneously assayed HbAlc. Blood glucose within usual the rapeutic targets of 4 - 8mmo1/1 predicted good glycaemic control (HbAlc£7.8%) with high sensitivity at the range of 86.3 - 98.4%. In resource - poor settings, the morning random blood glucose assay, which is done in patients who may attend the diabetic clinic in the morning hours, may be used to predict the quality of their diabetic control. However caution should be exercised in its widespread use because its overall applicability may be clinic - specific depending largely on the average metabolic control of the d iabetic population using that clinic. Further studies need to be done to relate HbAlc to blood glucose levels obtained at different times of the day in this population to determine the best predictor of good glycaemic control

Wamwea C, Ngare P, Bidima MLDM, Mwelu S. "Valuation of Quanto Caps and Floors in a Calibrated Multi-Curve Cross-Currency LIBOR Market Model." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2019;9(4):698-725. AbstractWebsite

Interest rate derivatives form part of the largest portion of traded financial instruments. Hence, it is important to have models that describe their dynamics accurately. This study aims at pricing Quanto caps and floors using the multi-curve cross-currency LIBOR market model (MCCCLMM) dynamics. A Black Scholes MCCCLMM Quanto caplet and floorlet formula is first derived. The MCCCLMM parameters are then calibrated to exactly match the USD and GBP cap market prices. The estimated model parameters are then used to price the Quanto options in the Black MCCCLMM Quanto caplet and floorlet formula. These prices are then compared to the Quanto cap and floor prices estimated via Monte Carlo simulations so as to ascertain its pricing accuracy

Muloi D., Pablo A, Ombui JN., Ngeiywa JK., Abdullahi B, Muinde, P, Karani MK., Jonathan R, Fevre E. "Value chain analysis and sanitary risks of the camel milk system supplying Nairobi city, Kenya." Prev. Vet. Med.. 2018;159: 203-210:203-210.
Dorothy McCormick, Njeri K. "Value Chains in Small Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi.". In: Challenges in Shifting from the Old Global Regime of Import Substitution to a More Liberalised Global Regime. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2003. Abstract

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Nyasani PJ. The Value of Life in African Culture. Nairobi: CUEA; 2007.
Omosa LK, Akala H, Kenanda EO, Ndunda B. "Variability of Surface Exudates of Dodonaea angustifolia L.f, Antioxidant and Antiplasmodial activities of the compounds." Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2016;6(10):2224-3186.
Mwamuye MM, Odongo D, Kazungu Y, Kindoro F, Gwakisa P, Bishop RP, Nijhof AM, Obara I. "Variant analysis of the sporozoite surface antigen gene reveals that asymptomatic cattle from wildlife-livestock interface areas in northern Tanzania harbour buffalo-derived T. parva." Parasitol Res. 2020;119(11):3817-3828. Abstract

Buffalo-derived Theileria parva can 'break through' the immunity induced by the infection and treatment vaccination method (ITM) in cattle. However, no such 'breakthroughs' have been reported in northern Tanzania where there has been long and widespread ITM use in pastoralist cattle, and the Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is also present. We studied the exposure of vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle in northern Tanzania to buffalo-derived T. parva using p67 gene polymorphisms and compared this to its distribution in vaccinated cattle exposed to buffalo-derived T. parva in central Kenya, where vaccine 'breakthroughs' have been reported. Additionally, we analysed the CD8+ T cell target antigen Tp2 for positive selection. Our results showed that 10% of the p67 sequences from Tanzanian cattle (n = 39) had a buffalo type p67 (allele 4), an allele that is rare among East African isolates studied so far. The percentage of buffalo-derived p67 alleles observed in Kenyan cattle comprised 19% of the parasites (n = 36), with two different p67 alleles (2 and 3) of presumptive buffalo origin. The Tp2 protein was generally conserved with only three Tp2 variants from Tanzania (n = 33) and five from Kenya (n = 40). Two Tanzanian Tp2 variants and two Kenyan Tp2 variants were identical to variants present in the trivalent Muguga vaccine. Tp2 evolutionary analysis did not show evidence for positive selection within previously mapped epitope coding sites. The p67 data indicates that some ITM-vaccinated cattle are protected against disease induced by a buffalo-derived T. parva challenge in northern Tanzania and suggests that the parasite genotype may represent one factor explaining this.

Olabu BO, Loyal PK, Matiko BW, Nderitu JM, Misiani MK, Ogeng’o JA. "Variant Anatomy of the External Jugular Vein." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2015;4(1):518-527.
Gathara D, Malla L, Ayieko P, Karuri S, Nyamai R, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati. "Variation in and risk factors for paediatric inpatient all-cause mortality in a low income setting: data from an emerging clinical information network." BMC Pediatrics. 2017. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND Hospital mortality data can inform planning for health interventions and may help optimize resource allocation if they are reliable and appropriately interpreted. However such data are often not available in low income countries including Kenya. METHODS Data from the Clinical Information Network covering 12 county hospitals' paediatric admissions aged 2-59 months for the periods September 2013 to March 2015 were used to describe mortality across differing contexts and to explore whether simple clinical characteristics used to classify severity of illness in common treatment guidelines are consistently associated with inpatient mortality. Regression models accounting for hospital identity and malaria prevalence (low or high) were used. Multiple imputation for missing data was based on a missing at random assumption with sensitivity analyses based on pattern mixture missing not at random assumptions. RESULTS The overall cluster adjusted crude mortality rate across hospitals was 6 · 2% with an almost 5 fold variation across sites (95% CI 4 · 9 to 7 · 8; range 2 · 1% - 11 · 0%). Hospital identity was significantly associated with mortality. Clinical features included in guidelines for common diseases to assess severity of illness were consistently associated with mortality in multivariable analyses (AROC =0 · 86). CONCLUSION All-cause mortality is highly variable across hospitals and associated with clinical risk factors identified in disease specific guidelines. A panel of these clinical features may provide a basic common data framework as part of improved health information systems to support evaluations of quality and outcomes of care at scale and inform health system strengthening efforts.

Busula AO, Takken W, de Boer JG, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Niels O Verhulst. "Variation in host preferences of malaria mosquitoes is mediated by skin bacterial volatiles." Medical and veterinary entomology. 2017;31(3):320-326.
Nalyanya KM, Rop RK, Onyuka AS, Birech Z, Okonda JJ. "Variation of elemental concentration in leather during post-tanning operation using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy: principal component analysis approach." International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2020:1-13.
C O, E M, SK M, Ngechu. Variation of ground water static levels in Nairobi City Since 1927.. New Delhi India ; 2012.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Variation of palm oil with physico-chemical properties with temperature.". In: ELAEIS (The International Journal of Oil Palm Research and Development, Malaysia). Re-Submitted. THESES. Survey Review; 2005. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Variation of Plant DDT uptake with age and soil type ...", J.". In: Environment International, 25 (4), (1999). Survey Review; 1999. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Variations in LC50 in the egg hatch assay for anthelmintic resistant trichostrongylid nematode parasites in sheep. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 39 (2): 167-172.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

Nderitu J, Butt F SH. "Variations in the emergence and course of the inferior palpebral nerve." Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr . 2014;7(3):233-6.
Muthini DN, Nzuma JN, Nyikal AR. "Variety Awareness, Nutrition Knowledge and Adoption of Nutritionally Enhanced Crop Varieties: Evidence from Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 2019;14(4):225-237.
Muthini DN, Nzuma JM, Nyikal RA. "Variety awareness, nutrition knowledge and adoption of nutritionally enhanced crop varieties: Evidence from Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics . 2019;14(4):225-237. AbstractWebsite

This paper evaluates the impact of variety awareness and nutrition knowledge on the adoption of biofortified crop varieties using a sample of 661 households from Kisii and Nyamira counties in Kenya. The study employs the average treatment effect (ATE) framework to control for information on the KK15 bean variety and knowledge of its nutritional attributes among small-scale farmers. The results show that farmers who had knowledge of the nutritional attributes of KK15 beans were more likely to adopt relative to those who were only aware of the variety. A nutrition attribute knowledge gap of 8% was estimated, which represents the potential adoption loss due to a lack of knowledge of the nutritional benefits. Adoption of biofortified crops can therefore be improved by disseminating information on the varieties and their nutritional attributes. This can be achieved by entrenching nutrition information in extension packages disseminated to farmers.

C BL, Njagi L W, Mbuthia P G, DI K. "Various manifestations of ovarian carcinoma and Marek’s disease / leucosis complex in chickens: Case reports .". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2008.2008-manifestation_of_ovarian_carcinoma_and_chicken.pdf
Bebora LC;, Njagi LW;, Mbuthia PG;, Kariuki DI. "Various Manifestations Of Ovarian Carcinoma, Mareks Disease/Leucosis Complex And Rhabdomyoma In Chickens:."; 2008. Abstract

Like any other diseases of poultry, tumours are important to poultry keepers. This is because farmers keep poultry mainly for commercial purposes and are affected by any condition that would cau se death of the chickens or reduce their productivity. There are various tumours that affect chickens, mostly the older ones. This is a report of two manifestations of ovarian carcinoma and two extraordinary manifestations of Marek’s disease/Leucosis compl ex observed in Kenya. Possible impacts on poultry production are discussed.

Nganga CJ, Korir DK, Lolokote SS, Liaulo J. "Varroa destructor, a cause of decreased honey production in Samburu North District, Samburu County Kenya.". In: 9th Biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Nairobi, Kenya; 2014.
Ngugi PN, MCLIGEYO SO, KAYIMA JK, Otieno LS, Mogere R. "Vascular access for haemodialysis.". 1991. Abstract

In a fifteen month period (August 1987 to November 1988) forty patients requiring haemodialysis had 83 angioaccess procedures performed. Arteriovenous (AV) shunts and arteriovenous fistulae were the commonest procedures, comprising 56 (67%) and 20 (24%) of the patients respectively. Subclavian catheters and artificial grafts were used less frequently. Nephrologists and senior house officers attached to the Renal Unit were responsible for fashioning A-V shunts and inserting subclavian catheters while the A-V fistulae were fashioned by the urologists and vascular surgeons. The commonest complication of A-V shunts were clotting, occurring in 31 (55.4%) followed by bleeding in 14 (25%). Eight (32%) of the A-V fistulae never functioned from the beginning. It is noted that we are still very dependent on A-V shunts for vascular access in end stage renal disease (ESRF) patients and this is associated with an unacceptable level of complications. This dependency on A-V shunts in ESRD patients should be stopped or phased out. A-V fistulae should be used more frequently. Their constructions should be well thought out, executed and supervised by the few surgeons who are versed in them together with their follow-ups

Kabinga SK, Kayima J, MCLIGEYO SO, Wambugu B, NGIGI J, Chege R, Mutiso J. "Vascular thrombosis in patients on chronic maintenance haemodialysis using indwelling venous catheters: Case reports and literature review." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2017;36(1):110-117. Abstract

Vascular access is key in patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis. Thrombosis is a
significant contributor of access – associated morbidity. There are several documented risk factors that
predispose to thrombosis in patients with end stage renal disease. These include: inflammation, erythropoietin
therapy, hypotension, diabetes and old age among others. Treatment of thrombosis in these patients is
challenging. We present three cases of acute vascular thrombosis attended to in the Kenyatta National Hospital,
Nairobi-Kenya, East Africa, renal department in one week and literature review.
Keywords: Vascular thrombosis; Haemodialysis catheter; endstage renal disease.

N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Venant Rutunga, Kurt G. Steiner, Nancy K. Karanja, Charles K.K. Gachene and Gre.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Venant Rutunga, Kurt G. Steiner, Nancy K. Karanja, Charles K.K. Gachene and Gre.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Venant Rutunga, Nancy K. Karanja, Charles K.K. Gachene and Cheryl Palm, 1999. Biomass production and nutrient accumulation by Tephrosia vogelii (Hemsley) A. Gray and Thithonia diversifolia Hook F. fallows during the six-month growth period at Maseno, West.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Venant Rutunga, Nancy K. Karanja, Charles K.K. Gachene and Cheryl Palm, 1999. Biomass production and nutrient accumulation by Tephrosia vogelii (Hemsley) A. Gray and Thithonia diversifolia Hook F. fallows during the six-month growth period at Maseno, West.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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Nimrod J, Omulo TOM. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery and shunt infections in children with non-tumour Hydrocephalus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2000. Abstract

study infections complicating ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery in children with non-tumour hydrocephalus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: A retrospective survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi between January 1982 and December 1991. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and forty five patients who underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty five patients underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. There were 107 infection episodes involving 85 patients. The ages of these patients ranged from three months to 12 years. Most of the patients had congenital hydrocephalus. The infection rate was high (24.6%) although comparable to infection rates reported for clean surgery in the hospital. Fever, septic wounds and features of shunt malfunction were the main presenting features. Bacteriological studies confirmed Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci as the two most commonly isolated micro-organisms. CONCLUSION: This study emphasises need to reduce infection rate in ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Definitive surgical treatment for hydrocephalus was in most cases delayed and this problem was also observed during revision of infected shunts. Late presentation was often due to ignorance and the fact that many patients went for traditional forms of treatment first before going to hospital.

Njaria PM, Abuga KO, Kamau FK, Chepkwony HK. "A versatile hplc method for the simultaneous determination of bromhexine, guaifenesin, ambroxol, salbutamol/terbutaline, pseudoephedrine, triprolidine, and chlorpheniramine maleate in cough–cold syrups." Chromatographia . 2016;79(21):1507-1514. Abstract

A simple, rapid, isocratic, and versatile liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous
determination of bromhexine, guaifenesin, ambroxol, salbutamol/terbutaline, pseudoephedrine, triprolidine, and
chlorpheniramine maleate in cough–cold syrups commonly marketed in Kenya. Separation was achieved using
a Gemini® NX C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) maintained at 40 °C and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.25 M sodium hexanesulphonate-0.2 M ammonium acetate, and pH 3.0-water (35:4:10:51, % v/v/v/v) delivered at 1.0 mL min−1. The eluents were monitored by means of UV detection at 254 nm. During validation, the method satisfied the International Committee on Harmonization acceptance criteria for linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and robustness. The developed liquid chromatographic method was applied in the analysis of nine commercial samples obtained from Nairobi City County, Kenya. Extraction procedures were not applied during the assay of the samples, thus significantly shortening the analysis time.

JE C, ME C, Nyaga P N, Gathumbi P K, Njagi L W. "Veterinary forensic medicine: an emerging and important discipline.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual scientific conference. Safari park hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.2012-veterinary_forensic_medicine.pdf
Githigia SM, Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi PK, Cooper ME, Cooper JE. "veterinary forensic medicine: an emerging and important discipline.". Submitted.Website
Acsa I, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW. "Village-Indigenous Chicken Bacterial Carriage after the Heavy Rains of 2018, Kenya: Indicator on Environmental Contamination with Pathogenic/Zoonotic Bacteria." Veterinary Medicine International. 2022;vol. 2022(Article ID 5437171):8 pages.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Vipawa Amani. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2007.
Nzunza. R, Achilla. R, Schnabel. D, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Osuna. F, Njiri. J, Opot. B, Wurapa. EK, Bulimo. WD. "Viral Etiologies of Influenza-Like-Illnesses in Kneya; January 2007 to December 2010.". In: ASTMH 60th Annual Meeting. Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.; 2011. Abstract
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N LG. "Viral Hepatitis.". 1988.
Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG. "Viral Nucleoprotein localilzation and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.". 2011. Abstract

Abstract

Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts.
Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Post mortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from
each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis,
necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks.

Keywords Ducks . Immunohistochemical . Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein

Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Minga UM. "Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was valuated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks.

Waiboci LW, Katz MA, Njenga MK, Breiman RF, Olack B, Njuguna H, Kikwai GK, Mwiti W, Williamson JM, Lebo E. "Viral shedding in patients infected with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Kenya, 2009.". 2011. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Understanding shedding patterns of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) can inform recommendations about infection control measures. We evaluated the duration of pH1N1 virus shedding in patients in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) specimens were collected from consenting laboratory-confirmed pH1N1 cases every 2 days during October 14-November 25, 2009, and tested at the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention-Kenya by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). A subset of rRT-PCR-positive samples was cultured. RESULTS: Of 285 NP/OP specimens from patients with acute respiratory illness, 140 (49%) tested positive for pH1N1 by rRT-PCR; 106 (76%) patients consented and were enrolled. The median age was 6 years (Range: 4 months-41 years); only two patients, both asthmatic, received oseltamivir. The median duration of pH1N1 detection after illness onset was 8 days (95% CI: 7-10 days) for rRT-PCR and 3 days (Range: 0-13 days) for viral isolation. Viable pH1N1 virus was isolated from 132/162 (81%) of rRT-PCR-positive specimens, which included 118/125 (94%) rRT-PCR-positive specimens collected on day 0-7 after symptoms onset. Viral RNA was detectable in 18 (17%) and virus isolated in 7/18 (39%) of specimens collected from patients after all their symptoms had resolved. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, pH1N1 was detected by rRT-PCR for a median of 8 days. There was a strong correlation between rRT-PCR results and virus isolation in the first week of illness. In some patients, pH1N1 virus was detectable after all their symptoms had resolved.

Rebecca Lynne C, Rikesh Panchal, Emmanuel, Michael G, Moses N, Nyangaya J, O M, J M, P K, A A, A R, M P, V J. "Volatile Organic Compound Composition of Urban Air in Nairobi Kenya and Lagos Nigeria.". 2021.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Voltammetric studies of reactions of immidazolidine...." , J. Electroanalysis, 10(11), 747.". In: Sciences series A., 11 (1), 133. Survey Review; 1998. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Volume I: Sectoral Inventory: Arid and Semi-Arid Lands: Kitui/Meru /Embu. Districts.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1970. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Volume II: Project Identification Arid and Semi Arid Lands: Kitui/Meru/Embu.Districts.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1970. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Volume III: Statistical Appendix: Arid and Semi-Arid Lands: Kitui/Meru/Embu.Districts.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1970. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Voluntary Agencies Development Assistance (VADA): An evaluation: On Behalf of the Ford Foundation. Nairobi, April 1987.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1987. Abstract
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Borna A. Nyaoke, Mutua G, sajabi R, delvin nyasani, Mureithi MW, Anzala O. "Volunteer motivators for participating in HIV vaccine clinical trials in Nairobi, Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2017;https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183788(12).journal.pone_.pdf
Kabo M, Nyangito MM. "Vulnerability to drought, adaptation and coping strategies among agro-pastoral communities in Botswana.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

With the increased threat of climate change effects on the African continent, this study was carried out to document the coping mechanisms against the rampant droughts by the agropastoral communities in Botswana. The study was carried out in Kgalagadi North and Bobonong. Effects of drought in these areas included livestock death, reduced crop yields, low pasture production and increased distances to water livestock. Coping measures included enrolling into government’s labour intensive Public Works Programme, harvesting larvae of Imbrasia belina with food or turning to other sources of income, and storage of crops during good harvests. Other means were planting drought resistant crops, supplemental livestock feeding, transferring livestock to better areas, and selling off animals. These methods however did not ameliorate farmers’ problems. There is therefore need to have more holistic research efforts to tackle the effects of drought in Botswana and elsewhere in Africa.

Wandiga SO, Opondo M, Olago D, Githeko A, Githui F, Marshall M, Downs T, Opere A, Yanda PZ, Kangalawe R, Kabumbuli R, Kirumira E, Kathuri J, Apindi E, Olaka L, Ogallo L, Ouma G, Oludhe C, Mugambi P, Sigalla R, Nanyunja R, Baguma T. "Vulnerability to Epidemic Malaria in the Highlands of Lake Victoria Basin: The Role of Climate Change/Variability, Hydrology and Socio-economic Factors.". In: Grignon, F., and Marpeu, H., (eds), L. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2010. Abstract

Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.

Bobadoye BO, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCY, Fombong AT. "Vulnerable Habitats Alter African Meliponine Bee’s (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Assemblages in an Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot." International journal of insect science. 2017;9:1179543317709788.
Bobadoye BO, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCY, Fombong AT. "Vulnerable Habitats Alter African Meliponine Bee’s (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Assemblages in an Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot." International journal of insect science. 2017;9:1179543317709788.
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N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "W. Ngoyawu Mnene, J. Hanson, W.N. Ekaya, J.I. Kinyamario, P. Mweki, G. Lall, J.W. Stuth, R.H. Jamnadass Genetic variation between ecotypic populations of Chloris roxbhurghiana grass detected through RAPD analysis. African Journal of Range and Forage Scien.". In: CTA Knowledge Website. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2005. Abstract
Chloris roxburghiana is an important rangeland grass in Kenya. In some areas it has disappeared due to land degradation resulting from overgrazing and drought. Efforts to re-introduce the grass through re-seeding using seeds from research stations have had little success. One possible reason for low establishment is attributed to transplanting since spatially separated populations may represent genetically distinct ecotypes. To test this hypothesis, germplasm diversity within and among four populations of C. roxburghiana from four ecologically distinct sites was analyzed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of 131 polymorphic markers were identified using nine RAPD primers. There was significant variation among populations with genetic diversity (He) ranging from 0.142 to 0.193. Twenty four percent of the variation observed was due to differentiation among the populations, compared to 76 percent accounted for by variation within populations. The UPGMA of the population frequency indicated that the four populations of C. roxburghiana were genetically distinct, probably as a result of variation in soil fertility, geographical isolation and socio-ecological history of the study sites. The implication for optimizing future seed collection is discussed and potential areas for further studies identified.
Porkhariyal GP, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "W2-Recurrent LP-Sasakian Manifold." Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences. 2013;3(2):119-128.w2-_recurrent_lp_-sasakian_manifold.pdf
Ndungu MN. "Wanawake, Utamaduni na Katiba’.". In: BAWAKI International Conference on Language, Culture and Constitution . Catholic University of Eastern Africa; Submitted.
Ngugi M. "Wanted: A Suave, Articulate, Highly-Educated President." The Anvil Souvenir Issue (2011):100-102.
Kang'ethe RN, Nguithi AN, Njenga FG. "War and mental disorders in Africa.". 2006. Abstract

Many wars continue to engulf Africa, from east to west and from north to south, leaving many Africans severely traumatized (1). Musisi (2), in his chapter in the recently published volume "Essentials of clinical psychiatry for sub- Saharan Africa", reports significant physical and psychological war-related trauma inflicted to the Ugandans in their homes, at military checkpoints and in detention. The most commonly encountered mental disorders were found to be post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at 39.9%, depression at 52%, anxiety at 60% and somatization disorder at 72.2%. The prevalence of suicidal behaviour was recorded as 22.7% and that of alcohol abuse as 18.2%. These incredibly high figures for mental disorders in war-affected Ugandans are reflected by another recent study among internally displaced Kenyans following ethnic clashes in parts of the country. Njau (3) found, in this highly traumatized population, a prevalence rate of 80.2% of PTSD amongst the heads of households. Neuner et al (4) studied a random sample of 3,339 refugees in the west Nile region, including Ugandans and Sudanese, and found that 31.6% of the male and 40.1% of the female respondents fulfilled the criteria for a DSM-IV PTSD diagnosis. He also found a near linear rise of psychological strain with the increasing number of traumatic events, ranging from a 23% prevalence of PTSD in those who reported three or fewer pre-defined traumatizing experiences to a 100% prevalence in those who reported 28 or more traumatic events. In a recent study, Pham et al (5) found that, among the 2091 participants who survived the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, 24.8% met the symptom criteria for PTSD. All these studies support the fact of the existence of recognizable PTSD within African populations. This reality, however, is in contrast to that held by some experts (6) who state that PTSD in Africa is a pseudo-diagnosis by Western agencies who medicalize understandable social consequences of war and who bring about Western models of management that are inappropriate. It is precisely this type of misconception that sets Africa aside and apart from the rest of the world when it comes to the conceptualization of PTSD. There is ample evidence in support of the fact that Western conceptualizations of PTSD have validity in Africans, and that war survivors in Africa can and do show symptoms of PTSD (7-9). It is expected that this Forum will stimulate thinking and action not only among African academics but also among aid agencies. These ought to wake up to the reality that the prevalence of mental disorders in Africa is likely to be extremely high, as a direct result of the wars that have caused many to lead lives as refugees. While attention of the Africans and the world have (correctly) in the last few decades focused on infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS, it would seem reasonable to now accept that mental health consequences of war and displacement are contributing significantly in setting back the continent from achieving the millennium development goals. A number of questions arise from Murthy and Lakshminarayana's paper, and in the African context demand answers. The first relates to the longterm outcome of those traumatized by the various wars. Whereas there is some suggestion from Mozambique (10) that PTSD rates go down over time, other long-term studies would suggest otherwise (11,12). Indeed, eight years after the genocide in Rwanda, a quarter of the studied population showed diagnosable PTSD (7). This, projected to the actual numbers of Africans traumatized in Sudan, Sierra Leone, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, Somalia and other parts of Africa, translates to millions of people in need of help. Community interventions such as those tried in Mozambique (10) hold some promise, as do initiatives such as the South Africa Truth and Reconciliation Commission (13).

NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. (1984). A stereological comparison of the perfused and immersed avian kidneys. J. Anat. 139: 729-730.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 1984.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. (1985). Quantitative observations on the structural characteristics of the avian kidney. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Liverpool (England).". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 1985.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. (1985). Stereological observations on the kidneys of 16 avian species.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 1985.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. (1996). Commercialization of research work on the avocado oil extraction and avocado seedcake UNISPAR project.". In: Proceedings of the World Congress of Engineering Educators and Industry leaders, UNESCO, July 1996.; 1996.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. (1999). Recent advances in avocado oil extraction biotechnology.". In: Proceedings of the first Biotechnology Workshop, Department of Chemistry, 7-11 June 1999.; 1999.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. and Skadhauge, E. (1998). Morphological and functional anatomy of the cloaca and terminal colon of the African Ostrich:.". In: Proceedings of the 2nd International ratile congress, Oudtshoorn South Africa 21 - 25 Sept. pp:88-90.; 1998.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N., (1989). Light Microscopical morphometry of the kidneys of fourteen avian species. J. Ant..142: 19 - 31.". In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on advances in Reproductive Research in Man and Animals, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya.; 1989.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N., and King, A.S. (1985. Stereological observations on the kidney of the domestic fowl. J. Anat. 142: 129-139.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 1985.
Kanyinga K, Long J, Ndii D. "Was it Rigged? A Forensic Analysis of Vote Returns in Kenya's 2007 Elections.". In: Tensions and Reversals in Democratic Transitions: The Kenya 2007 General Elections. Nairobi: Society for International Development and Institute for Development Studies (IDS), University of Nairobi; 2010.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE, AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Water and Sanitation Services in Low Income Areas of Nairobi (in: Low Income Area Water Supply and Sanitation in Selected African Cities. Ed. Sandelin S., Institute of Water and Environmental Engineer.". In: Tampere University of Technology, Finland, . University Publication No. B 60). African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE, AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Water and Sanitation Services in Low Income Areas of Nairobi (in: Low Income Area Water Supply and Sanitation in Selected African Cities. Ed. Sandelin S., Institute of Water and Environmental Engineer.". In: Tampere University of Technology, Finland, . University Publication No. B 60). Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1994. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

Opere AO, Njogu AK. "Water in the Upper Awach-Kibuon Catchment in Nyamira County, Kenya." American Journal of Water Resources. 2020;vol. 8, no. 4 (2020)(doi: 10.12691/ajwr-8-4-6.): 200-210.
Katko TS, Hukka JJ, A MD, Nyangeri EN. "Water Services and Cooperation.". In: Global Water: Issues and Insights (P231-237). Austriani National University Press (ANU). http://press.anu.edu.au; 2014.
Nyanchaga EN. "Water Services Management and Governance in Kenya: Past lessons for sustainable future.". In: International Water Association (IWA) . International Water Association (IWA), ISBN: 9781780400228 (Paperback), 9781780400730 (eBook). ; 2013.
Koech Oscar Kipchirchir1 *, Ngugi1 KR, Mwangi1 MS, Njomo1 KG, Raphael2 W. "Water Stress Tolerance of Six Rangeland Grasses in the Kenyan Semi-arid Rangelands ." American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 2015;3: 222-229.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Ways of Knowing: Human Development. This article delineates the ways of knowing with a bias towards scientific research for Human Development and concludes by highlighting some current issues in the Kenyan society that demand scholarly endeavors to effect.". In: "The Student Accountant, Issue No. 13,. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 2000. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
Otieno SPV. We are the Children. Wanjiku A, Githinji K, eds. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
NDEGE FREDRICK. "We Don’t Need Food Aid In Africa.". In: Africa Universities Union Symposium . University of Stellenbosch, South Africa; 2002.
Mutai BK, Muthama JN, Ng'ang'a JK, Ngaina, J. N. "Weather-dependence of Fine Particulate Matter Air Quality over Kenya.". In: The 11th Kenya Meteorological Society International Conference & 2nd save the Earth Expo on Meteorological Research, Application and Services. KMS Headquarters, Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

In developing countries, air pollution is increasing especially in urban centers. This has led to enhanced cases of cardio-respiratory diseases. According to World Health Organization, air pollution is estimated to cause about two million premature deaths worldwide annually. Additionally an estimated 800,000 premature deaths are caused each year by urban air pollution, a principle component of which is particulate matter. Studies have indicated that the levels and distribution of air pollution are highly dependent on the meteorology. This study was conducted based on this theory.
The study sought to examine the relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and selected meteorological variables over Kenya during the period 2001 to 2012. The data used included monthly rainfall, relative humidity, temperature and wind speed from synoptic stations and satellite air quality data from the period 2001 to 2012. Monthly Global 1o by 1o level-3 Aerosol Optical Depth data was obtained through Giovanni at 550 nm from MODIS-Terra Version. 5.1 and employed as PM2.5 proxy. Detailed monitoring of temporal and spatial patterns of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution and meteorological parameters was carried out using time series analysis and surfer software. Correlation, simple regression and multiple regression techniques were used to model PM2.5 concentrations and distribution as a function of meteorological conditions.
The results reveal that a correlation between PM2.5 and rainfall, temperature and wind speed yields reasonable negative relationship with the r-value ranging from -0.429 to -0.785. A positive relationship with RH is realized, r-value ranging between 0.081 and 0.269. Student t-test showed that the results were statistically significant at 95% confidence level. The variation of rainfall, relative humidity, wind speed and temperature on the average explains 47% of PM2.5 concentrations.
Keywords: Fine Particulate Matter, Pollution, Aerosol Optical Depth, Regression.

Njuguna PN, Kahonge AM, Miriti EK. "Web Application and GPS Integration in Motor Vehicle Accident Detection – A Case of Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887). 2012;59(8):6-11.
Khamala D, Njiraine D, Makori E. "Webometrics Ranking and Its Relationship to Quality Education and Research in Academic Institutions in Kenya." Library Philosophy and Practice. 2018.
Kolb, Helga H, Fernandez, Eduardo E, Nelson, Ralph R (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. Abstract

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Kolb, Helga, Fernandez, Eduardo, Nelson, Ralph (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Kolb, Helga, Fernandez, Eduardo, Nelson, Ralph (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Odhiambo JA, Norton U, Ashilenje D, Omondi EC, Norton JB. "Weed dynamics during transition to conservation agriculture in western Kenya maize production." PloS one. 2015;10(8):e0133976.
Aleri JW, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mulei CM. "Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs.". 2012. Abstract

Animal welfare is defined as the ability of an animal to interact comfortably with its environment through its physiological, psychological and behavioural systems. About 70% of dairy production in Kenya is from the smallholder production systems. These production systems are negatively impacted by a number of factors including poor nutrition, substandard husbandry and management practices, lack of appropriate farm inputs, diseases and low incomes. These factors influence the welfare of dairy cattle, hence their importance for its evaluation. This study was therefore designed with the following objectives: 1. to determine the welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units in Nairobi and its environs, 2. to determine the risk factors contributing to poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 3. to determine the indicators of poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 4. to determine the farmers’ and stockmen’s perspectives of animal welfare. These objectives were achieved through a cross-sectional study carried out in 80 smallholder dairy units purposively selected in Nairobi and its environs, in which 306 dairy cows were examined. The welfare of cattle in these dairy units was evaluated through several methods which included: visual observations for animal- and farm-level factors that indicate poor welfare of cattle; taking measurements of dairy housing unit dimensions such as cubicle, walk-alley, kerb and feeding bunk; and using a structured questionnaire to interview farmers and stockmen on nutritional regimes and other management practices such as removal of slurry, milking techniques, record keeping and disease control. These factors were recorded and later analyzed. Analyses included descriptive statistics, and simple associations using chi-square at p< 0.05 significance level. Over 80% of these smallholder units had factors that contributed to poor welfare of dairy cattle. These factors included under-size cubicles, small walk-alleys, too high feeding bunks with traumatic edges, too low positioning of neck rails at the feed bunks, sharp objects and edges within the housing units and dilapidated housing structures. The main evidence of poor welfare was injuries on the animals. The body condition score (BCS) of the cows was the main indicator of welfare relating to feeding. Presence of injuries or scars on the skin at various parts of the body was considered a positive indicator of poor welfare either associated with housing structures, management practices or animal interactions. Other causes of poor welfare of the cows were hind-limb tying during milking, teat pulling during hand-milking, more than 24-hour delay before sick cows were treated, and mixing of cattle of different age-groups in the same compartment. Cow-human interaction was poor as evidenced by fearful response and long avoidance distance. This study concludes that poor welfare of dairy cattle exists in all the smallholder units evaluated, which is mainly caused by improper housing and management. Training of farmers and stockmen on animal welfare issues would therefore be a prerequisite to the improvement of dairy cattle welfare. Research on the physiological response to poor welfare of dairy cows in the smallholder units needs to be carried out to enhance the understanding of the impact of these risk factors on smallholder dairy animals.

Aleri JW, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM. "Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Animal welfare is defined as the ability of an animal to interact comfortably with its environment through its physiological, psychological and behavioural systems. About 70% of dairy production in Kenya is from the smallholder production systems. These production systems are negatively impacted by a number of factors including poor nutrition, substandard husbandry and management practices, lack of appropriate farm inputs, diseases and low incomes. These factors influence the welfare of dairy cattle, hence their importance for its evaluation. This study was therefore designed with the following objectives: 1. to determine the welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units in Nairobi and its environs, 2. to determine the risk factors contributing to poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 3. to determine the indicators of poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 4. to determine the farmers’ and stockmen’s perspectives of animal welfare. These objectives were achieved through a cross-sectional study carried out in 80 smallholder dairy units purposively selected in Nairobi and its environs, in which 306 dairy cows were examined. The welfare of cattle in these dairy units was evaluated through several methods which included: visual observations for animal- and farm-level factors that indicate poor welfare of cattle; taking measurements of dairy housing unit dimensions such as cubicle, walk-alley, kerb and feeding bunk; and using a structured questionnaire to interview farmers and stockmen on nutritional regimes and other management practices such as removal of slurry, milking techniques, record keeping and disease control. These factors were recorded and later analyzed. Analyses included descriptive statistics, and simple associations using chi-square at p< 0.05 significance level. Over 80% of these smallholder units had factors that contributed to poor welfare of dairy cattle. These factors included under-size cubicles, small walk-alleys, too high feeding bunks with traumatic edges, too low positioning of neck rails at the feed bunks, sharp objects and edges within the housing units and dilapidated housing structures. The main evidence of poor welfare was injuries on the animals. The body condition score (BCS) of the cows was the main indicator of welfare relating to feeding. Presence of injuries or scars on the skin at various parts of the body was considered a positive indicator of poor welfare either associated with housing structures, management practices or animal interactions. Other causes of poor welfare of the cows were hind-limb tying during milking, teat pulling during hand-milking, more than 24-hour delay before sick cows were treated, and mixing of cattle of different age-groups in the same compartment. Cow-human interaction was poor as evidenced by fearful response and long avoidance distance. This study concludes that poor welfare of dairy cattle exists in all the smallholder units evaluated, which is mainly caused by improper housing and management. Training of farmers and stockmen on animal welfare issues would therefore be a prerequisite to the improvement of dairy cattle welfare. Research on the physiological response to poor welfare of dairy cows in the smallholder units needs to be carried out to enhance the understanding of the impact of these risk factors on smallholder dairy animals.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Were FN, Lusweti B, Wasunna A , Musoke RN.Isdelivery outside hospital a risk of development of early sepsis?". In: Journal of Obstetrics and gynaecology East and Central Africa Vol 17:1; 19-24, 2004. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2004. Abstract
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O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Were FN, Lusweti B, Wasunna A , Musoke RN.Isdelivery outside hospital a risk of development of early sepsis?". In: Journal of Obstetrics and gynaecology East and Central Africa Vol 17:1; 19-24, 2004. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract
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O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Were FN, Lusweti B, Wasunna A , Musoke RN.Isdelivery outside hospital a risk of development of early sepsis?". In: Journal of Obstetrics and gynaecology East and Central Africa Vol 17:1; 19-24, 2004. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract
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Gichuki NN, Oyieke HA, Ndiritu GG, Handa C. Wetland biodiversity in Kajiado District.; 1998.
Ngay'u M. What Are The Drivers Of Growth On The Rural - Urban Fringes? A Case Study Of The Nairobi - Kiambu Corridor.; 2016. Abstract

The development of the urban fringes is an inevitable consequence of urbanization given that as cities continue to grow, urban activities spread outwards in waves towards the rural areas. The rural-urban fringes of cities thus, are the exit points for residents relocating from major urban built areas, and entry points for rural migrants into the towns. Firstly, rural-urban fringes are determined by two major factors; that is, administrative boundaries and the differences in the intensity of built up areas and the farmland. Secondly, policy and legal guidelines exhibit inadequacies in handling the dynamism of the fringes and thus the failure by planning agencies in managing the impending growth. Thirdly, prospective land developers, businesses and communities fail to anticipate the results of development because they lack information on potential or approved development plans. This research paper applies urban development theories to explain the drivers of growth at the rural-urban fringes. In this regard, the study draws heavily from a paper by Alonso and Wingo’s explanations on the spatial structure in terms of how the market allocates space to users according to supply and demand; von Thunen’s agricultural land use model whose building blocks are economic rent, distance from the centre and individual decision making explains how the urban structure is influenced by the locational behavior of households in the city. A sample of 134 respondents, drawn from the five (5) neighborhoods located within the Nairobi-Kiambu development corridor informed the research. This was further informed by the rather heterogeneous nature of the neighborhoods in terms of physical characteristics, livelihoods and historical evolution. Observation, questionnaires, focus group discussions and interviews were the main methods applied in the collection of primary data. A synopsis of the findings reveals that, contrary to conclusions in studies carried out elsewhere in Africa that periphery development accommodates low income residents, the Nairobi-Kiambu corridor presents an area interspersed with low and high income households; households locate at the fringes so as to take advantage of relaxed regulations and therefore engage in land use practices that are allowable.

The purpose of the research paper is to inform readers and other researchers on the dynamics of fringe development of a city in an African country. The paper provides insights into causes and effects of rural land conversion into urban land uses. The research is based on a most vibrant development corridor of the city of Nairobi.

Key words: rural-urban fringe, drivers of growth, development corridor, land,
planning.

English M, Ayieko P, Nyamai R, Were F, Githanga D, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati. "What do we think we are doing? How might a clinical information network be promoting implementation of recommended paediatric care practices in Kenyan hospitals?" Health Res Policy Syst.. 2017;15(4). AbstractWebsite

Background

The creation of a clinical network was proposed as a means to promote implementation of a set of recommended clinical practices targeting inpatient paediatric care in Kenya. The rationale for selecting a network as a strategy has been previously described. Here, we aim to describe network activities actually conducted over its first 2.5 years, deconstruct its implementation into specific components and provide our ‘insider’ interpretation of how the network is functioning as an intervention.
Methods

We articulate key activities that together have constituted network processes over 2.5 years and then utilise a recently published typology of implementation components to give greater granularity to this description from the perspective of those delivering the intervention. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel we then suggest how the network may operate to achieve change and offer examples of change before making an effort to synthesise our understanding in the form of a realist context–mechanism–outcome configuration.
Results

We suggest our network is likely to comprise 22 from a total of 73 identifiable intervention components, of which 12 and 10 we consider major and minor components, respectively. At the policy level, we employed clinical guidelines, marketing and communication strategies with intervention characteristics operating through incentivisation, persuasion, education, enablement, modelling and environmental restructuring. These might influence behaviours by enhancing psychological capability, creating social opportunity and increasing motivation largely through a reflective pathway.
Conclusions

We previously proposed a clinical network as a solution to challenges implementing recommended practices in Kenyan hospitals based on our understanding of theory and context. Here, we report how we have enacted what was proposed and use a recent typology to deconstruct the intervention into its elements and articulate how we think the network may produce change. We offer a more generalised statement of our theory of change in a context–mechanism–outcome configuration. We hope this will complement a planned independent evaluation of ‘how things work’, will help others interpret results of change reported more formally in the future and encourage others to consider further examination of networks as means to scale up improvement practices in health in lower income countries.

N.M.Monyonko, J.H.REID. "WHAT IS CHARGE RADIUS OF A NEUTRINO." PROGRESS IN THEORETICAL PHYSICS,. 1985;73:734-.
Missiame A, Nyikal RA, Irungu P. "What is the impact of rural bank credit access on the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers in Ghana? An endogenous switching regression analysis." Heliyon . 2021;7(5). AbstractWebsite

Abstract
This paper assesses the impact of access to credit from rural and community banks (RCBs) on the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers in Ghana. The study employed the stochastic frontier, and endogenous switching regression models to estimate the technical efficiency, and the impact of RCB credit access, respectively, on a randomly selected sample of 300 smallholder cassava farmers in the Fanteakwa District of Ghana. Results suggest that cassava farmers in the District are 70.5 percent technically efficient implying that cassava yield levels could be increased further by 29.5 percent without changing the current levels of inputs. The results further reveal that the gender of the household head, access to extension services, membership in farmer organizations, and proximity to the bank are the major factors that positively influence farmers to access credit from RCBs. On average, farmers who accessed credit from RCBs have significantly higher technical efficiencies than farmers who did not access, suggesting that access to credit from RCBs positively impacts the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers.

Keywords: Credit access; Endogenous switching regression; Rural and community banks; Stochastic frontier model; Technical efficiency.

Ngugi M. "Where in the World are the Jobs for Communication Graduates?" The Anvil Sourvenir Issue (2011):28-29.
Ngugi M. "Where the Media Go Wrong." The People (1996).
Nzuma, Jonathan M; Sarker R. Who Are The Real Gainers Of Trade Liberalization In Kenya’s Maize Sector?.; 2010. Abstract

In Kenya, trade policy reforms in the cereals sector were initiated as a key component of the economy-wide structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) during the mid 1980s. The SAPs were later strengthened and made irreversible by Kenya’s commitments at the multilateral trade negotiations. However, the welfare effects of these trade policy reforms remain controversial. This paper to quantifies the market and welfare impacts of trade liberalization in Kenya’s maize sector using a partial equilibrium model with market interrelationships at the farm, wholesale and retail levels. The model is calibrated to simulate a 24 percent reduction in maize import tariffs and a complete abolition of tariffs. The simulations results suggest that tariff reductions yield price decreases across the three market levels. The declining prices increase maize consumption but reduce domestic production. Consequently, consumer surplus increases while producer surplus decreases. However, the gain in consumer surplus is not sufficient to compensate the loss in producer surplus. Thus, the implementation of the multilateral agricultural trade agreement is likely to leave Kenya’s maize sector worse off and cannot be considered as a viable policy based on the compensation principle.

Olenja JM, Nyabola LO, Laving AMR, Opwora AS. "Who is to blame?". 2011. Abstract

Kenya, like many developing nations, continues to experience high childhood mortality in spite of the many efforts put in place by governments and international bodies to curb it. This study sought to investigate the barriers to accessing healthcare services for children aged less than five years in Butere District, a rural district experiencing high rates of mortality and morbidity despite having relatively better conditions for child survival. Methods: Exit interviews were conducted among caregivers seeking healthcare for their children in mid 2007 in all the 6 public health facilities. Additionally, views from caregivers in the community, health workers and district health managers were sought through focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIs). Results: Three hundred and ninety-seven respondents were surveyed in exit interviews while 45 respondents participated in FGDs and KIs. Some practices by caregivers including early onset of child bearing, early supplementation, and utilization of traditional healers were thought to increase the risk of mortality and morbidity, although reported rates of mosquito net utilization and immunization coverage were high. The healthcare system posed barriers to access of healthcare for the under fives, through long waiting time, lack of drugs and poor services, incompetence and perceived poor attitudes of the health workers. FGDs also revealed wide-spread concerns and misconceptions about health care among the caregivers. Conclusion: Caregivers’ actions were thought to influence children’s progression to illness or health while the healthcare delivery system posed recurrent barriers to the accessing of healthcare for the under-fives. Actions on both fronts are necessary to reduce childhood mortality

Olenja JM, Nyabola LO, Laving AMR, Opwora AS. "Who is to blame?". 2011. Abstract

Kenya, like many developing nations, continues to experience high childhood mortality in spite of the many efforts put in place by governments and international bodies to curb it. This study sought to investigate the barriers to accessing healthcare services for children aged less than five years in Butere District, a rural district experiencing high rates of mortality and morbidity despite having relatively better conditions for child survival. Methods: Exit interviews were conducted among caregivers seeking healthcare for their children in mid 2007 in all the 6 public health facilities. Additionally, views from caregivers in the community, health workers and district health managers were sought through focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIs). Results: Three hundred and ninety-seven respondents were surveyed in exit interviews while 45 respondents participated in FGDs and KIs. Some practices by caregivers including early onset of child bearing, early supplementation, and utilization of traditional healers were thought to increase the risk of mortality and morbidity, although reported rates of mosquito net utilization and immunization coverage were high. The healthcare system posed barriers to access of healthcare for the under fives, through long waiting time, lack of drugs and poor services, incompetence and perceived poor attitudes of the health workers. FGDs also revealed wide-spread concerns and misconceptions about health care among the caregivers. Conclusion: Caregivers’ actions were thought to influence children’s progression to illness or health while the healthcare delivery system posed recurrent barriers to the accessing of healthcare for the under-fives. Actions on both fronts are necessary to reduce childhood mortality

Maj M, Janssen R, Starace F, Zaudig M, Satz P, Sughondhabirom B, Luabeya MA, Riedel R, Ndetei DM, Calil HM, et al. WHO Neuropsychiatric AIDS study, cross-sectional phase I.; 1994.
Maj M, Satz P, Janssen R, Zaudig M, Starace F, D'Elia L, Sughondhabirom B, Mussa M, Naber D, Ndetei MD, et al. "WHO Neuropsychiatric AIDS study, cross-sectional phase II."; 1994.
Njeri KM. "Why are we producing grade D mindset?" Daily Nation (2011).
Gausset Q, Nathan I. "Why combine private and communal tree management? A case-study based in Majawanga (Gairo, Tanzania).". 2007. Abstract

Despite the focus on the importance of trees in Africa and the many projects that try to improve their management, there is very little research and few development projects which address tree related problems in a holistic manner. With respect to forest management arrangements, focus tends to be either exclusively on community forestry, or on private tree planting. Such a divided focus makes it difficult to understand the complementarities and possible synergetic effects of these two approaches in solving common problems and improving local livelihoods. The present article argues that interdisciplinary projects are needed to develop a holistic approach to tree management and to improve the use of trees. This argument builds on the results from the PETREA (People, Trees and Agriculture) research programme in Majawanga (Gairo, Tanzania). In this village, private and collective tree management is characterized by very different uses, opportunities and problems. Common woodlands play an important role in providing villagers with Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP) from indigenous species that are important for local livelihoods as they provide food, medicine, and grazing areas. The constraints linked to the management of common woodlands pertain to group dynamics and resemble, at first glance, a “tragedy of the commons” as described by Hardin (1968). Private tree planting, on the other hand, provides both local services (including providing fruits, firewood or securing boundaries between fields) and cash from the selling of poles. The constraints characterizing private tree management are linked to land-tenure, tree seedling cost and season for planting. Land tenure is of paramount importance as trees cannot be planted on borrowed or rented land, or at the expense of cropland needed to sustain the household. The season for planting seedlings is a constraint because of a conflict with labour demands for crops needed to survive. Despite being characterized by very different uses and constraints, the management of private and common trees also share common constraints as both require that grazing is under control and that there exist clear rules and efficient institutions able to solve management conflicts. Both types of management should therefore be analyzed together as improving one can help relieve the pressure on the other.

Nkonya E, Xiong W, Deustua J, Kato E. "Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt improved land management practices which can improve yields and incomes? The reason is not always because these practices are uneconomical but sometimes it is because resource poverty prevents farmers from tak.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt improved land management practices which can improve yields and incomes? The reason is not always because these practices are uneconomical but sometimes it is because resource poverty prevents farmers from taking advantage of yield and income enhancing agricultural practices. In this study we examine the relative merits of using a carbon payment scheme compared to a subsidy policy to help reduce the cost of specific land management practices with productivity and ecosystem benefits such as carbon sequestration. Using a 30-year crop simulation model, we examine the impacts of different soil fertility management treatments (SFTs) on yields and soil carbon and proceed to compute discounted incremental revenue streams over the same period. We find that the SFTs simulated are on average profitable given the conditions assumed in our DSSAT simulations. When carbon was priced at $8 or $12/t CO2e, the increase in incremental incomes generated from a carbon payment were invariably higher than those imputed from a 50% fertilizer subsidy. When carbon was priced at $4/Co2e, the increase was almost similar and sometimes higher than that from the imputed income transfer from a 50% subsidy. If these indications hold in further research, it could imply that using fertilizer subsidies as the sole mechanism for stimulating adoption of improved soil fertility management practices may unnecessarily forgo other complementary and possibly superior alternatives. Depending on the specific economic equity considerations, we conclude that either of these instruments can be used to help farmers break through resource barriers that prevent them from adopting productivity-enhancing and environmentally beneficial agricultural practices. However, given the fiscal burden on public finances and possible opportunity costs of any substantial subsidy program, it is possible that a carbon payment system can be a reasonable alternative assuming the range of carbon prices used in this study and especially if accompanied by measures to ameliorate the costs of fertilizer to farmers.

Nzila A, Ochong E, Nduati E, Gilbert K, Winstanley P, Ward S, Marsh K. "Why has the dihydrofolate reductase 164 mutation not consistently been found in Africa yet?". 2005. Abstract

Resistance to the antifolate sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP), the current mass-treatment antimalarial drug, is associated with selection of point mutations in dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase. Among these mutations, the leucine 164 dihydrofolate reductase mutation (Leu-164) is associated with higher levels of SP resistance; this mutation is also associated with a decrease in the efficacy of chlorproguanil/dapsone, a newly developed antifolate antimalarial drug. Leu-164 has been detected in Southeast Asia and South America, regions where SP is no longer effective. Surprisingly, this mutation has not yet been detected in Africa, using the standard protocol based on PCR–RFLP, despite high SP resistance. In this paper, we discuss briefly the reasons why Leu-164 has not yet been selected in Africa and we propose a means that may slow down the selection of this mutation.

Nyasani PJ. "Why is the Pace of Development so Slow.". In: Rethinking Intergral Development in Africa. nairobi: Consolata Institute of Philosophy Press; 2011.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Why patients go to the traditional healers. Katz SH, Kimani VN.East Afr Med J. 1982 Mar;59(3):170-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Mar;59(3):170-4. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1982. Abstract

45 Kenyan traditional healers were interviewed with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. Traditional management of eye diseases is based on the healers' concept of the disease causation as well as their knowledge of the herbal, animal and chemical substances that possess (or are reported to possess) remedial effect on the disease. While many of the healers interviewed failed to give a clear distinction between the various eye conditions, diseases such as cataract, foreign bodies and injuries were recognized easily. In almost all cases the medicinal substances were first diluted in water before they were applied to the eyes. Human milk, blood and the white of the egg were the animal substances listed as medicinal to various eye conditions. A solution of sugar was one of the chemical substances used in the treatment of specific eye conditions. Given correct information, some of these healers could f

Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. "Wild Edible Fruits of Importance for Human Nutrition in Semiarid Parts of East Shewa Zone, Ethiopia: Associated Indigenous Knowledge and Implications to Food Security." Pakistan journal of Nutrition. 2011;10(1):40-50. Abstract

Nutrient value assessments and ethnobotanical studies of three wild edible fruit species [Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf., Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., Grewia flavescens A. Juss.], were carried out from October 2009 through June 2010 in east Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. Field data collection was combined with laboratory food content analyses with the aim of identifying promising wild edible fruit plants. Also, optimal use of preferred wild edibles particularly in addressing future food security issues of rural people in the drylands was assessed. Composite fruit samples randomly collected in six sites of Fantalle and Boosast districts were subjected to standard laboratory chemical analyses. Values for total carbohydrates, crude protein, crude lipid, moisture and total ash contents of the fruit pulps ranged from 76.67-86.12%, 1.45-4.20%, 3.58-4.02%, 35.18-57.41%, 8.11-16.40% for Z. spina-christi, 85.55-89.61%, 0.001-003, 49.03-68.26%, 10.18-12.88% for B. aegyptiaca; 83.74-93.68%, 0.64-3.14%, 18.90-61.35%, 3.16-7.25% for G. flavescens, respectively. The calculated energy (based on total carbohydrates) was highest for G. flavescens (373.6 Kcal/100 g), followed by B. aegyptiaca (354.24) and Z. spina-christi (344.48 Kcal/100 g). The results indicated that these fruit species, which are popularly used by the local communities, contain appreciable amounts of nutrients and energy and thus are useful food supplements. These species should be integrated into dryland agroforestry systems for sustainable use and conservation, as well as, preservation of the associated knowledge through the positive practice of the indigenous bio-cultural knowledge. In this case, lessons can be drawn from some farmers of Boosat District, who are currently using two of the species in traditional agroforestry practices.

Baeten JM, Curran K, Kurth A, Celum C, Mugo N, Ngure K, Heffron R. "Willingness of Kenyan HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to use antiretroviral-based HIV-1 prevention strategies.". 2012. Abstract

Antiretroviral treatment (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have demonstrated efficacy as new human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) prevention approaches for HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. METHODS: Among Kenyan HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples participating in a clinical trial of PrEP, we conducted a cross-sectional study and used descriptive statistical methods to explore couples' willingness to use antiretrovirals for HIV-1 prevention. The study was conducted before July 2011, when studies among heterosexual populations reported that ART and PrEP reduced HIV-1 risk. RESULTS: For 181 couples in which the HIV-1-infected partner had a CD4 count ≥350 cells per microliter and had not yet initiated ART (and thus did not qualify for ART under Kenyan guidelines), 60.2% of HIV-1 infected partners (69.4% of men and 57.9% of women) were willing to use early ART (at CD4 ≥350 cells per microliter) for HIV-1 prevention. Among HIV-1 uninfected partners, 92.7% (93.8% of men and 86.1% of women) reported willingness to use PrEP. When given a hypothetical choice of early ART or PrEP for HIV-1 prevention, 52.5% of HIV-1-infected participants would prefer to initiate ART early and 56.9% of HIV-1-uninfected participants would prefer to use PrEP. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 40% of Kenyan HIV-1-infected individuals in known HIV-1 serodiscordant partnerships reported reservations about early ART initiation for HIV-1 prevention. PrEP interest in this PrEP-experienced population was high. Strategies to achieve high uptake and sustained adherence to ART and PrEP for HIV-1 prevention in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples will require responding to couples' preferences for prevention strategies.

Ngarachu M, Bore M, Gichuhi S. Willingness to donate eyes and its associated factors among adults in a community in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019.
Axt J, Abdallah F AGHLLMMNMJEJ, Ndung'u J, Njuguna F NOPTUWO'NJAJLHN 3rd.AOKR. "Wilms tumor survival in Kenya." J Pediatr Surg.. 2013;48(6):1254-1262.
N. DRIRAKIW. "With Dharam Rana, .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2002.
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, D. and Kimuyu, P., 'Firm Level Institutions in Small Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, Dorothy, 'Finance, Markets, and Business Environment: A Review of Literature on Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, Dorothy, Barriers to Small Enterprise Growth in Nairobi: Markets and Networks.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
Kasina M;, Nderitu HH;, Nyamasyo G;, Waturu C;, Olubayo F;, and Obudho E, Yobera D. "With-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya.". In: UNDP.; 2009.
Kasina M, Nderitu J, Nyamasyo G, Watura C, Olubayo F, Yobera D. "Within-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

The aim of this research was to study spatial distribution of flower thrips on French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya. Their build up and seasonal population dynamics was monitored using sticky blue colour traps and sampling of leaves and flowers in two seasons in 2002. Thrips infested French beans from the second week after crop emergence. Their population peaked at peak flowering. The sticky trap catches were linearly related to the actual presence of thrips on the crop and could estimate population build up of adult thrips on leaves and flowers. On the plants, most adults were on flowers. Larvae mainly inhabited leaves, buds and pods. The two thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom were spatially separated. The former colonized lower-canopy leaves and early flowers while the latter inhabited middle-canopy leaves and mature flowers. Overall, M. sjostedti was less than 5% of the total thrips population, implying that F. occidentalis was the main thrips pest of French beans. This study suggests that French bean growers should monitor thrips population before initiating any control measure. In addition, they should commence thrips control early, at pre-flowering, using larvicides to reduce the thrips pool and their migration to flowers. A combination of monitoring with sticky traps and proper sampling would contribute to sustainable thrips management.

Kasina M, Nderitu J, Yobera D, Obudho E, Watura C. "Within-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

The aim of this research was to study spatial distribution of flower thrips on French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya. Their build up and seasonal population dynamics was monitored using sticky blue colour traps and sampling of leaves and flowers in two seasons in 2002. Thrips infested French beans from the second week after crop emergence. Their population peaked at peak flowering. The sticky trap catches were linearly related to the actual presence of thrips on the crop and could estimate population build up of adult thrips on leaves and flowers. On the plants, most adults were on flowers. Larvae mainly inhabited leaves, buds and pods. The two thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom were spatially separated. The former colonized lower-canopy leaves and early flowers while the latter inhabited middle-canopy leaves and mature flowers. Overall, M. sjostedti was less than 5% of the total thrips population, implying that F. occidentalis was the main thrips pest of French beans. This study suggests that French bean growers should monitor thrips population before initiating any control measure. In addition, they should commence thrips control early, at pre-flowering, using larvicides to reduce the thrips pool and their migration to flowers. A combination of monitoring with sticky traps and proper sampling would contribute to sustainable thrips management.

N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "WN Ekaya and JI Kinyamario Production and decomposition of plant litter in an arid rangeland of Kenya. African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 18: 125- 129.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI, N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "WN Ekaya, JI Kinyamario and CN Karue. Abiotic and herbaceous vegetational characteristics of an arid rangeland in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 18: 117-124. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001.
Rugendo CJ, Njue N,, Gatimu JC. "woman participation in miraa (khat) Business and Academic performance of primary school children in Runyenjes Divisions, Embu, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and social study. 2012.
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Nzomo M. "Women."; 2011. Abstract
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Njeri KM. Women and the Informal Economy in Urban Africa. London: Zed Publishers; 2014.
Gona, George, Wambui Kiai, Muiru Ngugi (Eds.). Women in Public Space(s) in Kenya. University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
Gona G;, Kiai W;, Ngugi M. "Women in Public Space(s) in Kenya .". 2013.Website
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