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Migosi J, Nanok D, Ombuki C, Metet J. "Trends in primary school dropout and completion rates in the pastoralist Turkana County, Kenya." Universal Journal of Education and General Studies. 2012;1(10):331-338.
Nyamu DG, Maitai CK, Mecca LW, Mwangangi EM. "Trends of acute poisoning cases occurring at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

A retrospective study of poisoned patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) over the period January 2002 to June 2003 was carried out. KNH is a national referral and university teaching hospital and patients are admitted from all parts of Kenya. The results of the study are therefore expected to mirror closely the situation in the rest of the country. Data analysis showed that 58.9% of poisoned patients were males. Pesticides and household/industrial chemicals, the two most important poisoning agents, accounted for 43% and 24% of poisoning, respectively. Organophosphates and rodenticides were the two most common pesticides accounting for 57.4% and 31% of poisoning, respectively. Kerosene accounted for 66% of poisoning with household agents. Self-poisoning was prevalent in the age bracket 21-30 years (70.7%)while accidental poisoning, mostly with kerosene,was prevalent in the age group 0-5 years (83.9%). The overall mortality rate from poisoning was 7.0%.

Nyamu DG, Maitai CK, Mecca LW, Mwangangi EM. "Trends of acute poisoning cases occurring at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

A retrospective study of poisoned patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) over the period January 2002 to June 2003 was carried out. KNH is a national referral and university teaching hospital and patients are admitted from all parts of Kenya. The results of the study are therefore expected to mirror closely the situation in the rest of the country. Data analysis showed that 58.9% of poisoned patients were males. Pesticides and household/industrial chemicals, the two most important poisoning agents, accounted for 43% and 24% of poisoning, respectively. Organophosphates and rodenticides were the two most common pesticides accounting for 57.4% and 31% of poisoning, respectively. Kerosene accounted for 66% of poisoning with household agents. Self-poisoning was prevalent in the age bracket 21-30 years (70.7%)while accidental poisoning, mostly with kerosene,was prevalent in the age group 0-5 years (83.9%). The overall mortality rate from poisoning was 7.0%.

Graham MD, Nyumba TO, Kahiro G, Ngotho M, Adams WM. "Trials of Farm-Based Deterrents to Mitigate Crop-raiding by Elephants Adjacent to the Rumuruti Forest in Laikipia." Kenya, Laikipia Elephant Project, Nanyuki, Kenya. 2009. Abstract
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Singh R, Patel V, Mureithi MW, Naranbhai V, Ramsuran D, Tulsi S, Hiramen K, Werner L, Mlisana K, Altfeld M, Luban J, Kasprowicz V, Dheda K, Abdool Karim SS, Ndung'u T. "TRIM5α and TRIM22 are differentially regulated according to HIV-1 infection phase and compartment." J. Virol.. 2014. Abstracttrim5a_and_trim22_are_differentially_regulated_according_to_hiv.pdf

The antiviral role of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo is not fully understood. To test the hypothesis that TRIM5α and TRIM22 have differential transcriptional regulation and distinct anti-HIV roles according to infection phase and compartment, we measured TRIM5α, TRIM22 and type 1 interferon (IFN-1)-inducible MxA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during primary and chronic HIV-1 infection, and in matched PBMCs and central nervous system (CNS)-derived cells. Associations with biomarkers of disease progression were explored. The impact of IFN-1, select pro-inflammatory cytokines and HIV on TRIM E3 ligase-specific expression was investigated. PBMCs from individuals with primary and chronic HIV-1 infection had significantly higher levels of MxA and TRIM22 compared to HIV-1 negative PBMCs (P < 0.05, all comparisons). PBMCs from chronic infection had lower levels of TRIM5α compared to primary infection or HIV-1 uninfected (both P = 0.0001). In matched CNS-derived samples and PBMCs, higher levels of MxA (P = 0.001) and TRIM5α (P = 0.0001) were noted in the CNS. There was negative correlation between TRIM22 levels in PBMC and plasma viral load (r = -0.40, P = 0.04). In vitro, IFN-1 and rarely pro-inflammatory cytokines induced TRIM5α and TRIM22 in cell type-dependent manner and knockdown of either protein in CD4+ lymphocytes resulted in increased HIV-1 infection. These data suggest that there are infection-phase specific and anatomically compartmentalized differences in TRIM5α and TRIM22 regulation involving primarily IFN-1 and specific cell types, and indicate subtle differences in the antiviral role and transcriptional regulation of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo.Importance Interferon type I-inducible TRIM E3 ligases are a family of intracellular proteins with potent antiviral activities mediated through diverse mechanisms. However, little is known about the contribution of these proteins to antiviral immunity in vivo and how their expression is regulated. We show here that TRIM5α and TRIM22, two prominent members of the family, have different expression patterns in vivo and that expression pattern depends on HIV-1 infection status and phase. Furthermore, expression differs in peripheral blood versus central nervous system anatomical sites of infection. Only TRIM22 expression correlates negatively with HIV-1 viral load but gene silencing of both proteins enhances HIV-1 infection of target cells. We report on subtle differences in TRIM5α and TRIM22 gene induction by IFN-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in CD4+ lymphocytes, monocytes and neuronal cells. This study enhances our understanding of antiviral immunity by intrinsic antiviral factors and how their expression is determined.

Thomas TK, Masaba R, Borkowf CB, Ndivo R, Zeh C, Misore A, Otieno J, Jamieson D, Thigpen MC, Bulterys M, Slutsker L, De Cock KM, Amornkul PN, Greenberg AE, Fowler MG. "Triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission through breastfeeding--the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, Kenya: a clinical trial." PLoS Med.. 2011;8(3):e1001015. Abstract

Effective strategies are needed for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study was a single-arm open label trial conducted between July 2003 and February 2009. The overall aim was to investigate whether a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen that was designed to maximally suppress viral load in late pregnancy and the first 6 mo of lactation was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective PMTCT intervention.

Njenga1 LW, Njogu1 REN, Kariuki1 DK, AY1O, Wendt OF. "Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium (III) Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Selected Applications.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Weke P, Ntwiga DB, Manene M, Mwaniki I. "Trust and Distrust: A Reputation Ratings Approach." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology (IARJSET). 2016;3(2):111-114. Abstract

Agents’ reputation ratings in a social network form a real valued matrix which is discounted with singular value decomposition (SVD) to estimate the trust and distrust levels of agents. SVD eliminates noise as future expected trust and distrust are based on current reputation ratings. A discounting of 20 percent is optimal, further discounting does not improve error reduction. Reputation and trust are closely related. Distrust is different from trust and reputation. Distrust is similar to trust negation; and trust is similar to distrust negation.

Ntwiga DB, Weke P, Manene M, Maniki I. "Trust and Distrust: A Reputation Ratings Approach." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2016;3(2):111-114. AbstractWebsite

Agents’ reputation ratings in a social network form a real-valued matrix which is discounted with singular
value decomposition (SVD) to estimate the trust and distrust levels of agents. SVD eliminates noise as future expected
trust and distrust are based on current reputation ratings. A discounting of 20 percent is optimal, further discounting
does not improve error reduction. Reputation and trust are closely related. Distrust is different from trust and
reputation. Distrust is similar to trust negation, and trust is similar to distrust negation

Nthiw’a DM, Odongo DO, Ochanda H, Khamadi SA, Gichimu BM. "Trypanasoma infection rates in Glossina species in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya." Journal of Parasitology Research . 2015; (607432):1-8.
Njogu RM, Kiaira JK. "Trypanosoma brucei brucei: the catabolism of glycolytic intermediates by digitonin-permeabilized bloodstream trypomastigotes and some aspects of regulation of anaerobic glycolysis.". 1988. Abstract

The production of pyruvate, glycerol and glycerol-3-phosphate by intact and digitonin-permeabilized Trypanosoma brucei brucei has been studied with glucose or the glycolytic intermediates as substrates. 2. Under aerobic conditions hexosephosphates gave maximal glycolysis in the presence of 40-60 micrograms digitonin/10(8) trypanosomes while the triosephosphates gave it at 20-30 micrograms digitonin/10(8) trypanosomes. 3. In the presence of salicylhydroxamic acid, and the glycolytic intermediates, permeabilized trypanosomes produced equimolar amounts of pyruvate and glycerol-3-phosphate and no glycerol. Under the same conditions, glucose catabolism produced glycerol in addition to pyruvated and glycerol-3-phosphate. 4. In the presence of salicylhydroxamic acid and ATP or ADP intact trypanosomes produced equimolar amounts of pyruvate and (glycerol plus glycerol-3-phosphate) with glucose as substrate. 5. A carrier for ATP and ADP at the glycosomal membrane is implicated. 6. It is apparent that glycerol formation is regulated by the ATP/ADP ratio and that it needs intact glycosomal membrane and the presence of glucose.

Kihurani DO, Nantulya VM, Mbiuki SM, Mogoa E, Mbithi PMF. "Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya.". 1994.
PW K, Mbuthia P G, RM W, Njagi L W. "Trypanosoma infection in carrier fish of Lake Victoria, Kenya.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2010.2010-trypanosoma_infection_in_fish.pdf
Kamundia PW;, Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru RM;, Njagi LW;, Nyaga PN;, Mdegela RH;, Byarugaba DK;, Otieno RO. "Trypanosoma infection in carrier fish of Lake Victoria, Kenya.".; 2010.
Kamundia PW;, Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru RM;, Njagi LW;, Nyaga PN;, Mdegela RH;, Byarugaba DK;, Otieno RO. "Trypanosoma infection in carrier fish of Lake Victoria, Kenya.".; 2010.
Kamundia PW;, Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru RM;, Njagi LW;, Nyaga PN;, Mdegela RH;, Byarugaba DK;, Otieno RO. "Trypanosoma infection in carrier fish of Lake Victoria, Kenya.".; 2010.
Nthiwa DM, Odongo DO, Ochanda H, Khamadi S, Gichimu BM. "Trypanosoma Infection Rates in Glossina Species in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya." J Parasitol Res. 2015;2015:607432. Abstract

African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) transmitted cyclically by tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) is a major obstacle to livestock production in the tropical parts of Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the infection rates of trypanosomes in Glossina species in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya. Tsetse fly species, G. longipennis and G. pallidipes, were trapped and DNA was isolated from their dissected internal organs (proboscis, salivary glands, and midguts). The DNA was then subjected to a nested PCR assay using internal transcribed spacer primers and individual trypanosome species were identified following agarose gel electrophoresis. Out of the 117 flies trapped in the area 39 (33.3%) were teneral while 78 (67%) were nonteneral. G. pallidipes constituted the largest percentage of 58% while G. longipennis were 42%. The overall trypanosomes infection rate in all nonteneral Glossina spp. was 11.53% with G. longipennis recording the highest infection rate of 23.08% while G. pallidipes had an infection rate of 5.77%. T. vivax was the most infectious (10.26%) compared to T. congolense (1.28%). Mean apparent densities were strongly positively correlated with infection rates (r = 0.95) confirming the importance of this parameter as an indicator of AAT transmission risk.

Nasimolo, Kiama GMK. "Trypanosome Migration to the Brain.". In: 2nd East Africa Neuroscience conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Nasimolo. J. Kiama., S.Makanya. A. GKP k J. "Trypanosome Migration to the Brain .". In: 2nd East Africa Neuroscience Conference. Pride Inn Hotel, Westlands Nairobi, Kenya; 2012. Abstract

The migration of trypanosomes into the brain parenchyma is still not well understood, considering the presence of a blood brain barrier. We examined the second stage of trypanosomiasis that occurs in the brain using a mice model. Swiss white mice were infected intraperitonealy with 1x104 T. brucei brucei and parasitaemia monitored from the third day up to 28 days post infection. Diminazine aceturate was given intraperitonealy 21 days post infection. One animal was sacrificed at day 21 post infection to establish whether the parasites had reached the brain.

We established the presence of trypanosomes in the brain from day 21 onwards. Scanning electron microscopy showed trypanosomes in the ventricles and some crossing the choroid plexus, while transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the parasites in brain parenchyma. The results indicate a possible route of invasion of trypanosomes into brain parenchyma, shedding some light on the mechanism of this migration.

Sorensen JPR, Carr AF, Nayebare J, Diongue DML, Pouye A, Roffo R, Gwengweya G, Ward JST, Kanoti J, Okotto-Okotto J, van der Marel L, Ciric L, Faye SC, Gaye CB, Goodall T, Kulabako R, Lapworth DJ, MacDonald AM, Monjerezi M, Olago D, Owor M, Read DS, Taylor RG. "Tryptophan-like and humic-like fluorophores are extracellular in groundwater: implications as real-time faecal indicators.". 2020;10(1):15379. AbstractWebsite

Fluorescent natural organic matter at tryptophan-like (TLF) and humic-like fluorescence (HLF) peaks is associated with the presence and enumeration of faecal indicator bacteria in groundwater. We hypothesise, however, that it is predominantly extracellular material that fluoresces at these wavelengths, not bacterial cells. We quantified total (unfiltered) and extracellular (filtered at < 0.22 µm) TLF and HLF in 140 groundwater sources across a range of urban population densities in Kenya, Malawi, Senegal, and Uganda. Where changes in fluorescence occurred following filtration they were correlated with potential controlling variables. A significant reduction in TLF following filtration (ΔTLF) was observed across the entire dataset, although the majority of the signal remained and thus considered extracellular (median 96.9%). ΔTLF was only significant in more urbanised study areas where TLF was greatest. Beneath Dakar, Senegal, ΔTLF was significantly correlated to total bacterial cells (ρs 0.51). No significant change in HLF following filtration across all data indicates these fluorophores are extracellular. Our results suggest that TLF and HLF are more mobile than faecal indicator bacteria and larger pathogens in groundwater, as the predominantly extracellular fluorophores are less prone to straining. Consequently, TLF/HLF are more precautionary indicators of microbial risks than faecal indicator bacteria in groundwater-derived drinking water.

Peng B, Mortazavi B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Li J, Ni G, Rabczuk T, Zhu H. "Tuning thermal transport in C 3 N monolayers by adding and removing carbon atoms." Physical Review Applied. 2018;10:034046. Abstract
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Kitheka JU, Mavuti KM, Nthenge P, Obiero M. "The turbidity maximum zone in a shallow, well-flushed Sabaki estuary in Kenya." Journal of Sea Research. 2016;110:17-28.
Nchiozem-Ngnitedema V-A, Omosa LK, Derese S, Tane P, Heydenreich M, Spiteller M, Ean-JeongSeo, Efferth T. "Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl." Phytochemistry Letter. 2020;36:80-85.alex_et_al_2020.pdf
Nchiozem-Ngnitedem VA, Omosa LK, Derese S, Tane P, Heydenreich M, Spiteller M, Ean-JeongSeo, Efferth T. "Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;36:80-85.alexe_et_al_2020_phytochemistry_letters.pdf
Ochieng JW, Shepherd M, Baverstock PR, Nikles G, Lee D, Henry RJ. "Two sympatric spotted gum species are molecularly homogeneous." Conservation Genetics. 2010;11(1):45-56.2010_ochieng_et_al_coge.pdf
Pellé R, Graham SP, Njahira MN, Osaso J, Saya RM, Odongo DO, Toye PG, Spooner PR, Musoke AJ, Mwangi DM, Taracha E, Morrison IW, Weir W, Silva JC, Bishop RP. "Two Theileria parva CD8 T cell antigen genes are more variable in buffalo than cattle parasites, but differ in pattern of sequence diversity." PLoS ONE . 2011;29(6(4)):e19015.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Two year neurological outcomes of Very Low Birth Weight infants. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):243-9. Were FN, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):243-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2006. Abstract

Extensive research in developed countries has established that very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of early nutritional deficiencies. There is, however, little information from poor countries on the long-term effects of these deficiencies in such infants.

Determine the association between neonatal feeding regimens and post-discharge morbidity/ mortality and neurological abnormalities at the age of two years for a cohort of VLBW infants.

One hundred and seventy five VLBW infants were recruited over a consecutive period of one year and followed up to the age of two years corrected for gestation. With neonatal feeding regimes as the exposure variable, post-discharge re-hospitalization, mortality and Saigal and Rosenbaum's functional disability assessment scores were compared as the outcome variables.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Two year neurological outcomes of Very Low Birth Weight infants. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):243-9. Were FN, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):243-9. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2006. Abstract

Department of Nutritional Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous study identified a high prevalence of inadequate vitamin B-12 intakes, this study examined whether plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were associated with dietary sources of the vitamin at baseline and could be increased by supplementation with animal source foods (ASF). The 4 experimental groups in 503 school children were: 1) control (no food provided); 2) githeri (a maize and bean staple with added oil); 3) githeri + meat (githeri + minced beef); or 4) githeri + milk (githeri + milk). Feedings were isocaloric. Dietary data were collected at baseline, and biochemical data at baseline and after 1 and 2 y of feeding. Baseline plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 193.6 +/- 105.3 pmol/L and correlated with % energy from ASF (r = 0.308, P < 0.001). The odds ratio for low plasma vitamin B-12 (<148 pmol/L), which occurred in 40% of children, was 6.28 [95% CI: 3.07-12.82] for the lowest vs. highest ASF intake tertile (P < 0.001). Feeding ASF (meat or milk) greatly reduced the prevalence of low plasma vitamin B-12 (P < 0.001). The high prevalence of low plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations in these children is predicted by a low intake of ASF, and supplemental ASF improves vitamin B-12 status.

PMID: 17311959 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Cheryl R;L, Shirley W;, Flatt MS;, La Jolla CA;, Karanja N;, Cynthia T;, Nancy SE. "Two-Year Results From a Multi-Site Randomized Trial of a Commercial Weight Loss Program."; 2010. Abstract

Commercial weight loss programs may contribute to efforts to reduce the prevalence of obesity, although evidence of efficacy and effects on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors is critical in evaluating the likelihood of sustained benefits. The Jenny Craig (JC) program involves individualized diet and exercise counseling (provided either in-person at community-based sites or by telephone), prepackaged foods and a low-energy density diet. The aims of this study are (1) To test, in a multi-site randomized controlled trial, whether the JC Centre-based and/or JC Direct (telephone-based) interventions promote greater weight loss and maintenance of that loss in overweight or obese women over a 24-month period compared to usual care (UC) conditions; and (2) To describe the effect of the program (vs. UC conditions) on selected biochemical factors, cardiopulmonary fitness, quality of life (QOL) and eating attitudes and behaviors. At randomization, participants (n=442) were 44(10) (mean[SD]) yrs, with BMI 33.8(3.4) kg/m2, weight 92.1(10.7) kg, and waist circumference 108.6(9.6) cm. Two-year data are available for 91% of study participants (n=406), and weight loss is - 8.1(8.6), -6.7(9.3), and -2.2(7.4) kg for the JC Centre- based, JC Direct, and UC groups, an average weight reduction of -8.7%, -7.3%, and -2.4% of initial weight, respectively. The proportion of women at highest risk (CRP>3 mg/L) in the JC arms decreased significantly from 53% at enrollment to 33% at two years, but was unchanged in the UC arm. Interim analysis also shows the JC intervention to promote favorable changes in lipid, leptin and carotenoid levels, and improved cardiopulmonary fitness

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "TYLOR, W.D., SRIVASTAVA, K.K., OYEJIDE, A., KANYARI, P.W.N., NGATIA T.A., MBAABU- MATHIU, P. ( 2002). Evaluation of causes of chick mortality in small holder ostrich farms in Alabama. School of Veterinary Medicine Annual Symposium,.". In: Kellog's Conference Centre, Alabama USA March 6th to 9th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
Otieno CF, Otieno CF, Omonge EO, AMAYO AA, Njagi E. "Type 2 diabetes mellitus: clinical and aetiologic types, theraphy and quality of glycaemic control of ambulatory patients.". 2008. Abstract

Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease with multiple causes revolving around beta cell dysfunction, insulin resistance and enhanced hepatic glucose output. Clinical judgement based on obesity status, age of onset and the clinical perception of residual beta cell insulin secretory function (hence insulin-requiring or not), has been used to determine therapeutic choices for each patient. Further laboratory testing of the clinically defined type 2 diabetes unmasks the various aetiologic types within the single clinical group. Objective: To determine the aetiological types of the clinically defined type 2 diabetic patients, their chosen therapies at recruitment and the quality of glycaemic control achieved. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Diabetes out-patient clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Results: A total of 124 patients with clinical type 2 diabetes were included, 49.2% were males. The mean duration of diabetes in males was 26.09 (20.95) months and that of females was 28.68 (20.54) months. The aetiological grouping revealed the following proportions: Type 1A-3.2%, Type lB-12.1%, LADA-5.7%, and "true" type 2 diabetes 79.0%. All the patients with Type IA were apparently, and rightly so, on "insulin-only" treatment even though they did not achieve optimal glycaemic control with HbAlc % = 9.06. However the study patients who were type IB and LADA were distributed all over the treatment groups where most of them did not achieve optimal glycaemic control, range of HhAc of 8.46 -10.6%. The patients with "true" type 2 were also distributed all over the treatment groups where only subjects on 'diet only' treatment had good HbAlc of 6.72% but those in other treatment groups did not achieve optimal glycaemic control of HbA1c, 8.07 - 9.32%. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease where clinical judgement alone does not adequately tell the various aetiological types apart without additional laboratory testing of C-peptide levels and GAD antibody status. This may partly explain the inappropriate treatment choices for the various aetiological types with consequent sub-optimal glycaemic control of those patients.

N. B. Mirza, I. A. Wamola ENMPBASJ. "Typhim Vi vaccine against typhoid fever: A clinical trial in Kenya." East African Medical Journal . 1995;72(3):162-164.
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Martelat JE, G G, D O, Bosse V, Omito E, D I’i, Nyamai CM, Wamunyu A, Monie P. "U/Pb Ages of zircon and monazite from the tsavorite-bearing Neoproterozic rocks of southeastern Kenya, and the significance of static crystallisation of the tsavorite.". In: 13th SGA Biennial Meeting 2015. Nancy, France; 2015. Abstract

Tsavorite, the vanadian variety of green grossular, is hosted exclusively in metasedimentary formations in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt. In order to understand the origin of tsavorite in southeastern Kenya we integrated field investigations, geochemical studies, and dating. Two units are seen in outcrop: 1) a metasedimentary sequence, and 2) a quartz-feldspar migmatitic group. This second group of rocks shows classic "Pan-african geometry" with vertical and horizontal foliation planes. The metamorphism attains granulite facies. The metasedimentary sequence is different and recorded lower metamorphism (high-amphibolite facies, 680 °C), and if static recrystallization occurs, few traces of melting was observed. Landslide with sediment deformation structures of the sedimentary deposition are preserved. Systematic LA-ICPMS U/Pb dating was done on monazite and zircon. The migmatitic rocks recorded ages from 615 Ma to 585 Ma. The metasedimentary rocks recorded ages from 600 Ma to 595 Ma. Older ages of 850-720 Ma seems to be inherited ages from magmatic minerals. The formation of tsavorite is the result of a sedimentary sequence preserved from strain but heated by surrounding granulitic rocks between 600 to 595 Ma. The regional associated tectonic process is unclear but efficient for vertical displacement. We suggest that it is a peculiar event and process, and was unable to completely recrystallize the sedimentary rocks. These last are exceptionally preserved from strain and melt, a case that may be unique in the world.

Wamwana EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW. "uality of record keeping in the intrapartum period at the Provincial General Hospital Kakamega, Kenya." East Afr. Med J. . 2007;84(7).
Zhang Y, Li L, Zhang H, Shang J, Li C, Naqvi SMZA, Birech Z, Hu J. "Ultrasensitive detection of plant hormone abscisic acid-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy aptamer sensor." Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2022;414:2757-2766 .
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "Ultrasonic Attenuation in Clay Refractories." Discovery and Innovation. 2001;13(1/2):39-47.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "Ultrasonic Attenuation in Kenyan Clay Refractories." British Ceramic Transactions. 1999;98(6):266-270.
Nyongesa FW. Ultrasonic Characterization of Kenyan Clay refractories. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1994.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. Ultrasonic Characterization of Kenyan Clay Refractories. Nairobi, Kenya: NDT Society of Kenya; 1994.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "An Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of Clay Refractories." African Journal of Science and Technology AJST. 1995;7 Series B(2):53-57.
Njogu A, Owiti GO, Persson E, Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF, Wachira TM, Maxson AD, Zeyhle EE. "Ultrasound in Livestock. A contribution to epidemiology of hydatidosis.". 1999.Website
Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF;, Gathuma JM, Wachira TM, Maxson AD, Zeyhle EE. "Ultrasound in Livestock. A contribution to epidemiology of hydatidosis.". 1999.
Nambati EA, Kiarie WC, Kimani F, Kimotho JH, Otinga MS, Too E, Kaniaru S, Limson J, Bulimo W. "Unclear association between levels of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in saliva of malaria patients and blood parasitaemia: diagnostic implications?" Malaria Journal. 2018;17:9. Abstractnambati_et_al_2018.pdfnambati_et_al_2018.pdfWebsite

The use of saliva in diagnosis of infectious diseases is an attractive alternative to procedures that involve blood drawing. It promises to reduce risks associated with accidental needle pricks and improve patient compliance particularly in malaria survey and drug efficacy studies. Quantification of parasitaemia is useful in establishing severity of disease and in assessing individual patient response to treatment. In current practice, microscopy is the recommended technique, despite its limitations. This study measured the levels of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in saliva of malaria patients and investigated the relationship with blood parasitaemia.

Ndung'u I. "The Underlying Reality of Phonological Simplification of Loan Words by Speakers of Kikuyu." Paper Submitted to Applied Linguistics Journal (Attn) Ann Conybeare, Oxford University Press and National Academy of Science Journal; 2011. Abstract
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NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Understanding Female Circumcision from the Circumcisers' Perspective.". In: In Program and Abstracts for the Third Annual Meeting of AFRICLEN and PHSWOW at Hotel Equatoria, Kampala. In East African Medical Journal. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Njeru EHN. "Understanding Female Circumcision from the Circumcisers' Perspective .". 2006. AbstractWebsite

The resistance of circumcisers can be a substantial obstacle to the eradication of female genital mutilation (FGM). As part of a broader study on FGM conducted in Kenya's Machakos, Nyeri, and Embu districts, in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 circumcisers. 18 were female. FGM is not a full-time activity, so circumcisers were also engaged in farming and small-scale businesses; 5 were traditional birth attendants (TBAs). With the exception of the TBAs, respondents had no formal clinic- or hospital-based training to prepare them for their practice. Although circumcisers identified excessive bleeding and infection as potential sequelae of FGM, they attributed these complications to curses, bad omens, or broken taboos. The main advantage of FGM cited by respondents was the reduction of sexual desire, which is believed to reduce prostitution and promote moral standards. Uncircumcised girls were viewed with contempt. Most circumcisions are performed when girls are 3-11 years of age, contradicting the claim that the practice is performed to prepare young women for marriage. Although fees varied widely, all respondents viewed FGM as an important income source. They felt their work conferred high status within their communities and an opportunity to promote moral standards. Although many circumcisers are unlikely to stop their practice because of the social prestige it confers and their belief they are destined to perform this function, others could be persuaded to take up alternate means of generating an income if provided with start-up capital. Also important would be involvement of circumcisers in the development of alternative coming-of-age rituals.

Ndung'u I. "Understanding linguistics, Introductory Survey, Manuscript Reviewed." University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
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Nyarwath O. "Understanding Social Freedom and Humanism in Odera Oruka's Philosophy." Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya (PAK). 2012;4(2):75-96.
Avery K, Barham C, Berrisford R, Blazeby J, Blencowe N, Donovan J, Elliott J, Falk S, Goldin R, Hanna G, Hollowood A, Metcalfe C, Noble S, Sanders G, Streets C, Titcomb D, Wheatley T. "Understanding surgical interventions in {RCTs}: the need for better methodology." The Lancet. 2013;381:27-28. AbstractWebsite
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Collins K Mweresa, Bruno Otieno, Philemon Omusula, Berhane T Weldegergis, Niels O Verhulst, Marcel Dicke, Joop JA van Loon, Takken W, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "Understanding the long-lasting attraction of malaria mosquitoes to odor baits." PloS one. 2015;10(3):e0121533.
Ngugi RW, Were M, Makau P, Mensah J, Macmillan P. "Understanding the Reform Porcess in Kenya.". In: Understanding Economic Reforms in Kenya.; 2006.
Muita R, Dougill A, Mutemi J, Aura S, Graham R, Awolala D, Nkiaka E, Hirons L, Opijah F. "Understanding the Role of User Needs and Perceptions Related to Sub-Seasonal and Seasonal Forecasts on Farmers’ Decisions in Kenya: A Systematic Review." Frontiers in Climate. 2021;3(1).
Ngugi RW. "Understanding the structure of interest rates in Kenya, KIPPRA Discussion Paper # 40." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
Wambugu A, Ndirangu L, Onsomu E, Munga B. "Unemployment in Kenya: suggested interventions." National Economic and Social Council (NESC). 2013.
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "UNEP/UNDP/Kenya Government Project on Environment and Development, 1979. Specialist Paper on Planning for Rural Settlements in Kenya.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1979. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu Y, Ni G, Zhang R, Zhu H. "Unexpected phonon-transport properties of stanene among 2D group-IV materials from$\backslash$textit $\{$ab initio$\}$." arXiv preprint arXiv:1602.02266. 2016. Abstract
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Obiero JA, Mburu MN, Ndung’u BM, Waititu KK, Farah IO, Mwethera PG. "UniPron is A Fully Effective Non-hormonal Reversible Contraceptive in Baboon Model (Papio Anubis).". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of UniPron as a reversible contraceptive. Methods Vaginal swabs were obtained before and after UniPron administration, cultured onto appropriate culture media and bacteria identification was done based on type of media used, Gram stain reactions, colony morphology and biochemical tests. Vaginal biopsy tissues were processed using paraffin wax method, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined under light microscopy to determine the effect of the product on vaginal tissues. The effect of UniPron on sperm was examined by mixing the product with electroejaculated spermatozoa in vitro at different concentrations. For efficacy studies, male baboons of proven fertility were mated with UniPron treated or untreated females of proven fertility during the fertile stages. Results All the five females (100%) that were treated with UniPron did not conceive and they regained total fertility when the treatment was stopped while all the controls conceived. At a concentration of 40%,UniPron completely immobilized spermatozoa in an in-vitro system. UniPron mechanism of action was by lowering the vaginal pH and on application in baboon, the pH was lowered for at least 3 h after which it went back to normal. Conclusions As we plan for a study to test UniPron as a microbicide to prevent STIs including HIV, our current study has established that this novel product is effective in contraception and harmless to vaginal tissues and vaginal microbial flora in a baboon model (Papio anubis).

Mwamuye MM, Obara I, Elati K, Odongo D, Bakheit MA, Jongejan F, Nijhof AM. "Unique Mitochondrial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Demonstrate Resolution Potential to Discriminate Vaccine and Buffalo-Derived Strains." Life (Basel). 2020;10(12). Abstract

Distinct pathogenic and epidemiological features underlie different strains resulting in different clinical manifestations of East Coast Fever and Corridor Disease in susceptible cattle. Unclear delineation of these strains limits the control of these diseases in endemic areas. Hence, an accurate characterization of strains can improve the treatment and prevention approaches as well as investigate their origin. Here, we describe a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on 13 near-complete mitogenomes of strains originating from East and Southern Africa, including the live vaccine stock strains. We identified 11 SNPs that are non-preferentially distributed within the coding and non-coding regions, all of which are synonymous except for two within the gene of buffalo-derived strains. Our analysis ascertains haplotype-specific mutations that segregate the different vaccine and the buffalo-derived strains except Muguga and Serengeti-transformed strains suggesting a shared lineage between the latter two vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analyses including the mitogenomes of other species: , , and , with the latter two sequenced in this study for the first time, were congruent with nuclear-encoded genes. Importantly, we describe seven haplotypes characterized by synonymous SNPs and parsimony-informative characters with the other three transforming species mitogenomes. We anticipate that tracking mitochondrial haplotypes from this study will provide insight into the parasite's epidemiological dynamics and underpin current control efforts.

Nderitu JH, Namachanja C, Kamau G. "Universities and trade unionsim.". In: DAAD. Nairobi,; 2005.universities_and_trade_unionsim.pdf
Ngesu L. "Universities as learning organizations: implication and challenges." Educational Research and Review. 2008;3(9):289-293.
Ndiritu AW, Gikonyo NW, MBOROKI GUANTAI. "University managers participation in distance education: what is the role of distance education support facilities?". 2014. Abstract

Universities continue to develop new methods of teaching in order to reach many people who cannot access education through the conventional methods; and to attain equity and increase access in higher education for development. Education is a key pillar in development. As Kenya works towards the attainment of Vision 2030 a lot has to be done in education to increase equity and access to allow many people to participate in the development. A lot of resources have been committed to development and implementation of DE materials and facilities but adoption of DE continues to be minimal at the Kenyan Public universities. This paper explores the role DE support facilities plays in the participation of university managers in DE activities in Kenya’s Public Universities. To study this role, the following indicators were analysed: computer availability to the managers and staff; access to personal computer; internet availability; number of internet connection points; and availability of ICT help desk. The study sort to establish the extent to which availability of personal computers availability of internet, number of internet connection points, availability of computers for teaching influence managers’ participation in DE; and to assess the availability of ICT help desks. The research employed cross-sectional descriptive survey design; and multi-stage stratified sampling design. The findings indicated that availing necessary support facilities is crucial if adoption of DE is to be increased in the public universities in Kenya.
KEY WORDS: Participation, distance education, university managers.

Ndiritu A, GIKONYO NAOMI, Gakuu C, MBOROKI GUANTAI. "UNIVERSITY MANAGERS PARTICIPATION IN DISTANCE EDUCATION: WHAT ROLE DOES THEIR LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE IN DISTANCE EDUCATION PLAY?".; 2013. Abstract

University managers have tried to attain improved access and equity in higher education for development. In recent years, there has been a major shift towards Distance Education as universities strive to attain this goal and to strengthen the social pillar of Kenya Vision 2030 development agenda. Use of ICT in teaching and learning in conventional mode of education was thought to be the means to increase access and equity in higher education but this has not been sufficient. More innovations are being explored as the universities struggle with the challenge of access and equity in higher education. Distance education has slowly been adopted in public universities in Kenya. This provides access to higher education by persons who are geographically distant from the institutions of higher learning and those whose responsibilities cannot allow them to attend classes among other challenges. The study sought to establish the extent to which managers’ level of knowledge in Distance Education has influenced their participation in Distance Education activities at the public universities in Kenya. The sample consisted of 196 managers drawn from seven public universities in Kenya. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used in analysis. The results indicated a significant positive correlation between level of knowledge in Distance Education and managers’ participation in Distance Education activities. Based on these findings, it is important to ensure that the managers are trained in Distance Education and its practice, and how to apply it in order to improve access and equity in higher education in order to support the national and international development agenda.
KEY WORDS: Participation, distance education, level of knowledge, university managers, study support, access and equity.

Ndetei DM. "University Medical Education In Kenya: The Challenges.". 2010. Abstract

There are two medical schools training doctors in Kenya: the Moi University established in 1984 and the University of Nairobi established in 1967. The University of Nairobi has so far produced the majority of Kenyan doctors. Both are public universities with the Government being the main financier. The increased demand for university education and the inability to meet these demands has led to the introduction of a system of training self-sponsored medical students alongside Government-subsidised students. One other public university has started a medical school. The pressure to increase the number of schools and students in the absence of increased resources poses a particular challenge to the country.

Ndetei DM, Mathai M, Khasakhala LI, Khasakhala LI, Mbwayo AW. "University medical education in Kenya: The challenges.". 2010. Abstract

There are two medical schools training doctors in Kenya: the Moi University established in 1984 and the University of Nairobi established in 1967. The University of Nairobi has so far produced the majority of Kenyan doctors. Both are public universities with the Government being the main financier. The increased demand for university education and the inability to meet these demands has led to the introduction of a system of training self-sponsored medical students alongside Government-subsidised students. One other public university has started a medical school. The pressure to increase the number of schools and students in the absence of increased resources poses a particular challenge to the country.

Klopp J, Ngau P, Sclar E. "University/City Partnerships: Creating Policy Networks for Urban Transformation in Nairobi."; 2011. Abstract

Kenya's capital city, Nairobi, like many rapidly growing cities in the global South is confronting massive inter-related problems of slum expansion, violence, ethnic segregation, poor service delivery, public health hazards and environmental degradation. These problems, in turn, are deep reflections of a long history of inequitable power relations at both local and global levels, repression, democratic institutional failure and skewed, exclusive urban policy and planning processes. How can a foreign university like Columbia University play a constructive role in this exceptionally challenging context? We argue that part of the answer involves fostering a research and teaching agenda that directly addresses the complexity inherent in the problems of simultaneous urbanization and democratization in places like Nairobi. However, this is not enough. All too often research by external universities fails to circulate or have any impact on urgently needed policy change. We argue that a key role for Columbia University is not just providing research, technical advice or “technology transfer,” rather it is also most critically about nurturing a sustained authentic partnership with local universities to enhance their role in urban transformation. By an authentic partnership we mean a collaboration that produces relationships of trust, honesty, transparency, respect and equity and results in the genuine co-production or facilitation of knowledge for positive local change.1 Fowler succinctly characterizes “authentic partners” versus relations involving “clients” or “counterparts” as involving“equality in ways of working and mutuality in respect for identity, position and role.”2 This paper explores the dynamics and importance of one such a partnership in the field of urban planning. This partnership, which started in April 2005, involves the Centre for Sustainable Urban Development (CSUD)3 at Columbia University and the Department of Urban and Regional Planning (DURP) at the University of Nairobi.

Makhanu MN, Alsadig MAM, Nyongesa BS, Weboko FI, Alcorta PP. "Unsuccessful Closed Surgical Exposure of an Impacted Maxillary Canine Managed by Open Surgical Exposure." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2021;12(2):946-953.2021_kda_journal_volume_12_no_2.pdf
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "The unsystematic alternative: towards plural health care among the Kikuyu of central Kenya. Kimani VN. Soc Sci Med [B]. 1981 Jul;15(3):333-40.". In: Soc Sci Med [B]. 1981 Jul;15(3):333-40. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1981. Abstract

45 Kenyan traditional healers were interviewed with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. Traditional management of eye diseases is based on the healers' concept of the disease causation as well as their knowledge of the herbal, animal and chemical substances that possess (or are reported to possess) remedial effect on the disease. While many of the healers interviewed failed to give a clear distinction between the various eye conditions, diseases such as cataract, foreign bodies and injuries were recognized easily. In almost all cases the medicinal substances were first diluted in water before they were applied to the eyes. Human milk, blood and the white of the egg were the animal substances listed as medicinal to various eye conditions. A solution of sugar was one of the chemical substances used in the treatment of specific eye conditions. Given correct information, some of these healers could f

Ndaguatha PLW. "Unusual Urinary bladder outlet obstruction." East.Afr. Med. J.. 2003;80(7):388-390.
Martinez I, Andrews AE, Emch JD, Ndakala AJ, Wang J, Howell AR. "Unusual, Strained Heterocycles: 3-Alkylidene-2-methyleneoxetanes from Morita-Baylis-Hillman-type Adducts." Organic Letters. 2003;68:399-402.
Ngugi PM. "An update on the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.". 2007. Abstract

To obtain an update of the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. DATA SOURCE: Review of all published literature on advanced prostate cancer was carried out through medline and index medicus search. DATA SELECTION: Published data on advanced prostate cancer from June 2005 to June 2007 was included in the review. DATA EXTRACTION: Abstracts of articles identified were assessed, read and analysed to determine relevance to the title under review. DATA SYNTHESIS: After establishing relevance from the abstract, the entire paper was read, and significant points included in the review. CONCLUSION: The mainstay of treatment of advanced prostate cancer remains hormone withdrawal. The introduction of docetaxel based chemotherapy has caused a paradigm shift.

Ru BL, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Njaku M, Assefa Y, Chipabika G, George Ong’Amo, Jérôme Barbut GKJ. "Updated phylogenetic and systematics of the Acrapex albivena Hampson, 1910 and A. stygiata (Hampson, 1910) species groups (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini, Sesamiina), with the description of nine new species from the Afrotropics." Annales de la Société entomologique de France (NS). 2019;55(3):219-248.
PUlei AN, Shatry NA, Sura MK, Njoroge MW, Kibii DK, Mwaniki DK, Teko HP, Maranga O, Ogutu O, Vogel JP, Qureshi Z. "Updating of a clinical protocol for the prevention and management of postpartum haemorrhage at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(2). AbstractWebsite

Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) affects 6% of births and accounts for almost 30% of maternal deaths. The use of clinical protocols for preventing and treating PPH is recommended by WHO. Protocols should be evidence-based, regularly updated, widely available and routinely adhered to.
Broad Objective: To update the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) PPH prevention and management protocol based on latest recommendations, and ensure its dissemination and use by providers.
Materials and Methods: A literature search identified selected PPH-related guidelines which were assessed using the AGREE-II tool for guideline quality. A matrix was created to compare recommendations across guidelines. Recommendations included in the KNH protocol were based on agreement across guidelines, guideline quality, publication year, and contextual factors in our setting. To aid implementation, an updated KNH protocol document, a clinical algorithm and a PPH management checklist were developed. These were reviewed and accepted as best practice by KNH and University of Nairobi.
Results: Six PPH-related guidelines were used (WHO, FIGO, RCOG, ACOG, FOGSI, and the Kenya National Guidelines for Quality Obstetrics and Perinatal care). The KNH protocol covers PPH prevention, including: active management of third stage, oxytocin after vaginal or caesarean delivery, other drugs for prevention (when oxytocin is not available), controlled cord traction and delayed cord clamping. It also covers PPH management (supportive and definitive measures).
Conclusion: An updated PPH prevention and management protocol for KNH was developed. Implementation and adherence will help standardize PPH-related care and improve health outcomes for women.

FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Upper gastrointestinal findings in diabetic outpatients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):232-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):232-6. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of H. pylori and the associated upper gastrointestinal endoscopic lesions in diabetic outpatients with dyspepsia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Adult diabetic outpatients with dyspepsia attending the KNH diabetic clinic. RESULTS: Of the 257 randomly selected diabetic outpatients screened, 137 (53.3%) had dyspepsia. Seventy one of these patients underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Fifty five (77.5%) of the 71 patients had H.pylori infection identified by rapid urease test and histology. The prevalence of H. pylori increased with HbA1c level but there was no statistically significant association with poor glycaemic control (HbA1c >7.0%). Forty eight (67.6%) of the 71 had gastritis, 17 (25.7%) had duodenitis, eight (11.3%) had oesophageal candidiasis, seven (9.9%) had bile reflux, six (8.5%) had reflux oesophagitis, six (8.5%) had ulcers (five duodenal, one gastric) and one (1.4%) had gastric cancer. Fourteen (19%) had endoscopically normal mucosa. The prevalence of H. pylori was 82.3% (32/38) in patients with antral gastritis. All ulcers and the cancer lesion (adenocarcinoma) were associated with H. pylori. Histological gastritis was found in 57 (81.8%) and was significantly associated with H. pylori. CONCLUSION: Although dyspepsia is common in diabetic outpatients at KNH, endoscopic findings and H. pylori status are not significantly different from those of non-diabetic population.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Upper gastrointestinal findings in diabetic outpatients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):232-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):232-6. test; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of H. pylori and the associated upper gastrointestinal endoscopic lesions in diabetic outpatients with dyspepsia.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya.
SUBJECTS: Adult diabetic outpatients with dyspepsia attending the KNH diabetic clinic. RESULTS: Of the 257 randomly selected diabetic outpatients screened, 137 (53.3%) had dyspepsia. Seventy one of these patients underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Fifty five (77.5%) of the 71 patients had H.pylori infection identified by rapid urease test and histology. The prevalence of H. pylori increased with HbA1c level but there was no statistically significant association with poor glycaemic control (HbA1c >7.0%). Forty eight (67.6%) of the 71 had gastritis, 17 (25.7%) had duodenitis, eight (11.3%) had oesophageal candidiasis, seven (9.9%) had bile reflux, six (8.5%) had reflux oesophagitis, six (8.5%) had ulcers (five duodenal, one gastric) and one (1.4%) had gastric cancer. Fourteen (19%) had endoscopically normal mucosa. The prevalence of H. pylori was 82.3% (32/38) in patients with antral gastritis. All ulcers and the cancer lesion (adenocarcinoma) were associated with H. pylori. Histological gastritis was found in 57 (81.8%) and was significantly associated with H. pylori. CONCLUSION: Although dyspepsia is common in diabetic outpatients at KNH, endoscopic findings and H. pylori status are not significantly different from those of non-diabetic population.

Nixon CA, Achterberg RK, Teanby NA, Irwin PGJ, Flaud J-M, Kleiner I, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A, Brown LR, Sams RL, Bezard B, Coustenis A, Ansty TM, Mamoutkine A, Vinatier S, Bjoraker GL, Jennings DE, Romani PN, Flasar MF. "Upper limits for undetected trace species in the stratosphere of Titan." Faraday Discussions. 2010;147:1-17.
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Odek W, Costigan A, Ngugi EN, Oneko M, Plummer F. "THE UPTAKE OF ALTERNATIVE ECONOMIC ACTIVmES AMONG FEMALE'SEX WORKERS AND IMPACT ON SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR: INSIGHTS FROM, AN ACTION RESEARCH PROJECT IN NAIROBI, KENYA.". 2004. Abstract

The growing rate of HIV infection particularly among women in 'subSaharan African region suggests the need tor a. broader framework for prevention and care efforts. In particular, the socio-economic context that draws women into commercial sex is a key factor to be addressed. In this context, the Strengthening STDjAIDS Control in Kenya Project, in collaboration with Improve Your Business-Kenya, a small enterprise development organisation, initiated an operational research in February 1999, to assess the eftecnvecess of alternative economic activities support for women engaged in commerdal sex work in the slums of Nairobi as an HIV prevention strategy. The rnajoritv of the women had been in commercial sex work for more than 3 years and reported having an average of 4 different commercial sex clients per day with whom close to a. quarter used condoms only sometimes. Corroborative data from previous studies have shown female sex workers in Nairobi to be 50-80% HIV infected. In view of their risk of HIV infection, the women expressed the need for support for alternative income sources to enable them exercise more control over their sexual behaviour or exit sex work altogether. The financial support for the study was provided by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).

U
Mungai C, Opondo M, Outa G, Nelson V, Nyasimi M, Kimeli P. "Uptake of climate-smart agriculture through a gendered intersectionality lens: experiences from Western Kenya." springer link. 2017:587-601. Abstractlink.springer.com

This study conducted in western Kenya demonstrates how a gendered intersectionality lens can be used to explore how and the extent to which farming communities are coping with climate change. Results from a quantitative survey undertaken with 51 farmers and from 4 focused group discussions held with 33 farmers (19 males and 14 females) indicate that 85% of the respondents are willing to adopt climate-smart agriculture (CSA) interventions if constraining factors are resolved.This study reveals that farmers, regardless of whether they are male or female, are willing to adopt climate smart technologies and practices. However, factors such as ethnicity, education, age and marital status determine the levels of uptake of CSA technologies and practices. Looking at crops for instance, we find a high uptake (62.7%) of improved high yielding varieties (HYVs) amongst farmers with primary level education, meaning literacy levels influence adoption of practices. Analysis using age as a lens reveals that there is a high uptake among the youth and adults. Interestingly, the study site comprises of both the Luo and Kalenjin ethnic communities and even though they neighbor each other, we find a high rate of uptake among the Luo community due to existing social and cultural norms and practices related to farming. In conclusion, using a gendered intersectionality lens strengthens the argument for targeted interventions which focus on local needs and priorities while recognizing local contexts as informed by social, cultural and economic factors.

Keywords
Climate-smart agriculture Uptake Gender Intersectionality Kenya

Mungai C, Opondo M, Outa G, Nelson V, Nyasimi M, Kimeli P. Uptake of climate-smart agriculture through a gendered intersectionality lens: experiences from Western Kenya. Cham: Springer; 2017. Abstractlink.springer.com

This study conducted in western Kenya demonstrates how a gendered intersectionality lens can be used to explore how and the extent to which farming communities are coping with climate change. Results from a quantitative survey undertaken with 51 farmers and from 4 focused group discussions held with 33 farmers (19 males and 14 females) indicate that 85% of the respondents are willing to adopt climate-smart agriculture (CSA) interventions if constraining factors are resolved. This study reveals that farmers, regardless of whether they are male or female, are willing to adopt climate-smart technologies and practices. However, factors such as ethnicity, education, age, and marital status determine the levels of uptake of CSA technologies and practices. Looking at crops, for instance, we find a high uptake (62.7%) of improved high yielding varieties (HYVs) amongst farmers with primary level education, meaning literacy levels influence the adoption of practices. Analysis using age as a lens reveals that there is a high uptake among youth and adults. Interestingly, the study site comprises both the Luo and Kalenjin ethnic communities and even though they neighbor each other, we find a high rate of uptake among the Luo community due to existing social and cultural norms and practices related to farming. In conclusion, using a gendered intersectionality lens strengthens the argument for targeted interventions that focus on local needs and priorities while recognizing local contexts as informed by social, cultural, and economic factors.

Keywords
Climate-smart agriculture Uptake Gender Intersectionality Kenya

Karuga S, GATARI MJ, Maina DM, Shepherd KD, Nyambura, M., Galgallo A, Gichohi BM. "Uptake of Zinc in Sugarcane: An Experiment using samples from Nairobi River Basin.". In: 6th Africa Soil Science Society (ASSS) and the 27th Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) conference. Nakuru, Kenya; 2013.
Courtney GM, John KM, Mary N, Nancy KK, Antoinette MG, WinklerPrins A. "Urban agriculture, social capital and food security in the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012.
Gallaher CM, Kerr JM, Njenga M, Karanja NK, WinklerPrins AMGA. "Urban agriculture, social capital, and food security in the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of the Agriculture, Food, and Human Values Society. 2013;30(3):389-404.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Urban traditional medicine: a Nairobi case-study. Good CM, Kimani VN. East Afr Med J. 1980 May;57(5):301-17.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 May;57(5):301-17. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1980. Abstract

45 Kenyan traditional healers were interviewed with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. Traditional management of eye diseases is based on the healers' concept of the disease causation as well as their knowledge of the herbal, animal and chemical substances that possess (or are reported to possess) remedial effect on the disease. While many of the healers interviewed failed to give a clear distinction between the various eye conditions, diseases such as cataract, foreign bodies and injuries were recognized easily. In almost all cases the medicinal substances were first diluted in water before they were applied to the eyes. Human milk, blood and the white of the egg were the animal substances listed as medicinal to various eye conditions. A solution of sugar was one of the chemical substances used in the treatment of specific eye conditions. Given correct information, some of these healers could f

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Urbanization, Urban Violence and Its implications for Urban Planning".". In: In African Urban Quarterly (AUQ) Vol. 12 No. 4 of November 1997. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Njeri KM. "Urbanization: Detour." African Executive (2011).
Moses S, Kreiss JK, Nagelkerke NJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Mandaliya K, Chohan B, Rakwar JP, Jackson DJ. "Urethral infection in a workplace population of East African men: evaluation of strategies for screening and management.". 1997. Abstract

Transport workers (n = 504) in Mombasa, Kenya, were screened for urethral infection by history, clinical examination, and laboratory testing of urethral swabs and first-catch urine specimens. The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was 3.4%, Chlamydia trachomatis, 3.6%, and Trichomonas vaginalis, 6.0%; more than two-thirds of infections were asymptomatic. A complaint of urethral discharge, dysuria, or both was twice as sensitive as the sign of discharge on physical examination (34.5% vs. 15.5%) in identifying infection. A positive leukocyte esterase dipstick (LED) test on urine predicted infection with a sensitivity of 95.0% and a specificity of 59.3% in symptomatic men and with a sensitivity of 55.3% and a specificity of 82.8% in asymptomatic men. Demographic and behavioral factors were not independent predictors of infection. In resource-poor settings with high prevalences of urethral infection, an effective screening and management strategy would be to treat symptomatic men, as well as asymptomatic men with a positive LED test, for all three infection

Ngugi PM. "Urethral stricture disease." East Afr Med J. 2009;86(1):1-2.
Ndaguatha PPLW. "Urinary Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma in a Young Adult." Medicom. 2013;26(July-August):27-28.
Njaanake KH, Simonsen PE VBJMDARCMGJWGEBBK &. "Urinary cytokines in Schistosoma haematobium-infected schoolchildren from Tana Delta District of Kenya." BMC Infectious Diseases . 2014;14: 501.
Njaanake KH, Simonsen PE, Vennervald BJ, Mukoko DA, Reimert CM, Gachuhi K, Jaoko WG, Estambale BB. "Urinary cytokines in Schistosoma haematobium-infected schoolchildren from Tana Delta District of Kenya." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2014;14:501. Abstract

Pathological changes due to infection with Schistosoma haematobium include cytokine-mediated urinary tract inflammation. The involved cytokines may be excreted in urine and their presence in urine may therefore reflect S. haematobium-related urinary tract pathology. The present study, for the first time, reports on the relationship between selected cytokines in urine and infection with S. haematobium in children from an area highly affected by this parasite.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "The urinary levels of catecholamines, aldosterone and cortisol in hypertensive East Africans: a pilot study.Ethn Dis. 2000 Autumn;10(3):357-63.". In: Ethn Dis. 2000 Autumn;10(3):357-63. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
This pilot project studies the prevalence of hypertension among unique social groups in Kenya, as well as the hormonal profiles accompanying the hypertensive and normotensive states in these populations. The purpose of this report is to enlarge and improve upon the statistical data currently available concerning the prevalence, etiology and prognosis of hypertensive disease in this region. In this study, the urinary concentrations of three vasoactive metabolites were measured in hypertensive and normotensive outpatients. The excretion values for the metabolites were ultimately tabulated as the quantity excreted per milligram of creatinine. The results demonstrate that the subjects with elevated blood pressures (>140/90 mm Hg) excreted double the concentrations (ng/mg creatinine) of cortisol and aldosterone excreted by normotensives. There were no apparent differences in urinary catecholamines between hypertensives and normotensives.
Dhananjaya G, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H. "Urine as a transport medium for Neisseria gonorrhoeae.". 1984.
Magoha GAO, Ngugi PM, Kiptoon D. "Urolithiasis in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2010;87(10). AbstractNCBI

Background: Urolithiasis is an emerging problem in Kenya previously thought to be very rare and in which the use of modern methods of treatment has not been widely practiced
Objective: To review the presentation and management of patients presenting with urolithiasis in Nairobi, Kenya
Design: A retrospective study Setting: The Nairobi hospital and Upper Hill Medical Centre a day care facility next to the Nairobi hospital
Subjects: One hundred and twenty five males and fifty three females aged 9 to 75 years
Results: One hundred and seventy eight patients were treated for urolithiasis over a five-and- half year period. Their mean age was 44.8 years, and the median was 45 years The 178 patients required 262 procedures to achieve stone clearance. One hundred and two patients had ESWL, with an overall stone clearance rate of 95%. Twentythree
patients had PCNL; 18 as the first procedure and 5 after failed ESWL. Fifty-one patients had ureteroscopic
Management: Fourty seven had laser or pneumatic lithotripsy while four had stone removal by Dormia basket. Seven patients had bladder calculi managed by either cystolitholapaxy or forceps retrieval.
Conclusions: This study demonstrates a higher annual incidence of urolithiasis in Nairobi than earlier literature. Study demonstrates that ESWL and ureteroscopic methods are highly effective in the treatment of renal and ureteral calculi as day care procedures.

Ngugi PM, Magoha GA, Kiptoon D. "Urolithiasis in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Urolithiasis is an emerging problem in Kenya previously thought to be very rare and in which the use of modern methods of treatment has not been widely practiced OBJECTIVE: To review the presentation and management of patients presenting with urolithiasis in Nairobi, Kenya DESIGN: A retrospective study SETTING: The Nairobi hospital and Upper Hill Medical Centre a day care facility next to the Nairobi hospital SUBJECTS: One hundred and twenty five males and fifty three females aged 9 to 75 years RESULTS: One hundred and seventy eight patients were treated for urolithiasis over a five-and- half year period. Their mean age was 44.8 years, and the median was 45 years The 178 patients required 262 procedures to achieve stone clearance. One hundred and two patients had ESWL, with an overall stone clearance rate of 95%. Twenty-three patients had PCNL; 18 as the first procedure and 5 after failed ESWL. Fifty-one patients had ureteroscopic management. Forty seven had laser or pneumatic lithotripsy while four had stone removal by Dormia basket. Seven patients had bladder calculi managed by either cystolitholapaxy or forceps retrieval. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a higher annual incidence of urolithiasis in Nairobi than earlier literature. Study demonstrates that ESWL and ureteroscopic methods are highly effective in the treatment of renal and ureteral calculi as day care procedures.

Ngugi PM, Magoha GAO, Kiptoon D. "Urolithiasis in Nairobi, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2010;87(10):395-9. Abstract

Urolithiasis is an emerging problem in Kenya previously thought to be very rare and in which the use of modern methods of treatment has not been widely practiced

Moraa OC, N KC, Ontinta CG, Narla RD, W KJ. "urrent status on production and utilization of sider plant (Cleome gynandra L.) an underutilized leafy vegetable in Kenya. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution." Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 2013;60(6):0925-9864.
N. DRIRAKIW. "US Economic Indicators 1970-2000: a Comparative analysis. In Global Prospects, The Research Yearbook of International Association of Business Disciplines (IABD), 2002 (With Dharam Rana).". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2002.
Vogel JP, Comrie-Thomson L, Pingray V, Gadama L, Galadanci H, Goudar S, Rose Laisser, Lavender T, Lissauer D, Misra S, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Amole T, Berrueta M, Dankishiya F, Gwako G, Homer CSE, Jobanputra J, Meja S, Nigri C, Mohaptra V, Osoti A, Roberti J, Solomon D, Suleiman M, Robbers G, Sutherland S, Vernekar S, Althabe F, Bonet M, Oladapo OT. "Usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the World Health Organization Labour Care Guide: A mixed-methods, multicountry evaluation." Birth. 2021;48(1):66-75. Abstract

The World Health Organization's (WHO) Labour Care Guide (LCG) is a "next-generation" partograph based on WHO's latest intrapartum care recommendations. It aims to optimize clinical care provided to women and their experience of care. We evaluated the LCG's usability, feasibility, and acceptability among maternity care practitioners in clinical settings.

Vogel JP, Comrie‐Thomson L, Pingray V, Gadama L, Galadanci H, Goudar S, Rose Laisser, Lavender T, Lissauer D, Misra S, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Amole T, Berrueta M, Dankishiya F, Gwako G, Homer CSE, Jobanputra J, Meja S, Nigri C, Mohaptra V, Osoti A, Roberti J, Solomon D, Suleiman M, Robbers G, Sutherland S, Vernekar S, Althabe F, Bonet M, Oladapo OT. "Usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the World Health Organization Labour Care Guide: A mixed‐methods, multicountry evaluation." Wiley Online Library . 2020. AbstractWebsite

Introduction
The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Labour Care Guide (LCG) is a “next‐generation” partograph based on WHO’s latest intrapartum care recommendations. It aims to optimize clinical care provided to women and their experience of care. We evaluated the LCG’s usability, feasibility, and acceptability among maternity care practitioners in clinical settings.

Methods
Mixed‐methods evaluation with doctors, midwives, and nurses in 12 health facilities across Argentina, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania. Purposively sampled and trained practitioners applied the LCG in low‐risk women during labor and rated experiences, satisfaction, and usability. Practitioners were invited to focus group discussions (FGDs) to share experiences and perceptions of the LCG, which were subjected to framework analysis.

Results
One hundred and thirty‐six practitioners applied the LCG in managing labor and birth of 1,226 low‐risk women. The majority of women had a spontaneous vaginal birth (91.6%); two cases of intrapartum stillbirths (1.63 per 1000 births) occurred. Practitioner satisfaction with the LCG was high, and median usability score was 67.5%. Practitioners described the LCG as supporting precise and meticulous monitoring during labor, encouraging critical thinking in labor management, and improving the provision of woman‐centered care.

Conclusions
The LCG is feasible and acceptable to use across different clinical settings and can promote woman‐centered care, though some design improvements would benefit usability. Implementing the LCG needs to be accompanied by training and supportive supervision, and strategies to promote an enabling environment (including updated policies on supportive care interventions, and ensuring essential equipment is available).

Njeri GL, Zaja JO, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Usawiri wa Familia ya Kisasa katika Fasihi ya Watoto Nchini Kenya." Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika . 2020;Volume 5(1):185-194.
Maingi, N., Bjørn, H., Thamsborg SM, Nansen P. "Use of anthelmintics on goat farms in Denmark and implications for the development of anthelmintic resistance.". In: 3rd Annual Seminar of the DANIDA-funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. Lusaka, Zambia; 1994.
Muindi EM, Muthomi W, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM, Kabira JN, Chemining'wa GN, Kiretai SM, Aura JA. "Use of cereal border crops in management of aphid-transmitted viral diseases during seed potato (Solanum tuberosum) production.". 2009.
Muindi EM, Muthomi W, Nderitu, John H, Kabira JN, Chemining'wa GN, Kiretai SM, Aura JA. "Use of cereal border crops in management of aphid-transmitted viral diseases during seed potato (Solanum tuberosum) production.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

A field experiment was conducted over two cropping seasons to investigate the effectiveness of cereal border crops in managing potato aphids and the associated viruses during seed potato production. Potato plots were surrounded with maize, sorghum or wheat borders. Aphid population was monitored on leaves and on yellow sticky traps. Other data collected included viral disease incidence and tuber yield. The border crops reduced aphid population on leaves compared to non-bordered potato plots. More alate aphids were caught on yellow sticky traps placed inside potato plots than on traps placed inside the border crops. In addition, viral disease incidence was reduced in all plots surrounded by the border crops. However, plots surrounded by border crops had reduced tuber yield, although the yield of seed grade was increased. Thus use of border crops is beneficial in management of viral diseases during seed potato production.

Chemining'wa GN, Nderitu, John H, Olubayo FM, Kabira JN, Kiretai SM, Kabira JN. "Use of cereal border crops in management of aphid-transmitted viral diseases during seed potato (Solanum tuberosum) production.". 2009.Website
Muindi EM, Nderitu, John H, Olubayo FM, Kiretai SM, Muthomi W, Chemining'wa GN. "Use of cereal border crops in management of aphid-transmitted viral diseases during seed potato (Solanum tuberosum) production.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

A field experiment was conducted over two cropping seasons to investigate the effectiveness of cereal border crops in managing potato aphids and the associated viruses during seed potato production. Potato plots were surrounded with maize, sorghum or wheat borders. Aphid population was monitored on leaves and on yellow sticky traps. Other data collected included viral disease incidence and tuber yield. The border crops reduced aphid population on leaves compared to non-bordered potato plots. More alate aphids were caught on yellow sticky traps placed inside potato plots than on traps placed inside the border crops. In addition, viral disease incidence was reduced in all plots surrounded by the border crops. However, plots surrounded by border crops had reduced tuber yield, although the yield of seed grade was increased. Thus use of border crops is beneficial in management of viral diseases during seed potato production.

Muindi, E.M., Muthomi, J.W, Nderitu, J., Olubayo, F., Kabira, Chemining’wa, and Kiretai SM, Aura JA. "Use of cereal border crops in management of aphid-transmitted viral diseases during seed potato (Solanum tuberosum) production." African Journal of horticultural science. 2008:69-78.
Okeyo MP;, Rambo CM, NYONJE RO. "Use of Civil Litigation Process and Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanisms in Resolution of Contractual Disputes in Road Construction Projects in Kenya. ." International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing. 2021:596-612.
Ndiritu A, Mwangi N, Mburu D. "use of computers in education: for kids or adults learning?". In: 2nd AFRICE International Conference .; 2015. Abstract

Abstract
Development has greatly been associated with the level of technology. Countries that have succeeded in harnessing the potential of ICT have been said to have taken a positive step towards a greatly expanded economic growth, improved human welfare and stronger forms of democratic governance. There are however a lot of imbalances between countries that have access to ICT hence the notion of digital divide. In developing countries, this divide can be found in the preliminaries of being able to reap the advantages of ICT. In Kenya, there are not just discrepancies in the availability of resources but also in the ability to use the few available resources. This digital divide is even wider in that investment of ICT seems to be more biased towards the formal sector than other sectors of education. Although there is a lot of effort made like digitization of educational materials for the formal sector, it is important to find out how this is realized in adult literacy classes. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of computers by the ECD student teachers and adult education learners. The study further explored the integration of ICT in teaching and learning in the two categories of learners. Two researcher developed questionnaires were used to gather the required information: one for the ECD teachers who were in their training sessions and the other for adult learners in session in all parts of country. The paper stresses the indisputable need for use of computers to promote education whether in formal or non-formal sector. The sample consisted of 395 pre-school teacher trainees and 200 adult learners. The findings indicated that only (39.17%) ECD teacher trainers and (90%) of adult learners had not acquired any computer skills. All the learners in ECD training and 88% of the respondents felt that computer skills would greatly improve their learning and help them to engage better with their environment which is full of ICT related gadgets. Based on these findings, it was recommended that there is need for the government to invest more in computers which should be made available in all centres in Kenya.

Keywords: Computer literacy, computer, information and communication technology, digital divide, teaching and learning

Oboko RO, Njeng ST. "Use of Concept Map Scaffolds to Promote Adaptive E-Learning in Web-Based System." International Journal of computing and ICT Research. 2011;5(2):59-66. AbstractFull text link

Scaffolds are a good method of implementing self-regulated learning. Use of prior knowledge makes the
learner to understand a topic better. Learner adaptation enables a learner to be presented with content that
matches his/her level of understanding.
The main aim of this project is to use the adaptive scaffolds in form of concept maps in web-based elearning
systems to play the role of learner guide. The learner creates a concept map from prior knowledge
to show how he/she understands a certain domain of knowledge. The concept map takes into account the
knowledge of the learner in that topic, and uses it to adapt to the user level. This is done by integrated
evaluation where the learner is presented with a concept map that matches his level of understanding as
he/she draws the concept map. The scaffolding and the adaptation are implemented using production rules.
Categories and Subject Descriptions: H.5.2 [Information Interfaces and Presentation]: User Interfaces –
User Centered Design; H.5.4 [Information Interfaces and Presentation]: Hypertext/Hypermedia –
Navigation, User issues; I.2.6 [Artificial Intelligence]: Learning – Concept learning; Induction; K.3.1
[Computers and Education]: Computer Uses in Education – Distance Learning, Computer Assisted
Instruction (CAI); J.4 [Social and Behavioral sciences]: Psychology
General Terms: Algorithms, Human Factors, Experimentation, Measurement, Performance
Additional Key Words: Scaffold, adaptation, prior knowledge, learner evaluation, concept maps,
cognition, adaptive e-learning systems, adaptive scaffolds, integrated assessment.

Ngaruiya N, Moturi CA. Use of Data Mining to Check the Prevalence of Prostate Cancer: Case of Nairobi County. Lilongwe, Malawi: IIMC International Information Management Corporation; 2015. Abstract

Prostate cancer has been on the rise in the past years and alarming cases being
found in men in their 20’s. The problem is that most of the cases are diagnosed in their late
stages thus the mortality rate being high. In recent years data driven analytic studies have
become a common complement with novel research where different tools and algorithms
are taking a centre stage in cancer research. In this research, the main objective was to use
data mining to derive patterns which were used in building a prognostic tool that helps in
identification of the Gleason score once screened and deciding the treatment technique. In
this research, we used two popular data mining tools (R Environment and WEKA) which
exhibited almost same results .The dataset contained around 485 records and 7 variables. In
WEKA, a 10-fold cross-validation was used in model building and comparison between
ANN and J48. The results showed that ANN is the most accurate predictor compared to
J48 in all the instances displaying varying levels in the different zones created. This study
contributes to society, academics and cancer research which ultimately assist in reduction
of mortality rates by use of pattern recognitions which leads to better decision making.
Furthermore, this is a potential impact in helping the GOK (Government of Kenya) in
establishing where they should correctly place the cancer diagnosis and treatment
equipment that were rolled out by the National government early 2015.

Kipchirchir KO, Ngugi KR, Wahome RG. "Use of Dry Land Tree Species (Prosopis juliflora) Seed Pods as Supplement Feed for Goats in the Arid and Semi Arid Lands of Kenya." Environmental Research Journal. 2011;5(2):66-73. AbstractWebsite

This study was conducted to determine the potential of incorporating Prosopis juliflora seed pods into typical dry land livestock production systems to minimize feed scarcity during the dry seasons and avoiding weight losses and poor performance. The study evaluated supplementation of weaner Galla goats with increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpods that is widely distributed in arid and semi arid areas of Kenya. This species is drought tolerant and with high productivity of seed pods whole year round. The overall aim of this study was therefore, to assess the feasibility of incorporating P. juliflora seedpods into a typical dry land livestock production system. The study further sought to find out the optimum supplementation level for improved performance. The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) which were randomly assigned to four treatments of 5 weaners each. The treatments were No P. juliflora (PJP0), 100 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP100), 200 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP200), 400 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP400). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective diets in the morning before mixed species range grass hay was offered as basal diet. The animals were weighed on weekly basis and weight gains calculated as difference in previous week’s weight and current week’s weight. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control group throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, this was not statistically significant (p<0.05). From the 5th week up to the 10th week, there was significant difference (p<0.05) in the growth rates for the treatments except for the control group. Overall, treatment PJP200 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.960c) followed by PJP400 (2.700 kg). Group PJP0 had the lowest weight gain by the end of the experiment. The supplemented groups showed good weight gains, body condition and retained nitrogen levels compared to the un-supplemented groups.

Kipchirchir, Koech O, Ngugi K. "Use of Dry Land Tree Species (Prosopis juliflora) Seed Pods as Supplement Feed for Goats in the Arid and Semi Arid Lands of Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the potential of incorporating Prosopis juliflora seed pods into typical dry land livestock production systems to minimize feed scarcity during the dry seasons and avoiding weight losses and poor performance. The study evaluated supplementation of weaner Galla goats with increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpods that is widely distributed in arid and semi arid areas of Kenya. This species is drought tolerant and with high productivity of seed pods whole year round. The overall aim of this study was therefore, to assess the feasibility of incorporating P. juliflora seedpods into a typical dry land livestock production system. The study further sought to find out the optimum supplementation level for improved performance. The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) which were randomly assigned to four treatments of 5 weaners each. The treatments were No P. juliflora (PJP0), 100 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP100), 200 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP200), 400 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP400). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective diets in the morning before mixed species range grass hay was offered as basal diet. The animals were weighed on weekly basis and weight gains calculated as difference in previous week’s weight and current week’s weight. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control group throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, this was not statistically significant (p<0.05). From the 5th week up to the 10th week, there was significant difference (p<0.05) in the growth rates for the treatments except for the control group. Overall, treatment PJP200 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.960c) followed by PJP400 (2.700 kg). Group PJP0 had the lowest weight gain by the end of the experiment. The supplemented groups showed good weight gains, body condition and retained nitrogen levels compared to the un-supplemented groups

Graham MD, Nyumba TO. The use of electrified fences to mitigate human-elephant conflict: experiences from the Laikipia Plateau in northern Kenya. South Africa: Mammmal Research Institute, University of Pretoria.; 2010.
Graham MD, Nyumba TO. "The use of electrified fences to mitigate human-elephant conflict: experiences from the Laikipia Plateau in northern Kenya.". In: Fencing Impacts: A Review of the Environmental, Social and Economic Impacts of Game and Veterinary Fencing in Africa with Particular Reference to the Great Limpopo and Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Areas. Mammmal Research Institute, University of Pretoria.; 2010:. Abstract
n/a
Karanja, N.K, Wachira, P.M, Muthomi, J.W, Phiri, I.K., Mutegi, C.K, Nzioki, H.S, Gikaru, A.K, Kanampiu. "Use of geographical information system to determine incidence of Aspergillus section flavi in different soils in Kaiti, Kenya.". In: 13th ARI Conference: Agricultural innovation system for improved productivity and competitiveness in pursuit of vision 2030”. KARI HQs; 2012.
Karanja LW, Wachira PM, Muthomi JW, Phiri NA, Mutegi CK, Nzioki HS, Gikaru AK, Kanampiu F, J.M W. "Use of geographical information system to determine incidence of Aspergillus section flavi in different soils in Kaiti, Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2013;Accepted.
Karanja, N.K, Wachira, P.M, Muthomi, J.W, Phiri, I.K., Mutegi, C.K, Nzioki, H.S, Gikaru, A.K, Kanampiu F, Wagacha, J.M. "Use of geographical information system to determine incidence of Aspergillus section flavi in different soils in Kaiti, Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2013.
Kosgei T, Makumbi D, Njoroge K. "Use of GGE biplot method to evaluate stability of performance of new maize hybrids in eastern Africa.". In: aGRO 2011 Biennial Conference c2098.; 2011.
Kimenju JW;, Kagundu AM;, Nderitu JH;, Omuolo FM;, Mutua GK. "Use of green manure plants in cropping systems to suppress root-knot nematodes."; 2007. Abstract

Green manure plants namely Calliandra calothyrsus, Canavalia ensiformis, Chenopodium quinoa, Crotalaria juncea, Desmodium uncinartum, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Mucuna pruriens, Tephrosia purpurea, Tithonia diversifolia and Vicia villosa were evaluated to determine their reaction to Meloidogyne javanica. Sesbania sesban and Tagetes minuta were included as susceptible and resistant checks respectively. In the glasshouse, pots were filled with steam-sterilized soil, sown with the green manure plant, and then infested with 4,000 eggs and juveniles of M. javanica. Field experiments were conducted in plots infested with a mixed population of M. javanica and M. incognita. Crotalaria juncea, D. uncinartum, G. sepium, L. leucocephala, M. pruriens, T. diversifolia and T. minuta had galling and eggmass indices lower than 2 and reduced nematode populations by up to 80%. Calliandra calothyrsus, C. quinoa and C. ensiformis had galling indices lower than 4 and eggmass indices less than 3.2. Vicia villosa and T. purpurea were susceptible with galling indices greater than 7 and nematode population buildup of up to 500%. Chenopodium quinoa, C. juncea, D. uncinartum, G. sepium, L. leucocephala, M. pruriens and T. diversifolia are suppressive to root-knot nematodes and can therefore be recommended as rotation, fallow or cover crops.

Kimenju JW;, Kagundu AM;, Nderitu JH;, Omuolo FM;, Mutua GK. "Use of green manure plants in cropping systems to suppress root-knot nematodes."; 2007. Abstract

Green manure plants namely Calliandra calothyrsus, Canavalia ensiformis, Chenopodium quinoa, Crotalaria juncea, Desmodium uncinartum, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Mucuna pruriens, Tephrosia purpurea, Tithonia diversifolia and Vicia villosa were evaluated to determine their reaction to Meloidogyne javanica. Sesbania sesban and Tagetes minuta were included as susceptible and resistant checks respectively. In the glasshouse, pots were filled with steam-sterilized soil, sown with the green manure plant, and then infested with 4,000 eggs and juveniles of M. javanica. Field experiments were conducted in plots infested with a mixed population of M. javanica and M. incognita. Crotalaria juncea, D. uncinartum, G. sepium, L. leucocephala, M. pruriens, T. diversifolia and T. minuta had galling and eggmass indices lower than 2 and reduced nematode populations by up to 80%. Calliandra calothyrsus, C. quinoa and C. ensiformis had galling indices lower than 4 and eggmass indices less than 3.2. Vicia villosa and T. purpurea were susceptible with galling indices greater than 7 and nematode population buildup of up to 500%. Chenopodium quinoa, C. juncea, D. uncinartum, G. sepium, L. leucocephala, M. pruriens and T. diversifolia are suppressive to root-knot nematodes and can therefore be recommended as rotation, fallow or cover crops.

Nyanchaga NE. "The use of historical trends in the governance of water and sanitation services to predict the future service level: Kenyan perspective”.". In: The Water and Sanitation Challenge in Africa: What΄s History got to do with it? 5th International Water History Association Conference: Past and Futures of Water” . Tampere, Finland; 2007.
Heffron R, Donnell D, Rees H, Celum C, Mugo N, Were E, de Bruyn G, Nakku-Joloba E, Ngure K, Kiarie J, Coombs RW, Baeten JM. "Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort study." Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12(1):19-26. Abstract

Hormonal contraceptives are used widely but their effects on HIV-1 risk are unclear. We aimed to assess the association between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 acquisition by women and HIV-1 transmission from HIV-1-infected women to their male partners.

Heffron R, Donnell D, Rees H, Celum C, Mugo N, Were E, de Bruyn G, Nakku-Joloba E, Ngure K, Kiarie J, Coombs RW, Baeten JM. "Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort study." Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12(1):19-26. Abstract

Hormonal contraceptives are used widely but their effects on HIV-1 risk are unclear. We aimed to assess the association between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 acquisition by women and HIV-1 transmission from HIV-1-infected women to their male partners.

Were FH. Use of human nails as a bio-indicator of heavy metals overload in children. Njue W, Murungi J, Wanjau R, eds. Nairobi: Kenyatta University; 2011. Abstract

Metal pollution and its health effects present a challenge currently facing developing countries. Hair and nail were suggested as more attractive biomarkers among various biopsy materials (teeth, bone, urine, blood and other body fluids) in assessing human metal environmental exposure especially in developing countries because the analysis is economical and not susceptible to contaminations. Recent studies have indicated increasing levels of Pb and Cd in urban and agricultural areas. Studies have identified children as a special risk group as absorption and toxicity of toxic metals is inversely proportional to the age. Absorption of these metals in their gastrointestinal tract also depends on nutritional factors and interaction with other dietary components such as those of Zn, Fe and Ca. This study was therefore set to evaluate the concentration of Pb, Ca, Zn, Cd and Fe in the nails of children (n=200) under the age of six years as bioindicators of risk exposure. The concentrations of these metals were compared in toenails and fingernails samples of children (n=33). The sampling covered schools in both urban and rural settings. Factors that were suspected to influence the accumulation of Pb and Cd in children were obtained using a questionnaire. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of the metals. The heavy metal levels in fingernails of children in urban areas were significantly higher than those of rural areas (P < 0.05; df = 168). The mean levels in urban areas were 27.5±1.8mg/g Pb and 0.73±0.08 mg/g Cd while those of rural areas were 19.7±0.9 mg/g Pb and 0.44±0.06 mg/g Cd. The correlation results indicated that high levels of Pb in the fingernail samples negatively correlated with Zn and Fe (R = -0.256 Zn; -0.188 Fe) but not Ca levels while high levels of Cd had a negative relationship with Fe (R = -0.241) only. Other factors that were found to have significant influence were socio-economic background, dietary habits and environmental risk exposure. The results also showed that the school location had more influence on the heavy metals level than the area of residence. The children in a school near the highway were found to have a mean of 34.4±3.5 NLm/g Pb as compared to those whose residence was near the highway (31.6±2.8 mg/g Pb), implying that the contaminants are from a common source. The study established that the mean metal levels were generally higher in the toenail than in fingernail samples. However, the difference was not significant (P > 0.05), therefore either the toenail or the fingernail could be used as bio-indicator. The association of toxic metals in the nails of children with environmental exposure and nutritional factors implies that policies and strategies to reduce the heavy metal levels should be implemented and reinforced to address the health issues affecting children in this country. This could be facilitated by improving the conditions of the schools and residential areas and sensitizing the general public on nutrition and effects of heavy metals.

Were FH, Njue W, Murungi J, Wanjau R. "Use of human nails as bio-indicators of heavy metals environmental exposure among school age children in Kenya." Science of The Total Environment. 2008;393(2-3):376-384. AbstractWebsite

Metal pollution and its health effects present a challenge currently facing the developing countries. Metal poisoning is usually difficult and expensive to assess or screen in these countries due to limited resources, which means that policies, guidelines, regulations and institutional managements are limited. Hair and nail as biopsy materials were suggested as more attractive biomarkers in assessing heavy metals environmental exposure. This paper deals with quantitative determination of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) in fingernails of children (n = 200) in urban and rural areas using atomic absorption spectrometry. Factors that were suspected to influence the accumulation of Pb and Cd in children were obtained through a questionnaire. The mean levels of heavy metals in children in urban areas were found to be higher (27.5 ± 1.8 μg/g Pb and 0.73 ± 0.08 μg/g Cd) than in rural areas (19.7 ± 0.9 μg/g Pb and 0.44 ± 0.06 μg/g Cd). The difference was significant (P < 0.05; DF = 168, t-test). Other factors that were found to have significant influence were socio-economic background, health conditions, dietary habits and environmental risk exposure. The results also showed that the school location has more influence on the heavy metals level than the area of residence. The children in a school near the highway were found to have a mean of 34.4 ± 3.5 μg/g Pb as compared to those who lived near the highway (31.6 ± 2.8 μg/g Pb), however the difference was not significant (P > 0.05), suggesting a common source of contaminants in the areas. The correlation results also indicated that a high level of Pb in the nail influenced negatively Zn and Fe but not Ca levels (R = − 0.256 Zn; − 0.188 Fe) while high levels of Cd had a negative relationship with Fe only (R = − 0.241). The association of toxic metals in the nails of children with environmental exposure, and nutritional status implies that policies and actions to reduce heavy metal levels must be implemented and reinforced to address the health issues affecting children and by extension the general public in this country.

Njenga MK, Nyaga PN, Buoro IBJ;, Gathumbi PK. "Use of hyperimmune serum as a prophylaxis in puppies CPV-2 enteritis infection.". 1991.
Akwale WS, Ongore D, Kimani VN, Njoroge FK. "Use of insecticide treated bed nets among pregnant women in Kilifi District, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Malaria is one of the most serious public health problems in Kenya. Pregnant women are among the groups with the highest risk of malaria. Use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) is a cost-effective method of controlling malaria. Despite this, there is low utilisation of ITNs among pregnant women in Kilifi district which is an endemic malaria zone. To determine knowledge, attitude and practice on the use of ITNs in the prevention of malaria among pregnant women in Kilifi district. A descriptive cross-sectional study. The district hospital and the five health centres in Kilifi district Two hundred and twenty pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) between October and December 2007. Knowledge on malaria illness and ITNs was high with majority of pregnant women having adequate level of knowledge (86.9%). There was significant association between level of education and adequate knowledge (P-value = 0.010). Good attitude on ITNs use was low. There was no association between good attitude and any of the socio-demographic variables. The majority of pregnant women attending ANC owned ITNs (75.4%). ITNs usage was high (70.5%). There was significant association between religion and good practice (p-value = 0.050). Although adequate level of knowledge on malaria and protective role of ITNs was high, there was no association between knowledge with practice and attitude. Before any malaria preventive intervention is implemented in an area, different socio-cultural factors must be considered when behavioural interventions for malaria control are designed and implemented. Targeted health education should be disseminated to the community to remove stigma and misconceptions associated with ITNs. Community concerns and fears should be addressed.

Njenga ST, Oboko RO, Omwenga EI, Maina EM. "Use of Intelligent Agents in Collaborative M-Learning: Case of Facilitating Group Learner Interactions." International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science. 2017;9(10):18. AbstractFull Text Link

Intelligent agents have been used in collaborative learning. However, they are
rarely used to facilitate group interactions in collaborative m-learning environments. In view
of this, the paper discusses the use of intelligent agents in facilitating collaborative learning
in mobile learning environments. The paper demonstrates how to design intelligent agents
and integrate them in collaborative mobile learning environments to allow group learners to
improve their levels of group knowledge construction.

Njenga ST, Oboko RO, Omwenga EI, Maina EM. "Use of Intelligent Agents in Collaborative M-Learning: Case of Facilitating Group Learner Interactions." International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science. 2017;9(10):18. AbstractFull website link

Intelligent agents have been used in collaborative learning. However, they are rarely used to
facilitate group interactions in collaborative m-learning environments. In view of this, the
paper discusses the use of intelligent agents in facilitating collaborative learning in mobile
learning environments. The paper demonstrates how to design intelligent agents and
integrate them in collaborative mobile learning environments to allow group learners to
improve their levels of group knowledge construction. The design was implemented in a
collaborative mobile learning system running on Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic
Learning Environment (Moodle) platform. The application was used in some experiments to
investigate the effects of those facilitated interactions on the level of group knowledge
construction.

Masika M, Omondi G, Natembeya D, Mugane E, Bosire K, Kibwage I. "Use of mobile learning technology among final year medical students in Kenya." Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;21. Abstractabstract_-_use_of_mobile_learning_technology_among_final_year_medical_students_in_kenya.pdfeducational_use_of_smartphones.jpg

Use of mobile learning technology among final year medical students in Kenya.
Masika MM, Omondi GB, Natembeya DS, Mugane EM, Bosire KO, Kibwage IO.

INTRODUCTION: Mobile phone penetration has increased exponentially over the last decade as has its application in nearly all spheres of life including health and medical education. This study aimed at assessing the use of mobile learning technology and its challenges among final year undergraduate students in the College of Health sciences, University of Nairobi.

METHODS:This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among final year undergraduate students at the University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were issued to all final year students in their lecture rooms after obtaining informed consent. Data on demographics, mobile device ownership and mobile learning technology use and its challenges was collected. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS(®). Chi-square and t-test were used for bivariate analysis.

RESULTS: We had 292 respondents; 62% were medical students, 16% were nursing students, 13% were pharmacy students and 9% were dental surgery students. The majority were female (59%) and the average age was 24 years. Eighty eight percent (88%) of the respondents owned a smart device and nearly all of them used it for learning. 64% of the respondents used medical mobile applications. The main challenges were lack of a smart device, lack of technical know-how in accessing or using apps, sub-optimal internet access, cost of acquiring apps and limited device memory.

CONCLUSION: Mobile learning is increasingly popular among medical students and should be leveraged in promoting access and quality of medical education.

KEYWORDS: Smartphone; medical education; mobile application; mobile learning; mobile-device

Pan Afr Med J. 2015 Jun 15;21:127. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2015.21.127.6185. eCollection 2015.

Masika MM, Omondi GB, Natembeya DS, Mugane EM, Bosire KO, Kibwage IO. "Use of mobile learning technology among final year medical students in Kenya." Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;21(127). Abstractuse_of_mobile_learning_technology_among_final_year_medical_students_in_kenya.pdf

Introduction: Mobile phone penetration has increased exponentially over the last decade as has its application in nearly all spheres of life including health and medical education. This study aimed at assessing the use of mobile learning technology and its challenges among final year undergraduate students in the College of Health sciences, University of Nairobi.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among final year undergraduate students at the University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were issued to all final year students in their lecture rooms after obtaining informed consent. Data on demographics, mobile device ownership and mobile learning technology use and its challenges was collected. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS®. Chi-square and t-test were used for bivariate analysis.
Results: We had 292 respondents; 62% were medical students, 16% were nursing students, 13% were pharmacy students and 9% were dental surgery students. The majority were female (59%) and the average age was 24 years. Eighty eight percent (88%) of the respondents owned a smart device and nearly all of them used it for learning. 64% of the respondents used medical mobile applications. The main challenges were lack of a smart device, lack of technical know-how in accessing or using apps, sub-optimal internet access, cost of acquiring apps and limited device memory.
Conclusion: Mobile learning is increasingly popular among medical students and should be leveraged in promoting access and quality of medical education.

Keiyoro K, Ngunjiri. "Use of Mobile Telephone in reporting notifiable diseases in Kenya,." Elearning Africa publications.. 2012.
W K, GK G, J M, N A. "The use of participatory epidemiology to determine the Prevalence rate and economic impacts of ppr and ccpp in Turkana county of Kenya." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr . 2012;(60):241-249. Abstractbahpa-2012.pdf

Participatory epidemiological Research was conducted in Turkana to identify the two most important livestock diseases, and then characterize their incidence and the economic impact. The study was carried out between 12th to 26th September 2011. Semi-structured interviews, guided by checklists were completed with groups of respondents in each of the 16 randomly selected villages (adakars) to collect
data on livestock diseases and their impact on the livelihood of the people. Simple ranking techniques,
proportional piling exercises and matrix scoring methods were used to collect data on the importance of
the diseases identified. Matrix scoring of clinical signs was used to correlate the disease terms provided by the respondents in local language with the scientific names. The research focused on Lomooh or peste des petit ruminants (PPR) and Loukoi or contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). Disease impact matrix scoring (DIMS) was used to correlate the diseases to the economic losses, while participatory mapping, time lines and seasonal calendars were used describe the spatial and seasonal distribution of the diseases. Transect drives was used to collect data on the pasture conditions. Lomooh (peste des petits ruminants) was reported to occur in outbreaks with a median morbidity of 65% and a range of 25% to 90% and a case fatality rate median and range of 95% and 75, to 100% respectively. Loukoi (CCPP) on the other hand was described to be an endemic disease known by the community for a long time and had a median morbidity rate of 50% (with range of 39 to 75% and a median and range case fatality rate of 62% and 40 to 85%, respectively). These losses led to reduced income and food insecurity at the household levels. The biggest challenge to livestock farming (which contributed to 75% of the livelihood) was recurrent drought, insecurity and diseases, with CCPP and PPR being considered as having the largest impact. Respondents indicated that these challenges have made people worse off than they were 20 and 10 years ago and more reliant on external food aid.

Kamundia PW, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Mdegela RH. "Use of qualitative and semi-quantitative histopathology assessment of water pollution and infection in Oreochromis niloticus of Lake Victoria.". In: Kenya Veterinary association’s 54th Annual Scientific conference . Malindi, Kilifi County ; 2021.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Use of roadside soils and vegetation in monitoring motor vehicle lead pollution," Proceedings:.". In: Inaugral Conference of the Kenya Chemical Society, Nairobi, June 1993. Survey Review; 1993. Abstract
n/a
Gichuhi L, Kalai J, Mutegi R, Okoth U, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media Platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education." journal of Education and Leadership Studies. 2020;1(2):25-39.use_of_social_media_platforms_and_content_delivery_in_higher_education.pdf
Gichuhi L, Kalai J, Mutegi R, Okoth U, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media Platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education." Journal of Higher Education Policy and Leadership Studies.. 2020;1(2):25-39.
Gichuhi, S, Kalai, J.M., Okoth, S.A, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education: A Case of School of Education, University of Nairobi." Journal of Higher Education Policy and Leadership Studies. JHEPALS . 2020;2(1).
N. O, Delsol JP, Agatsiva JL. "Use of Spot Data in evaluating interrelationships between human settlements and forest resources in Namanga area of Kenya." Proceedings of 23rd Symposium on remote sensing of the environment . 1990.
Kimani P.K., Njoroge B. N. K., Gitau A. N. "Use of UASB reactor in treatment of Dairy industry wastewater in New KCC Kitale factory, Kenya." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2012;5:2(ISSN-0974-407X.):111-125.
Njoroge EM;, Mbithi PMF;, Gathuma JM;, Wachira TM;, Magambo, J.K.; Zeyhle E. "Use of ultrasound in diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in domestic intermediate hosts in Kenya."; 2001.
Njoroge EM;, Mbithi PMF;, Gathuma JM;, Wachira TM;, Magambo JK;, Zeyhle E. "Use of ultrasound in diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in domestic intermediate hosts in Kenya."; 2001.
Karimurio J, Rono H, Njomo D, Sironka J, Kareko C, Gichangi M, Barasa E, A M, Kefa R, Kiio F. "Use of validated community-based trachoma trichiasis (TT) case finders to measure the total backlog and detect when elimination threshold is achieved: a TT methodology paper." Pan Afr Med J. 2017;27:18.
Bedi A, Kimalu P, Kimenyi MS, Manda DK, Mwabu G, Nafula NN. "User Charges and utilisation of Health Services in Kenya” Working paper No. 381." Instit ute of Social Studies, the Hague, The Netherlands. 2003.
Ayienga E, Opiyo E, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Using Multi-Agent Systems for Efficient Network Resource allocation with Quality of Service Guarantees in Computational Grids.". In: International ICT Workshop on Application of ICT in Enhancing Higher Learning Education. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2004.
 Kathumo VM, Gachene CKK, Okello JJ, Ngigi M, Miruka M. Using PGIS Reverse Lower Tana River Forest Destruction: Comprehending the Magnitude of Problem, Kenya.; 2012.
Mwangi H, Williams D, Waema T, Nganga Z. "Using system dynamics to understand the role of cofactors TB and malaria in the progression of HIV." International Journal of System Dynamics. 2015.
Arshad-Ayaz A, Naseem MA, Inyega J. "Using technology for learning: generalizable lessons from educational technology integration in Kenya. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. ." Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. 2022;48(2):1-19.
Kabuage LW;, Mbugua PN;, Mitaru BN;, Ngatia TA. "Utilisation Of Minerals In Grain Amaranth Diets By Broiler Chickens."; 1998.
Kabuage LW;, Mbugua PN;, Mitaru BN;, Ngatia TA. "Utilisation Of Minerals In Grain Amaranth Diets By Broiler Chickens."; 1998.

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