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Ndetei DM;, Khasakhala L;, Ongecha-Owuor F;, Kuria M;, Mutiso V;, Syanda J;, Kokonya D. Attitudes toward Psychiatry: A Survey of Medical Students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya.; 2008. Abstract

A dissonance between a positive attitude toward psy- chiatry as a specialty and the choice of psychiatryas acareerhasbeennotedinanumberofstudies(1–5).Various explanations have been proposed for this phenomenon. According to one of the studies, the teaching of psychiatry at the undergraduatelevelwasdisorganizedornot done properly (1). Other studies have reported that compared to other specialists, psychiatrists are perceived to earnlessmoney,tobelessrespected,andtohavelessprestige (1, 6). Notwithstanding, psychiatry has been rated higher than any other discipline on intellectual challenge (5). Although the studies mentioned so far (1–5) generally reported that disparity between a positive attitude and choice as a career exists, the actual levels of dissonance varybetweenstudiesandbetweencountries.Oneprobable explanationforthiswidevariationcouldbethedifferences

J.K. W, C.M. M, N.P. G, M.J. N, A.G. T, J. N. "Atypical dermatophilosis of sheep in Kenya ." 0038-2809 Tydskr.S.Afr.vet.Ver.. 2007;78(3):181-182.dr._pauline_gitonga_publication_5-atypical_dermatophilosis_of__sheep_in_kenya.pdf.pdf
Nzioki C, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Musoke R, English M. "AUDIT OF CARE FOR CHILDREN AGED 6 TO 59 MONTHS ADMITTED WITH SEVERE MALNUTRITION AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL, KENYA." Int Health. 2009;1(1):91-96. Abstract

We conducted a prospective audit of 101 children with severe malnutrition aged 6 to 59 months admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya's largest tertiary level health facility, from February-April 2008. A structured tool was prepared to capture data to allow assessment of implementation of the WHO guidelines steps 1-8. Overall, 58% of children had marasmus and 47% of children were younger than one year old. Common co-morbidities at admission were diarrhoea (70.3%) and pneumonia (51.4%). The highest degree of implementation was observed for Step 5, treatment of potentially severe infections (90%, (95% CI 85.1-96.9)). Only 55% of the patients had F75 prescribed although this starter formula was available in this hospital. There was a delay in initiating feeds with a median time of 14.7 hours from the time of admission. There was modest implementation of Step 2, ensuring warmth (46.5%, 36.8-56.2), Step 3, treat dehydration (54.9%, 43.3-66.5) and Step 4, correct electrolyte imbalance, (45.5%, 35.6-55.8%). There was least implementation of Step 8, transition to catch-up feeding (23.8%, 13.6-34.0). We conclude that quality of care for children admitted with severe malnutrition at KNH is inadequate and often does not follow the WHO guidelines. Improving care will require a holistic and not simply medical approach.

Tanaka K, Nagata D, Hirata Y, Tabata Y, Nagai R, Sata M. "Augmented angiogenesis in adventitia promotes growth of atherosclerotic plaque in apolipoprotein {E}-deficient mice." Atherosclerosis. 2011;215:366-373. Abstract

{OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests that exaggerated formation of vasa vasorum (VV) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether augmented angiogenesis in the adventitia could promote hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerotic lesion formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we analyzed the time course of VV development in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. VV proliferation was observed only after atherosclerotic lesion formation. Next, we investigated whether forced perivascular angiogenesis could promote plaque progression. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (100 μg/body) incorporated in acid gelatin hydrogel microspheres (AGHM) (bFGF+AGHM group

Nganga W. "Automatic Word Sense Disambiguation of Kiswahili Nouns.". In: Proceedings of the Fourth World Congress of African Linguistics. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag; 2003:. Abstract
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Nyunja J, Ntiba M, Onyari J, Mavuti K, Soetaert K, Bouillon S. "Autotrophic carbon sources for fish communities in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Gazi bay, Kenya).". 2009.Website
Nyunja J, Ntiba M, Onyari J, Mavuti K, Soetaert K, Bouillon S. "Autotrophic carbon sources for fish communities in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Gazi bay, Kenya).". 2009.Website
Nyunja J, Ntiba M, Onyari J, Mavuti K, Soetaert K, Bouillon S. "Autotrophic carbon sources for fish communities in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Gazi bay, Kenya).". 2009.Website
Rintaugu EG, Nteere JS. "Availability and adequacy of sport facilities and equipment in selected secondary schools in Kenya." The Fountain,Journal of Education. 2011;5(1):84-96.
Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and Prices of Antimalarials and Staffing Levels in Health Facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2019;22(1):26-34. Abstract

Effective treatment of malaria relies on the availability of quality medicines while pricing is a major determinant of affordability. In addition, adequate numbers of competent staff of different cadres is essential for a well-functioning health system and effective health service delivery. The aim of the study was to determine the availability and prices of antimalarial medicines as well as staffing levels in healthcare facilities located in Embu County, Kenya. Antimalarials were sampled from 11 public (government owned) facilities, 29 private pharmacies, 5 private-for-profit and 3 not-for-profit mission health facilities in May-June 2014. The majority of public facilities (91%) had artemether-lumefantrine (AL) tablets in stock. Government and mission facilities did not stock second line antimalarials or sulfonamide-pyrimethamine (SP). All public facilities provided antimalarials free-of-charge to patients. Private pharmacies stocked a wider variety of antimalarials. The facilities studied were stocked with recommended antimalarials both in the private and public domains. No oral artemisinin monotherapies were encountered during the study. Only 45% percent of public facilities employed pharmacists. Of the remaining facilities, 27% employed pharmaceutical technologists while in the rest of the facilities pharmaceuticals were in the custody of nurses. Notably, none of the private-for-profit or mission facilities had pharmacists employed in their establishments; one facility employed a pharmaceutical technologist, while the rest were staffed by nurses. The number of private pharmacies superintended by pharmacists and pharmaceutical technologists were 7 (24%) and 22 (76%), respectively.

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and prices of antimalarials and staffing levels in health facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. . 2019;22:26-34.
Mwangi J, Ndithia HK, Kentie R, Muchai M, Tieleman IB. "AVIAN BIOLOGY.". 2018. Abstract
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Ndithia HK, Versteegh MA, Muchai M, Tieleman IB. "AVIAN BIOLOGY.". 2019. Abstract
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Njoroge P, Muchane M, Wamiti W, Kamau KD, Githiru M. "Avifauna of Ishaqbini Community Conservancy in Ijara District, NE Kenya." Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. 2008;28:15-24. Abstract
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Rwakatema DS, Ng’ang’a P, Kemoli AM. "Awareness and concerns about malocclusion amongst 12-15 year-old children in Moshi, Tanzania." E Afr Med J. 2006;83:92-97.
Kimeli P, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EM. "Awareness and Practice of Claw Trimming in Cows within Smallholder Zero-Grazing Dairy Units in Kikuyu District, Kenya: A Survey Study." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2014;3(3):139-141.
Kirui OK;, Okello JJ;, Nyikal RA. "Awareness and use of m-banking services in agriculture: The case of smallholder farmers in Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based banking services that started in Kenya urban centers have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds invest in agriculture finance transactions. This study examines the awareness and use of m-banking services among rural farmers in Kenya. It also assesses the factors conditioning the use of such services. The study finds high awareness of m-banking services among the smallholder farmers. It also finds that education, distance to a commercial bank, membership to farmer organizations, distance to the m-banking agents, and endowment with physical and financial assets affect the use of m-banking services. It discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

Kirui OK;, Okello JJ;, Nyikal RA. "Awareness and use of m-banking services in agriculture: The case of smallholder farmers in Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based banking services that started in Kenya urban centers have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds invest in agriculture finance transactions. This study examines the awareness and use of m-banking services among rural farmers in Kenya. It also assesses the factors conditioning the use of such services. The study finds high awareness of m-banking services among the smallholder farmers. It also finds that education, distance to a commercial bank, membership to farmer organizations, distance to the m-banking agents, and endowment with physical and financial assets affect the use of m-banking services. It discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

Kirui OK, Okello JJ, Nyikal RA. "Awareness of Mobile Phone-Based Money Transfer Services in Agriculture by Smallholder Farmers in Kenya." International Journal of ICT Research and Development in Africa. 2012;3(1):1-13. AbstractWebsite

Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based money transfer services that started in Kenya urban centres have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds to invest in agricultural financial transactions. This study examines the awareness of mobile phone-based money transfer services (MMT) among rural farmers in Kenya and examines the various uses of money transferred through such services. The study employs descriptive analysis and found a very high awareness of mobile phone-based money transfer services among the smallholder farmers and found predominant use of remitted funds for agricultural related purposes (purchase of seed, fertilizer for planting and topdressing, farm equipment/implements, leasing of land for farming, wages for labour). The study concludes that there is need to expand the coverage of MMT services in rural areas since it resolves an idiosyncratic market failure that farmers face namely access to financial services. It discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

NELSON DRAWORIMARK. "Awori MN, Jani PG.Surgical implications of abdominal pain in patients presenting to the Kenyatta National Hospital casualty department with abdominal pain.East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):307-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):307-10. Academic Journals; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the local aetiological spectrum of surgically relevant causes of abdominal pain. DESIGN: A prospective descriptive study was carried out. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya during the month of October 2002. SUBJECTS: Patients aged 13 years and older presenting to the casualty department with abdominal pain were followed through the hospital system to determine whether they would undergo laparotomy and, in those cases who underwent laparotomy, to determine the nature of the pathology found at laparatomy. RESULTS: Abdominal pain was a presenting complaint in 1557 (16.7%) of patients presenting to the casualty department during the study period. Abdominal pain accounted for 17.9% (398 out of 2225 patients) of all admissions via the casualty department. Laparotomy was performed on 68 (4.4%) of patients who presented with abdominal pain to the casualty department. In female patients presenting with abdominal pain, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy and acute appendicitis was 65.3% and 16.3% respectively. The incidence of neoplasia found at laparatomy, for abdominal pain, on patients admitted to the general surgical ward was 3.0%. The incidence of neoplasia, as a cause of abdominal pain resulting in laparatomy was 3.3%. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the fact, with respects to abdominal pain, that there are significant differences between the disease patterns in different geographical locations. Assuming the converse could adversely affect the management of patients with abdominal pain locally.
NELSON DRAWORIMARK. "Awori MN, Ogendo SW, Gitome SW, Ong'uti SK, Obonyo NG.Management pathway for congenital heart disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jul;84(7):312-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jul;84(7):312-7. Academic Journals; 2007. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a significant cause of death amongst infants. The timing of treatment in relation to the natural history of the disease correlates with the treatment outcome. OBJECTIVES: To determine the age at first suspicion of CHD, the age at confirmation of the diagnosis of CHD and the percentage follow-up at the first post diagnosis out patient clinic and to determine the influence of patient's sex, parental income and parental education have on the MP. DESIGN: A five year retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital between January 1st 2000 and December 31st 2004. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and fourteen patients were studied. RESULTS: The overall mean age at referral to a paediatric cardiologist was 16.9 +/- 24.4 months [n = 102]. The mean age at which CHD was confirmed by echocardiography was 18.6 +/- 25.6 months [n = 202]. The mean age at which CHD was first suspected in patients from the province with the highest parental income was 9.5 +/- 5.1 months [n = 6]. The mean age at which CHD was first suspected in patients from a province with a significantly lower parent income was 19.1 +/- 23.2 months [n = 22], (p = 0. 046). The mean age at which CHD was confirmed in referred male patients was 16.0 +/- 17.6 months [n=48] and the mean age at which CHD was confirmed in referred female patients was 18.8 +/- 21.7 months [n = 52] (p = 0.25). CONCLUSION: The mean age at referral to a paediatric cardiologist was 16.9 months. This suggests that a significant number of patients may miss the opportunity to have optimal surgical intervention. Parental income appears to influence the MP, however, the level of parental education and patient sex did not.

NELSON DRAWORIMARK. "Awori MN, Ogendo SW.Rachs-1 system in risk stratification for congenital heart disease surgery outcome.East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):36-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):36-8. Academic Journals; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) system has been used as a benchmark to compare surgical results in developed countries. Its ability to stratify postoperative mortality risk has been validated in several developed countries, however, this has not been examined in a developing country. OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of the RACHS-1 system to stratify postoperative mortality risk in a developing country. DESIGN: Retrospective study over a five year period between 1st January 2002 and 31st December 2006. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and seventeen consecutive operations were performed on 313 patients aged between 0.25 and 204 months. RESULTS: Operations were performed in RACHS-1 categories 1, 2, 3 and 4 with hospital mortalities of 2.5%, 16.9%, 29.4% and 50% respectively. The difference in mortality between categories 1 and 2 was significant (p-value of 0.0003), however, the difference in mortality between categories 2 and 3 and categories 3 and 4 was not significant (p-values 0.193 and 0.67 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The RACHS-1 system did not adequately stratify risk in a low case load setting. The use of the RACHS-1 method as a benchmark to compare surgical results of paediatric cardiac surgery services in developing countries may be limited.
NGUGI MRTHIMBADAVID. "Ayiecho, P.O , S.p sigh and D.Thimba, 1988. Popping quality of grain Amaranths E.Afr.Agri.For.J.54(2)85-89.". In: Proceedings of workshop on . RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1988. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
B
Neema G. Mturo*, Zaja Omboga KW;. "b) Uhalisiamazingaombwe katika Muktadha wa Ubaada-ukoloni: Mchango wa Vita vya Mapenzi Riwaya ya Maundu Mwingizi, ." Mara Research Journal of Kiswahili . 2018;Vol. 3, No. 1(June 2018, No 1):Pages 22-31, .
NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "B. Ochieng and E. Kituyi (eds) Adapting to Climate Change: Challenges and Options for Africa.". In: Innovation Vol.7 No.2, November 2000. 36p. African Centre for Technology Studies, Nairobi. BEP Electronic Press; 2000. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Njoroge BN, Ochieng B, Ngari SK. B. Ochieng, S.K. Ngari, B.N.K.Njoroge (no title provided).; 2013. Abstract

Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.

Njoroge BN, Ochieng B, Ngari SK. B. Ochieng, S.K. Ngari, B.N.K.Njoroge (no title provided).; 2013.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "B. Ochieng, S.K. Ngari, B.N.K.Njoroge, .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2001. Abstract
Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "B.N.K. Njoroge and J. K. Wairuri .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "B.N.K.Njoroge and Githere P.G. .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "B.N.K.Njoroge and S.G. Mwamachi .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS. "Bacillus cereus may produce two or more diarrhoeal enterotoxins.". In: journal. FARA; 1997. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
Keter L, Too R, Mutai C, Mwikwabe N, Ndwigah S, Orwa J, Mwamburi E. "Bacteria contaminants and their antibiotic sensitivity from selected herbal medicinal products from Eldoret and Mombasa, Kenya." American Journal of Microbiology. 2016;7(1):18-28.
Kutto EK, MW N, Njagi L W. "Bacterial contamination of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) along the supply chains in Nairobi and its environment." East African Medical Journal. 2011;88:46-53. Abstract

46 East African Medical Journal February 2011
East Africa Medical Journal Vol. 88 No. 2 February 2011
BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF KALE (Brassica oleracea Acephala) ALONG THE SUPPLY CHAIN IN
NAIROBI AND ITS ENVIRONMENT
E. Kutto, BSc, MSc, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, M. W. Ngigi, MSc, Department of Agricultural economics, N. Karanja, BSc, MSc, PhD, Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology, E. Kange’the, Bvm, MSc, PhD, Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, L. C. Bebora, Bvm, MSc, PhD, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi P. O. Box 29052-00625, Kabete Campus, Nairobi, Kenya, C. J. Lagerkvist, BAECON, MAECON, PhD, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7013-75007, Uppsala, Sweden, P. G. Mbuthia, Bvm, MSc, FRVCS(Dip. Path), PhD, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, L. W. Njagi, Bvm, MSc, PhD, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology and J. J. Okello, PhD, Department of Agricultural economics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29052-00625, Kabete Campus, Nairobi, Kenya Request for reprints to: K. E. Kutto, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Kabete Campus, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 29057-00625, Nairobi, Kenya

BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF KALE (Brassica oleracea Acephala)
ALONG THE SUPPLY CHAIN IN NAIROBI AND ITS ENVIRONMENT
E. K. KUTTO, M. W. NGIGI, N. KARANJA, E. KANGE’THE, L. C. BEBORA, C. J. LAGERKVIST, P. G. MBUTHIA, L. W. NJAGI and J. J. OKELLO
ABSTRACT
Objective: To assess the microbiological safety of kale (Brassica oleracea Acephala)
produced from farms and those sold at the markets with special focus on coliforms,
E.coli and Salmonella.
Design: A cross sectional study.
Setting: Peri-Urban farms (in Athi River, Ngong and Wangige), wet markets (in
Kawangware, Kangemi and Githurai), supermarkets and high-end specialty store
both within Nairobi city.
Results: Mean coliform count on vegetables from farms were 2.6x105 ±5.0x105 cfu/g
while those from the wet markets were 4.6x106 ±9.1x106 cfu/g, supermarkets, 2.6x106
±2.7x106 and high-end specialty store 4.7x105 ±8.9x105. Coliform numbers obtained
on kales from the wet markets and supermarkets were significantly higher (p<0.05)
compared to those from farms, while kale samples purchased from high- end specialty
store had similar levels of coliform loads as those from the farms. E. coli prevalence
in the wet markets, supermarkets and high-end specialty store were: 40, 20 and 20%,
respectively. Salmonella was detected on 4.5 and 6.3% of samples collected from the
farms in Wangige and wet market in Kawangware, respectively. Fecal coliforms in
water used on farms (for irrigation) and in the markets (for washing the vegetables)
exceeded levels recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) of 103 organisms
per 100 milliliter while Salmonella was detected in 12.5% of washing water samples
collected from Kangemi market.
Conclusion: Poor cultivation practices and poor handling of vegetables along the
supply chain could increase the risk of pathogen contamination thus puting the health
of the public at risk, therefore good agricultural and handling practices should be
observed.

Bebora L.C, E K, M N, N K, E K’ethe, C.J L, P.G M, L. N, J.J O. "Bacterial contamination of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) along the value chain in Nairobi and its environs.". In: 10th African Crop Science Society Conference. Maputo, Mozambique; 2011.2011_-_bacterial_contamination_of_kale_from_farm_and_market.pdf
Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nyaga P, Wanja DW, Mwadime JM, Ngowi HA. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2019;7(2):295-301.abstract.pdf
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Mwadime JM, Wanja DW, Ngowi HA. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 2019;7(2):295-301.
D.W. W, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Mwandime JM, Nyaga PN, Ngowi HA, Bebora LC. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." international Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic studies . 2019;7(2):295-301.
Gosling RD, Uiso LO, Sam NE, Bongard E, Kanduma EG, Nyindo M, Morris RW, Gillespie SH. "The bactericidal activity of moxifloxacin in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis." American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2003;168:1342-1345. Abstract
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Ndiritu A, Chandi R, RUGENDO CAROLINE. "Balancing work and study: A necessity for successful Distance Learning.". In: 2nd AFRICE International Conference .; 2015. Abstract

ABSTRACT
As the country re- evaluates the achievement of Millennium goals, it becomes important for Kenya to take its toll. One of the intentions was to increase gross enrolment rate in higher education. The projection was to increase the number of students joining the universities to 450,000 by end of 2015 from 130,000 in 2008. This number was to be increased through expansion of courses done through distance education. The targeted population was of those already in employment. This group has to be able to balance the demands of their workplace and their social demands for the back to school agenda to be achieved. The university of Nairobi school of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. However It has been noted that among the students who sit for university exams, many do not score 40% which is a minimum score for students to progress to the next level. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases scoring below 40%, which is a very high failure rate. This failure rate prohibits students from graduating. it is worth finding out the cause of this failure rate. This study was carried out to find out if distance learners had a problem managing their time given the demands of the same among competing ends. An effort was also made to find out if this problem had an effect on their academic performance. From a total number of 4500 of students from the University of Nairobi in different levels of their B.Ed degrees, a sample of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique .Data was collected using a mixed mode method and analyzed using Pearson correlations. The findings indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic performance (r=0.569)
Key words : work study balance, distance education, time management, Academic performance

Connerley E;, Nathan I;, Schroeder L. Bangladesh Rural and Feeder Roads Sector Assessment.; 1989.
ndeti ndati, M M. "Barriers to Uptake and Use of Agency Banking products targeting Poor and Marginalized populations in Kenya.". In: Reaching the Unreached: Mobile Money Uptake in Ghana. Accra, Ghana; 2013.
Mulwa M, Ndeti N. Barriers to Uptake and Use of Agency Banking Products Targeting Poor and Marginalized Populations in Kenya.. Dakar, Senegal: 4th International Conference on M4D Mobile Communication for Development; 2014.
Ndegwa L, Karimurio J, Okelo R, Adala H. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services among slum dwellers of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya East Afr. Med." East Afr Med J. 2005;82:506-508. Abstract

Objectives: To identify the main barriers to utilisation of eye care services among the slum population of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya.
Design: Community based survey
Setting: Kibera Slums, Nairobi City, Kenya
Subjects: Randomly selected 1,438 Kibera slum dwellers aged over 2 years.
Results: Majority of subjects 83.3% do not utilise the nearby well-established eye clinics. Twenty one percent of those with poor vision do not seek treatment at all. The main barriers to seeking eye care services were lack of money, ignorance, and the problem not causing much discomfort to warrant medical attention. There was significant, association between the level of education and health seeking behaviour (P = 0.008).
Conclusions: Majority of Kibera slum dwellers have no access to eye care.
Recommendation: There is need to establish a comprehensive Primary Eye Care project to provide low cost but quality services affordable to Kibera slum dwellers.

Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2008;14(2):55-61. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi, S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Project." East Afr J Opthalmol. 2008;14(1):55-61. Abstract

Objective: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi.
Design: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007
Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City
Subjects: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years.
Results: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary’s Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities.
Conclusion: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty).
Recommendations: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

Lutta HO, Odongo D, Mather A, Perez-Casal J, Potter A, Gerdts V, Berberov EM, Prysliak T, Martina Kyallo, Kipronoh A, Olum M, Pelle R, Naessens J. "Baseline analysis of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides antigens as targets for a DIVA assay for use with a subunit vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16(1):236. Abstract

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in cattle. A prototype subunit vaccine is being developed, however, there is currently no diagnostic test that can differentiate between infected cattle and those vaccinated with the prototype subunit vaccine. This study characterized Mmm proteins to identify potential antigens for use in differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.

Kwach JK, Onyango MA, Muthomi JW, Nderitu JH. "Baseline survey for status of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in Kenya.". In: 13th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. KARI Headquarters; 2012.
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Ngatia EM, Macigo FG, Gathece LW, Mutara LN, Mulli TK. Baseline Survey on Oral Health, Feeding Patterns and Nutritional Status of the Older People in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi District. Nairobi: Help-Age International Africa Regional Centre; 2004. AbstractWebsite

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

E.Odada, D.Olago, M. Ntiba, Gichuki SO, N.Oyieke, W.Ochola. BASIC HYDROGEOLOGY IN GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS . South Africa; 2005.
P M F M, Nguhiu J, CM M. Basic Principles of Veterinary Surgery. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi Press; 2009.
P M F M, Nguhiu J, CM M. Basic Principles of Veterinary Surgery. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi Press; 2009. Abstract
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Nekesa P;, Nderitu JH;, Otsyula RM. "Bean research in western Kenya: Lessons and experiences."; 1998.
Nekesa P;, and Nderitu JN, Otysula RM. "Bean research in Western Kenya: Lessons and experiences. 2nd biennial Crop Protection Conference.". In: In: KARI Scientific Conference. Nairobi; 1998.
Nderitu JH;, Kayumbo HY;, MUEKE JM. "Beanfly Infestation on Common Bean."; 1990. Abstract

The population patterns of eggs, larvae and puparia on bean plants and leaf punctures made by adults were investigated during cropping (March-July; October-January) and noncropping (July-October) seasons at two sites in Kenya. Bean grown in noncropping seasons had more leaf punctures, eggs, larvae and puparia than bean grown in cropping seasons. Bean sown in noncropping seasons attracted unusually high beanfly populations from surrounding weeds as well as previous crops. Under field conditions, the Onhiomyi beanfly species, sencerella Greathead and 0. phasepli Tryon, bean infested plants in all seasons. Both species normally oviposited in punctures on the leavesbut 0. spencerella also oviposited in the stems of bean seedlings.

Nderitu JH, Kayumbo HY, MUEKE JM. "Beanfly infestation on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1990;11(1):34-41.
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Mutinda WU, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, G. Muchemi. "Bebora and G.Muchemi. 2014. Risk factors associated with infectious bursal disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2014.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Beef and dressed chickens as sources of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in Nairobi.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1992. Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from beef carcasses, minced beef and dressed chicken were assayed for production of enterotoxin A, B, C and D using reverse passive latex agglutination technique. The highest isolation rate was from chickens followed by minced beef. Chickens yielded the highest percentage of enterotoxigenic strains. Staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) was the most frequently produced enterotoxin type from all the three sources. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) ranked second and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) third. The data show that chickens and minced beef are potential sources of food poisoning staphylococci in Kenya, and that increased handling of the products increases contamination suggesting that man is the major source.
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N A, NM A, MO F, Y K, JI V, OB A-B, SZ M, S A, H H, S B, DA M, A R, I K, M M, M R, V P, S C, Y C, E J, JL C, K N, A S, G G, A P, P P, D M, J K, MM A, A A, MA D, M N, I H, MM A, AP V, A I, AM K, ME T. "Behavior change due to COVID-19 among dental academics - The theory of planned behavior: stresses, worries, training, and pandemic severity." PLoS ONE. 2020;15(9): e0239961(15(9): e0239961):15(9): e0239961.
A OA, N MJ, A B. "Behavior of Sisal Fiber-Reinforced Concrete in Exterior Beam-Column Joint Under Monotonic Loading." Asian Journal of Civil Engineering. 2021;Vol 22:627-636.
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Nyasembe VO, Teal PEA, WR M, Tumlinson JH, Torto B. "Behavioural response of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to host plant volatiles and synthetic blends." Parasites & Vectors. 2012;5:234.
Nyabuga G. "Being sceptical: Deconstructing media freedom and responsibility." African Communication Research; 2012.
Nyabuga G. "Being sceptical: Deconstructing media freedom and responsibility." African Communication Research; 2012. Abstract
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Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Ranst EV. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Communal Enclosures, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Ranst EV. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Communal Enclosures, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
Wairore JN, Mureithi SM, Wasonga OV, Nyberg G. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Private Enclosures in West Pokot County, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2015.
Mwega FM, Ndulu BJ, Barkan J. "'Beyond Capitalism and Socialism' A Comparative Analysis of Economic Adjustment Processes in Kenya and Tan zania.". In: Beyond Capitalism and Socialism: A Comparative Analysis of Kenya and Tanzania.; 1994.
Rudebjer P, Chakeredza S, Dansi A, Ekaya W, Ghezae N, Aboagye LM, Kwapata M, Njoroge K, Padulosi S. "Beyond commodity crops: Strengthening young scientists’ capacity for research on underutilized species in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: 2nd International Symposium on Underutilised Plant Species. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2011.
NGINYE MICHAEL. "Beyond Literal Translation." Journal of Language, Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa,; 2011. Abstract
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Peng B, Ning Z, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu Y, Ni G, Zhu H. "Beyond perturbation: role of vacancy-induced localized phonon states in thermal transport of monolayer MoS2." The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2016;120:29324-29331. Abstract
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NJOROGE DRGITAUAYUB. "Biamah E.K,Chcrogony R.K.K and Gitau, A.N (1998). Temporal hydrologic response of unstable crusting soils in Semi- arid areas of Kenya. In KSAE, Ocl 7-9, 1998. In press.". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 1998. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
Narins RG, Cohen JJ. "Bicarbonate therapy for organic acidosis: the case for its continued use." Annals of Internal Medicine. 1987;106:615-618. Abstract

Critics of bicarbonate therapy for life-threatening lactic acidosis have argued that the treatment is not only ineffective but that it also worsens morbidity and mortality. We critically examine the six major arguments used to condemn alkali treatment. We highlight the shortcomings of frequently cited uncontrolled human studies, experiments in animals, and in-vitro chemical analyses not clearly related to the human condition. The damaging hemodynamic effects of acidemia, which centralizes blood volume while depressing myocardial contraction (thereby causing hemodynamic collapse), are discussed and offered in support of alkali therapy. We also emphasize the extreme sensitivity of patients with acidosis to further small decreases in serum bicarbonate concentration or increases in arterial PCO2. In short, we have found no basis by which to condemn the use of alkali and believe that those who have scorned its use have yet to demonstrate its danger clearly. Until that time, sodium bicarbonate should remain the standard of therapy for this life-threatening condition.

Ndambo DK. Big Data Anaytics And Competitive Advantage of Banks and Insurance Companies in Nairobi, Kenya.; 2016. Abstract

This study focussed on big data and competitive advantage in commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi, Kenya and was dependent on the following objectives: To establish the extent of application of big data analytics in commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi; to determine the relationship between big data analytics and competitive advantage of commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi; to establish the challenges of big data analytics in commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi. A descriptive survey was employed for the purpose of data collection for this research. The population targeted for this study was commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi, Kenya. There are 42 commercial banks and 49 insurance companies in Nairobi. A sample of 20 commercial banks and 25 insurance companies was undertaken due to the limited time allocated for data collection and analysis. The sample was selected based on a judgmental basis taking into account the companies’ use of big data analytics. This research used primary data collected using structured questionnaires. The respondents were managers dealing with company strategies and/ or information and technology managers in the selected companies. The data was analyzed using frequencies, percentages, mean, and standard deviation and regression techniques. The study found that companies in the financial industry specifically commercial banks and insurance firms have invested in data storage facilities and advanced tools in the area of business intelligence for reporting and analysing consumer/ client behaviour. These tools allow the companies to anticipate consumer needs more effectively, in addition to optimizing their operations. The addition of big data analytics systems in the companies’ daily routines enables them to gain higher levels of insight in the big data environment thus enabling more effective decision making. There are challenges in management of big data that if addressed can help organizations appreciate the full potential of big data tools and various analytics especially in aspects of competitive advantage. This study, through a thorough analysis of its findings concludes that the big data revolution has found a place in the commercial banking and insurance industry in Nairobi, and that the trend is on the rise as these companies continue to discover the valuable data with tremendous potential they have had in their storage for decades.

Baghurst PA, Nichol LW. "The binding of organic phosphates to human methaemoglobin A. Perturbation of the polymerization of proteins by effectors." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;412(1):168-80. Abstract

Theory is presented relating to the binding of an effector to two states of a protein acceptor coexisting in equilibrium. The problem is treated in terms of the four possible cases which specify relations between numbers of binding sites and intrinsic binding constants relevant to the acceptor states. It is shown that a distinction between these cases may be possible on the basis of the form of a plot of unbound effector concentration versus the constituent equilibrium coefficient which may be calculated from the sedimentation coefficient of the protein constituent. Particularly noteworthy in this respect is the finding that a turning point may exist in this plot for defined conditions with systems in which binding sites are not conserved (and binding affinities are altered) on polymer formation. The latter type of system is exemplified by studies on methaemoglobin A in 0.25 M sodium acetate, pH 5.4. In the absence of added organic phosphate effectors, a dimer-tetramer equilibrium operates governed by an association constant of 4.15 +/- 0.06 X 10(3) 1/mol, determined from sedimentation equilibrium results. Correlation of sedimentation velocity and equilibrium results shows that addition of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) results in its binding to one site on each of the dimeric (alpha beta) and tetrameric (alpha beta)2 species with intrinsic binding constants 1.03-10(3)-1.20-10(3) and 1.1-10(4)-2.1-10(4) 1/mol, respectively. It is also shown that 2,3-diphosphoglycerate perturbs the dimer-tetramer equilibrium in a similar way to ATP.

Osebe T, Mbaria J, Yole D, Odongo D, Nderitu J, Ochanda H. "Bioactivity and toxicity of Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum americanum plant extracts." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2016;6(1):5-11. AbstractWebsite

Background: Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum
americanum plant species are commonly used in traditional medicine for a
number of ailments. The extracts of these plants have been shown to have antischistosomal
activity suggesting that they could be used for the development of
new chemical entities (NCEs) for the treatment of schistosomiasis. However
there is limited knowledge on their toxicological profile and their use in
traditional medicine may not be a satisfactory safety indication.
Methods: In this study the extracts were first screened for bioactivity using
brine shrimp lethality test for the determination of LC50 followed by rodent
acute toxicity and 28 day subchronic studies.
Results: B. micrantha water extract with a LC50 of 77µg/ml was deemed toxic
while C. ambrosoides methanol and water extracts were moderately toxic with
LC50 of 104.63µg/ml and 696.44µg/ml respectively. O. americanum hexane
and water extracts toxicity varied from moderate to slightly toxic with LC50 of
887.59µg/ml and 2254.60µg/ml respectively. C. ambrosoides and O.
americanum water extracts which were preferentially selected for subsequent
studies were found to have mild to no irritation to rodent eyes and skin.
Moreover, the aminotransferases AST and ALT which were used to detect liver
injury suggested negligible effect.
Conclusions: This therefore confirms that C. ambrosoides and O. americanum
water extracts are safe for clinical use with O. americanum water extract having
a slight edge.
Keywords: Antihelminthic, Schistosomiasis, Toxicity

Osebe T, Mbaria J, Yole D, Odongo DO, Nderitu J, Ochanda H. "Bioactivity and toxicity of Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum americanum plant extracts." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2017;6:5-11.
Yenesew A, Gumuia I, Heydenreich M, Derese S, Okalebo FA, Ndiege IO, Erdelyi M. "Bioactivity of 'Flemingin A' and other Natural Products from the leaves of Flemingia grahamiana.". 2011.yenesew.pdfWebsite
NGUTA DRJOSEPHMWANZIA. "Bioavailability of cobalt, Zinc and Selenium and Anthelmintic effects of fortified and non fortified Albendazole in Sheep. J.M.Nguta; J.M.Mbaria.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian, Volume 35, Issue 1, 2011. The Kenya Veterinary Association; 2011. Abstract

Abstract: The present study was carried out to compare the use of liver and plasma analysis as methods of assessing the status of cobalt, zinc and selenium in sheep, and also to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of fortified and non-fortified albendazole preparations. plasma and liver samples were collected in duplicate from fourteen sheep aged nine to twelve months. Plasma samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and liver samples  on days 0, 14 and 28 post treatment, upon sacrifice of the study animals. Various trace elements were isolated from the organic matrix by wet oxidation for mineral analysis using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. data was statistically analysed using repeated measurement test. Significance was noted at p < 0.05. Both the fortified albendazole and non fortified albendazole cleared all the worms in the treated sheep by day 14 post treatment. All the trace elements were shown to be more bioavailable in the liver and plasma of fortified albendazole (Group B) treated sheep compared to the non-fortified albendazole (Group A) treated sheep. The current study has shown that the liver is a better indicator of cobalt, zinc and selenium status in sheep compared to plasma.
Key words: Plasma; Liver; Cobalt; Zinc and Selenium

Were SA, Narla R, Mutitu EW, Muthomi JW, Munyua LM, Roobroeck D, Vanlauwe B, E J. "Biochar and vermicompost soil amendments reduce root rot disease of common bean (Phaseolous Vulgaris L.)." African Journal of Biological sciences. 2021;3(1):176-196.
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable Water Hyacinth Cellulose-Graft- Poly(Ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) Polymer hydrogel for potential Agricultura Application." Heliyon. 2019;(Article No. e01416).
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. Abstract

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Njage PMK, Dolci S, Jans C, Wangoh J, Lacroix C, Meile L. "Biodiversity and Enterotoxigenic Potential of Staphylococci Isolated from Raw andSpontaneously Fermented Camel Milk." British Microbiology Research Journal. 2013;3(2):128-138.2013_biodiversity_and_enterotoxigenic_potential_of.pdf
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Biofuel availability and domestic use patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 71-82. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Biofuel availability and domestic use patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 71-82. BEP Electronic Press; 2001. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 83-99. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 83-99. BEP Electronic Press; 2001. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Machangi JM;, Gitonga LM;, Nderitu JH;, Maniania NK;, Kabira JN. "Biological Control Agents Of Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) On Potatoes(Solanum Tuberosum L.) In Kenya.".; 2010.
NGUTA DRJOSEPHMWANZIA. "BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF KENYAN MEDICINAL PLANTS USING ARTEMIA SALIA L. (ARTEMIIDAE). J.M.Nguta *, J.M.Mbaria; D.W.Gakuya; P.K.Gathumbi; J.D.Kabasa; , S.G.Kiama.". In: Pharmacologyonline 2: 458-478 (2011). University of Salerno, Italy; 2011.
Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
Mose F, Newman LP, Njunguna R, Tamooh H, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C, Kiarie J. "Biomarker evaluation of self-reported condom use among women in HIV-discordant couples." Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24(7):537-40. Abstract

Self-reported condom use is a commonly collected statistic, yet its use in research studies may be inaccurate. We evaluated this statistic among women in HIV-discordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial in Nairobi, Kenya. Vaginal swabs were acquired from 125 women and tested for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for semen exposure, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ten (10%) of 98 women who reported 100% use of condoms in the previous month tested PSA positive. In a bivariate logistic regression analysis, among women who reported 100% condom use in the previous month, those with ≤8 years of school had significantly higher odds of testing PSA-positive (odds ratio [OR] = 8.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-69.13) than women with more schooling. Our estimate may be conservative, as the ability to detect PSA may be limited to 24-48 hours after exposure. Less educated women may be a target group for counselling regarding reporting sexual behaviour in clinical trials.

ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
Fredrick Ongowe, Sophie Hennequin, Josephine Kagunda Wairimu, Nyoungue Aimé, Mamadou Lamine Diouf, Mouhamadou Diaby, Abderrahman Iggidr, Mamadou Sy, Salle G. "Biomathematics modelling for the study of failures propagation: Application to a production resource.". 2010.
Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Fulano AM, Wagacha JM, Narla RD, Mwang’ombe AW. "Biopesticide-based IPM systems to reduce synthetic pesticide residues in vegetables for niche market access by small holder growers.". In: 5th Biennial RUFORUM Conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.
Ndhine EO, Slotved H-C, Osoro EM, Olsen KN, Rugutt M, Wanjohi CW, Mwanda W, Kinyagia BM, Steenhard NR, Hansen J-ES. "A Biosecurity Survey in Kenya, November 2014 to February 2015." Health Secur. 2016;14(4):205-13. Abstract

A biosecurity survey was performed to gather information on the biosecurity level and laboratory capacity in Kenya for the purpose of providing information outlining relevant components for biosecurity legislation, biosecurity implementation, and enforcement of biosecurity measures in Kenya. This survey is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to be published from an African country. A total of 86 facilities with laboratories covering relevant categories, such as training laboratories, human diagnostic laboratories, veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and research laboratories, were selected to participate in the survey. Each facility was visited by a survey team and staff were asked to answer 29 groups of questions from a questionnaire. The survey showed that Kenyan laboratory facilities contain biological agents of biosecurity concern. The restrictions for these agents were found to be limited for several of the facilities, in that many laboratory facilities and storage units were open for access by either students or staff who had no need of access to the laboratory. The survey showed a great deal of confusion in the terms biosecurity and biosafety and a generally limited biosecurity awareness among laboratory personnel. The survey showed that the security of biological agents of biosecurity concern in many facilities does not meet the international requirements. The authors recommend developing a legal framework in Kenya for effective controls, including national biosecurity regulations, guidelines, and procedures, thereby reducing the risk that a Kenyan laboratory would be the source of a future biological attack.

Sila MJ, Nyambura MI, Abong’o DA, Mwaura FB, Iwuoha E. "Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Eucalyptus Corymbia Leaf Extract at Optimized Conditions.". In: Nano Hybrids and Composites Vol. 25. Vol. 25. South Africa; 2019:. Abstract

Abstract:

This study reports the biosynthesis of narrow range diameter silver nanoparticles at optimum conditions using Eucalyptus corymbia as a reducing and stabilizing agent. Optimal conditions for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were found to be; an extraction temperature of 90°C, pH of 5.7 a Silver Nitrate concentration of 1mM and AgNO3 to plant extract ratio of 4:1. UV-Visible spectroscopy monitored the formation of colloidal AgNPs. The UV-Visible spectrum showed a peak around 425 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of the AgNPs. The size and shape characterization of the AgNPs was done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques which revealed narrow range diameter (18-20 nm), almost monodispersed AgNPs, spherical in nature and with minimal agglomeration. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) results showed the presence of two peaks at 3.0 and 3.15 keV in the silver region. The Fourier Transform Infrared-Spectra (FTIR) of the plant extract and the AgNPs gave rise to vibrational peaks at 3260 and 1634 wavenumbers which are due to the presence of OH and –C=C-functional groups respectively.

Sila MJ, Nyambura MI, Abong'o DA, Mwaura FB, Iwuoha E. "Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Eucalyptus Corymbia Leaf Extract at Optional Conditions." Nanohybrids and Composites. 2019;25:32-45.
Emelda OP, Nyambura MI, Masikini M, Emmanuel I. "Biosynthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Ethanol Chemical Sensor." Journal of Nano Research. Submitted.
Nabulindo WN. BLOOD PROGESTERONE DETERMINATION BY LATERAL FLOW IMMUNOASSAY FOR ASSESSMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE STATUS OF DAIRY CATTLE IN KENYA.. Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University …; 2016. Abstract
n/a
NGANGA DRWAWERUFRANK. "Blood volume, Erythrokinetics and Spleen Function in Thrombocythaemia. Waweru F.N., Lewis S.M. Acta haemat. 73:219 .". In: proceedings. East African Journal of Development Studies; 1985. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Dipla K, Nassis GP, Vrabas IS. "Blood {Pressure} {Control} at {Rest} and during {Exercise} in {Obese} {Children} and {Adults}." Journal of Obesity. 2012;2012:e147385. AbstractWebsite

The hemodynamic responses to exercise have been studied to a great extent over the past decades, and an exaggerated blood pressure response during an acute exercise bout has been considered as an indicator of cardiovascular risk. Obesity is a major factor influencing the blood pressure response to exercise since evidence indicates that the arterial pressure response to exercise is exacerbated in obese compared with lean adults. Signs of augmented responses (such as an exaggerated blood pressure response) to physical exertion appear early in life (from the prepubertal years) in obese individuals. Understanding the mechanisms that drive the altered hemodynamic responses during exercise in obese individuals and prevent the progression to hypertension is vitally important. This paper focuses on the evidence linking obesity with alterations of the autonomic nervous system and discusses the potential mechanisms and consequences of the altered sympathetic nervous system behavior in obese individuals at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, this paper presents the alterations in the reflex regulatory mechanisms (&\#8220;exercise pressor reflex&\#8221; and baroreflex) in obese children and adults and addresses the effects of training on obesity-related disturbances.

Ndetei, D.M., Mareko GM, Othieno CJ, Kuria MW, Kiarie JN. "Body dysmorphic disorder - case report.". 2007.
Mareko GM, Othieno CJ, Kuria MW, Kiarie JN, Ndetei DM. "Body dysmorphic disorder: case report." East Afr Med J. 2007;84(9):450-2. Abstract

The desire for self-mutilation in the absence of any discernible psychopathology is relatively rare. Self-mutilation is most commonly a manifestation of an underlying psychopathology such as depression, schizophrenia, personality disorder, transexuality, body dysmorphic disorder and factitious disorder. In this article, a case in which a 29-year-old single Kenyan lady of African origin demanded a surgical operation to modify and reduce the size of her external genitalia is presented. Although female genital mutilation is still widespread in the country, this case is of interest in that the woman did not seek the usual circumcision but sought to specifically reduce the size of her labia minora so that she could feel like a normal woman. The unique challenges in her management are discussed. Possible aetiological factors in patients who demand surgical removal or modification of parts of their bodies without an obvious cause is discussed.

Kwasa JK, Amayo A, Ndavi PM, Kwasa TOO. "Bone metabolism in healthy ambulatory control premenopausal women and in epileptics on anti-convulsant drugs." East Afr Med J. 2010;87(4):151-5. Abstract

Long term anti-epileptic drug use causes multiple abnormalities in calcium and bone metabolism that have been documented in both institutionalised and ambulatory patients.

N. DRIRAKIW. "Book Review for H-Net Africa (H-Africa@h-net.msu.edu) Michigan State University. Title, .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2006.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Book Review for H-Net Africa(H-Africa@h-net.msu.edu) Michigan State University, Alusine Jalloh and Toyin Falola,Eds, .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2003.
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Boon for town in Murang'a." Star, June 20, 2013.
Nyamai C, Rollion C, Feneyrol J, Martelat J-E, Omito E, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu A. "The boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from tsavorite deposits in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique metamorphic belt, with a special focus on the mining districts in Kenya.". In: 13th SGA Biennial Meeting. Nancy, France; 2015. Abstractgiulianietal.boronsga-2015.pdf

The dravitic tourmalines associated with different types of rock from the tsavorite-bearing
metasedimentary Neoproterozoic sequence in Kenya, Tanzania, and Madagascar show two
ranges of boron isotopic compositions:(1) Tourmalines associated with tsavorite nodules
have homogenous 8113 values of-19.8 1 1.2 'llm that clearly involve continental evaporitic
material;(2) Tourrnalines from unmineralized rocks (elastic metasediments, metapegmatite,
and marble) have 8118 values between 45.9 and 40.356 “, which reflect a magmatic source
for the elastic tourmaline and probably an evaporitic one for tourmaline in marble.

N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Botanical and chemical composition of livestock diets on a semi-arid rangeland. Discovery and Innovation, 9: 235-241.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 18: 117-124. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1997.
I.O JUMBA, N.F SUTTLE, E.A HUNTER, S.O W. "Botanical composition has a greater influence on mineral concentrations in dry season pastures in W. Kenya than either soil origin or composition.". In: Proceedings of "Environmental Geochemistry and Health in Developing Countries Conference", London, October 20-21. Book of Abstracts, 36-37. Association of Africa Universities; 1993. Abstracteffects_of_botanical_composition.doc

The prediction of mineral deficiencies in grazing livestock requires good correlations between convenient markers of mineral status and animal health or productivity. Correlations are likely to become weaker in moving from animal to pasture to soil in pursuit of a predictor because of the many factors which influence mineral uptake at each interface. However, soils are the easiest to characterize and correlations might be improved by removing the effects of known sources of variation. The influence of botanical (pasture species), geographical (altitude) and pedological (bedrock type, soil pH and extractable mineral concentration) factors on mineral concentrations in dry season pasture was therefore assessed. Samples of topsoil and herbage were gathered from 135 sites on 84 farms in the Mt Elgon region of W. Kenya between January and March, 1987. The underlying parent bedrock was determined from 1:125,000 Geological survey maps and altitude from topographical maps. Botanical composition of the pasture sample was recorded. Soil pH and total (Se) or extractable (not Se) mineral concentrations were determined by standard methods as were total mineral concentrations in unwashed herbage. Distribution of principle botanical species and all bedrock types amongst the sample sites are indicated in Tables 1 and 2 respectively, together with the analytical results. Statistical analysis used a residual maximum likelihood (REML) model for unbalanced data sets.
Pasture concentrations of Ca, P and Cu were generally below the requirement of ruminants, Zn and Se were marginal while Co, Fe and Mn were adequate. Soil bedrock had little influence on herbage composition. Of the four macro-elements, only S was affected by geology, low values being found above TV and MS bedrock. By contrast, only P was not affected by species, Ss being low and PC usually high in macro minerals. Of the seven trace elements analysed, geology influenced only one (Cu); low values were again found above TV and Mfi but Cu availability to grazing ruminants would be relatively high because of the associated low S values. By contrast, only Se was unaffected by species, PC being rich in all but Mn. Soil bedrock had a greater influence on soil composition but correlations between soil and herbage usually accounted for less than 10% of the variation in pasture composition (max r value 0.5 for P): correlations within species were equally poor. The influence of species on herbage Co disappeared if herbage Fe was used as a covariate, suggesting that contamination by soil Co varied between species: however, the correlation with soil Co remained weak. Soil pH was generally low and its use as a covariate did little to improve soil/plant relationships. Herbage Cu increased and Se decreased in curvilinear relationships with altitude.
Mineral deficiencies were therefore likely to occur in grazing livestock, risk being influenced by botanical and topographical but not pedological factors.

Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, Mapenay IO, Ali HM, Omambia VM. "Botanical description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of Croton dichogamus Pax (Euphorbiaceae). ." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1):42-47.
Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, Mapenay I, Ali HM, Omambia VM. "Botanical description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of Croton dichogamus pax (Euphorbiaceae). ." Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1).
Awino ZB, Nkirote C. "Bottlenecks in the Execution of Kenya Vision 2030 Strategy: An Empirical Study ." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2012;2(3):505-512.
Thaiya A.G., P. Gitau, Gitau G.K., Nyaga, P. N. "Bovine papillomatosis and its management with an autogenous virus vaccine in Kiambu district, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian." kenya veterinarian. 2010;58(33):6-19.
Ogeng'o JA, Njongo W, Hemed E, Obimbo MM, Gimongo J. "Branching pattern of middle cerebral artery in an African population." Clin Anat. 2011;24(6):692-8. Abstract

Branching pattern of middle cerebral artery influences frequency of its aneurysms, and is of potential value in their surgical repair and diagnosis of stroke. This pattern shows inter-population variations but there is paucity of data from Africans. This study aimed at describing branching pattern among black Kenyans. Middle cerebral arteries numbering 288 from 144 formalin fixed brains obtained during dissection and autopsy at Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya were studied. Origin of the middle cerebral artery was identified at base of brain and its stem followed by gently separating the fronto-parietal and temporal lobes. Pattern of early cortical, lenticulostriate, and terminal branching was recorded and macrographs taken. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0 for windows and presented using macrographs. All the brains had bilateral middle cerebral arteries which were continuations of the internal carotid artery. Variations of the artery observed included duplication (1.7%), early bifurcation (5.2%), and early cortical branching (47%), predominantly temporal (63.9%). Lenticulostriate arteries arose predominantly from the pre-bifurcation segment as single branches (64.6%), and as common trunks (35.4%). Modes of termination were bifurcation (82.3%), trifurcation (10.8%), primary trunks (6.2%), and quadrifurcation (0.7%). Cortical branching pattern of the middle cerebral artery resembles that of Caucasian and Indian populations suggesting equal vulnerability to aneurysms and stroke. Pattern of origin of lenticulostriate arteries, predominantly from the pre-bifurcation segment and higher percentage of common trunks implies that the population is more prone to ischemia after aneurysm repair. Extra diligence during operation on proximal middle cerebral artery is called for.

Ogeng'o JA, Njongo W, Hemed E, Obimbo MM, Gimongo J. "Branching pattern of middle cerebral artery in an African population." Clin Anat. 2011;24(6):692-8. Abstract

Branching pattern of middle cerebral artery influences frequency of its aneurysms, and is of potential value in their surgical repair and diagnosis of stroke. This pattern shows inter-population variations but there is paucity of data from Africans. This study aimed at describing branching pattern among black Kenyans. Middle cerebral arteries numbering 288 from 144 formalin fixed brains obtained during dissection and autopsy at Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya were studied. Origin of the middle cerebral artery was identified at base of brain and its stem followed by gently separating the fronto-parietal and temporal lobes. Pattern of early cortical, lenticulostriate, and terminal branching was recorded and macrographs taken. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0 for windows and presented using macrographs. All the brains had bilateral middle cerebral arteries which were continuations of the internal carotid artery. Variations of the artery observed included duplication (1.7%), early bifurcation (5.2%), and early cortical branching (47%), predominantly temporal (63.9%). Lenticulostriate arteries arose predominantly from the pre-bifurcation segment as single branches (64.6%), and as common trunks (35.4%). Modes of termination were bifurcation (82.3%), trifurcation (10.8%), primary trunks (6.2%), and quadrifurcation (0.7%). Cortical branching pattern of the middle cerebral artery resembles that of Caucasian and Indian populations suggesting equal vulnerability to aneurysms and stroke. Pattern of origin of lenticulostriate arteries, predominantly from the pre-bifurcation segment and higher percentage of common trunks implies that the population is more prone to ischemia after aneurysm repair. Extra diligence during operation on proximal middle cerebral artery is called for.

Angeline Anyona Aywak, Mutala TM, Ndaiga P, Onyambu C, S. R. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." The Journal of Global Radiology. 2018;4(1):1-7.Website
N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Breastfeeding promotion: feeding the low birth weight infant. Int J Gynaecol Obstet . 1990; 31 Suppl 1 : 57-9; discussion 67-8 . PMID: 1972088 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Musoke RN.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet . 1990; 31 Suppl 1 : 57-9; discussion 67-8 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1990. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Though there is still some reluctance to use human milk for low birth weight infants, we have shown that it is possible exclusively to feed these infants on milk from their own mothers. The infants have adequate weight gain and are less likely to get infections, especially gastrointestinal and respiratory. It is possible to sustain lactation through manual expression during the period that the mother is not nursing her infant directly on the breast. A cup rather than a bottle can be used to feed these small infants. The mothers are thus encouraged because the infant does not suffer nipple confusion with a bottle and they continue breastfeeding after discharge from the hospital. PMID: 1972088 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bigirimana J, Njoroge K, Muthomi W, Gahakwa D, Phiri NA, Gichuru EK. "Breeding for resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix Berkely and Brome) and coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum kahawae Waller and Bridge) in Rwanda.". In: aGRO 2011 Biennial Conference. Rwanda; 2011.
Njoroge K, Ngure M. "Breeding maize in semi-arid Eastern Kenya. Chapter 18." Food Grain production in semi-arid Africa. 1987:245-254.
Namayanja A;, Tukamuhabwa P;, Opio F;, Ugen M;, Kimani PM;, Takusewanya R;, Kitinda X. "Breeding Red-Mottled Beans for East and Central Africa."; 2001. Abstract

The common bean is grown by more than 90% of small-scale farmers in Africa. Of all the seed types grown in East and Central Africa, the red-mottled types occupy the greatest area: 650,000 ha in Eastern Africa and 90,000 ha in Southern Africa. This is also the most important bean type sold and consumed in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, Malawi, Zambia, and Mozambique, with a market share of about 22% in Eastern Africa. The breeding programme in Uganda is aimed at developing improved, marketable, red-mottled varieties with resistance to two or more biotic and abiotic constraints, and with acceptable agronomic and culinary qualities. In order to achieve this objective, breeding activities have been implemented under five major projects: hybridisation, evaluation of segregating populations and new introductions, multilocational yield trials, on-farm testing, and maintenance breeding. Since 1995, eight varieties of bush beans and four climbing varieties have been released. Several others are in advanced stages and, currently, 10 bush and five climbing varieties are being tested on-farm. There have been high demand and adoption of these new varieties, thereby contributing to household food security, protein availability, and income. However, it has been observed that the selection criterion used by farmers is different from that used by breeders. There is now a need to involve farmers at the very early stage of selection through participatory plant breeding so as to accelerate the adoption process.

Kimani PM, Mulanya MM, Narla RD, Ambuko J, Ouma L, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M, Owino WO, Njuguna J, Kosgei PK, others. "Breeding runner bean for grain yield, disease resistance and short-day adaptation in eastern Africa.". In: Proc. Fourth RUFORUM Biennial Conference.; 2014:. Abstract
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Kamau A, Paul Kamau, Muia D, Baiya H, Ndung'u J. "Bridging the entrepreneurial gender gap through social protection among women small-scale traders in Kenya.". In: Women Entrepreneurs and the Myth of ‘Underperformance’: A New Look at Women’s Entrepreneurship Research. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2018.1-14619-flier.pdf
Mwangi GG, Wagacha JW, Nguta JM, Mbaria JM. "Brine shrimp cytotoxicity and antimalarial activity of plants traditionally used in treatment of malaria in Msambweni district." Pharmaceutical Biology. 2015;53(4):588-593.
N MRNYUTHOEDWIN. "Broadcasting: The next big training challenges.". In: The media Observer a newsletter of the Media Council of Kenya. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Ng'asike O'aoP, Hagmann T, Wasonga OV. "Brokerage in the borderlands: the political economy of livestock intermediaries in northern Kenya." Journal of Eastern African Studies. 2020.
Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage I0, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talibs Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implementation Science. 2016;11(30). Abstractbuilding_capacity_in_implementation_science_research_training_at_the_university_of_nairobi.pdf

Background: Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap
between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health
care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by
training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative,
the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.
Methods: This paper describes how the University of Nairobi leveraged resources from the Medical Education
Partnership to develop an institutional program that provides training and mentoring in implementation science,
builds relationships between researchers and implementers, and identifies local research priorities for
implementation science.
Results: The curriculum content includes core material in implemerjjation science theory, methods, and experiences.
The program adopts a team mentoring and supervision approach, in which fellows are matched with mentors at the
University of Nairobi and partnering institutions University of Washington, Seattle, and University of Maryland,
Baltimore. A survey of program participants showed a high degree satisfaction with most aspects of the program,
including the content, duration, and attachment sites. A key strength of the fellowship program is the partnership
approach, which leverages innovative use of information technology to offer diverse perspectives, and a team model
for mentorship and supervision.
Conclusions: As health care systems and training institutions seek new approaches to increase capacity in
implementation science, the University of Nairobi Implementation Science Fellowship program can be a model
for health educators and administrators who wish to develop their program and curricula.
Keywords: Implementation science, Training, Fellowship program

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

N MJ, Bukachi PR. "Building Information Modelling Adoption in Structural Design in Kenya – A Case Study of Nairobi." International Journal of Research and Publications. 2019;Vol 9(6):272-285.
NamayiMurichoa D, JakindaOtienoa D, WillisOluoch-Kosuraa, MagnusJirströmb. "Building pastoralists’ resilience to shocks for sustainable disaster risk mitigation: Lessons from West Pokot County, Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 2019;Volume 34(ISSN):429-435.
Nganga W. "Building Swahili Resource Grammars for the Grammatical Framework." In: Diana Santos, Krister Linden WN, ed. Shall We Play the Festschrift Game? Essays on the Occasion of Lauri Carlson’s 60th Birthday. Springer; 2012:. Abstract

Grammatical Framework (GF) is a multilingual parsing and generation framework. In this paper, we describe the development of the Swahili Resource Grammar, a first in extending GF’s coverage with a Bantu language. The paper details the linguistic detail and considerations that have to be addressed whilst defining the grammars. The paper also describes an end-user application that uses the developed grammars to achieve multilinguality.

Ngesu L, Gunga S, Wachira L, Muriithi E, K'Odhiambo AK. "Bullying In Kenyan Secondary Schools: Manifestations, Causes, Consequences And Mitigation Measures.". 2013.
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala LI, Syanda J, Mutiso V, Othieno CJ, Odhiambo G, Kokonya DA. "Bullying in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi,Kenya.". 2007.bullying_in_public_secondary_schools_in_nairobikenya.pdf
Ng’ang’a M, Matendechero S, l. Kariuki, Omondi W, Makworo N, Owiti PO, Kizito W, Tweya H, Edwards JK, Takarinda KC, Ogutu O. "Burden of soil transmitted helminthiases in primary school children in Migori County, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
Ndetei DM, Pizzo M, Khasakhala LI, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Mutiso V, Kokonya DA. "Burnout in staff working at the Mathari psyhicatric hospital.". 2009.burnout_in_staff_working_at_the_mathari_psyhicatric_hospital.pdf
Ndiritu S, Ngumi ZW, Nyaim O. "Burns: the epidemiological pattern, risk and safety awareness at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:

Many burns are preventable but there is no published local prospective data on the epidemiological pattern of burns that would form the basis of care and formulation of burn prevention strategies.

OBJECTIVES:

To determine the epidemiological pattern of burns and assess the awareness of burn risk and preventive measures among patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) with burns.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study.

SETTING:

Kenyatta National Hospital.

PATIENTS:

One hundred and nine consecutive burn patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital.

RESULTS:

The mean age was 14.4 years (median 7.0, range 0.2-66 years). Mean total body surface area burned (TBSA) was 22.3% (median 13.0, range 1-95%). Children under five years were 48.6% with more scalds compared to adults. Open flames burns, involvement of accelerants and assault were prominent among adults. Education level above primary school was associated with higher risk awareness compared with primary level education or below.

CONCLUSION:

The pattern of burns noted resembles other reported series but the role of accelerants and assault appears enhanced in this study. Public education campaigns aimed at burns reduction could be tailored to the educational level of target population.

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