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Kimenju JW, Odero GOM, Mutitu EW, Wachira PM, Narla RD;, Muiru WM. "Suitability of Locally Available Substrates for Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) Cultivation in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

This study aimed at evaluating the suitability of selected substrates for mushroom production. Ten different substrates namely water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ), maize cobs ( Zea mays ), coconut fibre ( Cocos nucifera ), finger millet straw ( Seteria microcheata ), banana fibre ( Musa sp.), sawdust ( Eucalyptus sp.), rice straw ( Oryza sativa ) bean straw ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) and wheat straw ( Tritichum aestivum ) were tested for their suitability in mushroom production. Plastic bags were filled with 250 g of substrate and arranged in a randomized complete block design. The substrates had a significant (p≤0.05) effect on days to pinning, number of caps and biological efficiency. Compared to the control, which pinned at 28 days, maize cobs, sawdust and coconut fiber had short pinning durations of 19, 22 and 23 days, respectively. With the exception of sawdust, water hyacinth and maize cobs, the rest of the organic substrates significantly increased the marketable caps of the oyster mushroom. The straws, namely, bean, rice, finger millet and wheat had the highest biological efficiency in decreasing order of 106, 92, 85 and 77%, respectively. Stipe length was longest in oyster mushroom grown on bean straw, followed by finger millet straw, maize cobs, banana fiber and shortest in sawdust. Mushroom yield was, 80, 78, 76, 73 and 68%, higher in bean straw, rice straw, millet straw, wheat straw and banana fibre treatment compared to the control. Mushroom yields on sawdust were 60% lower than the control. In descending order of suitability bean, rice, finger millet and wheat straws can be recommended for oyster mushroom production.

Odero GOM, Mutitu EW, Wachira PM, Narla RD, Muiru WM. "Suitability of Locally Available Substrates for Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) Cultivation in Kenya.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

This study aimed at evaluating the suitability of selected substrates for mushroom production. Ten different substrates namely water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ), maize cobs ( Zea mays ), coconut fibre ( Cocos nucifera ), finger millet straw ( Seteria microcheata ), banana fibre ( Musa sp.), sawdust ( Eucalyptus sp.), rice straw ( Oryza sativa ) bean straw ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) and wheat straw ( Tritichum aestivum ) were tested for their suitability in mushroom production. Plastic bags were filled with 250 g of substrate and arranged in a randomized complete block design. The substrates had a significant (p≤0.05) effect on days to pinning, number of caps and biological efficiency. Compared to the control, which pinned at 28 days, maize cobs, sawdust and coconut fiber had short pinning durations of 19, 22 and 23 days, respectively. With the exception of sawdust, water hyacinth and maize cobs, the rest of the organic substrates significantly increased the marketable caps of the oyster mushroom. The straws, namely, bean, rice, finger millet and wheat had the highest biological efficiency in decreasing order of 106, 92, 85 and 77%, respectively. Stipe length was longest in oyster mushroom grown on bean straw, followed by finger millet straw, maize cobs, banana fiber and shortest in sawdust. Mushroom yield was, 80, 78, 76, 73 and 68%, higher in bean straw, rice straw, millet straw, wheat straw and banana fibre treatment compared to the control. Mushroom yields on sawdust were 60% lower than the control. In descending order of suitability bean, rice, finger millet and wheat straws can be recommended for oyster mushroom production.

Ferrier S, Ninan KN, Leadley P, Alkemade R, Acosta-Michlik L, Akçakaya HR, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Summary for policymakers of the assessment report of the methodological assessment of scenarios and models of biodiversity and ecosystem services.". In: Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, IPBES Secretariat. Bonn, Germany; 2016.
Njeri KM, Kiruthu F. "Super Imperialism.". In: Regional Perspectives on Globalization International Political Economic Series. England: Palgrave Macmillan; 2007.
Mani RL, Newton TH, Glickman MG. "The superior cerebellar artery: an anatomic-roentgenographic correlation." Radiology. 1968;91:1102-1108. Abstract
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ, Temmerman M, Kidula N, Tyndall M, Rukaria-Kaumbutho R, Muchiri L, Ndinya-Achola JO. "The supermarket for women's reproductive health: the burden of genital infections in a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Sex. Trans. Inf 74: 202-4, 1998. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To study the burden of disease of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and cervical dysplasia in women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, and to assess the acceptability of integrating reproductive healthcare services into existing family planning facilities. METHODS: In a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, 520 women were enrolled in a study on RTI and cervical dysplasia. RESULTS: RTI pathogens were detected in over 20% of women, the majority being asymptomatic. HIV-1 testing was positive in 10.2%. The diagnosis of cervical dysplasia was made on 12% of the cytology smears (mild in 5.8%, moderate in 3.5%, severe in 1.2%), and 1.5% had invasive cervical cancer. The intervention of case detection of RTI and Papanicolaou smear taking was well received by clients and considered feasible by the staff. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection and treatment of potentially curable cervical lesions and RTI provide a unique opportunity to improve women's health. In Kenya, where the current contraceptive prevalence rate is 33%, family planning clinics are excellent sites to introduce health interventions.

Demmler K. M, Klasen S, Nzuma, M.J., Qaim, M. "Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2017;12(9):1-18.
Nguru W, Moturi CA. "Supplier Selection Process Based on Fuzzy Logic.". In: Conference on Science and Development. College of Biological and Physical Sciences, Chiromo; 2018. Abstract

In Kenyan governmental organizations, supplier selection during procurement process is regulated by the Public Procurement and Asset Disposal act. The act requires the selection to be done on technical and financial basis, taking into consideration price, quality, time and service. The common way of selecting suppliers is by forming an evaluation committee which takes considerable time and may be characterized by biases and associated costs. Furthermore, the “quality” and “service” factors advised by the act are imprecise and subjective during an evaluation process and also challenging to quantify. This study presents an approach to help decision-makers evaluate potential suppliers by utilizing fuzzy inference system. Initially, the main quantitative and qualitative criteria used in supplier selection process in the construction service industry were identified from literatures and experts through structured questionnaires. After ranking the identified criteria, a Matlab Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) was utilized to develop the selection model. The proposed model was tested using a real tender for construction works in a government office block. We realized that the proposed model makes the selection process more systematic and achieved a shorter turn-around time as compared to an evaluation committee. It was concluded that using the Fuzzy inference system resulted in an optimum solution and thus can support in decision making when selecting suppliers thus contributes to the advancement of e-procurement in supply chain management.

N. DRIRAKIW. "Supply Chain Management Practices at the University of Nairobi, .". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2009. Abstract
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N. DRIRAKIW. "Supply Chain Management Practices at the University of Nairobi, .". In: Journal of Environmental Geology (38) 3, pp 259-264. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2009. Abstract
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Ndirangu S, Segera D. "Support Vector Machine Based Disease Diagnostic Assistant." ICTACT Journal on Soft Computing. 2019;9(4):1974-1979.
K. MJ, Ngeranwa J.J., Githinji C.G., Kahiga T., Kariuki H.N., Waweru FN. "Suppression of nociception by Solanum incanum (Lin.) Diclomethane root extract is associated antiinflammatory activity." The Journal of Phytopharmacology . 2014;3(3):156-162.
Nesbitt WH, Lampe C, Lustgarten D, Obel OA. "Supraventricular tachycardia with two VA intervals: what is the mechanism?". 2007.
Orata D, Yusuf AO, Nineza C, Mukabi M, D. M. "Surface Modified Electrode Used In the Electro-Analysis of N- Acetyl P-Aminophenol- A Pharmaceutical Drug ." Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5):90-99.iosr_7_5_2_2014_acetyl.pdf
Orata D, Yusuf AO, Nineza C, Mbui D, Mukabi M. "Surface modified electrodes used in cyclic voltammetric profiling of quinine, as antimalarial drug." Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5):81-89.iosr_7_5_2_2014_quinine.pdf
Orata D, Yusuf A, Nineza C, Mbui D, Mukabi M. "Surface modified electrodes used in cyclic voltammetric profiling of quinine, as antimalarial drug”." IOSR Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5, ver II):81-89.scan0001.pdf
Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Odari B, Munguti L, Ntilakigwa AA, Mwabora J, Njoroge W, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "Surface passivation effect on CO2 sensitivity of spray pyrolysis deposited Pd-F: SnO2 thin film gas sensor.". 2014;2014; 3(5):38-44. Abstract

Abstract: Different thin films samples made of SnO2, F:SnO2, Pd: SnO2 and and co-doped Pd-F: SnO2 were deposited at a substrate temperature of 450oC using optimized doping concentrations of F and Pd, thereafter the samples were annealed and passivated in a tube furnace at 450oC. Optical and electrical methods were used in characterizing the thin film samples: The band gap energy for all samples was extracted from optical data using a proprietary software, Scout™ 98. The calculated band gap energy were found to be 4.1135eV for Pd:SnO2 and 3.8014eV for F:SnO2 being the highest and the lowest calculated band gap energies, respectively. The wide band gap energy has been attributed to the incorporation of Pd ions in crystal lattice of SnO2 thin film for Pd:SnO2 while for F:SnO2 has been due to incorporation of F- ions in the crystal lattice of SnO2 which gives rise to donor levels in the SnO2 band gap. This causes the conduction band to lengthen resulting to a reduction in the band gap energy value. The electrical resistivity was done by measuring the sheet resistance of the SnO2, Pd:SnO2, F:SnO2 and Pd-F:SnO2 thin films. The undoped SnO2 thin film had the highest sheet resistivity of 0.5992 Ωcm while F:SnO2 had the lowest sheet resistivity of 0.0075 Ωcm. The low resistivity of F:SnO2 results from substitution incorporation of F- ions in the crystal lattice of SnO2 thin
films, instead of O- ions which lead to an increase in free carrier concentration. The Pd-F:SnO2 gas sensor device was tested for CO2 gas sensing ability using a lab assembled gas sensing unit. The performance of the gas sensor device was observed that: the as prepared device was more sensitive to CO2 gas than those subjected to annealing and passivation. The decrease in the sensitivity of the annealed Pd-F: SnO2 gas sensor is attributed to decrease in grain boundary potential resulting from grain growth. This causes a decrement in adsorption properties of CO- and O- species by the annealed Pd-F: SnO2 thin film. The sensitivity of passivated Pd-F: SnO2 gas sensor was found to be the lowest. The low sensitivity is due to the effects of nitration and decrement in grain boundary potential resulting from grain growth, nevertheless, the sensitivity of the passivated Pd-F: SnO2 thin film was found to be within the range for gas sensing applications.

Keywords: Spray Pyrolysis, Fluorine doping, Palladium doping, co-doping, Palladium and Fluorine co-doping, Annealing, Passivation, F -co- doped Pd:SnO2 (Pd-F: SnO2)

Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Odari B, Munguti L, Ntilakigwa AA, Mwabora JM, Njoroge W, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "Surface Passivation effect on CO2 sensitivity of Spray Pyrolysis deposited Pd-F:SnO2 thin films." Advances in Materials. 2014;3(5):38-44.paper_patrick_musembi_2014__advances_in_materials_10.10.2014.pdf
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Surface preparation of glassy carbon elelectrodes", Analytical Chim. Acta, 207, 1-16.". In: Electroanal. Chem., 240, 217. Survey Review; 1988. Abstract
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M D, OgendoSWO, NyaimEO. "Surgical APGAR score predicts post-laparatomy complications at Kenyatta National Hospital. ." The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY. . 2013;10(2):17-22.
Bullock RM, Chesnut R, Ghajar J, Gordon D, Hartl R, Newell DW, Servadei F, Walters BC, Wilberger JE. "Surgical management of acute epidural hematomas." Neurosurgery. 2006;58:S2-7. AbstractWebsite
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N. WM, D.O. K, P. K, W.E. M, J.D. M. "Surgical management of agenesis of the vulva with atresia ani-et-distal recti in a heifer calf: A case report." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research . 2015;2(3):369-372.
Ndirangu K, Ngwanyam NY. "Surgical management of urolithiasis at the Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1990. Abstract

Over a ten-year-period, 82 patients with 89 episodes of urinary stones were seen and managed in the General Surgical Units of Kenyatta National Hospital. The management procedures were evaluated and the magnitude of complications (morbidity/mortality) assessed. Some recommendations are made for the prevention and management of stone disease in this and similar communities

Nakagohri T, Kinoshita T, Konishi M, Takahashi S, Gotohda N. "Surgical outcome of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas." Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Surgery. 2008;15:318-321. AbstractWebsite
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Mitei. K, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Mwangi. J, Wangui. J, Opot. B, Osuna. F, Nyambura. J, Njiri. J, Wurapa. EK. Surveillance of Human Parainfluenza viruses in Kenya during the 2007-2011 Period.. Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi Kenya.; 2012. Abstract
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Nyagetuba M, Saidi H, Githaiga JW. "Surveillance of injuries among Kenya rugby Union (KRU) players – season 2010." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9(2):88-92. Abstract

Objective: To determine the incidence and characteristics of injury amongst Kenya rugby union players and associated factors.
Design: A whole population prospective cohort study.
Methods: 364 registered Kenya rugby union (KRU) players were studied
throughout the 2010 season. Data on their demographics, injury incidence, pattern and severity were gathered. The study tool used was the Rugby International Consensus Group (RICG) Statement.
Results: There were 173 backs and 191 forwards. One hundred and two
1 injuries for 60 league games (2400match player hours) were recorded. The incidence of injuries was 42.5/1000 match player hours (mph), (44.2 for forwards and 40.8 for backs). Lower limb injuries were the most common (41.2%). Players were most prone to injuries in the in tackle scenario (63.7%), at the beginning of the season (47.1%), and in
the last quarter (50%) of a game.
Conclusion: The injury incidence recorded contrast the earlier Kenyan
data but is comparable to international amateur level incidence, uniqueness of the Kenyan environment notwithstanding. The higher
rates associated with the tackle/tackled scenario, earlier part of the season and later part of the game, suggest interventions can target player conditioning, and use of protective gear.

Mitei K, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Majanja J, Wadegu M, Opot B, Osuna F, Mukunzi S, Muthoni J, Ochola S, Mwangi J, Njiri J, Wurapa E, Coldren R. "Surveillance of non-influenza viruses in Kenya, 2007-2011." International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2014;21:261. AbstractWebsite
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Osuna. F, Bulimo. W, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Njiri. J, Mwangi. J, Opot. B, Mitei. K, Nyambura. J, Achilla. R, Wurapa. E. Surveillance of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Kenya from 2006-2010. . Bangkok Thailand; 2012. Abstract
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Osuna F, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Muthoni J, Wadegu M, Njiri J, Opot B, Mukunzi S, Majanja J, Wurapa E. "Surveillance of respiratory syncytial virus occurrences in Kenya from 2006-2010." Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:E142. AbstractWebsite
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Osuna F, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Muthoni J, Wadegu M, Njiri J, Opot B, Mukunzi S, Majanja J, Wurapa E. "Surveillance of respiratory syncytial virus occurrences in Kenya from 2006-2010." International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012;16:e142. AbstractWebsite
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Nyamweya NN, Abuga KO. "A Survey of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers in Nairobi: Packaging, Labelling and Regulatory Compliance." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 23 (2020). 2020;23(2):72-76. Abstract

Alcohol based hand sanitizers are currently recommended for routine use in curbing the spread of the COVID-19 global pandemic. The present survey examined hand sanitizers marketed in Nairobi County with regards to product appearance, packaging, labelling and declared composition. Seventy-six samples were collected from five sites within the Nairobi metropolis - Central Business District, Kibera, Kilimani/Karen, Ngong and Thika. A wide range of non-conformities were observed for the criteria applied. Many samples had incomplete or missing label information, ingredient lists, cautionary warnings, Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) standardization marks and permit numbers. Glycerin, fragrances and carbomers were the most common added ingredients. Poor formulation indicators such as haziness and phase separation were encountered in some products. The median price of the products was KES 250 (USD 2.36) per 100 ml although there was considerable variation in pricing of samples. None of the samples evaluated fully met all the standards for the parameters evaluated. Strict adherence to regulatory standards by producers of hand sanitizers is required to ensure that only compliant products are available on the market.

Kabaru JM, Njogu RM. "A survey of amino acid activities in bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei brucei." Acta Tropica. 1988;45:189-190.
Kabaru JM, Njogu RM. "A survey of amino acid activities in bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei brucei." Acta Tropica. 1988;45:189-190.
Ndavi PM KCS:, et al. "A survey of Attitude of Kenyan Medical Doctorson Family Planning (FP): Secondary Data Analysis: ." J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. 1995;11(1):38-43.
Magutu PO, MBECHE IM, NYAMWANGE SO. "A survey of Benchmarking Practices in Higher Education in Kenya: The Case of Public Universities.". In: IBIMA Business Review. IBIMA Publishing; 2011. Abstract

Benchmarking has been used as a tool, a methodology and a technique for continuous improvements in sectoral operations to gain and maintain competitive advantage. This was a survey of benchmarking practices in higher education in Kenya, the case of public universities, whose objectives were; to document the benchmarking activities in the public universities; to establish the challenges facing the public universities in benchmarking. Cross sectional survey was used in this study to collect data from the six public universities with their respective campuses/schools in the population of interest. The respondents were senior administrators and the academic staff. Of the 53 informants who were sampled, 31 responded, thus, a response rate was of 58 percent. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and summarize the data before presenting it in the form of proportions, means, tables and graphs. This was in line with the first and second objectives, which were actually answered in relation to the benchmarking practices in the academic function of public universities in Kenya. The study found out that continuous improvement systems in Kenyan public universities are good, not excellent. The external drivers of change/continuous improvements in public universities are the customers/students as opposed to legislation, while the major internal trigger of change is the actual performance. The public universities effectively and successfully benchmark for continuous improvement.
The Kenyan public universities use action research and performance indicators as the sources of referencing information on benchmarks. The most common type of benchmarking in use is development/improvement benchmarking and planning to make use of international benchmarking. Finally, the three critical factors that have influenced the success of benchmarking practices are: time and resource availability: limited duration, comparability and compatibility, which are reasons why the institutions don’t practice international benchmarking.
Keywords: Benchmarking, Continuous Improvement, Quality, Higher Education

Asaava LL, Kitala PM, Gathura PB, Nanyingi MO, Muchemi G, Schelling E. "A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis In Northern Turkana District, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that is mainly of socioeconomic ,H1(1 public health impor, ranee. A survey of this disease was.carried ou t in Northern Turkana District, Kenya to estimate the prevalence through both serology and meat inspection. to determine the prevalence or the adult tapeworm in the human definitive 11Ost, and to determine risk factors for cattle seropositivity. This information is of public health importance and will be of use inassessing economic losses due to downgrading, refrigeration or condemnation of infested carcasses. The study area was stratified into the three livestock grazing regions of Oropoi to the south, Lokichoggio--Mogilla centrally and Kibish in the north for the purposes of rhe serological and questionnaire (n = 53 herd owners) data. Five ada/wars (grazing units) were selected and 34, 63. 49, 75 and 571 cattle serum samples obtained from these. The slaughter slabs of Lokichoggio and Kakurna were visited and 188 serum samples were obtained from slaughter cattle and compared to results of meat inspection. Human stool samples were collected in each of the three grazing areas and 66, 97 and 78 samples were obtained. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis in cattle was estimated at 16.7% (95% CI 13-20,9%) using a secretory-excretory antigen detection ELISA. There was poor agreement between meat inspection and serology (I< = 0.025; P = 0.2797). The prevalence of taeniasis was estimated as 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-5.6%) by microscopy. A backwards elimination logistic regression analysis indicated that the grazing unit (Ada/war), the deworrning history of household members and the distance (>2km) of gl-azing fields from the homestead were significant expla-natory variables for cattle being found to be positive on serology. An intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0,07 (0.02-0.12); P < 0.0001 was calculated for bovine cysticercosis in this area

Asaava LL, Kitala PM, Nanyingi MO, Muchemi G, Schelling E. "A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis In Northern Turkana District, Kenya.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that is mainly of socioeconomic ,H1(1 public health impor, ranee. A survey of this disease was.carried ou t in Northern Turkana District, Kenya to estimate the prevalence through both serology and meat inspection. to determine the prevalence or the adult tapeworm in the human definitive 11Ost, and to determine risk factors for cattle seropositivity. This information is of public health importance and will be of use inassessing economic losses due to downgrading, refrigeration or condemnation of infested carcasses. The study area was stratified into the three livestock grazing regions of Oropoi to the south, Lokichoggio--Mogilla centrally and Kibish in the north for the purposes of rhe serological and questionnaire (n = 53 herd owners) data. Five ada/wars (grazing units) were selected and 34, 63. 49, 75 and 571 cattle serum samples obtained from these. The slaughter slabs of Lokichoggio and Kakurna were visited and 188 serum samples were obtained from slaughter cattle and compared to results of meat inspection. Human stool samples were collected in each of the three grazing areas and 66, 97 and 78 samples were obtained. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis in cattle was estimated at 16.7% (95% CI 13-20,9%) using a secretory-excretory antigen detection ELISA. There was poor agreement between meat inspection and serology (I< = 0.025; P = 0.2797). The prevalence of taeniasis was estimated as 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-5.6%) by microscopy. A backwards elimination logistic regression analysis indicated that the grazing unit (Ada/war), the deworrning history of household members and the distance (>2km) of gl-azing fields from the homestead were significant expla-natory variables for cattle being found to be positive on serology. An intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0,07 (0.02-0.12); P < 0.0001 was calculated for bovine cysticercosis in this area

Asaava LL, Kitala PM, Gathura PB, Nanyingi MO, Schelling E. "A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis In Northern Turkana District, Kenya.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that is mainly of socioeconomic ,H1(1 public health impor, ranee. A survey of this disease was.carried ou t in Northern Turkana District, Kenya to estimate the prevalence through both serology and meat inspection. to determine the prevalence or the adult tapeworm in the human definitive 11Ost, and to determine risk factors for cattle seropositivity. This information is of public health importance and will be of use inassessing economic losses due to downgrading, refrigeration or condemnation of infested carcasses. The study area was stratified into the three livestock grazing regions of Oropoi to the south, Lokichoggio--Mogilla centrally and Kibish in the north for the purposes of rhe serological and questionnaire (n = 53 herd owners) data. Five ada/wars (grazing units) were selected and 34, 63. 49, 75 and 571 cattle serum samples obtained from these. The slaughter slabs of Lokichoggio and Kakurna were visited and 188 serum samples were obtained from slaughter cattle and compared to results of meat inspection. Human stool samples were collected in each of the three grazing areas and 66, 97 and 78 samples were obtained. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis in cattle was estimated at 16.7% (95% CI 13-20,9%) using a secretory-excretory antigen detection ELISA. There was poor agreement between meat inspection and serology (I< = 0.025; P = 0.2797). The prevalence of taeniasis was estimated as 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-5.6%) by microscopy. A backwards elimination logistic regression analysis indicated that the grazing unit (Ada/war), the deworrning history of household members and the distance (>2km) of gl-azing fields from the homestead were significant expla-natory variables for cattle being found to be positive on serology. An intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0,07 (0.02-0.12); P < 0.0001 was calculated for bovine cysticercosis in this area

Wairimu FG, Onyambu CK, Nyabanda RA, Mwango GN. "A Survey of Clinicians’ Preference, Opinion and Satisfaction with Radiological Reports at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy. 2020;8(1):1088 (1-5).
NZUVE SNM, MBUGUA SM. "A Survey of Competitiveness in the Passenger Road Transport Sector in Nairobi-Kenya." Problems of Management in the 21st Century. 2012. Abstracta_survey_of_competitiveness_in_the__passanger_road_transport_sector_in_nairobi_kenya.pdfWebsite

The purpose of the study was to identify the key competitive dimensions employed by players in the low cost, mass market commuter road transport sector in Nairobi, Kenya. The theoretical framework for this study was Michael Porter’s Industry Analysis model. This model assumes five competitive forces, which determine the attractiveness of a given industry. These forces are: the barriers of entry into the industry, threat of substitute products,
bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers and industry rivalry. The Porter’s Five Forces Industry Analysis model is a strategy tool that is used to make an analysis of the ttractiveness (value) of an industry structure.
The study used a survey design. The population of the study consisted of all public service vehicle owners operating in Nairobi and registered under the Public Service Vehicle Owners Welfare Association of Kenya; the City buses namely, Citi Hoppa, Express Connections, KBS, and other formal and informal public commuter transport providers. The sample of the study was restricted only to the motorized providers of low unit cost mass-market public passenger road transportation. These include public service vehicle owners registered under the Public Service Vehicle Owners Welfare Association of Kenya and city buses. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics.
The key finding of the study was that there was a lot of activity in the PSV sector that has influenced the industry’s competitiveness. The threat from other competing means of transportation had the lowest levels of activity and it was determined from the low mean
values on all the parameters used as proxies to the threat. The sector was also seen to be very active in employing marketing strategies to enhance competitiveness. The study recommended that the passenger transport sector increase innovative use of alternative means of transport.
Key words: Matatu, the term Matatu is derived from a local Kikuyu vernacular word mang’otore Matatu, which literally means “thirty cents’ that was the standard charge for every trip made in the 1970’s.

Nyatebe JO, Njenga GK, Wandiga SO, Orata F, Oduor FDO, Onyari JM. "A survey of heavy metal pollution from automotive emmissions in Kenya's urban Environment.". 2011.Full text link
Mulinge E, Zeyhle E, Mpario J, Mugo M, Nungari L, Ngugi B, Gathura P, Sankale B. "A survey of intestinal helminths in domestic dogs in a human–animal–environmental interface: the Oloisukut Conservancy, Narok County, Kenya." Journal of Helminthology . 2021;95.
Sekadde-Kigondu C, Ndavi PM, Nyagero JM, Nichols DJ, Jensencky K, Ojwang SB, Gachara M. "A survey of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods among Kenyan medical doctors: secondary data analysis.". 1995. Abstract

This survey, conducted between October 1989 and March 1990, to determine the knowledge, attitude, practice, and provision of family planning of a sample of 376 Kenyan medical doctors, reports on the aspects of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods. Kenyan medical doctors had low-to-average knowledge of the association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and the risk of various medical conditions and the mechanism of action of steroidal contraceptives. Their knowledge of the effectiveness of various program methods was average to high. There was a linear relationship between monthly income and knowledge of effectiveness of OCs, according to which physicians earning more had less knowledge than their colleagues who earned less (Z = 2.318, p = 0.02). A stepwise unconditional logistic regression model showed that two variables, department where most work is performed and sex, are significantly associated with better knowledge. Use of these operational variables for assessing medical doctors' knowledge of FP methods gave a better resolution of the extent and perhaps the quality of counseling and advice they provided to their FP clients. At the same time, the need for update courses in FP for medical doctors is unquestionable and long overdue. author's modified author's modified

Sekadde-Kigondu C, Ndavi PM, Nyagero JM, Nichols DJ, Jensencky K, Ojwang SB, Gachara M. "A survey of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods among Kenyan medical doctors: secondary data analysis.". 1995. Abstract

This survey, conducted between October 1989 and March 1990, to determine the knowledge, attitude, practice, and provision of family planning of a sample of 376 Kenyan medical doctors, reports on the aspects of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods. Kenyan medical doctors had low-to-average knowledge of the association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and the risk of various medical conditions and the mechanism of action of steroidal contraceptives. Their knowledge of the effectiveness of various program methods was average to high. There was a linear relationship between monthly income and knowledge of effectiveness of OCs, according to which physicians earning more had less knowledge than their colleagues who earned less (Z = 2.318, p = 0.02). A stepwise unconditional logistic regression model showed that two variables, department where most work is performed and sex, are significantly associated with better knowledge. Use of these operational variables for assessing medical doctors' knowledge of FP methods gave a better resolution of the extent and perhaps the quality of counseling and advice they provided to their FP clients. At the same time, the need for update courses in FP for medical doctors is unquestionable and long overdue. author's modified author's modified

Kavia D, Gathece LW, Mulli TK, Nganga PM. "A survey of orthodontic treatment experiences among Kenyans.". 2003.
Kavia D, Gathece LW, Mulli TK, Nganga PM. "A survey of orthodontic treatment experiences among Kenyans.". 2003.
Ndinya-Achola JO, Omari MA, Odhiambo FA, Murage E, Mutere AN. "Survey of penicillin resistant pneumococci at kenyatta national hospital, nairobi.". 1997. Abstract

During a four year period, a survey of .antibiotic sensitivity patterns in clinical isolates of pneumococci was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. The isolation and characterisation of Streptococcus pneumoniae was done using standard laboratory procedures. Sensitivity testing was by disc diffusion method using discs supplied by Oxoid. During the period, 45 clinical isolates were recorded. This figure is somewhat lower than the expected rate o(pneumococcal isolation at the hospital. Penicillin resistance of 24 % among the pneumococcal isolates was recorded. Among the antibiotics tested, amoxycillinlclavulanic acid, ceftazidime, erythromycin and chloromphenicol had highest activity against the pneumococci. Surprisingly low sensitivity rates were recorded for trimethopriml sulphamethoxazole and cefuroxime. Implications of these findings in the management of pneumococcal infections are discussed

Maalu J, Nzuve S, Muindi FK. "A survey of personal goals and perceptions of entrepreneurial ability among students of the School of Business, University of Nairobi." Africa Journal of Business and Management. 2012;1(1):12-24. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
A great deal of research has investigated the reason for the creation of new enterprises and the entrepreneurial characteristics of those individuals responsible for the emergence of new firms. This was a study on how do the students of the university of Nairobi business school perceive their entrepreneurial ability in relation to personal goals? The goals in entrepreneurial ability are influenced by factors such as: maximum utilization of own skills and talents; full control of own future; achievement of what one values personally; being “my own boss”; the freedom/opportunity to make own decisions; the opportunity to learn new things; financial security; performing challenging and exciting work; having peace of mind with a peaceful and stress-free life; allocation of enough free time for family, hobbies, leisure, and other interests; an opportunity to extend one’s range of abilities, a goal to accumulate wealth; desire to live an adventurous and exciting life; the goal to start own business, striving for an idea to own business, an ultimate goal to be self employed and the wish to become an influential person to the future.
Key words: Personal Goals, Entrepreneurial Ability and Business School Students.

Mamah D, Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Nsofor T, Constantino JN, Barch DM, Mutiso V, Mbwayo A. "A survey of psychosis risk symptoms in Kenya.". 2011.
Olago D, Karuri HW, Neilson R, Mararo E, Villinger J. "A survey of root knot nematodes and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in sweet potato varieties from Kenyan fields." Crop protection. 2017;92:114-121. AbstractFull Text

The root knot nematode, Meloidogyne is one of the most economically damaging plant parasitic nematode groups, and are widely distributed in Kenyan agro-ecosystems. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity of Meloidogyne species in Kenyan sweet potato fields and identify sweet potato varieties that exhibit resistance to M. incognita. Meloidogyne species were collected from Nyanza, Western, Eastern and Central Provinces of Kenya. Mitochondrial DNA was used to differentiate Meloidogyne species. The most common species in all sampled regions was M. incognita. Meloidogyne hapla was recorded for the first time in Kenyan sweet potato growing areas (Mosocho, Matayos, Teso South, Manyatta, and Nzaui sub-counties), while M. enterolobii was observed in Kiharu, Matayos and Mosocho sub-counties and a novel Meloidogyne sp. was identified in Kiharu sub-county. Seventy-two sweet potato varieties collected from both agricultural fields and research stations in Kenya were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita under greenhouse conditions in two separate trials. Known susceptible (Beauregard) and resistant (Tanzania) sweet potato varieties were included as controls. Responses of sweet potato varieties to M. incognita infection was assessed by the number of eggs present and level of galling on a scale of 1–5, where 0 = 0 galls and 5 ≥ 100 galls. The reproduction index (RI) was used to classify the varieties as resistant or susceptible. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) in the number of eggs, GI and RI among the varieties tested. Forty nine sweet potato varieties were considered very resistant and may be used in breeding programs to incorporate resistance against M. incognita into commercial cultivars of sweet potato or to use them in crop rotation programmes for management of RKN. The results on Meloidogyne species diversity in Kenyan sweet potato fields will also be useful in nematode management programs

Njoroge P, Yego R, Muchane M, Githiru M, Njeri T, Giani A. "A survey of the large and medium sized mammals of Arawale National Reserve, Kenya." Journal of East African Natural History. 2009;98:119-128. Abstract
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Mutuli SM, Nyaoke G, Kihiu J, Murimi E. "A Survey of Ultrasonic Waves in Powder Transportation."; 2011.
Kidata GN, Nderitu JH. "Survey, biology and control of agromyzid beanflies in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

The common beans are the most widely grown pulses in Kenya. They are intercropped with such crops as maize, sorghum, cassava, in high and low potential areas. They are consumed as green leaves, green pods and dry beans and form an economic source of protein to the bulk of Kenya population. However, despite their importance as a major source of protein, their yields are variable for a number of reasons. One of the major limitations to obtaining high yields include insect pests. Among the pests of the beans, certain agromyzid beanflies have been reported to cause heavy losses to beans in Kenya. The control measures for the beanflies include mainly seed treatment with aldrin or dieldrin. However, these insecticides are being withdrawn because of their persistence in the environment. Therefore, the objectives of the research project are as follows: 1) to map the distribution of beanflies in bean growing areas in Kenya in four cropping seasons. 2) to identify the losses of common beans due to beanflies in farmers fields in four seasons. 3) To relate the biology of beanflies to the growth stages of the common beans grown in the field for two seasons. 4) to determine the effectiveness of the insecticides and natural enemies in the control of beanflies on common beans grown in the field for four seasons. 5) to investigate the incidence of beanflies and its natural enemies in different cropping patterns of common beans grown in the field for four seasons. 6) To evaluate soil, seed, foliar and spray treatments for control of beanflies. The project will evolve an integrated control strategy of beanflies for the poor resource farmer. The results will be obtained by undertaking a survey in farmers fields, field and laboratory experiments at the research centres. The cost for all the research activities will be U$12,588. The project is expected to take two years

Wamalwa D, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Slyker JA, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Survival benefit of early infant antiretroviral therapy is compromised when diagnosis is delayed.". 2007. Abstract

Late presentation is common among African HIV-1-infected infants. Incidence and correlates of mortality were examined in 99 infants with HIV-1 diagnosis by 5 months of age. Twelve-month survival was 66.8% (95% confidence interval: 55.9-75.6%). World Health Organization stage 3 or 4, underweight, wasting, microcephaly, low hemoglobin, pneumonia and gastroenteritis predicted mortality. Early HIV-1 diagnosis with antiretroviral therapy before symptomatic disease is critical for infant survival.

Wamalwa D, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E;, Slyker JA, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Survival benefit of early infant antiretroviral therapy is compromised when diagnosis is delayed.". 2007. Abstract

Late presentation is common among African HIV-1-infected infants. Incidence and correlates of mortality were examined in 99 infants with HIV-1 diagnosis by 5 months of age. Twelve-month survival was 66.8% (95% confidence interval: 55.9-75.6%). World Health Organization stage 3 or 4, underweight, wasting, microcephaly, low hemoglobin, pneumonia and gastroenteritis predicted mortality. Early HIV-1 diagnosis with antiretroviral therapy before symptomatic disease is critical for infant survival.

CF C, DS E, PE D, N H, BD R, LW I, H T. "Susceptibility of aposymbiotic Culex quinquefasciatus to Wuchereria bancrofti." Journal of invertebrate pathology. 1983;41(2):214-223. AbstractElsevier link

Larvae of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus originating from Kenya were reared in 0.025 mg/ml tetracycline hydrochloride. Some of the resulting progeny were shown, by electron microscopy and crossing experiments, to have been rendered free of the rickettsia like symbiont Wolbachia pipientis and from these progeny, symbiont-free lines were established. In experimental feedings on infected human volunteers and on cryopreserved microfilariae, the aposymbiotic stocks were found to be fully susceptible to the filaria Wuchereria bancrofti. This contrasts with some recently published data on Aedes polynesiensis, from which it has been suggested that rickettsia like symbionts have an important role in the development of filaria in the mosquito.

Keywords
Culex quinquefasciatus; Wolbachia pipientis; Wuchereria bancrofti; electron microscopy; tetracycline treatment; aposymbiotic mosquitoes; filarial susceptibility; cryopreservation

and Nderitu JH, MUEKE JM. "Susceptibility of eight potato cultivars to Myzus persicae Sulzer in the greenhouse.". In: KARI Scientific Conference, . Nairobi, ; 1989.
Nderitu JH, Mueke, S. "Susceptibility of eight potato cultivars to Myzus persicae Sulzer in the greenhouse." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1989;10(2):229-234.
Gatongi PM, Njoroge JM, Scott ME, Ranjan S, Gathuma JM, Munyua WK, Cheruiyot H, Prichard RK. "Susceptibility to IVM in a field strain of Haemonchus contortus subjected to four treatments in a closed sheep–goat flock in Kenya.". 2003. Abstract

Susceptibility to IVM (IVM) of “strain A” Haemonchus contortus which had been exposed to IVM four times over a 2-year period was compared to IVM susceptibility of “strain C” H. contortus which had no prior field exposure to IVM, by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, the percentage reduction in faecal egg counts (FEC) and the total worm counts (TWC) were compared between control animals (lambs and kids) and animals treated with low dose IVM (20 μg/kg). In vitro susceptibility to IVM was evaluated by larval migration inhibition (LMI) after the two strains of H. contortus were exposed to different concentrations of IVM. The dose response, measured as the proportion of larvae inhibited from migrating, was used to estimate LD50. Although differences in response to IVM in the in vivo determinations were not significant, “strain A” H. contortus had a significantly higher LD50 than “strain C” in the LMI assay. Coincident with the conduct of the in vivo experiment, it was observed that “strain A” H. contortus established and survived better than “strain C” in the control lambs.

Gatongi PM, Njoroge JM, Scott ME, Ranjan S, Gathuma JM, Cheruiyot H, Prichard RK. "Susceptibility to IVM in a field strain of Haemonchus contortus subjected to four treatments in a closed sheep–goat flock in Kenya.". 2003. AbstractWebsite

Susceptibility to IVM (IVM) of “strain A” Haemonchus contortus which had been exposed to IVM four times over a 2-year period was compared to IVM susceptibility of “strain C” H. contortus which had no prior field exposure to IVM, by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, the percentage reduction in faecal egg counts (FEC) and the total worm counts (TWC) were compared between control animals (lambs and kids) and animals treated with low dose IVM (20 μg/kg). In vitro susceptibility to IVM was evaluated by larval migration inhibition (LMI) after the two strains of H. contortus were exposed to different concentrations of IVM. The dose response, measured as the proportion of larvae inhibited from migrating, was used to estimate LD50. Although differences in response to IVM in the in vivo determinations were not significant, “strain A” H. contortus had a significantly higher LD50 than “strain C” in the LMI assay. Coincident with the conduct of the in vivo experiment, it was observed that “strain A” H. contortus established and survived better than “strain C” in the control lambs.

Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, GATEBE CK, Kamau GN, Kinyua AM, Kwach R, Mugera WG, Njau LN. Suspended particulate matter in Nairobi and the impact on health.; 1998.
Anyango SO, Muthui R, Nyunkuri E. "Sustainability of charcoal production in the Arid and semiarid lands of Kenya: A policy Dilemma." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journa. 2019;6(4).
Rogito DO, Maitho T, Nderitu A. "Sustainability of Food Security Irrigation Projects by Taking Corrective Action after Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation in Kitui County, Kenya. International journal of Innovative Research and Development. ISSN 2278-0211 (Online).". 2021. Abstract

Abstract:
Food supply is less than food demand in Kitui County as population keeps increasing. This lack of food leads to
malnutrition, poor health and even death to human beings and animals both domestic and wild. Agriculture is the key
food source in Kitui County in the republic of Kenya. Occasionally residents buy food quantities from neighboring Arid
and semi-arid areas counties which is not a reliable source because they face similar challenge. Many interventions to
improve food security has been put in place and one such is irrigation by the local county and National government
initiated through National irrigation Board but sustainability of these projects is a great concern in Kitui County.
Despite the irrigation projects setup still biting is food insufficiency which persists. One approach to improve
sustainability of irrigation projects is carrying out participatory monitoring and evaluation and then taking
corrective action which could also lead to ownership and then improved sustainability. This was the objective of the
study which was to assess if taking corrective action after Participatory Monitoring and evaluation (PME)influence
project sustainability. The study used descriptive survey and correlation designs in order to collect data from 316
respondents who were selected using stratification, judgmental and purposeful with strict randomization methods.
Questionnaires were administered and interviews were conducted on selected respondents on appointed dates. Data
was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social scientist (SPSS) version 25.0in order to get descriptive statistics also
correlation coefficients were got in order to get association and degree of strength. Testing of hypothesis was done
using linear regression. The study findings show thata big percentage (56.3%) of the respondents were aged between
31 to 40years.Majority of the respondents were females and their highest-level of education was up to primary school.
The respondents agreed that PME data collection and taking corrective action were not done. Taking corrective
action had a weak influence on sustainability with a correlation coefficient (r)of 0.33 which only explains 10.9% of
project sustainability. It’s recommended that farmers should be trained more through seminars and vocational
institutions in order to empower them with skills. Also, farmers should be encouraged to participate in irrigation
projects as they can have a sense of ownership. Infrastructure should be improved in order to access markets and a PM
& Eunit should be set up in irrigation projects in order to spear data collection and analysis and guide projects
towards sustainability. This is significant because it will improve sustainability and thus more food supply reducing
malnutrition rates and death among people and animals.
Keywords: Participatory monitoring and evaluation, Food security, taking corrective action, irrigation,
Sustainability, Projects, management

Kahiga RM, Gatumu JC, Nteere JS. "Sustainability of the implementation of the Preschool physical education curriculum in Nairobi and Nyeri counties.". In: Africa for Research in Comparative Education Society. Kenya Science Campus; Forthcoming.
Castiello M, Innocente S, Wamalwa K, Munyua SJM, Matete G, Njue S. "Sustainable Livelihood: Potential Role and Quality Assurance of Camel Export Trade in Somalia.". 2011. Abstract

Increasing market integration is an unavoidable process for most pastoral societies. The livestock sector which accounts for about 80% of Somalia’s GDP plays a significant role in food security and socio-economic development of pastoral societies relying on enhanced market integration of local livelihoods and globalization of the economy. An estimated 70,000 camels are exported annually contributing substantially to the 80% of livestock exports in normal years. These exports have, in the past, been hit by recurrent trade bans by Somalia’s major livestock importing countries in the Middle East on suspicion of the presence of transboundary animal diseases. Primary and secondary data collection was carried out through field visitation and interviews of the relevant stakeholders using pretested questionnaire. Support measures put in place by donors and international agencies, including FAO Somalia, which included capacity building, support to existing veterinary institutions; disease surveillance, livestock treatments, vaccinations, fodder and pasture establishment and conservation and establishment of water catchments have gone a long way to ensure sustainable camel export trade. According to Bosasso port veterinary officer, there has been a steady increase in camel exports since livestock trade ban was lifted by KSA in October, 2009. This is essential if regions of Somalia are to achieve self reliance at national level and improve household food and economic security, to accelerate reduction in poverty levels and nutritional security.

Nimbkar C, Gibson J, Okeyo M, Boettcher P, Soelkner J. "Sustainable use and genetic improvement.". 2008. Abstract

Sustainable use of animal genetic resources for agriculture and food production is proposed as the best strategy for maintaining their diversity. Achievement of sustainable use would continue to support livelihoods and minimize the long-term risk for survival of animal populations. The concept of sustainable use has economic, environmental and socio-cultural dimensions. Sustainable use of animal genetic resources also contributes to food security, rural development, increasing employment opportunities and improving standards of living of keepers of breeds. Supporting the rearing of breeds through better infrastructure, services, animal health care, marketing opportunities and other interventions would make a significant contribution to the sustainable use of animal genetic resources. Sustainable use envisages the use and improvement of breeds that possess high levels of adaptive fitness to the prevailing environment. It also encompasses the deployment of sound genetic principles for sustainable development of the breeds and the sustainable intensification of the production systems themselves. Sustainable use and genetic improvement rely on access to a wide pool of genetic resources. Genetic improvement programmes need to be considered in terms of national agriculture and livestock development objectives, suitability to local conditions and livelihood security as well as environmental sustainability. Genetic improvement can involve choice of appropriate breeds, choice of a suitable pure breeding or crossbreeding system and application of within-breed genetic improvement. The choice of appropriate breeds and crossbreeding systems in developed countries has been a major contributor to the large increases in productivity, and has benefited greatly from the fact that developed country animal genetic resources are well characterized and relatively freely exchanged. Where proper steps have been followed by careful assessment of demand, execution, delivery, impact and cost-benefit analyses, successful within-breed improvement has been realized within indigenous populations in developing countries. Breeding objectives and programmes for subsistence oriented and pastoralist systems are likely to be entirely different from conventional programmes. Crossbreeding has been most successful where it is followed by a rigorous selection programme involving livestock owners' participation and substantial public sector investment in the form of technical support. In any genetic improvement programme, inbreeding needs to be monitored and controlled. Within-breed genetic improvement is normal practice in the developed world, and has become a highly technical enterprise, involving a range of reproduction, recording, computing and genomic technologies. Emerging genomic technologies promise the ability to identify better, use and improve developing world animal genetic resources in the foreseeable future. Useful systems can, however, be established without the need for application of advanced technology or processes.

Newman LP, Njoroge A, Magaret A, Chohan BH, Gitomea VW, Wald A, Gorstein J, Overbaugh J, Dalton Wamalwa, Maleche-Obimbo E, Ruth Nduati, Farquhar C. "Sustained Responses to Measles Revaccination at 24 Months in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Kenya." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2017. Abstract

There are limited data on whether HIV-infected children in resource-limited countries who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) are able to produce sustained, protective levels of measles antibody after multiple measles vaccinations.

Ngungi N, Wagacha PW, William Okelo-Odongo. "Swahili Text-to-Speech System.". 2004. Abstract

n/a

Ngugi K, William Okelo-Odongo, Wagacha PW. "Swahili text-to-speech system." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2005. AbstractFull text link

Text-to-speech (TTS) applications have been applied in diverse areas all over the
world. Considering the fact that Swahili pronunciation is not complicated, and the language
spoken by about 45–100 million people as their first or second language,, we considered
the feasibility, and developed a Swahili Text-to-Speech (TTS) system.

Macharia EW;, Mwaniki SW;, Kibata GN;, Nderitu J. "Sweet potato insect pests: identification and mode of damage."; 1992.
Mwaniki SW;, Nderitu JH;, and Olubayo F, Kimenju JW. "Sweet potato weevil management: an integrated approach based on entomopathogenic nematodes, insecticides and cultural practice. Proceedings of the 1st KARI Mini conference, KARI, Nairo.". In: Proceedings of the 1st KARI Mini conference, KARI, Nairobi, 5-7.; 2007.
Kosgei RJ, Ndavi MP, Ong’ech JO, Abuya JM, Siika AM, Wools-Kaloustian K, Mabeya H, Fojo T, Mwangi A, Reid T, Edginton ME, Carter JE. "Symptom screening: diagnostic usefulness to detect pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected pregnant women in Kenya." Public Health Action . 2011;1(2):30-33.symptom_screening_diagnostic_usefulness_to_detect_pulmonary_tuberculosis_in_hiv-infected_pregnant_women_in_kenya.pdf
Dech H, Ndetei DM, Richter P, Kathuku DM, Sanderman S, Othieno C, Mundt CH. "Symptomatology of Depression - Results from a Kenyan Population."; 1996.
Owor RO, Bedane KG, Openda YI, Zühlke S, Derese S, Ong’amo G, Ong’amo G, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Synergistic anti-inflammatory activities of a new flavone and other flavonoids from Tephrosia hildebrandtii vatke." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
A new flavone, named hildeflavone (1) along with 7 other known flavonoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Tephrosia hildebrandtii Vatke. Their characterisation was based on NMR and MS data analysis. The anti-inflammatory properties of the crude extract, isolated compounds and combination of the compounds were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of the LPS-stimulated PBMCs with the isolated flavonoids at a concentration of 100 µM significantly reduced the production of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). It was also found that the combination of a flavone and flavanones exhibited remarkable synergistic anti-inflammatory effects on the production of the cytokines.

NGANGA DRWAWERUFRANK. "Synopsis of Nuclear Medicine. Waweru F.N, Othieno J.O E.A.M.J. Vol. 66, No. 10. Oct. 1989.". In: proceedings. East African Journal of Development Studies; 1989. Abstract
The application of radionuclides to medical diagnosis and treatment has a relatively short history. The phenomenon of radioactivity was originally discovered by Henri Bacquerel in 1896, whereas Pierre and Marie Curie isolated the naturally occurring element radium in 1899. The use of radium in the treatment of malignant disease was first introduced at the turn of this century, and was established by 1920. It was not until 1938, however, that the discovery of nuclear fission made possible the subsequent development of the nuclear reactor, and the large-scale production of artificial radioactive nuclides. It was immediately realised that the latter opened up great possibilities in the medical field. The radioactive isotope was chemically indistinguishable from the stable isotopes of the element, and minute quantities of it in the body could be detected externally by virtue of the radiation they emitted; it could be used as a "tracer" to follow the metabolism of a substance throughout the body. The following synopsis is a brief attempt to introduce the Kenyan medical personnel into the scope of nuclear energy in medicine. PMID: 2612403 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "Synthesis and binding studies of ring constrained glucagon analogues.". In: Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 21(1), 103-110. Ph.D thesis, University of Nairobi.; 2007.
Njogu RNE, Njenga LW, Wendt OF, Kariuki DK, Amir OY. "Synthesis and characterization of Tris-cyclometalated Iridium (III) and Ruthenium (II) complexes.". In: 3rd Nordic meeting on Organometallic Chemistry. Lund, Sweden; 2015.
Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Midiwo JO, Byamukama R, Kamau RW, Kumarihamy M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis of a pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone and monoterpenes for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and anti-cryptococcal properties." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-8. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
Monoterpene derivatives are of great biological relevance in the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone, 3-O-benzylcarvotacetone (1), and selected monoterpenes (3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (3) and cis-piperitol (5)) were prepared to provide (R)-1-(4-(benzyloxy)-5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dien-1-yl)-pyrrolidine (2), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-yl acetate (4), cis-3-hydroxypiperitone (6) and carvacrol (7). Structure of 2 was determined based on NMR and HRMS spectral data. Compound 4 exhibited activity against fungi Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of < 0.8 µg/mL. In addition, this compound 4 had an IC50 value of 14.97 µg/mL against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Previous to the current study, both compound 6 and 7 had been reported to have anti-microbial and anti …

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Midiwo JO, Byamukama R, Kamau RW, Kumarihamy M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis of a pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone and monoterpenes for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and anti-cryptococcal properties." Natural Product Research. 2022;36(9):2321-2328.
NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "Synthesis of aminoalkyl vernolamides from vernonia oil at varied conditions.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. JJournal of Kenya Chemical Society, 3 (1), 1-8.; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Abstract. The oil extracted from the seeds of Vernonia galamensis ssp. nairobensis was reacted with 1,6-diaminohexane and 1,8-diaminooctane using a 1:3 molar ratio of vernonia oil to amine to give the corresponding vernolamides. Varied temperatures and solvents were applied. The vernolamides exhibited antibacterial activity against gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and on gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The vernolamides did not show any antifungal activity.
Mutai P, Pavadai E, Wiid I, Ngwane A, Baker B, Chibale K. "Synthesis, antimycobacterial evaluation and pharmacophore modeling of analogues of the natural product formononetin." Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters . 2015;25(12):2510-2513.
Odhiambo RA, Aluoch AO, Njenga LW, Kagwanjac SM, Wandiga SO, Wendt OF. "Synthesis, characterisation and ion-binding properties of oxathiacrown ethers appended to [Ru(bpy)2]2+. Selectivity towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+†." Journal of Royal Society of Chemistry. 2018;(8):3663-3672. Abstractwww.pubs.rsc.org

A series of complexes with oxathiacrown ethers appended to a [Ru(bpy)2]2+ moiety have been synthesized and characterised using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. The complexes exhibit strong MLCT luminescence bands in the range 608–611 nm and one reversible metal centred oxidation potential in the range 1.00–1.02 V. Their selectivity and sensitivity towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ metal ions have been investigated using electronic absorption, luminescence, cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry titrations. Their responses towards selected cations and anions have also been investigated using electronic absorption and luminescence. While the complexes are selective towards Hg2+ and Cd2+ ions, none of them is selective towards Pb2+ ions. In particular, complex 2 gives a selective change in the UV/Vis absorbance with Hg2+ making it possible to detect mercury down to a detection limit of 68 ppm. The binding constants and limits of detection of the complexes have been calculated, with values ranging from 4.37 to 5.38 and 1.4 × 10−3 to 6.8 × 10−5 for log[thin space (1/6-em)]Ks and LOD respectively.

Odhiambo RA, Aluoch AO, Njenga LW, Kagwanja SM, Wandiga SO, Wendt OF. "Synthesis, Characterization and Ion-Binding Properties of Oxathiacrown Ethers Appended to [Ru(bpy)2]2+: Selectivity Towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+." RSC advances. 2018;8(7):3663-3672. AbstractRSC Advances

Description
A series of complexes with oxathiacrown ethers appended to a [Ru(bpy)2]2+ moiety have been synthesized and characterised using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. The complexes exhibit strong MLCT luminescence bands in the range 608–611 nm and one reversible metal centred oxidation potential in the range 1.00–1.02 V. Their selectivity and sensitivity towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ metal ions have been investigated using electronic absorption, luminescence, cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry titrations. Their responses towards selected cations and anions have also been investigated using electronic absorption and luminescence. While the complexes are selective towards Hg2+ and Cd2+ ions, none of them is selective towards Pb2+ ions. In particular, complex 2 gives a selective change in the UV/Vis …

Mbugua SN, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meye M, NS, Lalancette RA, Onani MO. "Synthesis, Characterization, and DNA-Binding Kinetics of New Pd(II) and Pt(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes: Spectral, Structural, and Anticancer Evaluation." Journal of Chemistry. 2020:1-17. AbstractJournal of Chemistry

In a bid to come up with potential anticancer agents, a class of thiosemicarbazone ligands bearing substituted thiophene were synthesized followed by complexation with various Pd(II) and Pt(II) metal precursors. 'e ligands (E)-1-((thiophen-2-yl) methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L1), (E)-1-((4-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L2), and (E)-1-((5-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L3) were synthesized by condensation reactions and obtained in good yields. Complexation of L1 and L2 with Pd(cod)Cl2 gave C1 (C6H7Cl2N3PdS2) and C2 (C6H6BrCl2N3PdS2), respectively. Complexation of L1 with K2PtCl4 gave C3 (C6H7Cl2N3PtS2), while L3 with K2PtCl2[(PPh)3]2 gave C4 (C24H21BrClN3PPtS2). 'e structures and coordination for all compounds were established by FTIR, 1 H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies for ligand L1. Tuning of the spectral and anticancer activity of the compounds was investigated by changing the position of the bromide substituent, metal center, and the σ or π-donor/acceptor strength of the groups surrounding the metal center. 'e compounds had low to moderate anticancer potency with their spectral and structural properties correlating with the corresponding anticancer activity profiles. DNA binding modes were studied by spectroscopy and were comparable to known DNA intercalators. Structure-activity profiles were evident especially between C1 and C2 differing by the presence of a Br in position 5 of thiophene ring, which caused a remarkable increase in IC50

Mbugua SN, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, NS, Lalancette RA, Onani MO, Onani MO. "Synthesis, Characterization, And DNA-Binding Kinetics Of New Pd(II) And Pt(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes: Spectral, Structural, And Anticancer Evaluation." Journal of Chemistry . 2020;2020((5409)):1-17. Abstract

In a bid to come up with potential anticancer agents, a class of thiosemicarbazone ligands bearing substituted thiophene were synthesized followed by complexation with various Pd(II) and Pt(II) metal precursors. The ligands
(E)-1-((thiophen-2-yl) methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L1),
(E)-1-((4-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L2),
and (E)-1-((5-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L3) were synthesized by condensation reactions and obtained in good yields. Complexation of L1 andL2 with Pd(cod)Cl2 gave C1(C6H7Cl2N3PdS2) and C2(C6H6BrCl2N3PdS2),respectively. Complexation of L1 with K2PtCl4 gave C3(C6H7Cl2N3PtS2),while L3 with K2PtCl2[(PPh)3]2 gave C4(C24H21BrClN3PPtS2).The structures and coordination for all compounds were established by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies for ligand L1. Tuning of the spectral and anticancer activity of the compounds was investigated by changing the position of the bromide substituent, metal center, and the σ or π-donor/acceptor strength of the groups surrounding the metal center. The compounds had low to moderate anticancer potency with their spectral and structural properties correlating with the corresponding anticancer activity profiles. DNA binding modes were studied by spectroscopy and were comparable to known DNA intercalators. Structure-activity profiles were evident especially between C1and C2 differing by the presence of a Br in position 5 of thiophene ring, which caused a remarkable increase in IC50 values,from14.71±0.016(C1)to43.08±0.001(C2)in Caco-2 cells, 1.973±0.048 (C1) to 59.56±0.010 (C2) in MCF-7 cells, 16.65±0.051 (C1) to 72.25±0.003 (C2) in HeLa cells, 14.64±0.037 (C1) to 94.34±0.003 (C2) in HepG2, and 14.05±0.042 (C1) to>100(C2) in PC-3 cells.

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractJournal Abstract

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Ngugi EN, Bonell C, Rhodes T, Jolley E, Sorhaindo A, Fletcher A, Grenfell P, Platt L. "Systematic review examining differences in HIV, sexually transmitted infections and health-related harms between migrant and non-migrant female sex workers.". 2010. Abstract

I have picked this evaluation because it focuses on the special needs of migrant female sex workers (FSWs), in particular those in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STls) and HIV is high and the health infrastructure is insufficient to respond to these problems. In addition, migrant FSWs might initially be too afraid to immediately seek medical help in the 'new country' due to the fear of being apprehended for real or perceived reasons. By the same token, they might not have access to male or female condoms, but may have a high incidence of partner change and unprotected sex. Fear of stigma and discrimination might also keep them away from appropriate services.

Nanyingi MO, Munyua P, Kiama SG, Muchemi GM, Thumbi SM, Bitek AO, Bett B, Muriithi RM, Njenga MK. "A systematic Review of Rift Valley Fever Epidemiology 1931-2014." Infection Ecology and Epidemiology. 2015;5:28024.
T
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.G. MBUTHIA, R.M. WARUIRU, S.M. NJIRO, P.W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA and J. NGOTHO ( 1996). "Gross lesions encountered in slaughtered wild animals in a game ranching farm in Kenya.". Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 43: 253.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.G. MBUTHIA, R.M. WARUIRU, S.M. NJIRO, P.W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, E. H. WEDA and J. NGOTHO (1997). "Parasites and microscopic lesions in the livers of slaughtered wild animals in Kenya". Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa,.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. August 5th - 7th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.G. MBUTHIA, R.M. WARUIRU, S.M. NJIRO, P.W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, EH. WEDA and J. NGOTHO (1998). Sarcocystis in slaughtered wild animals in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 46: 1 - 4.". In: WAAVP Conference, August 15th - 19th. Copenhagen, Denmark. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.G. MBUTHIA, R.M. WARUIRU, S.M. NJIRO, P.W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, EH. WEDA and J. NGOTHO (1999). "Verminous pneumonia and other microscopic lung lesions in wild animals in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 46: 15.". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.W.N. KANYARI, M. MATHIU and A. OYEJIDE. (2004). Some post-mortem observations on unhatched ostrich embryos in a selected locality in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian, 26: 55-58.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.W.N. KANYARI, P.M. MATHIU, K.K. SRIVASTAVA, S.T. WILSON and A. OYEJIDE. (2004). Post-mortem Observations on Ostrich Chicks in a Commercial Farm in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 52:59-62.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
Chen B, Restaino J, Norris L, Xirasagar S, Qureshi ZP, McKoy JM, Lopez IS, Trenery A, Murday A, Kahn A, Mattison DR, Ray P, Sartor O, Bennett CL. "A tale of two citizens: a State Attorney General and a hematologist facilitate translation of research into US Food and Drug Administration actions--a SONAR report.". 2012. Abstract

Pharmaceutical safety is a public health issue. In 2005, the Connecticut Attorney General (AG) raised concerns over adverse drug reactions in off-label settings, noting that thalidomide was approved to treat a rare illness, but more than 90% of its use was off label. A hematologist had reported thalidomide with doxorubicin or dexamethasone was associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) rates of 25%. We review US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufacturer responses to a citizen petition filed to address these thalidomide safety issues. Case study. The AG petitioned the FDA requesting thalidomide-related safety actions. Coincidentally, the manufacturer submitted a supplemental New Drug Approval (sNDA), requesting approval to treat multiple myeloma with thalidomide-dexamethasone. FDA safety officers reviewed the petition and the literature and noted that VTE risks with thalidomide were not appropriately addressed in the existing package insert. In the sNDA application, the manufacturer reported thalidomide-associated toxicities for multiple myeloma were primarily somnolence and neurotoxicity, and a proposed package insert did not focus on VTE risks. In October, the FDA informed the Oncology Drug Division that VTE risks with thalidomide were poorly addressed in the existing label. After reviewing this memorandum, an Oncology Drug Division reviewer informed the manufacturer that approval of the sNDA would be delayed until several thalidomide-associated VTE safety actions, including revisions of the package insert, were implemented. The manufacturer and FDA agreed on these actions, and the sNDA was approved. New approaches addressing off-label safety are needed. The conditions that facilitated the successful response to this citizen petition are uncommon.

Njeri KM. "Tapping opportunities in Jua Kali enterprise clusters: the case of Ziwani and Kigandaini." IDC working Paper No. 525, IDS University of Nairobi. 2000.
Mogire RM, Akala HM, Macharia RW, Juma DW, Cheruiyot AC, Andagalu B, Brown ML, El-Shemy HA, Nyanjom SG. "Target-similarity search using Plasmodium falciparum proteome identifies approved drugs with anti-malarial activity and their possible targets." PLoS One. 2017;12(10):e0186364. Abstract

Malaria causes about half a million deaths annually, with Plasmodium falciparum being responsible for 90% of all the cases. Recent reports on artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia warrant urgent discovery of novel drugs for the treatment of malaria. However, most bioactive compounds fail to progress to treatments due to safety concerns. Drug repositioning offers an alternative strategy where drugs that have already been approved as safe for other diseases could be used to treat malaria. This study screened approved drugs for antimalarial activity using an in silico chemogenomics approach prior to in vitro verification. All the P. falciparum proteins sequences available in NCBI RefSeq were mined and used to perform a similarity search against DrugBank, TTD and STITCH databases to identify similar putative drug targets. Druggability indices of the potential P. falciparum drug targets were obtained from TDR targets database. Functional amino acid residues of the drug targets were determined using ConSurf server which was used to fine tune the similarity search. This study predicted 133 approved drugs that could target 34 P. falciparum proteins. A literature search done at PubMed and Google Scholar showed 105 out of the 133 drugs to have been previously tested against malaria, with most showing activity. For further validation, drug susceptibility assays using SYBR Green I method were done on a representative group of 10 predicted drugs, eight of which did show activity against P. falciparum 3D7 clone. Seven had IC50 values ranging from 1 μM to 50 μM. This study also suggests drug-target association and hence possible mechanisms of action of drugs that did show antiplasmodial activity. The study results validate the use of proteome-wide target similarity approach in identifying approved drugs with activity against P. falciparum and could be adapted for other pathogens.

Nielsen L, Sang-oum W, Cheevadhanarak S, Flegel TW. "Taura syndrome virus (TSV) in Thailand and its relationship to TSV in China and the Americas.". 2005. Abstract

The cultivation of exotic Penaeus vannamei in Thailand began on a very limited scale in the late 1990s, but a Thai government ban on the cultivation of P. monodon in freshwater areas in 2000 led many Thai shrimp farmers to shift to cultivation of P. vannamei. Alarmed by the possibility of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) introduction, the Thai Department of Fisheries required that imported stocks of P. vannamei be certified free of TSV by RT-PCR (Reverse Trasciption Polymerase Chain Reaction) testing. During the interval of allowed importation, over 150 000 broodstock shrimp were imported, 67% of these from China and Taiwan. Despite the safeguards, TSV outbreaks occurred and we confirmed the first outbreak by RT-PCR in early 2003. This resulted in a governmental ban on all shrimp broodstock imports from February 2003, but TSV outbreaks have continued, possibly due to original introductions or to the continued illegal importation of stocks. To determine the origin of the TSV in Thailand, the viral coat protein gene VP1 was amplified by RT-PCR from several shrimp specimens found positive for TSV by RT-PCR from January to November 2003. These included 7 samples from P. vannamei disease outbreaks in Thailand, 3 other non-diseased shrimp samples from Thailand and Burma and 6 samples including P. vannamei and P. japonicus from China. Comparison revealed that the Thai, Burmese and Chinese TSV types formed a clade distinct from a clade of TSV types from the Americas.

Marianne W. Mureithi, Adam Finn MOQZVDTMOJ, Neil A. Williams, Richard A. Adegbola RHS. "TCellMemoryResponsetoPneumococcalProtein Antigens in an Area of High Pneumococcal Carriage and Disease." The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009;(200):783-93.marianne_mureithi_jid_paper.pdf
Ndunda BE, MBOROKI GUANTAI. TCT 332: CHEMISTRY SUBJECT METHODS TEACHING MODULE.; 2016.
Ndung'u I. "Teach English Not About English." Paper published in the Standard Newspaper of 25th November 2002; 2002. Abstract
n/a
Omare E, Imonje RK, Nyagah G. "Teacher qualification, experience, capability beliefs and professional development: Do they predict teacher adoption of 21st century pedagogies?" International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction. 2020;12(2):639-670.
Ngesu L. "Teacher training and management of schools: An overview of practice in Kenyan institutions." Journal of African Studies in Educational Management and Leadership. 2010;1(1).
Ndungu CW, Kibui AW. "Teachers' Characteristics on Motivation of Pre-School children in learning the English language in Starehe District in Nairobi County, Kenya. BEST." International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences. 2016;4(1): 61-66.
Irungu MN, Nyagah G, Mercy M. "Teachers’ use of class talks interaction as a predictor of learning outcomes in chemistry." Springer Nature . 2020;1(13):1-24.
ASIAGO DORCAH, GATHII ALICE, Ngesu LM, Gunga SO, Gakuru A, Kahigi C, Nyaga VK, Oundo MB, Kamoyo JM, ADEGBORO JS, others. "TEACHERS’PERCEPTIONS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PRACTICES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LIMURU DISTRICT.". Submitted. Abstract
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P. R, Schagen VB, Chakeredza S, Njoroge K, Kamau H, Baena M. "Teaching Biodiversity: A curriculum Guide for Higher Education.". In: Biodiversity International, Rome Italy.; 2011.
NGINYE MICHAEL. "The Teaching of French in Kenyan Universities: The Relevance of French." Annual Journal of the United States International University; 2008. Abstract
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NASIMIYUH INYEGAHELLEN. "Teaching online courses: Lessons learned.". 2013.
N. IH. "Teaching Practice experiences: Invaluable insights from video-cases in Kenya." The Fountain: Journal of Educational Research. 2011;V(1):11-30.
N MJ. "Teaching Through Pictures in Theological Education by Extension Resources.". In: A Manual for Writers and Designers of Theological Education and Extension (TEE) Study Materials, The Writers Walking Stick,. Harare: Conference of African Theological Institutions; 1997.
Milford C, Kriel Y, Njau I, Nkole T, P G, Cordero JP, Smit JA, Steyn PS, Team UPTAKEP. "Teamwork in Qualitative Research: Descriptions of a Multicountry Team Approach." International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 2017;16 :1-10 .teamwork_in_qualitative_research.pdf
Ntwiga DB. "Technical Efficiency in the Kenyan Banking Sector: Influence of Fintech and Banks Collaboration." Journal of Finance and Economics. 2020;8(1):13-20. AbstractWebsite

Efficient banks increase financial stability, intermediation and value to the shareholders. As Fintech innovations continue to alter the financial landscape in Kenya, banks will leverage on Fintech to enhance efficiency. This study investigates if Fintech and bank collaboration has an influence on efficiency in the banking sector. A two step data envelopment analysis is applied with input-orientation based on three intermediation dimension models. Efficiency scores are decomposed into technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies. Financial statement data from 2009-2018 for five banks with Fintech collaborations form the analysis. The study period is segmented into Pre-Fintech, 2009-2014 and Post Fintech, 2015-2018. Descriptive statistics summarize the data with Panel regression model testing the selected financial variables influence on efficiency of banks in the Pre-Post Fintech period. In the ten year period, technical inefficiency based on the three models for the Pre-Post Fintech period is failure to operate at the most productive scale, poor input utilization and managerial inefficiencies. For the Panel regression, loan intensity in model M1, return on asset in model M2, and cost of intermediation in model M3 had a significant and positive influence on technical efficiency. Fintech and banks collaboration has had a positive influence on efficiency in the Kenyan banking sector.

N. GA. Technical Manual : Agro Forestry Practices - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 1 9. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
N. GA. Technical Manual : Farmer Field School (FFS) Approach - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 4 0. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
N. GA. Technical Manual : Organic Pineapple Production - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 7 1. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
Ndiritu JM. Technical trading support system (TTSS); A Stock Market Analyst Support System. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
Ngugi RW. ""Techniques, Methods and Procedures of Privatization" The context of Privatization in Kenya, edited by Professor Anyang Nyong'o.". The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
Mganga KZ, Musimba NKR, Nyangito MM, Nyariki DM, Francis J, W A, Ekaya WN, Muiru WM, Clavel D, Verhagen J. "Technologie de réensemencement d'herbages graminacées comme moyen de réhabilitation des terres dégradées et d'amélioration des moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans la région semi-aride du Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

La dégradation du sol constitue un problème majeur dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique subsaharienne. La lutte contre cette dégradation du sol est capitale pour garantir une productivité durable et à long terme des terres semi-arides habitées. Le Cenchrus ciliaris (vulpin des prés africains), l'Enteropogon macrostachyus (seigle sauvage) et l'Eragrostis superba (Eragrostis Maasai) sont d'importantes graminées vivaces dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique de l'Est. Une étude a été faite pour évaluer la contribution de ces herbages graminacées indigènes à l'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques du sol, la réhabilitation, la sécurité alimentaire et les moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans les districts semi-arides du Kenya. Les propriétés hydrologiques du sol ont été testées à l'aide d'un simulateur Kamphorst, à diverses hauteurs de chaume, pour donner une image de trois différentes intensités de pâturage (faible, moyenne, élevée). L'estimation de la couverture végétale s'est faite à l'aide de la méthode d'échantillonnage step-point. Une étude a également été réalisée dans 50 ménages agro-pastoraux pour évaluer les avantages multidimensionnels des herbages graminacées. La production de sédiments (comme fonction d'écoulement et capacité d'infiltration) était considérablement différente (P<0,05) à diverses hauteurs de chaume. Les estimations de la couverture végétale des herbages graminacées étaient également considérablement différentes (P<0,05). Le Cenchrus ciliaris avait le plus grand impact en matière d'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus avait la plus grande couverture. Le Cenchrus ciliaris et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. Ces résultats étaient dus à la croissance et aux caractères morphologiques des herbages graminacées. En général, une augmentation de la hauteur de chaume augmente la capacité d'infiltration et réduit l'écoulement et la formation de sédiments. Les résultats de l'enquête réalisée auprès des ménages révèlent que les herbages graminacées constituent une source de revenus par le biais de la vente de foin, de graines de graminacées et de lait, ce qui participe également d'un régime équilibré. Les herbages graminacées constituent également une source bon marché de matériel pour la confection de toitures de chaume et d'aliments pour le bétail. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mganga KZ, Musimba NKR, Nyangito MM, Nyariki DM, Francis J, Mwang'ombe AW, Muiru WM, Clavel D, Verhagen J. "Technologie de réensemencement d'herbages graminacées comme moyen de réhabilitation des terres dégradées et d'amélioration des moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans la région semi-aride du Kenya.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

La dégradation du sol constitue un problème majeur dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique subsaharienne. La lutte contre cette dégradation du sol est capitale pour garantir une productivité durable et à long terme des terres semi-arides habitées. Le Cenchrus ciliaris (vulpin des prés africains), l'Enteropogon macrostachyus (seigle sauvage) et l'Eragrostis superba (Eragrostis Maasai) sont d'importantes graminées vivaces dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique de l'Est. Une étude a été faite pour évaluer la contribution de ces herbages graminacées indigènes à l'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques du sol, la réhabilitation, la sécurité alimentaire et les moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans les districts semi-arides du Kenya. Les propriétés hydrologiques du sol ont été testées à l'aide d'un simulateur Kamphorst, à diverses hauteurs de chaume, pour donner une image de trois différentes intensités de pâturage (faible, moyenne, élevée). L'estimation de la couverture végétale s'est faite à l'aide de la méthode d'échantillonnage step-point. Une étude a également été réalisée dans 50 ménages agro-pastoraux pour évaluer les avantages multidimensionnels des herbages graminacées. La production de sédiments (comme fonction d'écoulement et capacité d'infiltration) était considérablement différente (P<0,05) à diverses hauteurs de chaume. Les estimations de la couverture végétale des herbages graminacées étaient également considérablement différentes (P<0,05). Le Cenchrus ciliaris avait le plus grand impact en matière d'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus avait la plus grande couverture. Le Cenchrus ciliaris et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. Ces résultats étaient dus à la croissance et aux caractères morphologiques des herbages graminacées. En général, une augmentation de la hauteur de chaume augmente la capacité d'infiltration et réduit l'écoulement et la formation de sédiments. Les résultats de l'enquête réalisée auprès des ménages révèlent que les herbages graminacées constituent une source de revenus par le biais de la vente de foin, de graines de graminacées et de lait, ce qui participe également d'un régime équilibré. Les herbages graminacées constituent également une source bon marché de matériel pour la confection de toitures de chaume et d'aliments pour le bétail. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mganga KZ, Musimba NKR, Nyangito MM, Nyariki DM, Francis J, Ekaya WN, Muiru WM, Clavel D, Verhagen J. "Technologie de réensemencement d'herbages graminacées comme moyen de réhabilitation des terres dégradées et d'amélioration des moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans la région semi-aride du Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

La dégradation du sol constitue un problème majeur dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique subsaharienne. La lutte contre cette dégradation du sol est capitale pour garantir une productivité durable et à long terme des terres semi-arides habitées. Le Cenchrus ciliaris (vulpin des prés africains), l'Enteropogon macrostachyus (seigle sauvage) et l'Eragrostis superba (Eragrostis Maasai) sont d'importantes graminées vivaces dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique de l'Est. Une étude a été faite pour évaluer la contribution de ces herbages graminacées indigènes à l'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques du sol, la réhabilitation, la sécurité alimentaire et les moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans les districts semi-arides du Kenya. Les propriétés hydrologiques du sol ont été testées à l'aide d'un simulateur Kamphorst, à diverses hauteurs de chaume, pour donner une image de trois différentes intensités de pâturage (faible, moyenne, élevée). L'estimation de la couverture végétale s'est faite à l'aide de la méthode d'échantillonnage step-point. Une étude a également été réalisée dans 50 ménages agro-pastoraux pour évaluer les avantages multidimensionnels des herbages graminacées. La production de sédiments (comme fonction d'écoulement et capacité d'infiltration) était considérablement différente (P<0,05) à diverses hauteurs de chaume. Les estimations de la couverture végétale des herbages graminacées étaient également considérablement différentes (P<0,05). Le Cenchrus ciliaris avait le plus grand impact en matière d'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus avait la plus grande couverture. Le Cenchrus ciliaris et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. Ces résultats étaient dus à la croissance et aux caractères morphologiques des herbages graminacées. En général, une augmentation de la hauteur de chaume augmente la capacité d'infiltration et réduit l'écoulement et la formation de sédiments. Les résultats de l'enquête réalisée auprès des ménages révèlent que les herbages graminacées constituent une source de revenus par le biais de la vente de foin, de graines de graminacées et de lait, ce qui participe également d'un régime équilibré. Les herbages graminacées constituent également une source bon marché de matériel pour la confection de toitures de chaume et d'aliments pour le bétail. (Résumé d'auteur)

Lelan JK, Ndurumo MM. "Technology in education of physically impaired children in inclusive settings.". The Management Digest: ISSN 2074-4730; 2011. Abstract
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Lelan JK, Ndurumo MM. "Technology in education of physically impaired children in inclusive settings.". The Management Digest: ISSN 2074-4730; 2011. Abstract
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Ndungu MN. "Teknolojia ya Kompyuta na Ufundishaji wa Kiswahili.". In: CHAKITA: Kiswahili na Utandawazi. KICD; Submitted.
Otieno SPV, Ngei J. Tell Us The Truth. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2009.
NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Temmerman M, Chomba EN, Ndinya-Achola J, Plummer FA, Coppens M, Piot P. Maternal human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection and pregnancy outcome.Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Apr;83(4):495-501.". In: Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Apr;83(4):495-501. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of maternal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection on pregnancy outcome. METHODS: Between January 1989 and December 1991, 406 HIV-1-seropositive and 407 HIV-1-seronegative age- and parity-matched pregnant women from Nairobi, Kenya, all at less than 28 weeks' gestation, were recruited into a prospective study of HIV-1 infection in pregnant women and their offspring. Both groups were followed until 6 weeks postpartum. RESULTS: Three hundred fifteen HIV-1-seropositive women and 311 HIV-1-seronegative controls were followed until delivery. Seropositive women were younger at sexual debut and reported more lifetime partners and more sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) than the seronegative controls. The seropositive women had higher rates of genital ulcer disease (4.7 versus 2.0%; P = .08), genital warts (4.9 versus 2.0%; P = .03), and positive syphilis serology (7.9 versus 3.2%; P < .001), but there were no differences between the groups in isolation rates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (6.8 versus 7.1%) and Chlamydia trachomatis (11.5 versus 9.0%). Maternal HIV-1 infection was associated with significantly lower birth weight (2913 versus 3072 g; P = .0003) and with prematurity (21.1 versus 9.4%; P < .0001), but not with small for gestational age size (4.2 versus 3.2%; P = .7). The stillbirth rate was higher in seropositive women, yet not statistically significant (3.8 versus 1.9%; P = .2). Women with a CD4 count lower than 30% had a higher risk of preterm delivery (26.3 versus 10.1%; P < .001). Postpartum endometritis was more common in HIV-1-infected women than in seronegative controls (10.3 versus 4.2%; P = .01) and was inversely correlated with the CD4 percentage. No histopathologic placental abnormalities attributable to HIV-1 were detected. CONCLUSION: Maternal HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with prematurity and postpartum endometritis, but not with fetal growth retardation. There was a trend toward a higher stillbirth rate in HIV-1-seropositive mothers.

NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Temmerman M, Chomba EN, Piot P.HIV-1 and reproductive health in Africa. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1994 Feb;44(2):107-12.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1994 Feb;44(2):107-12. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. PMID: 7911092 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Temmerman M, Nagelkerke N, Bwayo J, Chomba EN, Ndinya-Achola J, Piot P. HIV-1 and immunological changes during pregnancy: a comparison between HIV-1-seropositive and HIV-1-seronegative women in Nairobi, Kenya.AIDS. 1995 Sep;9(9):1057-60.". In: AIDS. 1995 Sep;9(9):1057-60. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Ghent, Belgium. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in the proportion of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte profiles during pregnancy, at delivery and postpartum, and to determine whether HIV-1 infection affects the normal profile. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 416 pregnant HIV-1-infected women and an age and parity-matched HIV-seronegative group of 407 pregnant women were enrolled into a prospective study on the impact of HIV-1 infection on pregnancy. Maternal blood was obtained for lymphocyte subset determination at enrollment, delivery and 6 weeks postpartum. Whole blood sample drawn in EDTA-containing tubes were used to determine T-helper/inducer (CD4) and T-suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8) cells by direct immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS: No relationship was found between gestational age and any immunological variable. The CD4 percentage was lower postpartum than antenatally, in both HIV-1-seropositive and seronegative women, but this was not true for absolute CD4 counts. CD8 absolute counts and percentages were significantly higher postpartum than antenatally. The differences between HIV-1-seropositive and seronegative women in changes over pregnancy in CD4 and CD8 cells and their ratio, were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support a short-term synergistic effect of HIV-1 and pregnancy on the immune function as determined by T-lymphocyte subsets. PIP: The impact of HIV-1 on pregnancy was investigated in a prospective case-control study of 416 pregnant HIV-infected women and 407 age- and parity-matched pregnant HIV-seronegative women from Nairobi, Kenya. No relationship existed between gestational age (14-30 weeks) and any hematologic or immunologic variable studied. In both cases and controls, the CD4 percentage (but not absolute count) was lower postpartum than during pregnancy, while CD8 absolute counts and percentages were significantly higher in the postpartum period. The differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in changes during pregnancy in CD4 and CD8 cells and their ratio were not statistically significant. These findings fail to provide support for a synergistic effect of HIV-1 and pregnancy on immune function. Further studies are needed, however, to assess the long-term effects of pregnancy in HIV-infected women, to determine the impact of pregnancy at different stages of HIV disease, and to establish normal and HIV-1-related T-lymphocyte subset profiles during the entire course of pregnancy in African women.
NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Temmerman M, Njagi E, Nagelkerke N, Ndinya-Achola J, Plummer FA, Meheus A. Mass antimicrobial treatment in pregnancy. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in a population with high rates of sexually transmitted diseases. J Reprod Med 1995 Mar;40(3):176-.". In: J Reprod Med 1995 Mar;40. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
Among 446 sera from prostitutes in Nairobi, the prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rose from 4% in 1981 to 61% in 1985. None of 118 men with chancroid seen in 1980 had antibody to HIV compared with 15% of 107 such men in 1985. Among pregnant women, 2.0% were seropositive in 1985 versus none of 111 in 1981. Seropositive prostitutes and women with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) tended to have more sex partners and had a higher prevalence of gonorrhoea, and in women with STDs, significantly more seropositive women practiced prostitution. Pregnant women and men with STDs who were born in the most-western region of Kenya were more likely to have antibody to HIV than were such groups from other geographic areas. Our results indicate that the AIDS virus was recently introduced into Kenya, that HIV can rapidly disseminate in a high-risk group of heterosexuals, and that prostitutes may have significantly contributed to the spread of the virus.
N DRKIMANIJOHN. "Temperature Dependence of the Thermal Conductivity of Grog Modified Kenyan Kaolinte Refractory.". In: Africa Journal of Science and Technology, Series A, 5(1), 6-14. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Tumuhaise V, Ekesi S, Maniania NK, Tonnang HEZ, Tanga CM, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Mohamed SA. "Temperature-dependent growth and virulence, and mass production potential of two candidate isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin for managing Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on cowpea." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):73-83.
Tumuhaise V, Ekesi S, Maniania NK, Tonnang HEZ, Tanga CM, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Mohamed SA. "Temperature-dependent growth and virulence, and mass production potential of two candidate isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin for managing Maruca vitrata …." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):73-83.
Ngowi BV, Tonnang HEZ, Johansson T, Ndegwa PN, Subramanian S, Mwangi EM, Ambale J. "Temperature-dependent phenology of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): Simulation and visualization of current and future distributions along the Eastern Afromontane." PloS one. 2017;12(3):e0173590.
Mweu MM, Fournié G, Halasa T, Toft N, Nielsen SS. "Temporal characterisation of the network of Danish cattle movements and its implication for disease control: 2000–2009." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013;110:379-387. Abstractsna_paper.pdf

Social network analysis provides a valuable framework for understanding the dynamics of diseases on networks as well as a means for defining effective control measures. An understanding of the underlying contact pattern for a susceptible population is advisable before embarking on any strategy for disease control. The objective of this study was to characterise the network of Danish cattle movements over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 with a view to understanding: (1) cohesiveness of the network, (2) influential holdings and (3) structural vulnerability of the network.
Network analyses of data involving all cattle movements in Denmark registered during the period of interest were performed. A total of 50,494 premises participated in 4,204,895 individual movements during the 10-year period. The results pointed to a predominantly scale-free structure of the network; though marked by small-world properties in March–April 2001 as well as in 24 other months during the period October 2006 to December 2009. The network was sparsely connected with markets being the key influential holdings. Its vulnerability to removal of markets suggests that targeting highly connected holdings during epidemics should be the focus of control efforts.

Mutai BK, Muthama JN, Ngaina JN. The temporal cycles of carbon monoxide and Ozone and their impact on air quality over Nairobi. Kenyatta National Hospital Campus, University of Nairobi, Kenya: Colledge of Health Sciences; 2011. Abstract

This paper seeks to describe the determination of urban air quality of a certain area through monitoring of CO and O3. The diurnal variation of meteorological variables (temperature and wind), their interaction and effects on the diurnal cycles of carbon monoxide and ozone over is discussed.
Hourly data for CO and O3 (surface ozone) the month of December (2011) and daily wind and temperature for the same period from Chiromo Environmental Monitoring station was used in this study. Time series analysis was used in this study to obtain the diurnal cycles of pollutants and the meteorological variables. Graphical method was useful particular in the physical representation of diurnal variation of the variables throughout the entire study period. The relationship between ozone and carbon dioxide and their interaction with wind temperature was determined with the use of correlation analysis method.
Minimum ozone concentrations are observed between 0630h and 0730h and between 2030h and 2130h when highest CO concentrations are observed. During the early daylight and evening hours, pollutant concentration rises mainly due to the increase in traffic and acts as catalyst in the breakdown of O3. At midday (between1300h and 1400h) maximum ozone concentrations are observed whereas CO depicts low-level concentrations. During this period the atmosphere experienced a lot of conversion due to the thermal heating. Changes in day-to-day weather, is seen as a factor affecting the diurnal variation of CO and O3 as weather determines how quickly pollutants are dispersed away from an area. Weather also determines the thickness of the atmospheric layer, where the emissions are diluted in a vertical direction. The average concentrations of ozone were found to be 18.0+8.0ppb.Although O3 concentrations levels within the city of Nairobi are below the threshold levels set by WMO of 51ppb, the health impacts can be aggravated during midday compared to early mornings and evenings.

Ayuyo IO, KRHODA GO, Mukhovi SM, Nyandega IA. "Temporal Variations in Rainfall and Temperature and their Effects on the River Discharge in the Mara River Basi." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(1):1-23.
N DRWAMBUGUMILCAH. "The Ten Day Rule and its implementation at the Kenyatta National Hospital Dissertation for the award of the degree of Masters of Medicine University of Nairobi, 1983.". In: Dissertation for the award of the degree of Masters of Medicine University of Nairobi, 1983. University of Nairobi.; 1983. Abstract
A prospective study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and September 1988 to look at some aspects of obstructive jaundice in patients above 12 years of age. Screening for cases was done by use of abdominal ultrasonography. A total of 20 cases (11 females, 9 males) were diagnosed. Carcinoma of the head of pancreas accounted for 55% of cases of the obstruction, followed by gallstones (10%), hepatocellular carcinoma (10%) and gall bladder tumour (10%).
Ndirima ZK, Nyariki DM. "Tenure, livelihood and sustainable development: Rangelands as systems for multiple land use and livelihood support.". 2003. AbstractWebsite

Conventional rangeland management has focused on optimisation of secondary production. Yet rangelands provide multiple goods and services at local and landscape scales. The diversity of resources available from rangelands underpins the livelihood security of developed and underdeveloped rural communities across all continents. This diversity of resources, and consequent livelihood options, is receiving greater recognition in management and research fora, whilst simultaneously offering greater opportunities for new and innovative uses of rangelands for subsistence and commercial needs. The session will appraise the diversity of rangeland resources used by rural communities and examine the viability and sustainability of different livelihood options within rangelands.

Mugerwa S, Nyangito M, Mpairwe D, Bakuneeta C, Nderitul J, Zziwal E. "Termite assemblage structure on Grazing lands in Semi-arid Nakasongola." Agriculture and biology journal of North America. . 2011;2((5): ):848-859. Abstract

Termites are regarded as the primary cause of vegetation denudation in semi-arid
Nakasongola, Uganda. Despite their damage to ecosystem functioning, there have been
little efforts devoted to the description of the termite assemblage structure in the area.
The study therefore intended to describe the termite assem5lage structure with the
intension to develop sustainable termite management strategies. ihe survey yielded 16
termite spectes from eight genera, three sub-families and one family. Speciei from the
sub-family Macrotermitinae constituted 69% of the total number of species sampled.
Members from the genus Macrotermes were the dominant species and constituted 38%
of the total number of species sampled. The assemblage comprised of two feeding
groups namely Group ll and Group lV, with most of the species belonging to Group li
Most of the species were noted to nest in epigeal and hypogeal nests *itf, a few species
nesting in wood. Vegetation cover categories were noted to influence species richness.
Highest species richness (14 species) occurred in sparse vegetation category followed by
dense category (1'1) and the least (B species) occurring on bare ground. The termite
assemblage of Nakasongola was dominated by Macrotermes species which largely
forage on litter and nest in epigeal mounds.

Keywords: Composition, Diversity, Feeding_group, Nesting-sites

N.M.Monyonko, J.H.REID. "TEST OF QCD CORRECTIONS IN THE PROCESS q anti-q-w-gamma(jet)." Z.PHYSIK. 1985;C29(C):381-.
Githua A, Macharia JK, Nduhiu JG, McDermott JJ;, Omore AO, Arimi SM, Kang'ethe EK. "Testing for Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Milk From Consumers and Market Agents in Kenya Using Milk Ring Test and Enzyme Immunoassay.". 2004. Abstract

Over 85% of all milk sales on Kenya pass through informal channels. The extent of the risk posed by the sale of this raw milk to human health in respect to brucellosis is unknown. This paper presents the results of a study on the occurrence of antibodies to Brucella abortus in milk from households consuming raw unpasteurized milk and market agent selling the same. Four hundred thirty four (434) raw milk samples from consumer households and 508 from informal market agents were collected between January 1999 and January 2000 from Nakuru /Narok and Nairobi/Kiambu. Milk agents sampled included co-operative societies, milk collecting centers and self-help groups, milk bars, shops and kiosks and mobile traders on foot, bicycle or motorized transport. In addition, 147 samples from the formal market chain (pasteurized) were collected. All the samples from the samples were screened for antibodies to Brucella abortus using ELISA and Milk Ring Test (MRT), except for the formal milk that was tested using ELISA only. Five percent of the consumer household samples and 4% of the samples form informal milk market agents tested positive on ELISA. There was poor agreement between the two antibody surrogate tests (Kappa =0.40, 95% confidence interval =0.19-0.60). ELISA detected 3.2% more samples from consumer households and 0.4% from informal market agents than MRT. Of the formal market samples, 16.4% were positive. Ways of reducing the risk of contracting brucellosis from drinking raw milk are proposed.

Githua A, Nduhiu JG, McDermott JJ, Omore AO, Arimi SM, Kang'ethe EK. "Testing for Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Milk From Consumers and Market Agents in Kenya Using Milk Ring Test and Enzyme Immunoassay.". 2004. AbstractWebsite

Over 85% of all milk sales on Kenya pass through informal channels. The extent of the risk posed by the sale of this raw milk to human health in respect to brucellosis is unknown. This paper presents the results of a study on the occurrence of antibodies to Brucella abortus in milk from households consuming raw unpasteurized milk and market agent selling the same. Four hundred thirty four (434) raw milk samples from consumer households and 508 from informal market agents were collected between January 1999 and January 2000 from Nakuru /Narok and Nairobi/Kiambu. Milk agents sampled included co-operative societies, milk collecting centers and self-help groups, milk bars, shops and kiosks and mobile traders on foot, bicycle or motorized transport. In addition, 147 samples from the formal market chain (pasteurized) were collected. All the samples from the samples were screened for antibodies to Brucella abortus using ELISA and Milk Ring Test (MRT), except for the formal milk that was tested using ELISA only. Five percent of the consumer household samples and 4% of the samples form informal milk market agents tested positive on ELISA. There was poor agreement between the two antibody surrogate tests (Kappa =0.40, 95% confidence interval =0.19-0.60). ELISA detected 3.2% more samples from consumer households and 0.4% from informal market agents than MRT. Of the formal market samples, 16.4% were positive. Ways of reducing the risk of contracting brucellosis from drinking raw milk are proposed.

Mbuthia PG;, Njagi LW;, Michieka JN;, Bebora LC;, Nyaga PN. "Tetrameres Species Infestations In Different Age Groups Of Village Free-range Chickens In Embu And Mbeere Districts."; 2006. Abstract

One hundred and five free - scavenging indigenous chickens were bought from different smallholder farms and villages in Embu and Mbeere districts. Of these, 77 were ad ult chickens, 21 grower birds and 7 chicks. On examination, 26/105 (24.76%) birds had female Tetrameres species of worms in their proventriculi. A total of 7/77 (9.1%) adult chickens, 14/21 (66.7%) grower birds and 5/7 (71.43%) chicks were infected by the parasites. The number of parasites per proventriculus ranged from 2 – 15 in adult chickens, 1 – 47 in grower birds and 5 – 71 in chicks. Both male and female parasites were recorded. Most proventriculi had one to thirty parasites but grower birds and chic ks had heavy infe stations as compared to adult chickens. Grossly, black spots representing the red globular female worms were observed spread out over the thickened walls of the proventriculi while male worms were identified using a microscope. There was e xcess mucous exudation in the affected proventriculus and some had blood stained exudates. Proventricular glands had variable degree of destruction depending on the infestation. The results show heavy Tetrameres species infestation in young birds than in adults that may contribute to the high mortality rates observed in these ages due to thickened walls and blockage of proventriculi, amaciation and anaemia. These parasites require to be controlled in these birds

Njeri KM, Dorothy McCormick, Kimuyu P. "Textiles and Clothing : Global players and Local Struggles.". In: African Business System. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 2007.
Njeri KM, McCormick, Dorothy, P. K. "Textiles and Clothing : Global players and Local Struggles.". In: Business in Kenya, Institutions and interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 2007.
Kahigi CM, Muasya IW, Ngesu LM, Kanja PW. "TFD 301: Sociology of Education.". 2011. Abstract
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Masatani T, Matsuo T, Tanaka T, Terkawi MA, Lee EG, Goo YK, Yamagishi J, Hayashi K, Kameyama K, Cao S, Nishikawa Y, Xuan X. "TgGRA23, a novel Toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein associated with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane and intravacuolar network.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite, which relies on a specialized compartment, the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), to survive within host cells. Dense granules within the parasite release a large variety of proteins to maintain the integrity of the vacuole structure. Here, we identified a novel dense granule protein in T. gondii, TgGRA23, which is a homolog of the Sarcocystis muris dense granule protein, SmDG32. Recombinant TgGRA23 (rTgGRA23) expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein was used to raise antisera in mice and rabbits. Immunoblotting showed that antisera from the immunized mice and rabbits reacted with parasite lysates to yield a 21-kDa native protein. In addition, immuno-electron microscopic examination showed that TgGRA23 resides in the dense granules, PV membrane and intravacuolar network of the parasite. To confirm the precise subcellular localization of TgGRA23 in T. gondii, an immunofluorescent antibody test was performed using dense granule markers. Notably, TgGRA23 co-localized with other dense granule proteins including TgGRA4 and TgGRA7, in the extracellular-stage parasites. Biochemical experiments indicated that TgGRA23 is insoluble and may form an electrostatic complex that is resistant to non-ionic detergents. Furthermore, specific antibodies to TgGRA23 were detected during the chronic stage of Toxoplasma infection in mice. Our results suggest that TgGRA23 is an as yet unknown member of the T. gondii dense granule proteins, and that it may be involved in remodeling or maintenance of the PV.

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Accounting Profession in Kenya." ,(pages 38-44). This article describes Gvoernment efforts to orgnaize the Accoutning Profession and guide its future developments through the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. ICPA(K).". In: Journal of the Association of Certified Public Accountants, Nairobi. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1979. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Accounting Profession in Kenya." ,(pages 38-44). This article describes Gvoernment efforts to orgnaize the Accoutning Profession and guide its future developments through the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. ICPA(K).". In: Journal of the Association of Certified Public Accountants, Nairobi.; 1979. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""The Application of Indigenous Knowledge in Pastoral Production Systems".". In: The African Pastoral Forum. Working Paper Series No.6, Jan. 1996. Nairobi: Business Line Ltd. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. ""The Church: Its Role in God's Plan of Salvation", in A. Radoli (ed), AFER, Eldoret: Gaba Publiations, February/April 2000, vol. 42 ns. 1 and 2.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2000.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Core of Professionalism in Accounting". This article assembles and discusses the fundamental tenets of professional ethics for certified public accountants. The Student Accountant (Ibid) (pages 4-7).". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi,. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1996. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Core of Professionalism in Accounting". This article assembles and discusses the fundamental tenets of professional ethics for certified public accountants. The Student Accountant (Ibid) (pages 4-7).". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi,.; 1996. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

NGALA DRODUORJANEAKINYI. ""The Dholuo Syllable Structure." This paper has been included in the Eric Data Base (Eric Clearing house on Languages and Linguistics, Washington, D.C.". In: M.Ed theses - Kenyatta University - 1986. Odula P.O.; 1994. Abstract
The gross anatomy of the pulmonary arterial system of the giraffe with comparative data from other Artiodactyla. 
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Future of an Indigenous Accounting Profession for Kenya." by S. Adam, H. Grubel, J. Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This article discusses the past, current and necessary future efforts to establish an indigenous accoutning profession in Kenya.". In: Management, Jounal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 26-29). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Future of an Indigenous Accounting Profession for Kenya." by S. Adam, H. Grubel, J. Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This article discusses the past, current and necessary future efforts to establish an indigenous accoutning profession in Kenya.". In: Management, Jounal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 26-29).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Great Debate - Cash or Accruals? This article discusses Business Income measured on Cash Basis Accounting. The Accountant:.". In: Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya.(pages 10-24). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Great Debate - Cash or Accruals? This article discusses Business Income measured on Cash Basis Accounting. The Accountant:.". In: Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya.(pages 10-24).; Submitted. Abstract

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NEBAT MRMOMANYIAKUNGA. ""The International Legal and Institutional Framework for the High Seas University Of Nairobi, Kenya).". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2004. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:

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