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Wangui J, Nokes JD, Mobegi VA, Otieno JR, Agoti CN, Ngeranwa JJN, Bulimo WD. "Spatial-temporal distribution and sequence diversity of group a human respiratory syncytial viruses in Kenya preceding the emergence of {ON1} genotype." Influenza Other Respi. Viruses. 2022;16:501-510. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of severe viral acute respiratory illness and contributes significantly to severe pneumonia cases in Africa. Little is known about its spatial-temporal distribution as defined by its genetic diversity. METHODS: A retrospective study conducted utilizing archived nasopharyngeal specimens from patients attending outpatient clinics in hospitals located in five demographically and climatically distinct regions of Kenya; Coast, Western, Highlands, Eastern and Nairobi. The viral total RNA was extracted and tested using multiplex real time RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). A segment of the G-gene was amplified using one-step RT-PCR and sequenced by Sanger di-deoxy method. Bayesian analysis of phylogeny was utilized and subsequently median joining methods for haplotype network reconstruction. RESULTS: Three genotypes of HRSVA were detected; GA5 (14.0%), GA2 (33.1%), and NA1 (52.9%). HRSVA prevalence varied by location from 33% to 13.2% in the Highlands and the Eastern regions respectively. The mean nucleotide diversity (Pi[$π$]) varied by genotype: highest of 0.018 for GA5 and lowest of 0.005 for NA1. A total of 58 haplotypes were identified (GA5 10; GA2 20; NA1 28). These haplotypes were introduced into the population locally by single haplotypes and additional subsidiary seeds amongst the GA2 and the NA1 haplotypes. CONCLUSIONS: HRSVA was found across all the regions throughout the study period and comprised three genotypes; GA5, GA2, and NA1 genotypes. The genotypes were disproportionately distributed across the regions with GA5 gradually increasing toward the Western zones and decreasing toward the Eastern zones of the country.

Tobias Homan, Nicolas Maire, Alexandra Hiscox, Pasquale A, Ibrahim Kiche, Onoka K, Collins Mweresa, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Ross A, Smith TA, Takken W. "Spatially variable risk factors for malaria in a geographically heterogeneous landscape, western Kenya: an explorative study." Malaria journal. 2016;15(1):1.
Mweu MM, Nielsen SS, Halasa T, Toft N. "Spatiotemporal patterns, annual baseline andmovement-related incidence of Streptococcus agalactiaeinfection in Danish dairy herds: 2000–2009." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2014;113:219-230. Abstractspatial_paper.pdf

Several decades after the inception of the five-point plan for the control of contagiousmastitis pathogens, Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) persists as a fundamental threatto the dairy industry in many countries. A better understanding of the relative importance ofwithin- and between-herd sources of new herd infections coupled with the spatiotemporaldistribution of the infection, may aid in effective targeting of control efforts. Thus, theobjectives of this study were: (1) to describe the spatiotemporal patterns of infection with S.agalactiae in the population of Danish dairy herds from 2000 to 2009 and (2) to estimate theannual herd-level baseline and movement-related incidence risks of S. agalactiae infectionover the 10-year period.The analysis involved registry data on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samplescollected as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme as well as livecattle movements into dairy herds during the specified 10-year period. The results indicated that the predicted risk of a herd becoming infected with S. agalactiae varied spatiotempo-rally; the risk being more homogeneous and higher in the period after 2005. Additionally,the annual baseline risks yielded significant yet distinctive patterns before and after 2005 –the risk of infection being higher in the latter phase. On the contrary, the annual movement-related risks revealed a non-significant pattern over the 10-year period. There was neitherevidence for spatial clustering of cases relative to the population of herds at risk nor spatialdependency between herds. Nevertheless, the results signal a need to beef up within-herdbiosecurity in order to reduce the risk of new herd infections.

Glazer G, Ponte PR, Stuart-Shor EM, NP-BC MCE, Rew L, Hoke MM, Horner SD, Walker L, MacPhee M, Cramer M, others. "Special Focus on Partnerships." The Official Journal of the American Academy of Nursing. 2009;57. Abstract
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Githinji EK, Irungu LW, Ndegwa PN, Machani MG, Amito RO, Kemei BJ, Murima PN, Ombui GM, Wanjoya AK, Mbogo CM, Mathenge EM. "Species composition, phenotypic and genotypic resistance levels in major malaria vectors in Teso North and Teso South subcounties in Busia County, Western Kenya. ." Journal of Parasitology Research. 2020;2020:1-17.
Ambuko J, Muoki P, Nyikal RA, Owino W, Angelone-Alasaad S, Ateka EM, Atieno L, Buruchara RA, Chemining'wa G, Policy UNQ. "Specifications for Artisanal Aluminum Cookware in Nairobi.". 1997. Abstract
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Iwuoha' E, Baker P, Njomo N, Ikpo CO, Baleg AA, Ndangili PM, Olowu RA. "Spectroelectrochemical Dynamics of Dendritic Poly (Propylene imine)- Polythiophene Star Copolymer Aptameric 1713-Estradiol Biosensor.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Aptamers, which are in vitro-selected functional oligonucleotides, have been employed to design novel aptasensor due to their inherent high selectivity and affinity compared to traditional biorecognition elements. This report presents a novel aptamer biosensor for determining the endocrine disrupting compound (EDC), 17~-estradiol (E2), which was constructed from a SELEX-synthesized 76-mer biotinylated aptamer for 17~-estradiol incorporated in a dendritic generation 1 poly(propylene imine)- poly thiophene (G 1PPT-co-PEDOT) star copolymer-functionalised Au electrode via biotin-avidin interaction. The sensor platform and aptasensor were interrogated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The kinetic parameters of the sensor platform were determined by modelling the [Fe(CN)6r3/ - 4 (redox probe) Nyquist and Bode impedimetric spectra to the appropriate equivalent electrical circuit. The EIS spectra shows that at low frequencies (100 mHz) when the electronics of the electrode systems are only minimally perturb.ed.. the AuIG1PPT-co-PEDOT nanoelectrode exhibited greater semi-conductor behaviour (higher phase angle value) than AulG IPPT due to the incorporation of charged functionalized dendrimer. However, the Bode plot also shows that the charge transfer dynamics of the nanoelectrode can be frequency modulated. The biosensor response to 17 B-estradiol was based on the decrease in the SWV current as the EDC binds to the ssDNA aptamer on the biosensor. The dynamic linear range of the sensor was 0.1 - 100 nM. These initial studies also showed that the aptamer used in this study was very selective to, and reproducible for, 17 B-estradiol.

N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Spectroscopic Characterization and Distribution of tris(2,2.". In: Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol. 11&12, No.3, 2003. Survey Review; 2003. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Isaboke PA, Njomo N, Onyatta JO. "Spectroscopic Determination of Heavy Metals in Plant Tissues in Kisii County." International Journal of Recent Development in Engineering and Technology. 2018;7(11):45-47.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Spectroscopic Studies and Physical Chemical Properties of Unsaponifiable Matter of Avocado oil,".". In: Proceedings, Biochemical Society, Nairobi, Sept. 1996. Survey Review; 1996. Abstract
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MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Elsevier; 2012.
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference, Nairobi. Elsevier; 2012.
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2012. Abstract
Sudden death in the young after low energy anterior chest wall impact is an under-recognised phenomenon in this country. Review of the literature yields several American references to commotio cordis, mainly in the context of sporting events. Two cases are reported of sudden death in young men as a result of blunt impact anterior chest wall trauma. It is suggested that these cases draw attention to a lethal condition of which many practitioners are unaware. J Accid Emerg Med 2000 Nov 17 (6): 421-422. PMID: 11104247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC1725482  
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2012. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference, Nairobi. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2012. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Nchafatso OG, Kasyoka BM, Kiboi JG. "Spinal tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in a Kenyan tertiary hospital: a 5-year synopsis." The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society. 2011;11:265-269. Abstract

{BACKGROUND} {CONTEXT} Spinal tuberculosis ({TB)} accounts for more than half of all cases of skeletal {TB.} Although Kenya has one of the highest burdens of {TB}, data on spinal {TB} in this country remain scarce. {PURPOSE} To highlight the clinical presentation and management of this condition in our setup. {STUDY} {DESIGN} Retrospective study. {SETTING} Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. {PATIENT} {SAMPLE} One hundred twenty-nine patients. {OUTCOME} {MEASURES} Patients' condition after intervention and duration of hospital stay. {METHODS} This study involved review of patients admitted to our hospital between 2004 and 2009 with a diagnosis of spinal {TB.} {RESULTS} The most common presenting complaints were back pain in 100 patients (77.5%) and limb weakness in 94 patients (72.9%), whereas the most frequent physical examination finding was gibbus deformity in 85 patients (65.8%). Most (79 patients, 61.2%) had severe motor and sensory impairment graded as either American Spinal Injury Association ({ASIA)} A or {ASIA} B. Imaging revealed multiple vertebrae disease in 90 patients (79.6%). Of these, the most common was two vertebrae disease in 77 patients (68.1%). All patients were managed using anti-{TB} drugs and analgesics; however, 33 (25.6%) required adjunctive operative management. Mean hospital stay was 53.3 days. Marked clinical improvement was seen in 91 patients (70.0%) within 6 months of treatment. {CONCLUSION} Patients with spinal {TB} in our setting tended to present late and with advanced disease. Therefore, a high index of suspicion should be maintained and appropriate chemotherapy started as early as possible.

Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Nchafatso OG, Kasyoka BM, Kiboi JG. "Spinal tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in a {Kenyan} tertiary hospital: a 5-year synopsis." The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society. 2011;11:265-269. Abstract

BACKGROUND CONTEXT Spinal tuberculosis (TB) accounts for more than half of all cases of skeletal TB. Although Kenya has one of the highest burdens of TB, data on spinal TB in this country remain scarce. PURPOSE To highlight the clinical presentation and management of this condition in our setup. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective study. SETTING Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. PATIENT SAMPLE One hundred twenty-nine patients. OUTCOME MEASURES Patients' condition after intervention and duration of hospital stay. METHODS This study involved review of patients admitted to our hospital between 2004 and 2009 with a diagnosis of spinal TB. RESULTS The most common presenting complaints were back pain in 100 patients (77.5%) and limb weakness in 94 patients (72.9%), whereas the most frequent physical examination finding was gibbus deformity in 85 patients (65.8%). Most (79 patients, 61.2%) had severe motor and sensory impairment graded as either American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A or ASIA B. Imaging revealed multiple vertebrae disease in 90 patients (79.6%). Of these, the most common was two vertebrae disease in 77 patients (68.1%). All patients were managed using anti-TB drugs and analgesics; however, 33 (25.6%) required adjunctive operative management. Mean hospital stay was 53.3 days. Marked clinical improvement was seen in 91 patients (70.0%) within 6 months of treatment. CONCLUSION Patients with spinal TB in our setting tended to present late and with advanced disease. Therefore, a high index of suspicion should be maintained and appropriate chemotherapy started as early as possible.

Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Nchafatso OG, Kasyoka BM, Kiboi JG. "Spinal tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in a {Kenyan} tertiary hospital: a 5-year synopsis." The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society. 2011;11:265-269. Abstract

BACKGROUND CONTEXT Spinal tuberculosis (TB) accounts for more than half of all cases of skeletal TB. Although Kenya has one of the highest burdens of TB, data on spinal TB in this country remain scarce. PURPOSE To highlight the clinical presentation and management of this condition in our setup. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective study. SETTING Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. PATIENT SAMPLE One hundred twenty-nine patients. OUTCOME MEASURES Patients' condition after intervention and duration of hospital stay. METHODS This study involved review of patients admitted to our hospital between 2004 and 2009 with a diagnosis of spinal TB. RESULTS The most common presenting complaints were back pain in 100 patients (77.5%) and limb weakness in 94 patients (72.9%), whereas the most frequent physical examination finding was gibbus deformity in 85 patients (65.8%). Most (79 patients, 61.2%) had severe motor and sensory impairment graded as either American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A or ASIA B. Imaging revealed multiple vertebrae disease in 90 patients (79.6%). Of these, the most common was two vertebrae disease in 77 patients (68.1%). All patients were managed using anti-TB drugs and analgesics; however, 33 (25.6%) required adjunctive operative management. Mean hospital stay was 53.3 days. Marked clinical improvement was seen in 91 patients (70.0%) within 6 months of treatment. CONCLUSION Patients with spinal TB in our setting tended to present late and with advanced disease. Therefore, a high index of suspicion should be maintained and appropriate chemotherapy started as early as possible.

Ngetich W, Okumu AT, Kitaa JM, Chepkirui E. "Splenic Hemangiosarcoma in a 10-year male German Shepherd dog: Case Report." Int J Vet Sci Res. 2017;3:078-081. Abstract
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NM K, JM M, DM A, CK O. "Spontaneous Infected Biloma: A Case Report." EAMJ. 2016;93(10):561-564. AbstractAJOL

Biloma is defined as any collection of bile outside the biliary tree. It mainly results from surgical complications and abdominal trauma. Spontaneous biloma is extremely rare and is occasionally associated with choledocholithiasis. This report describes a case of spontaneous biloma diagnosed radiologically and confirmed at laparotomy. An intraperitonial biloma and a large common bile duct calculus were observed. The biloma was drained and the patient progressed well and was discharged in good condition.

N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Ssali, H. and Mureria, N.K. 1982. Interaction between soil pH, Rhizobium phaseoli strains and bean variety. E. Afric. Agric. and For. J, 45 (1).". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1982. Abstract
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Jackson DJ, Ngugi EN, Plumme FA, Kariuki C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Moses S. "Stabilised antenatal HIV-l seroprevalence in Nairobi, in the face of high population mobility: is age restriction now appropriate in screening.". 2003. Abstract

To measure HIV -1 seroprevalence in pregnant women in Nairobi. Design: Six serial surveys were carried out between November 1991 and April 1997. Methods: Women attending four Nairobi City Council clinics for first antenatal clinic visit answered a standard questionnaire on demographic histories and were screened for Hl'V-I. Results: Hlv-I seroprevalence rose from 12.1% at the first survey to 16.2% in the third survey, which finished in October 1993. No rise was seen in subsequent .surveys up to April 1997. Significant differences in seroprevalence was seen between women who said that their province of origin was Nyanza (22.4%), Western or Rift Valley Provinces (14.1 %), and the provinces to the east of the country (8.9%) [p

Jackson DJ, Ngugi EN, Plumme FA, Kariuki C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Moses S. "Stabilised antenatal HIV-l seroprevalence in Nairobi, in the face of high population mobility: is age restriction now appropriate in screening?". 2003. Abstract

To measure HIV -1 seroprevalence in pregnant women in Nairobi. Design: Six serial surveys were carried out between November 1991 and April 1997. Methods: Women attending four Nairobi City Council clinics for first antenatal clinic visit answered a standard questionnaire on demographic histories and were screened for Hl'V-I. Results: Hlv-I seroprevalence rose from 12.1% at the first survey to 16.2% in the third survey, which finished in October 1993. No rise was seen in subsequent .surveys up to April 1997. Significant differences in seroprevalence was seen between women who said that their province of origin was Nyanza (22.4%), Western or Rift Valley Provinces (14.1 %), and the provinces to the east of the country (8.9%) [p

Ngumo PM, Abuga KO, Njogu PM, Ongarora DSB. "A Stability Indicating Liquid Chromatography Method for the Assay of Rufinamide Bulk Material and Tablets." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2016;19(1-3):16-21. Abstract

A simple, rapid, isocratic stability indicating reverse phase liquid chromatography method was developed for the assay of rufinamide bulk drug and tablets. The method achieved adequate resolution of rufinamide, related substances A and B as well as laboratory generated degradation products. The method uses a Phenomenex® Hyperclone BDS C-18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μ) maintained at 35 °C and a mobile phase composed of methanol-0.1 M octane sulfonic acid-0.1 M KH2PO4, pH 6.5-water (30:10:5:55, % v/v/v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The eluents were monitored by means of ultraviolet detection at 210 nm. During validation, the method satisfied the International Conference on Harmonization acceptance criteria for linearity sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and robustness. The developed method may be applied in the routine analysis of rufinamide bulk material and tablets as well as stability studies.

Ngumo PM, Abuga KO, Njogu PM, Ongarora DSB. "A stability indicating liquid chromatography method for the assay of rufinamide bulk material and tablets." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci . 2016;19:16-21.
Ngumo PM, Abuga KO, Njogu PM, Ongarora DSB. "A Stability Indicating Liquid Chromatography Method for the Assay of Rufinamide Bulk Material and Tablets." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016;19:16-21.
Jackson DJ, Ngugi EN, Plummer FA, Kirui P, Kariuki C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Moses S. "Stable antenatal HIV-1 seroprevalence with high population mobility and marked seroprevalence variation among sentinel sites within Nairobi, Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

To monitor and analyse trends in HIV-1 seroprevalence among antenatal women in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: Six sequential surveys were carried out among antenatal clinic attenders at four Nairobi City Council health centres between November 1991 and April 1997. Methods: A total of 6828 women attending for first antenatal clinic visit were administered a standard questionnaire to obtain demographic information and were screened for HIV-1. Results: HIV-1 seroprevalence rose from 12.1% in the first survey to 16.2% in the third, completed in October 1993. No rise was observed in subsequent surveys, and seroprevalence among women under the age of 20 declined after the third survey. Significant differences in seroprevalence (P < 0.001) were observed in all survey rounds between women who reported that their province of origin was Nyanza (22.4% overall), compared with those from other provinces in western Kenya (14.1%), and the eastern group of provinces (8.9%). The rise in HIV-1 seroprevalence observed between 1991 and 1993 was almost entirely attributable to the rising seroprevalence among women from Nyanza. There were considerable differences in HIV-1 seroprevalence among the four health centres, partly accounted for by differences in the proportion of clinic attenders from different provinces of origin, which also changed significantly over time. Conclusions: HIV-1 seroprevalence has stabilized in antenatal women attending these health centres in Nairobi, and may be declining among women in the youngest age group. This may reflect stabilization of HIV-1 incidence, but further observation is required. The levels of infection among Nairobi residents reflect the evolution of the HIV epidemic in their provinces of origin, and changing client composition influences HIV-1 seroprevalence at different clinics. HIV sentinel surveillance should be carried out at multiple sites in large urban centres to monitor accurately the evolution of the HIV epidemic and the impact of control efforts in reducing transmission.

Marangu D, Mwaniki H, Nduku S, Maleche-Obimbo E, Jaoko W, Babigumira J, John-Stewart G, Rao D. "Stakeholder perspectives for optimization of tuberculosis contact investigation in a high-burden setting." PLoS ONE. 2017;12(9):e0183749. Abstract

Optimal tuberculosis contact investigation impacts TB prevention, timely case finding and linkage to care, however data on routine implementation in high burden contexts is limited.

Ngwili N, Thomas L, Wahome RG, Githigia S, Johnson N, Roesel K. "Stakeholders' Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions on the Control of Taenia solium in Kamuli and Hoima Districts, Uganda." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022:363.
Ngwili N, Thomas L, Githigia S, Johnson N, Raphael Wahome KR. "Stakeholders' Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions on the Control of Taenia solium in Kamuli and Hoima Districts, Uganda." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022:363.
Naruse K, Tashiro J, Sakyo Y, Ichikawa W, Karani AK. "Stakeholders' perception of the desired Master's program for Kenya in community health nursing: areas of competency.". 2008. Abstract

After the World Health Assembly approved the WHA 45.5 in 1992, which addressed the nursing shortage by refocusing nurses and midwives to meet community health needs, community demands for educated nurses and the needs of higher nursing education in developing countries increased. However, in developing countries that suffering from multiple resource deficiencies, such as Kenya, the strategic direction of higher education in nursing was unclear. Therefore, in Kenya, a major university school of nursing initiated a collaborative study with a well-established Japanese nursing college to determine the service-providers' perspective about upgrading the Master's community nursing curriculum. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to describe the Kenyan stakeholders' perspective and the expected roles and abilities of Master's graduates in community nursing. METHODS: This qualitative, cross-sectional study used convenience sampling to obtain 21 participants. The content analysis of the data was based on 19 semistructured interviews. RESULTS: Sixteen categories and 42 subcategories were derived from the five key questions that related to the expectations of the Master's program. The Master's graduates were expected to acquire knowledge and skills relating to administration, management, epidemiology, research, and education. The participants recognized that epidemiology, important for preventive care, was minimal among the current community health nurses. Also, Master's graduates must be prepared to manage health programs. CONCLUSION: The stakeholders expected that Master's graduates would become leaders in community health nursing, with a broad range of knowledge and skills, most notably in the areas of management and administration, epidemiology, and research. Those abilities should be reflected in the curriculum content.

Desjardins M, Thompson CE, Filion LG, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Ronald AR, Piot P, Cameron DW. "Standardization of an enzyme immunoassay for human antibody to Haemophilus ducreyi.". 1992. Abstractstandardization_of_an_enzyme_immunoassay_for_human_antibody_to_haemophilus_ducreyi.pdf

We standardized a serologic enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for human immunoglobulin G and M antibodies against Haemophilus ducreyi. We evaluated the performance of this test with respect to the time from acute chancroid and coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antibody to a crude, soluble bacterial antigen of one H. ducreyi strain was detected in a panel of serum samples from clinically and microbiologically confirmed cases of chancroid and from controls. Test interpretation was standardized for optimal sensitivity and specificity. Performance of the EIA was enhanced in the period of early convalescence from acute primary chancroid and was not diminished in the presence of HIV coinfection. The EIA performed adequately as a serologic screening test for field evaluation and epidemiologic application in conjunction with sexually transmitted disease and HIV detection and control efforts.

Waweru J, Njenga H, Omosa L. "Standardization of Commiphora Abyssinica Engl. Gum Resin From Kajiado, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC). 2016;5(9):67-74. Abstract

Abstract
Information on the physical and chemical characteristics of Commiphora abyssinica gum resin is
scanty. The aim of this work was to establish the composition and physicochemical properties of above
mentioned gum resin and on that basis propose its standard specifications for commercial use. Samples from
three sites in Kajiado in Kenya were characterized in terms of parameters commonly used in the evaluation of
the quality of crude oleogumresins and their products. There was no substantial variability with collection
location observed on most physical properties including pH, density, refractive index, viscosity and optical
rotation. Composition parameters such as moisture, ash, nitrogen, metals, extraneous impurities, essential oils,
ethanol and water soluble matter varied from location to location. The ethanol-soluble matter which is crucial
in the formulation of traditional gum resin products varied significantly and ranged between 26.37 and 47.79%.
The gum-resin was found to have 1.31 to 1.87% essential oils and the yield of water soluble matter was high at
82.25-84.50%. In general, the gum resin had relatively low content of extraneous impurities (2.27-3.17%) and
ash (2.24-3.04%) in comparison with gum resins from related Commiphora species. Saponification value, acid
value as well as free fatty acids also varied with location. Values of parameters obtained in this study were
found suitable for proposing standard specifications of local Commiphora abyssinica gum resin from the
location. From the results, standard specifications that can be used in commerce for identification and quality
specification of Commiphora abyssinica gum resin sourced in Kenya were suggested. Magnesium could be used
to identify the gum resin from the area due to its very low variability. It was also recommended that freshly
harvested material be stored for a few months before processing.
Keywords: Commiphora abyssinica; ethanol extract; essential oil; gum resin; myrrh; standard specifications.

Omwenga I, O.Aboge G, EricS.Mitema, Obiero G, Ngaywa C, Ngwili N, Wamwere G, Wainaina M, Bett B. "Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin Genes Detected 1 in Milk from various Livestock Species in Northern Pastoral Region of Kenya." Food Control. 2019;103:126-132.
Maina AN;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Waruiru R;, Bebora LC. "Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria species and parasitic lungworm infection in marketed indidenous chickens."; 2004.
Maina AN;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Waruiru R;, Bebora LC. "Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria species and parasitic lungworm infection in marketed indidenous chickens."; 2004.
Noor LM, Wahome RG, Wakhungu JW, Wanyoike M. "The State of Health in Somali and Borana Camel Herds ,~ in Moyale District, Kenya.". 2002. Abstract

A survey was conducted to identify the common camel diseases, drug availability, treatments applied as well as measures employed to control spread of diseases in the Somali and Borana camel herds in Moyale district. Trypanosomiasis, wry neck syndrome, swollen glands, abscessation and respiratory system infections were identified as major health problems in adult camels while diarrhoea, camel pox, contagious skin necrosis and mange were the major calf health problems. 85% of herders had difficulties accessing conventional veterinary drugs/services. 15% use only traditional treatment while 45% combine modem and traditional methods. 80% isolate sick camels from the healthy ones. Deworming is rarely done. Tick control is through hand-picking and change of pasture among other traditional methods. Some herders (15%) use acaricide. The results indicate need for research in certain conditions that afflict camels in Northern Kenya.

mwaura F, Kimani M, Nyandega IA. State of Kenya Population 2009: Population Dynamics and Population Change: Implications for the Realization of the MDGs and the Goals of Vision 2030. Nairobi: National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development; 2010.
N.M.Monyonko. STATISTICAL PHYSICS. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI ; 2006.
Songa CMM, Ndeda JHO, Ouma G. "Statistical Study of Solar Forcing of Total Column Ozone Variation Over Three Cities in Kenya." Applied Physics Research. 2016;8(3):77-89. Abstractstatistical_study_of_solar_forcing_of_total_column_ozone_variation_over_three_cities_in_kenya.pdfApplied Physics Research

In this study, a statistical analysis between three solar activity indices (SAI) namely; sunspot number (ssn), F10.7
index (sf) and Mg II index (mg) and total column ozone (TCO) time series over three cities in Kenya namely;
Nairobi (1.17º S; 36.46º E), Kisumu (0.03º S; 34.45º E) and Mombasa (4.02º S; 39.43º E) for the period 1985 -
2011 are considered. Pearson and cross correlations, linear and multiple regression analyses are performed. All
the statistical analyses are based on 95% confidence level. SAI show decreasing trend at significant levels with
highest decrease in international sunspot number and least in Mg II index. TCO are highly correlated with each
other at (0.936< r < 0.955, p < 0.001). SAI are also highly correlated with each other at (0.941< r < 0.976, p <
0.001) and are significantly positively correlated with TCO over the study period except Mg II index at Kisumu.
TCO and SAI have correlations at both long and short lags. At all the cities, F10.7 index has an immediate
impact and Mg II index has a delayed impact on TCO. A linear relationship exists between the two variables in
all the cities. An increase in TCO of about 2 – 3 % (Nairobi), 1 – 2% (Kisumu) and 3 – 4 % (Mombasa) is
attributed to solar activity indices. The multiple correlation coefficients and significant levels obtained show that 3
– 5% of the TCO at Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa can be predicted by the SAI.

Keywords: correlation, F10.7 index, Mg II index, regression, solar activity indices, sunspot number, time series,
total column ozone

G. W, N KC, MW O, H.G. R. "Status and process analysis of Koche, a traditional pastoral meat product in Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2019;9(6):1-7.
…, Wepukhulu GW, Ntihabose L, Maina DM, MANGALA MJ,... Status and Prospects in Research Infrastructure Development in Nuclear Analytical Spectrometry and Radiometric Instrumentation Methodologies for Environmental …. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2010. AbstractWebsite

Since 2002 the Department of Physics at the University of Nairobi has established the Applied Nuclear and Radiation Physics Division for graduate training in a variety of nuclear science fields and research, the major line of which is method development in analytical …

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Wawire NW, Bett C, Ruttoh RC, Wambua J, Omari FG, Kisilu R, Kavoi J, Omari J, NasirembW Wanyonyi, Ketiem P. "THE STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION IN KENYA.". 2016.
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NYAGAH DGRACE. "THE STATUS OF DRUG ADDICTION REHABILITATION PROGRAMMES IN KENYA: A CASE STUDY OF ASUMBI TREATMENT CENTRE." THE FOUNTAIN - Journal of Educational Research. 2010;iv(1):129-142.
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NYAGAH DGRACE. "The Status of Drug Addiction Rehabilitation Programmes in Kenya: A case Study of Asumbi Treatment Centre." The Fountain - Journal of Educational Research. 2010;4(2):129-142.
Maina JG, Wesonga PS, Mukoya-Wangia S, Njoka JT. "Status of Fish Farming in Makueni County, Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Resources. 2017;5(ISSN):61-68.
Gichuki NN, Ndiwa T, Jackson C, Olivier H. "Status of globally threatened waterbirds in Tana delta, Kenya.". In: Third Biennial Scientific Conference, National Musuems of Kenya, Nairobi. Nairobi, Kenya ; 2011.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Status of Organochlorine (DDT) pollutants and steps toward electrocatalytic reductions", Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 73, 1907-1916.". In: Joseph M. Mwaniki and Geoffrey N. Kamau, International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol.11&12(Nos.1&2) 2003. Survey Review; 2001. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
Ng’ang’a P. "Status Of Orthodontic Services In Kenya.". 2009.
Were HK;, Narla RD, Nderitu JH, Weidemann HL. "The status of potato leafroll virus in Kenya. Journal of Plant Pathology." Journal of Plant Pathology. 2003;3( 85 ): 153-156.the_status_of_potato_leafroll_virus_in_kenya.pdf
Chemingwa GN,; Kitonyo OM;, Nderitu JH. "Status, constraints and marketing opportunities for canning Navy beans in Kenya.". In: Agro2011. UoN; 2011.
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Njeru E. "THE STATUS, INTERPRETATION AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR GENDER EQUITY IN THE KENYAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM." Norag News, August 1, 2003:61-66. Abstract

Education is fundamental to development of human resource capacities for sustainable
economic growth and development. By imparting new skills and knowledge in people,
education expands human capabilities, increases labour productivity and enhances essential
participation and partnerships in nation building. Education is a vital tool in achieving greater
autonomy, empowerment of women and men and addressing gender gaps in the distribution
of opportunities and resources (Muganda, 2002; Muthaka & Mwangi, 2002). More equitable
distribution of opportunities and resources between men and women leads more directly to
higher economic growth and productivity (World Development Report, 2000/2001).
Debate on gender equity in education presently revolves around two universally accepted
declarations or goals, one of them being the Universal Primary Education (UPE)by 2015,
later refocused as Education for All (EFA), as articulated in Jomtien, Thailand, iii 1990 and
reaffirmed at the Dakar (Senegal) World Education Forum in April 2000. Secondly, in
September 2000, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Millennium Declaration
to achieve universal completion of primary schooling and achieve equity in access to primary
and secondary schooling by 2005 and at all levels by 2015.
In a number of countries, efforts have been intensified to bridge the gender education gap.
But achievement of this goal in many parts of the world, and Africa in particular, has been
rather slow. For instance, in 1996 in Amman, Jordan, girls' education was reported to have
made an 'excruciatingly slow" progress, especially in Africa. A follow up EFA assessment in
2000 revealed that in many cases little or no success had been achieved in narrowing the
gender gap in education.
Kenya, since independence, has recognized education as a key sector in the country's socioeconomic
and cultural development. As such, quality education provision and training at all
levels has remained a central policy issue, hence various commissions set up to address the
country's education and training needs. The commissions include the Ominde Commission
(1964); Gachathi Commission (1976); the Presidential Working Party on the Establishment
of the Second Public University (1981), Koech Commission (1999) (FAWE, 2002) and the
recent implementation of free and compulsory primary education policy for all school-going
age children. The Kenya government (GoK) is also signatory to various international and
regional conventions advocating for equity in education.
In Kenya, poor access to education and gender imbalances are largely blamed on prevailing
poverty, poor national economic performance, HIV1AIDS and environmental degradation,
especially in ASALs. Other issues defining the macro context of education in Kenya include
negative attitudes towards schooling, amidst dwindling opportunities, thus de-motivating
parents against sending their children to school; numerous other challenges as indicated by
reduced gross enrolment ratios, high dropout, low completion and transition rates, as well as
regional and gender disparities; in addition to the questions regarding both quality and
relevance.
In addressing the foregoing problems, Kenya has developed several policies including poverty
reduction papers, National Education Master Plan (1997 - 2010). Recently, the country has
embarked on developing provincial EFA plans, for incorporation in Kenya's national EFA plan.
Beyond the policies, there have been efforts related to service provision, including bursaries,
text books, school feeding program, provision of desks and learning aids, teacher training,
campaigns for girls' education, among others.
This paper discusses the status, interpretation and opportunities for gender equity in the
Kenyan educational system, starting with background information at international and
national levels; then conceptual considerations; gender representation at various levels;
opportunities and roles of various stakeholders; some of the constraints and challenges
facing the attainment of gender parity; conclusions and way forward.

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Nielsen L. "Stepmothers: Why so much stress? A review of the research.". 1999. Abstract

Recent psychological and sociological literature is reviewed in answering two questions: What factors generally affect how much stress women encounter as stepmothers? Why do stepmothers often experience more stress than stepfathers? The answers seem to lie in four areas: (1) our society's attitudes about mothers and motherhood; (2) the mother's and stepmother's personalities, attitudes, and circumstances; (3) the father's attitudes and his relationship with the mother; and (4) the stepchildren's gender and mental health.

Tobias Homan, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins K Mweresa, Masiga D, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Prisca Oria, Nicolas Maire, Pasquale AD, Jane Alaii, Cees Leeuwis, Smith TA, Takken W. "Stepped wedge cluster-randomised trial of the impact of mass mosquito trapping on malaria (SolarMal)." Impact of odour-baited mosquito traps for malaria control. 2016:125.
Ndetei DM, Sartorius N, Khasakhala L, Ongecha-Owuor FA. "Stigma and Mental Disorders."; 2006.
Ndetei DM, Mutiso V, Maraj A, Anderson KK, Musyimi C, McKenzie K. "Stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness among primary school children in Kenya." Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2016;51(1):73-80. AbstractWebsite

Literature describing stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness by children in the developing world is lacking. Children's mental health issues in the Kenyan context are especially pertinent due to the increased likelihood of exposure to risk factors and the high prevalence of mental disorders. The objective of the current study was to examine socio-demographic factors associated with the endorsement of stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness among Kenyan school children.

AB K, Kosgei RJ, JG K, EJ C, NM O, P O. "The sting of death: a case report of breaking bad news with maternal death." JOGECA . 2013;25((1)): 32-34.
Bebora LC, Mbuthia P, Njagi L, Nyaga P, Bwana M, Wahome RG, Margaret M, Wanzila K. "Stinging Nettle and Neem enhance antibody response to local killed and imported live Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines in Indigenous Chicken in Kenya." Poultry Science journal. 2017;97:447-454.abstract.pdf
Bwana M, Njagi L, Nyaga P, Mbuthia P, Bebora L, Wahome M, Mutinda W, Kitala P. "Stinging Nettle and Neem enhance antibody response to local killed and imported live Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines in Indigenous Chicken in Kenya." Poultry Science journal. 2017;97:447-454.
Gwaki DL, N.M.Monyonko, Kumar M. "STOCHASTIC RESONANCE IN BISTABLE SYSTEMS.". 2007. Abstract

The stochastic Resonance (also known as SR) a phenomenon in which the signal and the signal to noise ratio of a non linear device is maximized for a moderate value of noise intensity.It often occurs in bistable and excitable systems with subthreshold inputs.For lower noise intensities,the signal does not cause the device to cross threshold so little signal is passed through it.For large noise intensities,the output is domonated by the noise,also leading ,also leading to a low signal to noise ratio.
For moderate intensities,the noise allows the signal to reach threshold ,but the noise intensity is not so large as to swamp it.Thus,a plot of signal to noise ratio as a function of noise intensity shows an upside down 'U" shape.Theoretical ideas explaining and describing SR are discussed.Some revealing experimental data that places SR within the wider context of statistical physics has been reviewed and established.

Ngugi RW, Murinde V, Green C, Green CJ, Kirkpatrick C, Murinde V, Elgar E. "Stock market development, in Finance and Development: Surveys of Theory Evidence and Policy." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005.
Ngugi RW;, Murinde V;, Green CJ. "Stock market development: What have we learned. .". 2004.Website
Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho COA, Mukwana S. "STR analysis of human DNA from maggots fed on decomposing bodies: assessment of the time period for successful analysis." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2016;6:261-269. Abstract
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OLUOCH MF, NYAGOL MA, RABAH SA. "STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND PERFORMANCE OF SUGAR MANUFACURING FIRMS IN WESTERN KENYA." International Journal of Research in Social Sciences. 2013;4(3):ISSN: 2249-2496.
Harris DCH, Davies SJ, Finkelstein FO, Jha V, Bello AK, Brown M, Caskey FJ, Donner J-A, Liew A, Muller E, Naicker S, O’Connell PJ, Filho RP, Vachharajani T, behalf of the Groups OSPW. "Strategic plan for integrated care of patients with kidney failure." International Society of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):1067-1070.Website
Nganga CJ. "Strategic use of anthelmintics in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in breeding ewes in a semi-arid area of Kenya.". In: 10th Annual meeting of the ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern & Southern Africa. Nairobi, Kenya; 2001.
Kamau RN, Nzuve SNM. "Strategies Adopted to Manage Work-Related Stress Among Employees- a Case of Kenya Power." Social Science Research Network. 2015. AbstractSSRN

Williams and Huber (1986) defined stress as, “a psychological and physical reaction to
prolonged internal and/or environmental conditions in which individual’s adaptive capabilities
are over extended. They argue that stress is an adaptive response to conscious or unconscious
threat and can affect an individual emotional, physical, and social well being as well as pose a
threat to one’s health if not dealt with or managed well. In most organizations, employees
undergo stress due to factors within and without the work place, which affects their well being
and in turn affects their productivity and performance at the work place. Thus, each organization
should be keen on implementing stress management strategies to solve work-related stress.
The objective of the study was to determine the strategies for managing work-related stress
among the employees of Kenya Power. Kenya Power is a public limited liability company that
transmits, distributes and retails electricity to customers throughout Kenya. The study adopted
descriptive research design with the population of the study being 6,500 employees of Kenya
Power. The study used Krejcie and Morgan (1970) Table to determine a sample size of 361 employees. Primary data was collected using self-administered questionnaires. Data was then
analyzed using statistical package for social sciences and the findings presented in tables, pie
charts, percentages, mean and standard deviations.
The study found that stress management strategies employed at Kenya Power were at three levels
mainly; primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary stress management strategies used the ones
were provision of office space that ensured adequate air circulation and lighting and ensuring
that all the employees clearly understood their job descriptions. Secondary stress management
strategies were encouraging eating healthy diet and engaging in physical activities which are a
great protection against stress. Tertiary stress management strategies were found to be
development of wellness and fitness programmes, employee involvement in stress management
programmes, receiving supportive feedback and having opportunity to discuss issues affecting
their performance with the line managers.
The study recommended that the company further pursues stress management strategies that will
ensure that the employees work environment is conducive in order to ensure delivery on the
expected work outcomes

Nzuma JM, Waithaka M, Mulwa MR, Kyotalimye M, Nelson G. Strategies for Adapting to Climate change in Rural sub-Saharan Africa. Washington: IFPRI; 2010.
Plummer FA, Ngugi EN. "Strategies for control of AIDS in Africa.". 1988. AbstractWebsite

Stratégies générales pour le contrôle de l'infection. Prévention primaire de la transmission sexuelle du HIV, stratégies pour la réduction de l'exposition des sujets sensibles. Contrôle des transmissions périnatales et parentérales

P.W M, J.M M, M.W.K M, R.W N, N K, J.K M, E.M A, R.W M, R.E K. "Strategies for maintaining sweet potato nurseries free from insect vectors that spread Sweet potato Virus Disease.". In: African Crop Science Society Conference (ACSS).; 2007.
Naidoo S, Dimba E, Yengopal V, Folayan MO, Akpata ES. "Strategies for oral health research in Africa and the middle eastern region." Advances in dental research. 2015;27:43-49. Abstract
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Naidoo S, Dimba E, Yengopal V, Folayan MO, Akpata ES. "Strategies for Oral Health Research in Africa and the Middle Eastern Region." Adv. Dent. Res.. 2015;27(1):43-9. Abstractstrategies_for_oral_health_research_in_africa_and_the_middle_eastern_region_-_abstract.pdf

The highest burden of diseases worldwide is in low- and middle-income countries, but due to lack of capacity and inadequate infrastructure, research output from these countries is unable to address existing and emerging challenges in health care. Oral health research has particularly been hampered by low prioritization, resulting in insufficient development of this sector. There is an urgent need for research correlating oral health to upstream social and environmental determinants and promoting the common risk factor approach for prevention of noncommunicable diseases. Population-wide preventive measures for oral health care are more effective than purely curative approaches, especially for vulnerable groups who have limited access to information and appropriate health care. This article identifies priorities and proposes strategies for researchers, stakeholders, and policy makers for the initiation and sustenance of appropriate oral health care research. The proposed interventions are intended to promote collaboration, capacity building, and health advocacy. Local ownership in multinational research projects in low- and middle-income countries, complemented by skills transfer from high-income countries, is encouraged to ensure that regional health needs are addressed. Emphasis is placed on a shift toward translational research that has a direct impact on oral health care systems.

Nyaga PN. "Strategies for the Prevention and Control of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in Eastern Africa.". 2009. Abstract

Although Uganda has many wetlands and lies on the migratory flyway for birds flying from Siberia through the Middle East and moving along the great Rift Valley to Southern Africa, it has not yet experienced avian influenza infection. However, the risks of exposure are extremely high given the fact that outbreaks have occurred and continue to occur in Egypt which lies directly along this flyway. It is therefore appropriate to assess the possible bio-security flaws that may arise in all the poultry sectors placing special emphasis on the more vulnerable poultry production systems of sectors 3 and 4. In this regard FAO has commissioned a biosecurity study of all the poultry production sectors in Uganda to identify the potential bio-security risks in order to lay a basis for developing effective control measures and provide guidelines for appropriate bio-security interventions. Bio-security principles are to be incorporated at the conceptual stage of each component of the poultry value chain and then during the actual implementation of the structures to carry out the business. Once these are in place, operational biosecurity principles are designed for the day to day simple procedures and practices which when applied prevent entry into or spread within a farm of disease agents, or the exit of the disease agent from infected premises. The operational protocols are summed up into three principles, namely: Isolation which involves procedures, practices, and manouvres to ensure that clean flocks remain free from disease agents and that disease agents remain confined in infected flocks and do not spread to other premises; Traffic control which includes signage to warn visitors that biosecurity protocols are being observed; controlling movement of stock, persons, goods, equipment and products into the clean farm and out of infected premises; and finally Sanitation, which involves methods that enable farmers to maintain farm houses, vehicles, implements and equipment, remain in a state of sustained cleanliness, and are disinfected. Thus, the flaws and strengths in any of these biosecurity issues were investigated throughout the poultry value chain in Uganda. The exposure to biosecurity risks was found to differ for the respective poultry sectors, as follows:

Karingithi M.G., Aosa E., K. O, Njihia J. M., and Mose J. M. "Strategy Typology, Organizational Factors and Performance of Freight Forwarding Companies in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review,. 2020;10(1):1-10.
N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. "Strathmore College Training Manual for the course, .". In: (Journal of the Marketing Students Association). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Njeru E, Njoka J. "Street Children and Employment Opportunities.". In: Environment and Development in Kenya. Nairobi: Kenya National Academy of Sciences; 1999. Abstract

Although there is a general realization that there are "people" in the streets, we often take the phenomenon for granted probably because we wake up and go home only to come to the streets the following morning and still find the people. This situation is, however, changing with the emergence of the "birth" and increase of street children as we begin to take into consideration the category of people to be routinely found on the. streets. The phrases "street children" refer to the children below the statutory adult age living on or found on the streets. These children derive their livelihood from the streets. We often distinguish between children on streets and children a/the streets. While the children on the streets may have a "home" to go to, the latter are an integral part of the street having nowhere to retire to at the
end of the day.
The street children have actually been there for as long as the urban centres existed probably due to the social and physical characteristics of the urban centres in which the duality of outcome is apredominant feature (Gichuru, 1993). Thus the modem urban centre has always been aplace ofpoverty and riches, chaos and order, squalor and splendour, development and underdevelopment. Street children have, however, not been viewed so much as a problem until recently following the unprecedented urban growth. Although the street children phenomenon is not unique to urban areas of the LDCs, the phenomenon has become so widespread in some urban centres that there has been a mushrooming of organizations whose activities are mainly centred around rehabilitation ofthe street children. Many studies indicate that the street children phenomenon is not only increasing but is also becoming widespread and affecting millions ofchildren (Grant et. aI., 1989; Gichuru, 1993; ICIHI, 1986 and Suda, 1994).
The number ofstreet children increased from 15 in 1969 to nearly 500,000 in 1994 (Gichohi, 199~). This number is expected to rise to 7 million by the year 2000, if we were to base our calculation on the rate of 10 % increase per annum. In addition, many street children are becoming children a/the streets and we are now increasingly talking of street families and street gangs. Most of the street children are in the urban areas. This chapter argues that the street children phenomenon is born out of consequences of the unprecedented rate of urbanization process which leads to unemployment, poverty and cultural loss. This culminates in the devaluation of the child who has, therefore, to fend for him/herself from the streets.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Street Children In Kenya: Voices of Children in search of a Childhood. With Kilbride, P. & Suda, Collette. Westport: Bergin & Garvey.". In: Gpg (Greenwood Publishers Group). African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

Street Children in Kenya provides an in-depth examination of the experiences of street children in Nairobi, Kenya. Drawing from participant observations, individual and focus group interviews, the authors, Kilbride, Suda, and Njeru allow readers to confront the harsh realities, suffering, and survival skills of nearly 400 of the over 40,000 homeless children in Nairobi. These children are part of the over 110,000 children described by UNICEF as "in need of special protection" (GOK/UNICEF, 1998). Reflecting the anthropological and sociological backgrounds of the scholars, the book's initial chapters introduce the methodology and background for the study, including a description of the study's setting, Nairobi, and relevant information on the communities studied. The text also provides information on social and cultural issues affecting families (e.g., the weakening of family structures due to poverty, the impact of AIDS, and government sanctioned ethnic conflicts), which have contributed to the rapid rise in the number of children living and working on the street. Even though only one chapter is solely devoted to the narratives of the children, most chapters are infused with humanizing accounts and perspectives on the children's lives. A unique contribution of the study is its methodology, which involved giving older street children cameras to document their daily life, thus greatly personalizing the book, since the children were allowed to tell their own stories. A more traditional scholarly analysis is presented in the final chapter, which addresses policy implications, particularly with regards to long-term, culturally framed solutions to this complex and growing problem.

N K, F Y, S M, M N. "Strengthening capacity for sustainable livelihoods and food security through urban agriculture among HIV and AIDS affected households in Nakuru, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

The promotion and support of urban agriculture (UA) has the potential to contribute to efforts to address pressing challenges of poverty, under nutrition and sustainability among vulnerable populations in the growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This may be especially relevant for HIV/AIDS-affected individuals in SSA whose agricultural livelihoods are severely disrupted by the devastating effects of the disease on physical productivity and nutritional well-being. This paper outlines the process involved in the conception, design and implementation of a project to strengthen technical, environmental, financial and social capacity for UA among HIV-affected households in Nakuru, Kenya. Key lessons learned are also discussed. The first has been the value of multi-stakeholder partnerships, representing a broad range of relevant experience, knowledge and perspectives in order to address the complex set of issues facing agriculture for social purposes in urban settings. A second is the key role of self-help group organizations, and the securing of institutional commitments to support farming by vulnerable persons affected by HIV-AIDS is also apparent. Finally, the usefulness of evaluative tools using mixed methods to monitor progress towards goals and identify supports and barriers to success are highlighted.

Arunga, Nyenze. "Strengthening eye health research output in the region." JOECSA. 2020;24(1):1-3.
Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Redfield R, Bosire K, Nduati RW, Mwanda W, M'Imunya JM, Kibwage I. "Strengthening health systems by integrating health care, medical education, and research: University of Nairobi experience." Acad Med. 2014;89(8 Suppl):S109-10.
Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Redfield R, Bosire K, Nduati RW, Mwanda W, M'Imunya JM, Kibwage I. "Strengthening health systems by integrating health care, medical education, and research: University of Nairobi experience." Acad Med. 2014;89(8 Suppl):S109-10.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Strengthening Population Related Social Science Research Capacity in Kenya. A report to the Rockefeller Foundation: 1994.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
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Bekry AA, editor Ndetei, D.M., Mburu J, Obondo A, Kokonya D. "Stress and Stress Management."; 2006.
O.Akinyemi R, O.Owolabi M, MasafumiIhara, AlbertinoDamasceno, AdesolaOgunniyi, CatherineDotchin, Stella-MariaPaddick, Ogeng’o J, RichardWalker, N.Kalaria R. "Stroke, Cerebrovascular Diseases and Vascular Cognitive impairement in Africa." Brain res Bull. 2019;145:97-108. Abstract

With increased numbers of older people a higher burden of neurological disorders worldwide is predicted. Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases do not necessarily present with different phenotypes in Africa but their incidence is rising in tandem with the demographic change in the population. Age remains the strongest irreversible risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. Modifiable factors relating to vascular disease risk, diet, lifestyle, physical activity and psychosocial status play a key role in shaping the current spate of stroke related diseases in Africa. Hypertension is the strongest modifiable risk factor for stroke but is also likely associated with co-inheritance of genetic traits among Africans. Somewhat different from high-income countries, strokes attributed to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) are higher >30% among sub-Saharan Africans. Raised blood pressure may explain most of the incidence of SVD-related strokes but there are likely other contributing factors including dyslipidaemia and diabetes in some sectors of Africa. However, atherosclerotic and cardioembolic diseases combined also appear to be common subtypes as causes of strokes. Significant proportions of cerebrovascular diseases are ascribed to various forms of infectious disease including complications of human immunodeficiency virus. Cerebral SVD leads to several clinical manifestations including gait disturbance, autonomic dysfunction and depression. Pathological processes are characterized by arteriolosclerosis, lacunar infarcts, perivascular spaces, microinfarcts and diffuse white matter changes, which can now all be detected on neuroimaging. Except for isolated cases of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy or CADASIL, hereditary arteriopathies have so far not been reported in Africa. Prevalence estimates of vascular dementia (2–3%), delayed dementia after stroke (10–20%) and vascular cognitive impairment (30–40%) do not appear to be vastly different from those in other parts of the world. However, given the current demographic transition in both urban and rural settings these figures will likely rise. Wider application of neuroimaging modalities and implementation of stroke care in Africa will enable better estimates of SVD and other subtypes of stroke. Stroke survivors with SVD type pathology are likely to have low mortality and therefore portend increased incidence of dementia.

Nyarige JS, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Simiyu J, Mureramanzi S, Aduda B. "Structural and Optical Properties of Phosphorous and Antimony doped ZnO thin films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis: A Comparative Study." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology . 2017;4(11):149-154.
Nyarige JS, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Simiyu J, Mureramanzi S, Aduda B. "Structural and Optical Properties of Phosphorous and Antimony doped ZnO thin films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis: A Comparative Study." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;4(11). Abstract

A study of structural and properties of pure (undoped) Zinc oxide (ZnO) and phosphorous (P) and Antimony (Sb) doped Zinc Oxide films has been carried out. The films were deposited by an automated spray pyrolysis equipment on both microscope glass at various elevated temperatures (270 oC - 420 oC) and on fluorine doped tin Oxide (FTO) substrates at 420 oC. Structural characterization using Raman spectroscopy showed the presence of the main peak for ZnO at 437 cm-1for all the films. Antimony doped films showed other peaks associated with the doping but phosphorous doping did not show extra peaks. Optical characterization using a UV-VIS-NIR Shimadzu (Model DUV 3700) double beam spectrophotometer provided both reflectance and transmittance data and Scout software was used to compute the band gap. At a wavelength of 600 nm, the average transmittance of the pure ZnO films was ~62 % while it was transmittance was ~85 % and ~80 % for Sb and P doped films respectively, an increase of ~23 % and ~18 % respectively. For the undoped ZnO films, high deposition temperatures led to band gap narrowing from 3.25eV to 3.10eVwhile doping resulted in band gap widening from 3.10 eV to 3.30 eV (for P-doped) and 3.10 eV to 3.33 eV (for Sb-doped),an observation confirmed by the increased transmittance on doping. The band gap narrowing for ZnO films makes the film become a better materials for visible light absorption which is good for photovoltaic applications. The wide gap broadening on doping makes the film more transparent to solar radiation making it suitable for transparent conducting oxide applications.

Koech A, Ndungu B, Gichangi P. "Structural changes in umbilical vessels in pregnancy induced hypertension." Placenta. 2008;29(2):210-4. Abstract

Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) is associated with placental morphological changes, alterations in the blood flow patterns in the umbilical vessels and adverse fetal and maternal outcome. Studies have demonstrated changes in the structure of the umbilical vessels but these have not been described across the length of the cord or correlated with the severity of disease.

Koech A, Ndungu B, Gichangi P. "Structural Changes in Umbilical Vessels in Pregnancy Induced Hypertension." Placenta. 2008;29(2 (February, 2008)):p. 210-214.
Wamalwa RN, Nyamai CM, Ambusso WJ, Mulwa JK, WASWA AARONK. "Structural controls on the Geochemistry and output of the Wells in the Olkaria Geothermal Field of the Kenyan Rift Valley." International Journal of Geoscience. 2016;7:1299-1309. Abstract

The Olkaria geothermal field is located in the Kenya Rift valley, about 120 km from Nairobi. Geothermal activity is widespread in this rift with 14 major geothermal prospects being identified. Structures in the Greater Olkaria volcanic complex in- clude: the ring structure, the Ol’Njorowa gorge, the ENE-WSW Olkaria fault and N-S, NNE-SSW, NW-SE and WNW-ESE trending faults. The faults are more prom- inent in the East, Northeast and West Olkaria fields but are scarce in the Olkaria Domes area, possibly due to the thick pyroclastics cover. The NW-SE and WNW- ESE faults are thought to be the oldest and are associated with the development of the rift. The most prominent of these faults is the Gorge Farm fault, which bounds the geothermal fields in the northeastern part and extends to the Olkaria Domes area. The most recent structures are the N-S and the NNE-SSW faults. The geoche- mistry and output of the wells cut by these faults have a distinct characteristic that is the N-S, NW-SE and WNW-ESE faults are characterized by wells that have high Cl contents, temperatures and are good producers whereas the NE-SW faults, the Ring Structure and the Ol’Njorowa gorge appear to carry cool dilute waters with less chlo- ride concentration and thus low performing wells. Though the impacts of these faults are apparent, there exists a gap in knowledge on how wide is the impact of these faults on the chemistry and performance of the wells. This paper therefore seeks to bridge this gap by analysis of the chemical trends of both old wells and newly drilled ones to evaluate the impacts of individual faults and then using buffering technique of ArcGis estimate how far and wide the influence of the faults is. The data was ob- tained after the sampling and analysis of discharge fluids of wells located on six pro- files along the structures cutting through the field. Steam samples were collected with a stainless steel Webre separator connected between the wellhead and an atmospher- ic silencer on the discharging wells whereas the analysis was done in house in the KenGen geochemistry laboratory. The results indicates that Olkaria field has three categories of faults that control fluid flow that is the NW-SE trending faults that bring in high temperature and Cl rich waters, and the NE-SW trending Olkaria frac- ture tend to carry cool temperature waters that have led to decline in enthalpies of the wells it cuts through. The faults within the Ol Njorowa gorge act to carry cool, less mineralized water. Though initially, these effects were thought to be in shallow depths, an indication in OW-901 which is a deeper at 2200 m compared to 1600 m of OW-23 well that proves otherwise. This is, however, to be proved later as much deeper wells have been sited.

Wamalwa RN, Nyamai CM, Ambusso WJ, Mulwa J, WASWA AARONK. "Structural Controls on the Geochemistry and Output of the Wells in the Olkaria Geothermal Field of the Kenyan Rift Valley." International Journal of Geosciences. 2016;7(11):1299. AbstractFull Text

The Olkaria geothermal field is located in the Kenya Rift valley, about 120 km from Nairobi. Geothermal activity is widespread in this rift with 14 major geothermal prospects being identified. Structures in the Greater Olkaria volcanic complex include: the ring structure, the Ol’Njorowa gorge, the ENE-WSW Olkaria fault and N-S, NNE-SSW, NW-SE and WNW-ESE trending faults. The faults are more prominent in the East, Northeast and West Olkaria fields but are scarce in the Olkaria Domes area, possibly due to the thick pyroclastics cover. The NW-SE and WNW- ESE faults are thought to be the oldest and are associated with the development of the rift. The most prominent of these faults is the Gorge Farm fault, which bounds the geothermal fields in the northeastern part and extends to the Olkaria Domes area. The most recent structures are the N-S and the NNE-SSW faults. The geochemistry and output of the wells cut by these faults have a distinct characteristic that is the N-S, NW-SE and WNW-ESE faults are characterized by wells that have high Cl contents, temperatures and are good producers whereas the NE-SW faults, the Ring Structure and the Ol’Njorowa gorge appear to carry cool dilute waters with less chloride concentration and thus low performing wells. Though the impacts of these faults are apparent, there exists a gap in knowledge on how wide is the impact of these faults on the chemistry and performance of the wells. This paper therefore seeks to bridge this gap by analysis of the chemical trends of both old wells and newly drilled ones to evaluate the impacts of individual faults and then using buffering technique of ArcGis estimate how far and wide the influence of the faults is. The data was obtained after the sampling and analysis of discharge fluids of wells located on six profiles along the structures cutting through the field. Steam samples were collected with a stainless steel Webre separator connected between the wellhead and an atmospheric silencer on the discharging wells whereas the analysis was done in house in the KenGen geochemistry laboratory. The results indicates that Olkaria field has three categories of faults that control fluid flow that is the NW-SE trending faults that bring in high temperature and Cl rich waters, and the NE-SW trending Olkaria fracture tend to carry cool temperature waters that have led to decline in enthalpies of the wells it cuts through. The faults within the Ol Njorowa gorge act to carry cool, less mineralized water. Though initially, these effects were thought to be in shallow depths, an indication in OW-901 which is a deeper at 2200 m compared to 1600 m of OW-23 well that proves otherwise. This is, however, to be proved later as much deeper wells have been sited.

WASWA AARONK, Wamalwa RN, Nyamai CM, Ambusso WJ, Mulwa J. "Structural Controls on the Geochemistry and Output of the Wells in the Olkaria Geothermal Field of the Kenyan Rift Valley." International Journal of Geosciences. 2016;7(11):1299. AbstractFull Text

The Olkaria geothermal field is located in the Kenya Rift valley, about 120 km from Nairobi. Geothermal activity is widespread in this rift with 14 major geothermal prospects being identified. Structures in the Greater Olkaria volcanic complex include: the ring structure, the Ol’Njorowa gorge, the ENE-WSW Olkaria fault and N-S, NNE-SSW, NW-SE and WNW-ESE trending faults. The faults are more prominent in the East, Northeast and West Olkaria fields but are scarce in the Olkaria Domes area, possibly due to the thick pyroclastics cover. The NW-SE and WNW- ESE faults are thought to be the oldest and are associated with the development of the rift. The most prominent of these faults is the Gorge Farm fault, which bounds the geothermal fields in the northeastern part and extends to the Olkaria Domes area. The most recent structures are the N-S and the NNE-SSW faults. The geochemistry and output of the wells cut by these faults have a distinct characteristic that is the N-S, NW-SE and WNW-ESE faults are characterized by wells that have high Cl contents, temperatures and are good producers whereas the NE-SW faults, the Ring Structure and the Ol’Njorowa gorge appear to carry cool dilute waters with less chloride concentration and thus low performing wells. Though the impacts of these faults are apparent, there exists a gap in knowledge on how wide is the impact of these faults on the chemistry and performance of the wells. This paper therefore seeks to bridge this gap by analysis of the chemical trends of both old wells and newly drilled ones to evaluate the impacts of individual faults and then using buffering technique of ArcGis estimate how far and wide the influence of the faults is. The data was obtained after the sampling and analysis of discharge fluids of wells located on six profiles along the structures cutting through the field. Steam samples were collected with a stainless steel Webre separator connected between the wellhead and an atmospheric silencer on the discharging wells whereas the analysis was done in house in the KenGen geochemistry laboratory. The results indicates that Olkaria field has three categories of faults that control fluid flow that is the NW-SE trending faults that bring in high temperature and Cl rich waters, and the NE-SW trending Olkaria fracture tend to carry cool temperature waters that have led to decline in enthalpies of the wells it cuts through. The faults within the Ol Njorowa gorge act to carry cool, less mineralized water. Though initially, these effects were thought to be in shallow depths, an indication in OW-901 which is a deeper at 2200 m compared to 1600 m of OW-23 well that proves otherwise. This is, however, to be proved later as much deeper wells have been sited.

Mwinzi R, Mberia H, Ndeti N. "The Structure of Corporate Identity Public Universities in Kenya have Adopted." International Journal of Education and Research. 2016;Vol. 4(No. 1, January 2016):pp. 1-14.
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in lake magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS-BiovisionAlexandria NXT Conference, Alexandria Egypt. Elsevier; 2012.
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in lake magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS-BiovisionAlexandria NXT Conference, Alexandria Egypt. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2012. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS/BiovisionAlexandria. NXT Conference. Alexandria Egypt. Elsevier; 2012.
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS/BiovisionAlexandria. NXT Conference. Alexandria Egypt. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2012. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
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Kimani G.N., A.M. K, Njagi L W, M.W. R. "Students’ experiences and Perceptions of Master of Business Administration Programme offered through Distance Education at Kenyatta University, Kenya." Journal of Continuing, Open and Distance Education. 2012;(ISSN 2074 – 4722):207-229.kimani_13.pdf
Overbaugh J, Kreiss J, Poss M, Lewis P, Mostad S, John G, R W Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Martin JH, Richardson B, Jackson S, Neilson J, Long EM, Panteleeff D, Welch M, Rakwar J, Jackson D, Chohan B, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ. "Studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mucosal viral shedding and transmission in Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

If human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines are to be highly effective, it is essential to understand the virologic factors that contribute to HIV-1 transmission. It is likely that transmission is determined, in part, by the genotype or phenotype (or both) of infectious virus present in the index case, which in turn will influence the quantity of virus that may be exchanged during sexual contact. Transmission may also depend on the fitness of the virus for replication in the exposed individual, which may be influenced by whether a virus encounters a target cell that is susceptible to infection by that specific variant. Of interest, our data suggest that the complexity of the virus that is transmitted may be different in female and male sexual exposures.

Overbaugh J, Kreiss J, Poss M, Lewis P, Mostad S, John G, R W Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Martin JH, Richardson B, Jackson S, Neilson J, Long EM, Panteleeff D, Welch M, Rakwar J, Jackson D, Chohan B, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ. "Studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mucosal viral shedding and transmission in Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

If human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines are to be highly effective, it is essential to understand the virologic factors that contribute to HIV-1 transmission. It is likely that transmission is determined, in part, by the genotype or phenotype (or both) of infectious virus present in the index case, which in turn will influence the quantity of virus that may be exchanged during sexual contact. Transmission may also depend on the fitness of the virus for replication in the exposed individual, which may be influenced by whether a virus encounters a target cell that is susceptible to infection by that specific variant. Of interest, our data suggest that the complexity of the virus that is transmitted may be different in female and male sexual exposures.

Nzuve FM, Tusiime G, Bhavani S, Njau PN, Wanyera R. "Studies of the genetics of inheritance of stem rust." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2013;12(21):3153-3159.
Juma FD, Masataka M, Nganga JN. "Studies on African Medicinal Plants: Alkaloidal Constituents of Uvaria acuminata and Uvaria lucida.". 1997. Abstract

African medicinal plants Uvaria acuminata and Uvaria lucida were examined for their alkaloidal constituents. Three alkaloids, (-)-anolobine, (-)-anonaine, and (+)-reticuline were isolated from U. acuminata, and four alkaloids, (-)-anolobine, (+)-reticuline, (-)-asimilobine, and (-)-discretamine from U. lucida. Furthermore, HPLC profiles of the alkaloidal fractions of both plants were studied.

Ndegwa PN. Studies on ecology and epidemiological significance of Glossina swynnertoni Austen in Masai Mara, Kenya. Mihok S, Oyieke F, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1997.
Njogu M, Muindi E, Muthomi J, Nyankanga R, Muchiri P. "Studies on the effects of stinging nettle extract, phosphoric acid and conventional fungicide combinations on the management of potato late blight and tuber yield in the Highlands of Kenya." Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science (DRJAFS) . 2014;2(8):119-127.
Ntarangui TN'olua. A study into energy management and possibilities of energy conservation in student hostels. .; 1989. Abstract

Energy has become a very important aspect of our lives. This study has tried to examine the problems related to energy use, and has tried to outline various measures that can be effectively used to improve energy utilization in the student hostels. Energy use in buildings is discussed with emphasis laid on the need to incorporate energy as a design parameter at the design stage. Energy management for old buildings is also examined with the aim of showing that effective and efficient energy management is a key factor in reducing energy consumption in buildings. The research tries to bring out the nature of energy consumption in the student hostels. This is done with the aim of identifying energy conservation opportunities. Finally the study has outlined various conclusions and recommendations, that if applied could possibly help in reducing the high energy consumption in the student hostels

Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Ongecha FA, Kokonya D, Mutiso V, Odhiambo G, Akanga S. "A Study of Drug Use in Five Urban Centres in Kenya.". 2008.
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Ong’echa FA, Kokonya D, Mutiso V, Kuria M, Odhiambo G, Akanga S. "A study of drug use in five urban centres in kenya.". 2008. Abstract

Few studies have addressed the reasons for substance use in Kenya, with most focusing on prevalence rates in school-based and general population samples. None have been carried out among people already using drugs. This study, based on five samples of drug users, aimed to identify patterns of factors contributing to and consequences of substance use; compare socio-demographic characteristics; document help-seeking behaviours of substance abusers as well as their family and social dynamics. Active or former substance abusers (N =1,420) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire format. The peak age for substance abuse was between 21 and 30 years and most abusers were male. Leisure, stress and peer pressure were the most common reasons given for abusing substances. There were negative economic and work-related impacts of abusing substances. Risky sexual behaviour may have been a consequenc of abusing substances. Substance abusers need assistance as most of them could benefit from programmes for treatment and rehabilitation.

SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics 2. 2020;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector)

SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector).

SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector)

Chaudhari ML, Kapadia DM, Kanani SD, Patel JP, Shah RK, Nirvan AB. "A study of morphology of vermifrom appendix in 200 cases." International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences. 2013;2:780. AbstractWebsite
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Ng'ang'a PM. "A study of occlusal anomalies and tooth loss in children aged 13-15 years in Nairobi.". 2012. Abstract

Two hundred and fifty one African children aged 13-15 years were examined for specific intra- and inter-arch malocclusions and tooth loss. The children were from 6 schools randomly selected from 154 primary schools in Nairobi. Overall, 47% of the children were found to have malocclusion, the most frequently encountered anomaly being crowding. Some of the anomalies showed prevalences which differed markedly from those previously reported for American and British Caucasians of comparable age-groups. Nineteen per cent of the children had missing teeth due to caries, 5.6% due to extractions as part of orthodontic treatment and 13% due to other reasons. The mean number of permanent teeth missing due to caries was 0.2, orthodontic treatment 0.1 and due to other reasons 0.2. Almost all the teeth lost as a result of caries were molars and those due to orthodontic indications were premolars. No teeth were recorded as missing due to periodontal disease or trauma. The study indicated a need to exercise caution in trying to relate the numerical values for prevalence of malocclusions in current textbooks to the present population. The results also showed that the proportion of permanent teeth lost was small.

Odero AN. A Study of the Electrical Insulation Characteristics of Woods Locally locally available in Kenya. Nelson I, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract

For my thesis I did a problem formulation and then wrote a computer program to help speedily analyze various insulator profiles for use at high voltages. The program when fed the profile would output the potential and electric field patterns around the high voltage insulator, in addition to predicting it's flashover voltage. Validation of the model was obtained through practical measurement in a high voltage laboratory. Profiles that would insulate very high voltages were arrived at this way in a relatively short time.

NZUVE SNM, Omolo E. "A Study Of The Practice Of The Learning Organization And Its Relationship To Performance Among Kenyan Commercial Banks.". In: Problems of Management in the 21st Century. Scientific Methodical Center (SMC), Scientia Educologica, Lithuania, 2012; 2012.
Padmavathi G, Rajeshwari T, Niranjana Murthy KV. "Study of the variations in the origin & termination of basilar artery." Anatomica Karnataka. 2011;5:54-59. Abstract
n/a
Moindi SK, Njui F, Pokhariyal GP. "A Study of W3-Symmetric K-Contact Riemannian Manifold." International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics. 2018;6(3):2347-9051. AbstractWebsite

In this paper the geometric properties of W3 -
curvature tensor are studied in K-contact Riemannian
manifold.

Moindi SK, Pokhariyal GP, Nzimbi BM. "Study of W_4-curvature tensor on Sasakian manifold." Kenya Journal of Sciences. 2010;14(1):1-8.
Ndetei DM;, Khasakhala L;, Kuria MW;, Mutiso V;, Muriungi S;, Bagaka B. A study on assessment of needs, care in the homes and clinical trends among the elderly in Kenya.; 2013.
Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Minga U, Olsen JE. "A Study on Effectiveness of Seven Disinfectants Against Possible Bacteria Contaminants of Coops and Premises Inhabited by Indigenous Chickens and Ducks.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Seven commonly used disinfectants abbreviated as A, B, C, D, E, F and G (A is, Glutaraldehyde and Coco – benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride; B is, Didecyldimethyl ammonium bromide 50% w\\v; C is, Sodium hypochlorite; D is, pine disinfectant and antiseptic; E is, chloroxylenol; F is, phenol and that for disinfectant G is, cresol and soap solution) were evaluated for their effectiveness in disinfecting coops and premises of indigenous chickens and ducks. Bacterial isolates from 14 samples (each sample comprising of a pharyngeal and a cloacal swab from one bird pooled together) from village chickens and ducks were used in this study. The isolates were taken to represent microorganisms in the birds\' environment. Results showed that effectiveness amongst the disinfectants varied markedly. Two disinfectants were very effective (sensitivity of 80% and 60% respectively), three were moderate (30% sensitivity, each) and two were ineffective. Some of them were effective only at a concentration higher than that recommended by the manufacturer. For effective disinfection occasional sensitivity testing is therefore recommended.

Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Minga U, Olsen JE. "A Study on Effectiveness of Seven Disinfectants Against Possible Bacteria Contaminants of Coops and Premises Inhabited by Indigenous Chickens and Ducks.". 2005. Abstractabstract3.pdfWebsite

Seven commonly used disinfectants abbreviated as A, B, C, D, E, F and G (A is, Glutaraldehyde and Coco – benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride; B is, Didecyldimethyl ammonium bromide 50% w\\v; C is, Sodium hypochlorite; D is, pine disinfectant and antiseptic; E is, chloroxylenol; F is, phenol and that for disinfectant G is, cresol and soap solution) were evaluated for their effectiveness in disinfecting coops and premises of indigenous chickens and ducks. Bacterial isolates from 14 samples (each sample comprising of a pharyngeal and a cloacal swab from one bird pooled together) from village chickens and ducks were used in this study. The isolates were taken to represent microorganisms in the birds\' environment. Results showed that effectiveness amongst the disinfectants varied markedly. Two disinfectants were very effective (sensitivity of 80% and 60% respectively), three were moderate (30% sensitivity, each) and two were ineffective. Some of them were effective only at a concentration higher than that recommended by the manufacturer. For effective disinfection occasional sensitivity testing is therefore recommended.

L M, K S, S Y, K M, S K, N I. "Study on endocytosis and haemoglobin uptake in different developmental stages of Trypanosoma congolense, IL3000 strain." Journal of Protozoology Research. 2013;23:14-20.
Ngecu W, MATHU ELIUDM, Onyancha C, Mwea S. "A study on the engineering behaviour of Nairobi subsoil." Academic Journals. 2011. AbstractFull Text

Nairobi City is underlain by volcanic materials that resulted from the formation of the rift valley. Some of the challenges that face design of structures in the city include: the need to develop structures in areas with poor site conditions; distress in structures that could be related to foundation conditions; encounter of unexpected subsoil conditions even after carrying out some geotechnical investigations, and; development of defects related to adjacent deep excavation. The objectives of this study were: to investigate the qualitative and quantitative properties of subsurface materials, to establish the engineering property variations and to provide properties that represent the best estimates. Information available for this study included; Atterberg limits, grading, consolidation, swell and collapse, triaxial shear and direct shear, point load and unconfined compressive strength. Failure investigation and resistivity survey were carried out to fill the gaps in the available information. The results indicate that the engineering properties of the materials are very variable. Material property variations and the expected performance of the various subsoil materials are provided. The study concluded that before construction, it is necessary to carry out geotechnical investigations to delineate sensitive soils, determine weak and strong spots and evaluate the relationship between total and differential settlements.

Joseph OO, Yamazak Y, Cilliers P, Baki P, Ngwira CM, Mito C. "A study on the response of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly over the East Africa sector during the geomagnetic storm of November 13, 2012." Advances in Space Research. 2015;55:2863-2872. Abstract
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Joseph OO, Yamazak Y, Cilliers P, Baki P, Ngwira CM, Mito C. "A study on the response of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly over the East Africa sector during the geomagnetic storm of November 13, 2012." Advances in Space Research. 2015;55:2863-2872. Abstract
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Addis Teshome, Raina SK, Vollrath F, Kabaru JM, Onyari J, Nguku EK. "Study on Weight Loss and moisture Regain of Silk Cocoon Shells and Degummed Fibers from African Wild Silkmoths." Journal of Entomology. 2011;8(5):450-458. AbstractWebsite

Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} A study was conducted to determine weight loss and moisture regain properties of silk cocoon shells, shell layers and degummed fibers of the four African wild silkmoths Anaphe panda, Argema mimosae, Epiphora bauhiniae and Gonometa postica and compare "with the industry standard mulberry silkmoth, Bombyx mori. No. significant difference was observed between the moisture regain of the wild silk fibers after degumming. However, there were significant differences in weight loss and moisture regain between cocoon shells as well as shell layers. E. bauhiniae had the lowest weight loss and moisture regain of 23.19 and 5.64%, respectively while G. postica had the highest weight loss and moisture regain, 56.84 and 9.05%, respectively. The SEM micrographs also showed the presence of remnant sericin gum on the fibers surface. In both A. panda and E. bauhiniae, the outer shell layers had the lowest moisture regain and highest weight loss while the inner layer of E. bauhiniae and middle layer of A. panda lost the least weight. The physical structure and chemical composition ofthe cocoon shells and fibers contribute towards the variation in the moisture regain and weight loss and these features may have commercial implications due to their direct effect on the resulting fabric

Teshome A, Raina SK, Vollrath F, Kabaru JM, Onyari J, EK N, Nguku. "Study on weight loss and moisture regain of Silk Cocoon shells and Degummed Fibers from African Wild Silkmoths." Journal of Entomology . 2011;8(5):450-458.
Teshome A, Raina SK, Vollrath F, Kabaru JM, Onyari J, Nguku EK. "Study on weight loss and moisture regain of silk cocoon shells and degummed fibers from African wild silks." Journal of Entomology. 2011;8(5):450-458.
Mwangi DM, Njagi LJ, MCLIGEYO SO, Kihoro JM, Ngeranwa JJ, Orinda GO, Njagi EN. "Subclinical nephrotoxicity associated with occupational silica exposure among male Kenyan industrial workers.". 2009. Abstract

To determine early signs of renal injury due to occupational silica exposure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analytical research. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital for the referent population and Clayworks ceramics, bricks and tiles factory for the assessment of occupational silica exposure. SUBJECTS: Thirty three non-smoking silica-exposed male industrial workers and 38 non-smoking male referents participated in this study. RESULTS: Silica-exposed males excreted significantly increased levels of U.TP, U.Malb, U.ALP, U.y-GT and U.LDH compared to referent males. Among the silica-exposed males, U.Si negatively correlated significantly with age, U.TP correlated significantly to each of U.ALP and U.LDH. However, no correlation was observed between work duration and U.Si. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that there is associated glomerular and proximal tubular damage among silica exposed workers which is not duration related and is seemingly subclinical and nonprogressive and urinary silica levels appears to be similar in all groups and are not affected by exposure and work duration: the reason for which is unclear.

Abuom TO;, Mbuthia PG;, Sura AS;, Gitonga PN;, Ndurumo SM. "Subcutaneous liposarcoma in a cat and Wasike R.P.1.".; 2006.
Abuom TO;, Mbuthia PG;, Sura AS;, Gitonga PN;, Ndurumo SM. "Subcutaneous liposarcoma in a cat and Wasike R.P.1.".; 2006.
Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Mwenda E. "Subdegrees and suborbital graphs of symmetric groups Sn (n=3,4,5) acting on unordered pairs." Global Educational Research Journal. 2015;3(7):333-345.
Marenya PP;, Smith VH;, Nkonya EM. "Subsistence farmer preferences for alternative incentive policies to encourage the adoption of conservation agriculture in Malawi: A choice elicitation approach."; 2012. Abstract

Land degradation in most sub Saharan Africa is a widely recognized problem and is due in large part to poor land management practices. To address this problem, several policy-based incentives to increase the adoption of better land management practices have been proposed, including fertilizer subsidies, cash payments and, more recently, subsidized or commercially offered weather index-based insurance contracts. However, little is known about farmers’ preferences among these policy alternatives, their relative effectiveness, and their likely fiscal implications. Using survey and choice elicitation data from 271 farmers in Central Malawi, this study examines smallholder farmers’ preferences among four major policy options that provide incentives for adopting agroforestry based conservation practices. Our results suggest that even when the expected value of an ideal insurance contract which has no basis risk was 25 percent higher than the cash payment option, sixty percent of the sample preferred the cash payment. Further, the empirical results indicated that cash flow or liquidity constraints may limit farmers’ willingness to use crop insurance as a risk management tool. We conclude that the potential scope for increasing the use of improved land management techniques through fertilizer subsidies, or cash or insurance incentives payments may be substantial, although fertilizer subsidies and cash payments may be less costly approaches than subsidizing insurance contracts.

Muthini, D., Nzuma, M.J., Qaim, M. "Subsistence Production, Markets, and Dietary Diversity in the Kenyan Small Farm Sector." Food Policy. 2020;DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2020.101956.
Mokaya AG, Mutiso V, Musau A, Tele A, Kombe Y, Ng'ang'a Z, Frank E, Ndetei DM, Clair V. "Substance Use among a Sample of Healthcare Workers in Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study." J Psychoactive Drugs. 2016;48(4):310-9. AbstractWebsite

This study describes reported substance use among Kenyan healthcare workers (HCWs), as it has implications for HCWs' health, productivity, and their ability and likelihood to intervene on substance use. The Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was administered to a convenience sample of HCWs (n = 206) in 15 health facilities. Reported lifetime use was 35.8% for alcohol, 23.5% for tobacco, 9.3% for cannabis, 9.3% for sedatives, 8.8% for cocaine, 6.4% for amphetamine-like stimulants, 5.4% for hallucinogens, 3.4% for inhalants, and 3.9% for opioids. Tobacco and alcohol were also the two most commonly used substances in the previous three months. Male gender and other substance use were key predictors of both lifetime and previous three months' use rates. HCWs' substance use rates appear generally higher than those seen in the general population in Kenya, though lower than those reported among many HCWs globally. This pattern of use has implications for both HCWs and their clients.

Maru HM, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM. "Substance use among children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya.". 2003. Abstract

To estimate the prevalence and pattern of substance use among children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya. DESIGN: A point prevalence survey. SETTING: The Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Ninety (sixty four males and twenty six females) children and young persons aged 8 to 18 years classified as criminal offenders, group I (60) and those for protection and discipline, group II (30), were selected. METHOD: Socio-demographic and substance use questionnaires were administered to the subject. International classification of diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10) diagnostic criteria were used. RESULTS: Crude rate for substance use in this study was found to be 39 out of the total sample of 90(43.3%), children and young persons. Of these thirty nine, 33 (85.8%) were males and six(14.2%) were females. Twenty nine (32.2%) used nicotine, 19(21.1%) used volatile hydrocarbons, 8(8.9%) used cannabis six (6.7%) used alcohol, five (5.6%) used khat and three (3.3%) used sedatives. Multiple substance use was also evident. CONCLUSION: This study has shown a high presence of substance use in children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi Juvenile Court.

Maru HM, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM. "Substance use among children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya.". 2003. Abstract

To estimate the prevalence and pattern of substance use among children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya. DESIGN: A point prevalence survey. SETTING: The Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Ninety (sixty four males and twenty six females) children and young persons aged 8 to 18 years classified as criminal offenders, group I (60) and those for protection and discipline, group II (30), were selected. METHOD: Socio-demographic and substance use questionnaires were administered to the subject. International classification of diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10) diagnostic criteria were used. RESULTS: Crude rate for substance use in this study was found to be 39 out of the total sample of 90(43.3%), children and young persons. Of these thirty nine, 33 (85.8%) were males and six(14.2%) were females. Twenty nine (32.2%) used nicotine, 19(21.1%) used volatile hydrocarbons, 8(8.9%) used cannabis six (6.7%) used alcohol, five (5.6%) used khat and three (3.3%) used sedatives. Multiple substance use was also evident. CONCLUSION: This study has shown a high presence of substance use in children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi Juvenile Court.

Othieno CJ, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM. "Substance use in outpatients attending rural and urban health centres in Kenya.". 2000. Abstract

To estimate the prevalence and pattern of substance use among patients attending primary health centres in urban and rural areas of Kenya. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional prevalence survey. SETTING: Urban health centres of Jericho and Kenyatta University (KU) and rural health centres in Muranga district. SUBJECTS: One hundred and fifty adult patients (seventy eight males and seventy two females) were included in the study. INTERVENTION: Semi-structured questionnaires and the DSM IV diagnostic criteria were used to record the socio-demographic data and to determine substance dependence or abuse. RESULTS: The substances commonly used in descending order of frequency were alcohol, tobacco, khat and cannabis. Only alcohol and tobacco were extensively used. Lifetime prevalence rates of alcohol use for the two urban health centres were 54% and 62% compared to 54% for the rural health centres. For tobacco the lifetime prevalence rates were 30% for Jericho, 28% for KU and 38% for Muranga. The differences between the rural and urban samples were not statistically significant. More males than females had used alcohol (average lifetime use 80.8% for males compared to 30.6% for females: p<0.05) and tobacco (average lifetime use 56.4% for males compared to 5.6% for females p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The rates of substance abuse were generally low with the exception of alcohol and tobacco. Socio-cultural factors might be responsible for the differences noted. It is suggested that preventive measures and education should be emphasised at the primary care level

Neilson JR, John GC, Carr JK, Lewis P, Kreiss JK, Jackson S, R W Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Panteleeff DD, Bodrug S, Giachetti C, Bott MA, Richardson BA, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaugh J. "Subtypes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Disease Stage among Women in Nairobi, Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

In sub-Saharan Africa, where the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been most devastating, there are multiple subtypes of this virus. The distribution of different subtypes within African populations is generally not linked to particular risk behaviors. Thus, Africa is an ideal setting in which to examine the diversity and mixing of viruses from different subtypes on a population basis. In this setting, it is also possible to address whether infection with a particular subtype is associated with differences in disease stage. To address these questions, we analyzed the HIV-1 subtype, plasma viral loads, and CD4 lymphocyte levels in 320 women from Nairobi, Kenya. Subtype was determined by a combination of heteroduplex mobility assays and sequence analyses of envelope genes, using geographically diverse subtype reference sequences as well as envelope sequences of known subtype from Kenya. The distribution of subtypes in this population was as follows: subtype A, 225 (70.3%); subtype D, 65 (20.5%); subtype C, 22 (6.9%); and subtype G, 1 (0.3%). Intersubtype recombinant envelope genes were detected in 2.2% of the sequences analyzed. Given that the sequences analyzed represented only a small fraction of the proviral genome, this suggests that intersubtype recombinant viral genomes may be very common in Kenya and in other parts of Africa where there are multiple subtypes. The plasma viral RNA levels were highest in women infected with subtype C virus, and women infected with subtype C virus had significantly lower CD4 lymphocyte levels than women infected with the other subtypes. Together, these data suggest that women in Kenya who are infected with subtype C viruses are at more advanced stages of immunosuppression than women infected with subtype A or D. There are at least two models to explain the data from this cross-sectional study; one is that infection with subtype C is associated with a more rapid disease progression, and the second is that subtype C represents an older epidemic in Kenya. Discriminating between these possibilities in a longitudinal study will be important for increasing our understanding of the role of specific subtypes in the transmission and pathogenesis of HIV-1.

Musoke A, Rowlands J, Nene V, Nyanjui J, Katende J, Spooner P, Mwaura S, Odongo D, Nkonge C, Mbogo S, Bishop R, Morzaria S. "Subunit vaccine based on the p67 major surface protein of Theileria parva sporozoites reduces severity of infection derived from field tick challenge." Vaccine. 2005;23(23):3084-95. Abstract

Two recombinant vaccines against Theileriaparva, based on a near full-length version of the sporozoite surface antigen p67 (p67(635)), or an 80 amino acid C-terminal section (p67C), were evaluated by exposure of immunized cattle to natural tick challenge in two sites at the Kenya Coast and one in Central Kenya. Vaccination reduced severe ECF by 47% at the coast and by 52% in central Kenya from an average incidence of 0.53+/-0.07 (S.E.) in 50 non-immunised controls to an average of 0.27+/-0.05 in 83 immunised animals. The reduction in severe East Coast fever was similar to that observed in laboratory experiments with p67(635) and p67C. The p67 coding sequence from thirteen T. parva field isolates including seven from vaccinated cattle that were not protected, was 100% identical to the gene on which the recombinant vaccine is based, suggesting a predominantly homologous p67 antigenic challenge. The same parasite isolates were however genetically heterogeneous at several loci other than p67.

Ndase P, Celum C, Campbell J, Bukusi E, Kiarie J, Katabira E, Mugo N, Tumwesigye E, Wangisi J, Were E, Brantley J, Donnell D, Baeten JM. "Successful discontinuation of the placebo arm and provision of an effective HIV prevention product after a positive interim efficacy result: the partners PrEP study experience." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2014;66(2):206-12. Abstract

Dissemination of research results to study participants and stakeholders and provision of proven effective products in the immediate post-trial period are core elements of the conduct of biomedical HIV prevention clinical trials. Few biomedical HIV prevention trials have demonstrated HIV protection with novel interventions, and thus, communication of positive trial results and provision of an effective product have not been tested in many situations.

Ndurumo MM. "Sudanese Sign Language. Nairobi:." International Rescue Committee; 2000. Abstract
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Ndurumo MM. "Sudanese Sign Language. Nairobi:." International Rescue Committee; 2000. Abstract
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Renate C Smallegange, Wolfgang H Schmied, Karel J van Roey, Niels O Verhulst, Jeroen Spitzen, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Takken W. "Sugar-fermenting yeast as an organic source of carbon dioxide to attract the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. ." Malaria Journal. 2010;9:292.
Mutonyi J, Shibairo SI, Chemining’wa GN, Olubayo FM, Nyongesa HW. "Sugarcane response to liming, manuring and inorganic fertilizers on acid acrisols in western Kenya. ." International Journal of Recent Scientific Research . 2014;5(9):1703-1707.
Shahmanesh M, Wayal S, Cowan F, Mabey D, Copas A, Patel V, Ngugi EN. "Suicidal behavior among female sex workers in Goa, India: the silent epidemic.". 2007. Abstract

Given that sex work is stigmatized In more countries Ihan not, it is likely to cause stress and increase sUicidal behaviour. This is significant and Iherefore the interventions should also include psychosocial counselling in order to support the sex workers' coping mechanisms. The findings of this study show that sooro-eccoormc empowerment reduces HIV risks in female sex workers who are from a low socio-economic class. My experience too has shown thai an empathetic attitude from care providers increases the sex-workers' self-worth and therefore the ability to cope. Studies have shown that female sex work in Africa, part of ASia and some inner cities of developed countries is poverty-driven. The majority of women are really practising survival as they also have children to feed, clothe and send to school. My experience in Kenya is that the interaction between poverty and stigma increases stress and therefore SUicidal tendency. The added problem is when the female sex worker would also turn out to be HIV-infected. Holistic and responsive interventions are recommended for quality mental health in female sex workers A major question that still remains IS how can poverty-driven sex work be effectively reduced. A limitation of the study is that the study population size was not sufficiently large to allow generalization. For further reading please see ret (1}. on which I am an author. whose results give female sex workers power to reduce dependency on sex income or exit.

Khasakhala LI, Ndetei DM, Mathai M. "Suicidal behaviour among youths associated with psychopathology in both parents and youths attending outpatient psychiatric clinic in Kenya.". 2013. Abstractsuicidal_behaviour_among_youths_associated_with_psychopathology_in_both.pdf

Suicide is a major cause of death among youths particularly with psychiatric, alcohol abuse and substance abuse disorders. There are relatively few studies on the relationship between psychiatric and substance abuse disorders with suicidal behaviour from low-income countries. This study examines the relationship between suicidal behaviour and co-existing psychiatric or substance disorders among youths and depressive and alcohol use disorders in their parents. METHOD: The study sample had 678 respondents: 250 youths and 226 and 202 biological mothers and fathers, respectively. RESULTS: This study found a significant statistical association between depressive (p < 0.001), alcohol abuse (p <0.001) and substance abuse (p < 0.001) disorders and suicidal behaviour in youths. There was a significant relationship between maternal depressive disorder (p < 0.001) and perceived maternal rejecting parenting behaviour (p < 0.001) with suicidal behaviour in youths. There was a greater odds of a youth with two to three (odds ratio (OR) = 3.63; p = 0.009) and four or more (OR = 8.23; p < 0.001) co-existing psychiatric disorders to have suicidal behaviour than a youth with only one psychiatric disorder. The results also indicate that a higher proportion of youths between ages 16--18 years had suicidal behaviour than youths below 16 years or above 18 years of age (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that youths with psychiatric and substance abuse disorders have mothers living with a depressive disorder. Also, perceived maternal rejecting parenting behaviour contributes significantly to the development of suicidal behaviour later in adolescent years.

Khasakhala LI, Ndetei DM, Mathai M. "Suicidal behaviour among youths associated with psychopathology in both parents and youths attending outpatient psychiatric clinic in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Suicide is a major cause of death among youths particularly with psychiatric, alcohol abuse and substance abuse disorders. There are relatively few studies on the relationship between psychiatric and substance abuse disorders with suicidal behaviour from low-income countries. This study examines the relationship between suicidal behaviour and co-existing psychiatric or substance disorders among youths and depressive and alcohol use disorders in their parents. METHOD: The study sample had 678 respondents: 250 youths and 226 and 202 biological mothers and fathers, respectively. RESULTS: This study found a significant statistical association between depressive (p < 0.001), alcohol abuse (p <0.001) and substance abuse (p < 0.001) disorders and suicidal behaviour in youths. There was a significant relationship between maternal depressive disorder (p < 0.001) and perceived maternal rejecting parenting behaviour (p < 0.001) with suicidal behaviour in youths. There was a greater odds of a youth with two to three (odds ratio (OR) = 3.63; p = 0.009) and four or more (OR = 8.23; p < 0.001) co-existing psychiatric disorders to have suicidal behaviour than a youth with only one psychiatric disorder. The results also indicate that a higher proportion of youths between ages 16--18 years had suicidal behaviour than youths below 16 years or above 18 years of age (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that youths with psychiatric and substance abuse disorders have mothers living with a depressive disorder. Also, perceived maternal rejecting parenting behaviour contributes significantly to the development of suicidal behaviour later in adolescent years.

Ovuga E, Ndosi NK, editor Ndetei, D.M., Kilonzo G. "Suicide and Suicidal Behaviour."; 2006.
Mugo JW, Opijah FJ, Ngaina J, Karanja F, Mburu M. "Suitability of Green Gram Production in Kenya Under Present and Future Climate Scenarios Using Bias-corrected Cordex RCA4 Models." Agricultural Sciences. 2020;11:882-896.

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