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Ngugi EN, Fonck K, Temmerman M, Kaul R, Keli F, Moses S, Bwayo JJ. "Sexually transmitted infections and vaginal douching in a population of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2001. Abstract
n/a
Fonck K, Kaul R, Keli F, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Moses S, Temmerman M. "Sexually transmitted infections and vaginal douching in a population of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya." Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2001;77:271-275. Abstract
n/a
Nyamai CM, Ngechu WM, Kianji G. SGL 308: Introduction to Geological Field Mapping. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
Nyamai, C.M., Ngecu WM, Kianji G. SGL 308: Introduction to Geological Mapping (Lecture series).; 2010.
Ndetei DM. "Sharing mental health research resources in Africa - the place of all inclusive consortia.". 2008. Abstractsharing_mental_health_research_resources_in_africa-the_place_all_inclusive_consortia.pdf

It is now generally evident that the prevalence rates of various mental disorders in Africa are similar if not identical to those found in the West. Poverty and the relative deficiency of human resources are compounding factors that make it unlikely for replication of psychiatric and mental health services in the same quality and quantity as currently provided in resource-rich countries.This not withstanding, it is not necessary for such services to be imported wholesale into the peculiar socio-cultural Africa context, orfor quality and quantity to be measured in the same way as is done in the resource-rich countries.This means that Africa must find its own home-grown evidence-based policies and practices that allow for service to be available, accessible, affordable and appropriate within the socio-cultural and economic contexts prevailing in Africa.This can only be achieved through contextually designed operationalresearch to determine contextually appropriate solutions to the myriad of mental health issues and challenges facing Africa.

Nyawade SO, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Gitari HI, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker ML. "Short-term dynamics of soil organic matter fractions and microbial activity in smallholder potato-legume intercropping systems.". 2019.
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Siani, A.M., N. J. Muthama and S. Palmieri: Monitoring of total ozone using Brewer spectrophotometers in Italy, Bollettino Geofisico, Anno XV, N.5.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Time Series analysis in Astronomy and Meteorology, University of Padova Italy, September 6-10, 1993. Eastern and South African Journal; 1992. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Siani, A.M., N. J. Muthama, E. Piervitali and S. Palmieri: Solar ultra violet radiation measurements at Rome using Brewer MKIV spectrophotometer no. 67. .". In: Internal publication "Nota interna", Physics department, University of Rome "La Sapienza", January 1994. Eastern and South African Journal; 1994. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Siani, A.M., N. J. Muthama, S. Bruni, S. Giannoccolo, E. Veccia and S. Palmieri: Total ozone time series at Rome: Temporal fluctuations and trend analysis.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Time Series analysis in Astronomy and Meteorology, University of Padova, Italy, September 6-10, 1993. Eastern and South African Journal; 1993. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
Ndurumo MM. "Sign Language Interpreting with Special Reference to Kiswahili.". African Annals of the Deaf. (Online Journal ISSN 1996-0905).; 2008. Abstract
n/a
Nalyanya C, Ndemo B G& JM. "The significance of Faith Based Enterprises in the Dual Roles of Social Good and Economic Development in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2015:143-155.
Nyamongo GB. "The Significance of Inter-religious and Inter-cultural Dialogue: The Case of Kenya.". In: Inter-religious and Inter-cultural Dialoge in a Pluralistic World. Constanta Romania; 2016.
Nzuki H, Karimurio J, Masinde S. "Significant refractive errors in standard eight pupils attending public schools in Kibera Division of Nairobi city." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2006;12:13-14. Abstract

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of significant refractive errors in standard 8 pupils attending public school.
Design: Cross sectional community based study
Setting: Langata Location of Kibera Division, Nairobi Province
Subjects: All (1,253) year 2003 standard 8 pupils in school during the study
Results: The prevalence of significant refractive errors 10.2%, myopia 9.4%, hypermetropia 0.3% and astigmatism 0.5%. Of these, only 11.7 % (15/128) students had spectacles with the correct power.
Conclusions: About 10.2% of class 8 pupils attending public primary schools in Langata need spectacles but only a few have them.
Recommendation: There is need for a school screening programme offering low cost spectacles so that children who may be having learning difficulties due to lack of spectacles can be identified and assisted promptly.

Mamiro P, Nyagaya M, Kimani PM;, Mamiro D, Jumbe T, Macha J, Chove B. "Similarities in functional attributes and nutritional effects of magadi soda and bean debris-ash used incooking African traditional dishes.". 2011. Abstract

Magadi soda and bean debris-ash have been used as condiments for a long time by various ethnic groups in East and Central Africa in cooking traditional dishes. The aim of the study was to investigate whether magadi soda and bean debris-ash had similar effects and functional attributes when added to traditional dishes during cooking. Reason for the addition of the two condiments has not been revealed by researchers. Mineral content, in-vitro bioavailability studies and pH of non-ashed and ashed magadi soda and bean debris were evaluated. The results indicated that high concentrations of sodium ions (30.2%) and potassium ions (64.2%) were observed in magadi soda and bean debris-ash, respectively. In-vitro iron and zinc bioavailability decreased significantly with the addition of magadi soda and bean debris-ash in maize, beans and sorghum. Equally, the cooking time was significantly reduced. The mean pH for both magadi soda (9.66) and bean debris-ash (9.75) were not significantly different indicating that both aqueous solutions had alkaline properties. The similarity in properties especially in mineral profile,alkalinity, decreased cooking time and lowered mineral uptake by magadi soda and bean debris-ash explain similar functionality in foods they are added to during cooking. Despite the similarities observed, communities should be informed of the negative nutritional effects of these condiments so as to diversify their meal patterns accordingly

Ndeda JOH, Rabiu AB, Ngoo LHM, Ouma GO. "Similarities In Periods Of Meteorological Variables Over Kenya And Solar Activity Periods." Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana). 2009;29(3):43-51. AbstractAFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL)

Using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, we determined the spectral characteristics of some meteorological variables over Kenya and identified the prominent periodicities associated with the variables. The meteorological variables studied are the maximum temperature, mini-mum temperature, average temperature, wind speed, precipitation, relative humidity, solar radia-tion intensity, evaporation and sunshine duration. Data from five terrestrial stations, represent-ing the regional climatic zones in Kenya, were employed in the study. The result reveals periods that are associated with solar activity. It is established that solar forcing is very significant over the Kenyan climate. The Sun-Climate relations were influenced at some locations by local ef-fects such as orography and vegetation.

Keywords: periodicity, solar activity, Sun-climate relations

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "A simple atmospheric systems 'risk indicator' model: Application to fog hazards at Nairobi's Jomo Kenyatta International Airport:.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol 11&12 (Nos. 1& 2) 2003. Eastern and South African Journal; 2003. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N. MJ. "A Simple Computer Model for the Prediction of Chemical Shrinkage and Heat of Hydration of Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash (SWFA)-Cement Paste." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;Vol 10(4):597-615.
and N. J. Muthama, C. Oludhe OGO. "A SIMPLE MODEL FOR DETERMINING THE POTENTIAL RISKS OF LIGHTNING STROKES OVER THE CITIES OF NAIROBI AND MOMBASA." Journal of African Meteorological Society. 2003;Vol.6 (No. 2):19-24.Lightning.pdf
Ndegwa R, E Ayieta, Simiyu J, Odero N. "A Simplified Method for Parameter Determination of a Photovoltaic Module using Manufacturer’s data." Africa Journal of Physical Science. 2020;5:1-9.
Ndegwa, R., E Ayieta, Simiyu J, Odero N. "A Simplified Simulation Procedure and Analysis of a Photovoltaic Solar System Using a Single Diode Model." Journal of Power and Energy Engineering. 2020;8(9):65-93.
 Muli, M.N., Onwonga, R.N., Karuku, G.N., Kathumo VM, Nandukule MO. "Simulating Soil Moisture under Different Tillage Practices, Cropping Systems and Organic Fertilizers Using CropSyst Model, in Matuu Division, Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science . 2015;7(2):26-30.
Muthama NJ, Manene MM, Ndetei CJ. "Simulation of Decadal Precipitation over Nairobi in Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

In investigating Kenya rainfall variability and its relationship to other climatic elements it has become imperative to analyze the irregularly distributed rainfall events in time. To meet this requirement, this study used a stepwise regression technique. The study seeks to improve existing rainfall monitoring and prediction in Nairobi. Monthly rainfall data was fitted to several mathematical functions. The best mathematical model which best simulated the March-May (MAM) and October -December (OND) seasonal rainfall over the three stations of analysis was chosen using a stepwise regression technique. The value of R-squared for the best fit was computed to show the percentage of rainfall information that is explained by the variation in the independent (time) variable. From the results obtained, the stepwise regression technique selected the fourth degree polynomial as the best fit for analyzing the March-May (MAM) and October -December (OND) seasonal rainfall data set. Solar cycle period of ten (10) years was employed to get the fourth degree polynomial variables. Hence from the study, it can be deducted that the 4th degree polynomial function can be used to predict the peak and the general pattern of seasonal rainfall over Nairobi, with acceptable error values. This information can be used in the planning and management of water resources over Nairobi. The same information can be extended to other areas.

Muthama NJ, M Moses Manene, Ndetei CJ. "Simulation of decadal precipitation over Nairobi in Kenya." Journal For Science. 2017;13:43-54. AbstractWebsite

: In investigating Kenya rainfall variability and its relationship to other climatic
elements it has become imperative to analyze the irregularly distributed rainfall events in time.
To meet this requirement, this study used a stepwise regression technique. The study seeks to
improve existing rainfall monitoring and prediction in Nairobi. Monthly rainfall data was fitted
to several mathematical functions. The best mathematical model which best simulated the
March-May (MAM) and October -December (OND) seasonal rainfall over the three stations of
analysis was chosen using a stepwise regression technique. The value of R-squared for the best
fit was computed to show the percentage of rainfall information that is explained by the
variation in the independent (time) variable. From the results obtained, the stepwise regression
technique selected the fourth degree polynomial as the best fit for analyzing the March-May
(MAM) and October -December (OND) seasonal rainfall data set. Solar cycle period of ten (10)
years was employed to get the fourth degree polynomial variables. Hence from the study, it can
be deducted that the 4th degree polynomial function can be used to predict the peak and the
general pattern of seasonal rainfall over Nairobi, with acceptable error values. This information

Muthama NJ, Kaume CM, Mutai BK, Ng'ang'a JK. "Simulation of Potential Impact of Air Pollution from the Proposed Coal Mining Sites in Mui Basin, Kitui County." . Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;2(1):60-72.
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. ""Sin: Root Cause of Unfreedom" in E. Kamweru (ed) THE VINEYARD, Nairobi: St. Paul, Vol.8, no3 June 2001.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2001.
D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bowmer I, Fransen L. "Single dose spectinomycin for the treatment of chancroid: a comparison of 2 g versus 4 g.". 1983.
Tyndall M, Agoki E, Ombette J, Slaney LA, D'Costa LJ, Plummer FA, Plourde PJ, Ndinya-Achola JO. "Single-dose cefixime versus single-dose ceftriaxone in the treatment of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection."; 1992. Abstract

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have a significant adverse effect on reproductive and child health worldwide. The control of STDs such as gonorrhea is therefore an absolute priority. Cefixime, an oral third-generation cephalosporin with in vitro activity similar to that of ceftriaxone, may be an effective candidate for the treatment of gonorrhea. The efficacy of a single oral 400-mg dose of cefixime was compared with that of a single intramuscular 250-mg dose of ceftriaxone for the treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae urethritis in 190 men and cervicitis in 46 women in Nairobi, Kenya. A bacteriologic cure was recorded in 100% of 63 evaluatable patients treated with ceftriaxone and 118 (98%) of 121 evaluatable patients treated with cefixime. Cefixime, as a single oral dose, is an effective alternative for the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis in men and cervicitis in women

Bungei JK, Mobegi VA, Nyanjom SG. "Single-nucleotide polymorphism characterization of gametocyte development 1 gene in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Baringo, Uasin Gishu, and Nandi Counties, Kenya." Heliyon. 2020;6:e03453. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Plasmodium falciparum relies on gametocytogenesis to transmit from humans to mosquitoes. Gametocyte development 1 (Pfgdv1) is an upstream activator and epigenetic controller of gametocytogenesis. The emergence of drug resistance is a major public health concern and this requires the development of new strategies that target the transmission of malaria. As a putative drug target, Pfgdv1 has not been characterized to identify its polymorphisms and alleles under selection and how such polymorphisms influence protein structure. METHODS: This study characterized single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in primary sequences (n = 30) of Pfgdv1 gene generated from thirty blood samples collected from patients infected with P. falciparum and secondary sequences (n = 216) retrieved from PlasmoDB. ChromasPro, MUSCLE, Tajima's D statistic, SLAC, and STRUM were used in editing raw sequences, performing multiple sequence alignment (MSA), identifying signatures of selection, detecting codon sites under selection pressure, and determining the effect of SNPs, respectively. RESULTS: MSA of primary and secondary sequences established the existence of five SNPs, consisting of four non-synonymous substitutions (nsSNPs) (p.P217H, p.R398Q, p.H417N, and p.D497E), and a synonymous substitution (p.S514S). The analysis of amino acid changes reveals that p.P217H, p.R398Q, and p.H417N comprise non-conservative changes. Tajima's D statistic showed that these SNPs were under balancing selection, while SLAC analysis identified p.P217H to be under the strongest positive selection. . Further analysis based on thermodynamics indicated that p.P217H has a destabilizing effect, while p.R398Q and p.D497E have stabilizing effects on the protein structure. CONCLUSIONS: The existence of four nsSNPs implies that Pfgdv1 has a minimal diversity in the encoded protein. Selection analysis demonstrates that these nsSNPs are under balancing selection in both local and global populations. However, p.P217H exhibits positive directional selection consistent with previous reports where it showed differentiatial selection of P. falciparum in low and high transmission regions. Therefore, in-silico prediction and experimental determination of protein structure are necessary to evaluate Pfgdv1 as a target candidate for drug design and development.

Njiru FM, Siriba DN. "Site Selection for an Earth Dam in Mbeere North, Embu County—Kenya." Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection. 2018;6(7):113-133.
of Nairobi KD; SAPI(SAPI) U&. Situating Rural Communities in Nairobi Metropolitan Region.; 2011.
Ngaruiya N, Orwa D, Waiganjo P. "Situation Analysis and Technology Value Proposition for Geriatric Care for Philanthropic Social Homes in Kenya.". In: IST-Africa Week Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2019. Abstract

The growth of the graying population all over the world is showing a great need of incorporating ICT to ensure healthy living. Geriatric persons in philanthropic social homes (PSH) in developing countries are not favored in terms of infrastructure, housing, caregiving as well as privacy since they are in a controlled communal environment. These philanthropic homes, commonly known as `Nyumba za Wazee' in Kenya are slowly gaining reputation as more of the elderly are ostracized because of inheritance or even abandonment. The aim of this paper is to bring fourth the status quo of the geriatric persons living in PSH, the challenges they face, which have tremendous ramifications that leads to strong incentives to usage of low cost technology to alleviate the lives of the elderly towards healthy living in their higher ages. The researchers, through the social department and Board of management of these social homes, carried a research for a period of 3 months in two PSHs, in Nairobi County and Kiambu County. Interviews and storytelling were the two data collection techniques used. The findings from these two PSHs, categorized the challenges as; physical, and psychological challenges. This research argues that low affordable technology solutions will curb these challenges to ensure adequate care and provide decent standards of living for the elderly in PSH.

Kimalu PK, Nafula NN, Manda DK, Mwabu G, Kimenyi MS. "A Situational Anal ysis of Poverty in Kenya” Working Paper No. 6." KIPPRA, Nairobi Kenya. 2002.
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Ndumu D;, Wurzinger M;, Baumung R;, Drucker A;, Mwai O;A, Solkner J. "Size versus beauty: Farmers' choices in ranking experiment with African Ankole long-horned cattle."; 2005.
Sabuni ZA, Mbuthia PG, Maingi N, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Michieka JN. "Skin lesions associated with ectoparasitic infestation in indigenous chickens in Eastern province of Kenya." Research Journal of Poultry Sciences. 2013;6(3):53-58.sabuni_et_al._2013-ectopara.lesions-research_journal_of_poultry_science.pdf
Sabuni AZ, Mbuthia PG, Maingi N, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Michieka JN. "Skin lesions associated with ectoparasitic infestation in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province of Kenya. ." Research Journal of Poultry Sciences. 2013;6:53-58.
Mbuthia PG, A. SZ, N. M, N. NP, L. N, C. BL, N. MJ. "Skin lesions associated with ectoparasitic infestations in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province of Kenya. ." Research Journal of Poultry Sciences.. 2013;6(3):53-58.
Lu W, Liu S, Li B, Xie Y, Adhiambo C, Yang Q, Ballard BR, Nakayama KI, Matusik RJ, Chen Z. "SKP2 inactivation suppresses prostate tumorigenesis by mediating JARID1B ubiquitination." Oncotarget. 2015;6(2):771-88. Abstract

Aberrant elevation of JARID1B and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) is frequently observed in many diseases including prostate cancer (PCa), yet the mechanisms on the regulation of JARID1B and H3K4me3 through epigenetic alterations still remain poorly understood. Here we report that Skp2 modulates JARID1B and H3K4me3 levels in vitro in cultured cells and in vivo in mouse models. We demonstrated that Skp2 inactivation decreased H3K4me3 levels, along with a reduction of cell growth, cell migration and malignant transformation of Pten/Trp53 double null MEFs, and further restrained prostate tumorigenesis of Pten/Trp53 mutant mice. Mechanistically, Skp2 decreased the K63-linked ubiquitination of JARID1B by E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6, thus decreasing JARID1B demethylase activity and in turn increasing H3K4me3. In agreement, Skp2 deficiency resulted in an increase of JARID1B ubiquitination and in turn a reduction of H3K4me3, and induced senescence through JARID1B accumulation in nucleoli of PCa cells and prostate tumors of mice. Furthermore, we showed that the elevations of Skp2 and H3K4me3 contributed to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in mice, and were positively correlated in human PCa specimens. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel network of SKP2-JARID1B, and targeting SKP2 and JARID1B may be a potential strategy for PCa control.

Othieno C, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Sleep Disorders."; 2006.
Njeri KM. "Small and Medium manufacturing enterprises formation and development in central Kenya: Entrepreneurship of Plodding along?". In: Small Enterprises:Flexibility and Networking in African Context. Nairobi: Longhorn; 1996.
Muia JMK, Kariuki JN, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Lukibisi LB, Ayako WO, Ngunjiri WV. "Smallholder dairy production in high altitude Nyandarua milk-shed in Kenya: Status, challenges and opportunities.". 2011. Abstract

A stratified sampling method was used to select 156 dairying households from representative Divisions in Nyandarua County. The stratification was based on cattle grazing systems (CGS) and agro-ecological zones (AEZs) across the Divisions. The objectives of the study were to assess status of smallholder dairy cattle production in relationship to CGS and AEZ, major challenges facing smallholder dairy production, and the opportunities for improvement. Data collected included the characteristics of the farm, family, farmer, feeds and feeding, dairy cattle and their performance, milk uses and markets, and the dairy production services. The information on the challenges facing dairy production and the opportunities for improvement was obtained from discussions with livestock extension workers, dairy co-operatives, milk processors, and from secondary sources. The present results indicated that the average farm size was 3.5 Ha and 41, 38, and 44% of the households fed dairy stock with improved fodders, grass hay, and concentrate supplements, respectively. Among the households, about 44, 38 and 32% had access to artificial insemination (AI), extension, and all weather roads services, respectively. Households keeping crosses of the dairy breeds were 59% while the average herd size was 5.3 heads consisting of 40% cows in milk. The average calf live-weight gain was 322g/ day and milk yield per cow was 8.4kg/day. About 65% of the milk was marketed at an average price of 15.00 KES/kg, equivalent to 0.205 US$/kg. As the levels of dairy intensification increased, there were significant increase in milk production per hectare and decrease in calf live-weight gains (P<0.05). On the other hand, as the level of agricultural potential increased, there were significant decreases in milk production and marketed milk per farm (P<0.05). It was concluded that smallholder dairy cattle production was below the potential for Nyandarua County and was influenced by the CGS and AEZs. The major challenges in smallholder dairy production included poor road network and milk marketing, high costs and inaccessibility of dairy production inputs and support services, inappropriate dairy production technologies, and limited value addition of milk.

Muia JMK, Kariuki JN, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Lukibisi LB, Ayako WO, Ngunjiri WV. "Smallholder dairy production in high altitude Nyandarua milk-shed in Kenya: Status, challenges and opportunities.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

A stratified sampling method was used to select 156 dairying households from representative Divisions in Nyandarua County. The stratification was based on cattle grazing systems (CGS) and agro-ecological zones (AEZs) across the Divisions. The objectives of the study were to assess status of smallholder dairy cattle production in relationship to CGS and AEZ, major challenges facing smallholder dairy production, and the opportunities for improvement. Data collected included the characteristics of the farm, family, farmer, feeds and feeding, dairy cattle and their performance, milk uses and markets, and the dairy production services. The information on the challenges facing dairy production and the opportunities for improvement was obtained from discussions with livestock extension workers, dairy co-operatives, milk processors, and from secondary sources. The present results indicated that the average farm size was 3.5 Ha and 41, 38, and 44% of the households fed dairy stock with improved fodders, grass hay, and concentrate supplements, respectively. Among the households, about 44, 38 and 32% had access to artificial insemination (AI), extension, and all weather roads services, respectively. Households keeping crosses of the dairy breeds were 59% while the average herd size was 5.3 heads consisting of 40% cows in milk. The average calf live-weight gain was 322g/ day and milk yield per cow was 8.4kg/day. About 65% of the milk was marketed at an average price of 15.00 KES/kg, equivalent to 0.205 US$/kg. As the levels of dairy intensification increased, there were significant increase in milk production per hectare and decrease in calf live-weight gains (P<0.05). On the other hand, as the level of agricultural potential increased, there were significant decreases in milk production and marketed milk per farm (P<0.05). It was concluded that smallholder dairy cattle production was below the potential for Nyandarua County and was influenced by the CGS and AEZs. The major challenges in smallholder dairy production included poor road network and milk marketing, high costs and inaccessibility of dairy production inputs and support services, inappropriate dairy production technologies, and limited value addition of milk.

Okello, J.J., Otieno, R.O, Nzuma, M.J., Kidoido, M., Tanga, C.M. "Smallholder Farmers Willingness to Pay for Commercial Insect Based Chicken Feed in Kenya. Farmers’ Perceptions of Commercial Insect-Based Feed for Sustainable Livestock Production in Kenya." International Food and Agribusiness Management Association Review. 2022:DOI: 10.22434/IFAMR2022.0047.
Ndathi AJN, Nyangito, Moses M, Musimba NKR. "Smallholder farmers' feed material conseryation strategies in the tropical drylands of South-eastern Kenya.". 2012. Abstractabstract11.pdfWebsite

Availability of feed is the major constraint to livestock production in the drylands of southeastern Kenya. ln an effort to address this problem, this study was carried out to identify and rank feed material conservation strategies being used by the Kamba agropastoralists inhabiting this region. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to household heads of households selected using agro-ecological zones and systematic sampling using the road transect method. Ranking was done using the pairwise method white data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Feed conservation strategies identified being used in the study area were leaving the feed standing in the field, harvesting and placing the feed on tree branches or putting in an open wooden rack, roofed wooden rack or a granary. The granary was ranked the most effective structures followed by the tree branches, the roofed wooden racks and tastly the open wooden racks. However, a granary could only store small amounts of feed material hence the roofed wooden rack was more popular.

Ndathi AJN, Nyangito MM, Musimba NKR, Mitaru BN. "Smallholder farmers’ feed material conservation strategies in the tropical dry-lands of South-eastern Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2012;24 ((6)). Abstract

Availability of feed is the major constraint to livestock production in the drylands of southeastern Kenya. In an effort to address this problem, this study was carried out to identify and rank feed material conservation strategies being used by the Kamba agro-pastoralists inhabiting this region. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to household heads of households selected using agro-ecological zones and systematic sampling using the road transect method. Ranking was done using the pairwise method while data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences.

Feed conservation strategies identified being used in the study area were leaving the feed standing in the field, harvesting and placing the feed on tree branches or putting in an open wooden rack, roofed wooden rack or a granary. The granary was ranked the most effective structures followed by the tree branches, the roofed wooden racks and lastly the open wooden racks. However, a granary could only store small amounts of feed material hence the roofed wooden rack was more popular.

Key words: Dry season, feed conservation, structures, ranking

Gachahi MW, Ngaruiya B, Kimani GN. "SMASSE trained teacher characteristics and primary school pupil achievement in mathematics and science." IIJARER. 2014;2(7)(vol 2(7)2360-7866):152-159.
Maitai CK, Talalaj S, Talalaj D, Njoroge D. "Smooth muscle stimulating substances in the stinging nettle tree Obetia pinnatifida." Toxicon. 1981;19(1):186-8.
Dunstan Kaburu, Nderitu JH, John Kamanu, Chemining’wa G. Snap bean Integrated Crop Management booklet. UON; 2012.snap_bean_integrated_crop_management_booklet.doc
Kimani VN, Mitoko G, McDermott B;, Grace D, Ambia J, Kiragu MW, Njehu AN, Sinja J, Monda JG, Kang’ethe EK. "Social and gender determinants of risk of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the social and gender determinants of the risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium fromurban dairying in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Focus group discussions were held in six locations to obtain qualitative information on risk of exposure. A repeated cross-sectional descriptive study included participatory assessment and household questionnaires (300 randomly selected urban dairy farming households and 100 non-dairying neighbours). One hundred dairy households randomly selected from the 300 dairy households participated in an additional economic survey along with 40 neighbouring non-dairy households. We found that exposure to Cryptosporidium was influenced by gender, age and role in the household. Farm workers and people aged 50 to 65 years had most contact with cattle, and women had greater contact with raw milk. However, children had relatively higher consumption of raw milk than other age groups. Adult women had more daily contact with cattle faeces than adult men, and older women had more contact than older men. Employees had greater contact with cattle than other groups and cattle faeces, and most (77 %) were male. Women took more care of sick people and were more at risk from exposure by this route. Poverty did not affect the level of exposure to cattle but did decrease consumption of milk. There was no significant difference between men and women as regards levels of knowledge on symptoms of cryptosporidiosis infections or other zoonotic diseases associated with dairy farming. Awareness of cryptosporidiosis and its transmission increased significantly with rising levels of education. Members of nondairy households and children under the age of 12 years had significantly higher odds of reporting diarrhoea: gender, season and contact with cattle or cattle dung were not significantly linked with diarrhoea. In conclusion, social and gender factors are important determinants of exposure to zoonotic disease in Nairobi.

Kimani VN, Mitoko G, McDermott B, Grace D, Ambia J, Kiragu MW, Njehu AN, Sinja J. "Social and gender determinants of risk of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

The aim of the study was to investigate the social and gender determinants of the risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium fromurban dairying in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Focus group discussions were held in six locations to obtain qualitative information on risk of exposure. A repeated cross-sectional descriptive study included participatory assessment and household questionnaires (300 randomly selected urban dairy farming households and 100 non-dairying neighbours). One hundred dairy households randomly selected from the 300 dairy households participated in an additional economic survey along with 40 neighbouring non-dairy households. We found that exposure to Cryptosporidium was influenced by gender, age and role in the household. Farm workers and people aged 50 to 65 years had most contact with cattle, and women had greater contact with raw milk. However, children had relatively higher consumption of raw milk than other age groups. Adult women had more daily contact with cattle faeces than adult men, and older women had more contact than older men. Employees had greater contact with cattle than other groups and cattle faeces, and most (77 %) were male. Women took more care of sick people and were more at risk from exposure by this route. Poverty did not affect the level of exposure to cattle but did decrease consumption of milk. There was no significant difference between men and women as regards levels of knowledge on symptoms of cryptosporidiosis infections or other zoonotic diseases associated with dairy farming. Awareness of cryptosporidiosis and its transmission increased significantly with rising levels of education. Members of nondairy households and children under the age of 12 years had significantly higher odds of reporting diarrhoea: gender, season and contact with cattle or cattle dung were not significantly linked with diarrhoea. In conclusion, social and gender factors are important determinants of exposure to zoonotic disease in Nairobi.

Nyamongo IK. "Social Attitudes and Family Planning in Rural Kenya." World Health Forum. 1993;Vol. 12(1):75-76.
Nyangena W, T.Sterner. "Social Capital and rural institutions in Kenya - Is Machakos unique." Chinese Business Review. 2009;8(10):1-8.
Muia D, Kamau A, Paul Kamau, Baiya H, Ndung'u J. "Social Capital as a Coping Mechanism for Women Small Scale Traders in the Informal Economy in Nairobi, Kenya ." Journal of Social Welfare and Human Rights . 2018;6(1):13-20.
Njeri KM, Meleckidzedeck K. Social Capital, Micro and Small Enterprises and Poverty Alleviation.. Addis Ababa: OSSREA; 2005.
Ronald A, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ngugi EN, Moses S, Brunham R, Plummer FA. "Social epidemiology in Africa: slowing the heterosexual transmission of AIDS.". 1991. Abstract

Analyzing why the rate of transmission of AIDS varies widely in Africa is the basis for designing strategies for intervention. Promiscuity, i.e. high rates of sex partner change, is not the only reason for rapid transmission, but it is a prerequisite for the explosive spread seen in certain groups. High frequency groups include mobile single men and prostitutes. Research and strategies must focus on sex practices, concepts of personal vulnerability, and possibility of behavioral change. The sexually transmitted diseases that are thought to increase susceptibility to HIV, i.e., genital ulcer diseases, can be controlled with appropriate strategies. Male circumcision is associated with lower HIV seroprevalence. Thus strategies must be concentrate on sustained prevention among high STD transmitters, providing early, effective care for STDs, increasing economic alternatives for women, and offering voluntary circumcision where culturally acceptable.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Social Health Insurance Scheme for all Kenyans: Opportunities and sustainability potential. Enos Njeru, Robert Arasa & Mary N. Nguli. 49p. ISBN 9966-948-18-x. (ttp://www.ipar.or.ke/dp60dp.pdf).". In: Discussion Paper No. DP060/2004. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Ngugi J, Kimotho S, Muturi S. "Social Media Use By The Deaf In Business At Nairobi, Kenya." AJBUMA JOURNAL. 2018;4(3). Abstractdeaf_use_of_social_media_in_21st_century_business.pdfWebsite

Social media for business is the new frontier for deaf Kenyans, due to the information gap they often experience as they navigate a largely speaking and hearing world. This case studyon the use of social media platforms for business by the deaf in Nairobi includes a special emphasis on the convergence of their natural visual language, sign language with video technology. The research is important to boost socio economic livelihoods of deaf Kenyans for equality in development as well as integrate the Kenyan business industry with the innovation and creativity introduced by the signing „genre‟ of business communication. The results of the study indicate that the dialectical gap between the deaf and hearing is significantly reduced as sign language users can informally interact and exchange ideas, information and updates on business. In addition, the general boost in vocabulary originating from deaf people‟ interest in on-line communication in Kenya is highlighted. It is recommended that the recent immersion of the Kenyan deaf community in the use of smartphones and dissemination of instant messaging needs to be enhanced, as it may yield answers to societal inclusion, while also highlighting deaf cultural pride proponents of the deaf business people‟ creativity.
KeyWords:Deaf, social media, business, Kenya

Mbugua, M., Nzuma, M.J., Muange, J. "Social networks and Ex-post risk management among smallholder farmers in Kenya." Development Studies Research. 2019;6(1):30-39.
Mbugua M, Nzuma JM, Muange E, Kunyanga C. "Social Networks and Household Food Consumption Smoothing in the Presence of Idiosyncratic Shocks: Insights from Rural Kenya." Development in Practice. 2020;DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2020.1715344.
Mbugua M, Nzuma J, Muange E, Kunyanga C. "Social networks and household food consumption smoothing in the presence of idiosyncratic shocks: insights from rural Kenya." Development in Practice. 2020;30(3):383-393.
Mwabu GM;, Nganda BM;, Masai WS;, Gakuru ON;, Kirimi JB. "Social Provisioning in Kenya: Towards a Pluralistic System .". 2000.Website
Mutiso SK, Obara DA, Muchunga EK, Nyangena W, Chege AM, Munene FM. "Socio - Economic and Land Use Indicators.". In: National Land Degradation Assessment and Mapping in Kenya.; 1997.
Businge MS, Maina I, Ayiemba E, M.Odongo, Maingi P, Nderitu P, Ngweyo S. "Socio- Economic Status, Poverty, Gender and Environment.". In: Supporting the Development of Vision 2030. Malta: Progress Press; 2012.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Socio-Cultural Analysis of Childhood Malnutrition in Embu District". In Social Behaviour and Health Monograph No. 2, March,1996. Co-authored with Dr. W.M. Macharia. .". In: University of Nairobi: IFCP. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Nagata JM, Fiorella KJ, Young SL, Otieno OD, Kapule I, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. "Socio-demographic and health associations with body mass index at the time of enrollment in HIV care in Nyanza Province, Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Low body mass index (BMI) at the time of enrollment into HIV care has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality independent of CD4 count. This study investigated socio-demographic associations with underweight (BMI < 18.5) among adults in Nyanza Province, Kenya, upon enrollment into HIV care. BMI, socio-demographic, and health data from a cross-sectional sample of 8254 women and 3533 men were gathered upon enrollment in the Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES) program in Nyanza Province, Kenya, between January 2005 and March 2010. Overall, 27.4% of adults were underweight upon enrollment in HIV care. Among each women [W] and men [M], being underweight was associated with younger age (W: adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.85-4.55; M: AOR, 5.87; 95% CI, 2.80-12.32 for those aged 15-19 compared to ≥50 years old), less education (W: AOR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.83-4.65; M: AOR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.04-2.31 for primary education compared to some college/university), low CD4 count (W: AOR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.50-3.03; M: AOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.76-2.70 for 0-250 compared to ≥750 cells/mm3), and poor self-reported health status (W: AOR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.89-3.33; M: AOR, 9.78; 95% CI, 1.26-75.73 for poor compared to excellent). Among all enrollees to HIV care, low BMI was associated with male gender, lower educational attainment, younger age, and poor self-reported health. HIV care and treatment programs should consider using socio-demographic and health risk factors associated with low BMI to target and recruit patients with the goal of preventing late enrollment into care.

Kagia R, Oluka M, Okalebo F, Njoroge A. "Socio-demographic and treatment-related variables associated with CD4 cell counts in Kenyan HIV patients on second-line regimens." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(3):142-148.
Kagia R, Oluka M, Okalebo F, Njoroge A. "Socio-demographic and treatment-related variables associated with CD4 cell counts in Kenyan HIV patients on second-line regimens." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(3):142-148.
Kagia R, Oluka M, Okalebo F, Njoroge A. "Socio-demographic and treatment-related variables associated with CD4 cell counts in Kenyan HIV patients on second-line regimens." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(3):142-148.
Kagia R, Oluka M, Okalebo F, Njoroge A. "Socio-demographic and treatment-related variables associated with CD4 cell counts in Kenyan HIV patients on second-line regimens." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(3):142-148.
Kagia R, Oluka M, Okalebo F, Njoroge A. "Socio-demographic and treatment-related variables associated with CD4 cell counts in Kenyan HIV patients on second-line regimens." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(3):142-148.
Wamwana EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW. "Socio-demographic characteristics of patients admitted with gynaecological emergency conditions at the provincial general hospital, Kakamega, Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

To determine the magnitude of gynaecological emergencies and the socio demographic characteristics of patients admitted at Provincial General Hospital Kakamega (PGHK). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Provincial General Hospital Kakamega, the referral hospital for Western Province, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Four hundred patients admitted at the gynaecological wards during the period 1st January 2002 to 31st December 2002. RESULTS: In this study 80% of gynaecological patients admitted at PGH Kakamega were of an emergency nature with 45% being teenagers. The mean age was 17 +/- 3 (mean +/- SD). The majority had primary level of education or below (69%), unemployed (87%) and were rural residents (71%). Patients with abortion formed about 43% of the study group while those with inflammatory disease, pelvic abscess and ectopic pregnancy formed about 24%, 10% and 8% respectively. CONCLUSION: Most gynaecological admissions in PGH Kakamega are of acute nature, with abortion being the most common diagnosis. Hence, trained staff, equipment, supplies and drugs for management of acute gynaecological conditions should be available in hospitals in Western Kenya.

Wamwana EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW. "Socio-demographic characteristics of patients admitted with gynaecological emergency conditions at the provincial general hospital, Kakamega, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

To determine the magnitude of gynaecological emergencies and the socio demographic characteristics of patients admitted at Provincial General Hospital Kakamega (PGHK). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Provincial General Hospital Kakamega, the referral hospital for Western Province, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Four hundred patients admitted at the gynaecological wards during the period 1st January 2002 to 31st December 2002. RESULTS: In this study 80% of gynaecological patients admitted at PGH Kakamega were of an emergency nature with 45% being teenagers. The mean age was 17 +/- 3 (mean +/- SD). The majority had primary level of education or below (69%), unemployed (87%) and were rural residents (71%). Patients with abortion formed about 43% of the study group while those with inflammatory disease, pelvic abscess and ectopic pregnancy formed about 24%, 10% and 8% respectively. CONCLUSION: Most gynaecological admissions in PGH Kakamega are of acute nature, with abortion being the most common diagnosis. Hence, trained staff, equipment, supplies and drugs for management of acute gynaecological conditions should be available in hospitals in Western Kenya.

Wamwana EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW. "Socio-demographic characteristics of patients admitted with gynaecological emergency conditions at the provincial general hospital, Kakamega, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2006;83(12):659-65. Abstract

To determine the magnitude of gynaecological emergencies and the socio demographic characteristics of patients admitted at Provincial General Hospital Kakamega (PGHK).

M G, D A, M.O R, N.O S, M.K C. "Socio-ecological influences of attitudes toward disability among Kenyan undergraduate students." Journal of Psychology in Africa. 2015;25(3):216-223.
Farah KO, Nyariki DM, Noor AA;, Ngugi RK, Musimba1 NK. "The Socio-economic and Ecological Impacts of Small-scale Irrigation Schemes on Pastoralists and Drylands in Northern Kenya."; 2001. Abstract

ABSTRACT Northern Kenya, as in other sub-Saharan arid and semi-arid regions, has faced challenges related to the prevailing socio-economy, ecology and polity in the last quarter of last century. In some of these areas, pastoralists have been settled on the peri-urban fringes of towns and have been exposed to flood-retreat cultivation; a culture that has been traditionally practised by the riverine Bantu communities. From the late 1960s these pastoralists started irrigation agriculture with assistance from the government and nongovernmental organisations. The outcome has been the mushrooming of irrigation schemes along rivers. This paper looks at the development of small-scale irrigation schemes and their sustainability. It also analyses their socio-economic and ecological effects on pastoral households and the drylands, taking Garissa District as a case. Interviews, a questionnaire and existing literature on irrigation schemes were used to collect data. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the socio-economic effects of irrigation on the pastoral households. The results show that irrigation farming plays a supplementary role in pastoral economies, takes away child labour from pastoralism and reduces pastoral mobility. The implication is that irrigation farming in arid areas does not seem to offer a long-term sustainable economic livelihood.

Dimba E, Aden A, Ndolo U, Chindia ML. "Socio-Economic effects of Khat (Catha edulis) chewing.". 2006. Abstract
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Aden A, Dimba EAO, Ndolo UM, Chindia ML. "Socio-economic effects of khat chewing in north eastern Kenya." East African medical journal. 2006;83:69. Abstract
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NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Socio-economic Implications of Climate Change and Sea Level Rise for the Tourist and Hotel Industry.".". In: Nairobi: UNEP/IGBP. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Socio-economic Implications of Climate Change and Sea Level Rise for the Tourist and Hotel Industry.".". In: Nairobi: UNEP/IGBP. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Juma GS, Mutai BK, Ngaina JN. "Socio-Economic Valuation of Information for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation: A Case of Farmers’ Responses in Kakamega County ." BEST: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences. 2015;3(12):89-104.
Terer T, Nderitu GG, Gichuki NN. "Socio-economic values and traditional strategies of managing wetland resources in lower tana River, Kenya." Hydrobiologica. 2004;(527):3-14.
Mutai BK, Muthama NJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Mwanthi MA, Manene MM. "Socioeconomic and Environmental Risk Factors for Respiratory Infections Prevalence in Kenya: An Observational Study (In Press)." Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2017.
Nyabuga G. "The Sociological Impact of New Media.". In: 21st Century Media: New Frontiers, New Barriers. Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.
Ngesu L. Sociology of Education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2009.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "The Sociology of Private Tuition. Indeje Wanyama & Enos H.N. Njeru, 41p. ISBN 9966-948-87-2.". In: Discussion Paper No.037/2003. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Sodium supplementation in very low birth weight infants fed on their own mothers milk I: Effects on sodium homeostasis. East Afr Med J . 1992 Oct; 69 ( 10 ): 591-5 . PMID: 1473517 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Ayisi RK, Mbiti MJ, Musoke RN, Orinda DA.". In: East Afr Med J . 1992 Oct; 69 ( 10 ): 591-5 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium supplementation was done on 41 very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with 25 other infants of similar weight status as controls. All the infants were fed on their own mothers milk whose sodium and potassium content was determined. Serum and urinary sodium, potassium and creatinine levels were determined in both groups during the study period of six weeks. Determination of weight gain, length gain and head circumference gain showed that these anthropometric parameters are significantly increased by sodium supplementation while sodium and potassium concentrations were not significantly affected. There were no cases of either hypernatraemia or hyponatraemia though renal excretion of sodium was very high in the supplemented group. Conclusions drawn from the study are that very little weight gain could have been due to fluid retention and that though sodium supplementation does not affect sodium profiles in these infants it has significant effect on their growth rate which may be due to its indirect/direct association with bone and protein metabolism. PMID: 1473517 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Orata D, Njenga H, Mukabi M, Yusuf A. "Sodium Thiosulphate, a Novel Electrocatalyst in the Electro-synthesis of Electronically Conducting Polymer-Polythiophene." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IORS-JAC). 2014;7(5 Ver. III). Abstract

Description
In this paper we report on the electrosynthesis of polythiophene from aqueous media with sulphuric acid as the supporting electrolyte. The redox features of polythiophene on a bare carbon graphite working electrode and on a clay montmorillonite host matrix is also reported. Co-polymerisation of polythiophene and polyaniline from an electrolyte media containing both aniline and thiophene monomers reveal that, the redox centres of the two polymers are independent, hence suggesting the formation of a bilayer, even though no charge rectification is observed. The role of sodium thiosulphate as a novel electrocatalyst which has led to a tremendous improvement in the polythiophene faradaic/redox process is also reported.

Odhiambo JA, Norton U, Omondi EC, Ashilenje D, Norton JB. "Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization and crop parameters in typical maize-bean intercropping in western Kenya." Inter J of Plant and Soil Sci. 2014;5:127-142.
P Gottesfeld, Were FH, Adogame L, Gharbid S, D. San, Nota MM, Kuepouo G. "Soil Contamination from Lead Battery Manufacturing and Recycling in Seven African Countries." Environmental Research. 2018;161:609-614. Abstract

Lead battery recycling is a growing hazardous industry throughout Africa. We investigated potential
soil con-
tamination inside and outside formal sector recycling plants in seven countries. We collected 118
soil samples at 15 recycling plants and one battery manufacturing site and analyzed them for total
lead. Lead levels in soils ranged from < 40–140,000 mg/kg. Overall mean lead concentrations were
~23,200 mg/kg but, average lead levels were 22-fold greater for soil samples from inside plant
sites than from those collected outside these facilities. Arithmetic mean lead concentrations in
soil samples from communities surrounding these plants were
~2600 mg/kg. As the lead battery industry in Africa continues to expand, it is expected that the
number and size of lead battery recycling plants will grow to meet the forecasted demand. There is
an immediate need to address ongoing exposures in surrounding communities, emissions from this
industry and to regulate site closure financing procedures to ensure that we do not leave behind a
legacy of lead contamination that will impact
millions in communities throughout Africa.

Kinyanjui SM;, Mureithi JG, Saha HM, Lynam J, Mugah JO, Ndun'gu J, Maina FJ. "Soil fertility management handbook for extension staff and farmers in Kenya.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

This manual was developed by the Legume Research Network Project of the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute to provide basic, simple information about soils and their management in order to maintain or improve their fertility. The subjects addressed by the manual are: composition and formation of soils, soil fertility, inorganic ferlitilizers, organic manures, soil erosion and conservation, and cropping systems

Karanja NK, Ayuke FO, Muya EM, Musombi BK, Nyamasyo GHN. "Soil macrofauna community structure across land use systems of Taita, Kenya." Journal of Tropical & Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2009;11(2):385-396. Abstract

This paper presents data on diversity and abundance of soil macrofauna in various land use systems in Taita (natural forest, plantation forest, fallow, coffee, napier, and maize, Horticulture. Each was sampled for
macrofauna using three sampling methods (monolith, transect and pitfall trapping). Seventy eight (78)
genera/species were recorded across the different land use systems of Taita. Rényi diversity profile indicated
no significant differences in species richness across land use systems as reflected by the very close
diversity profiles at α = 0. However, the two diversity indices (Shannon index: α = 1 and Simpson’s index: α
= 2) indicated that plantation forest was the most diverse of the land use systems, while fallow and maize were least diverse. Rényi evenness profile indicated that the plantation forest was most even in terms of species distribution which was least in maize. However because some of the profiles for some land
use systems cross each other, they could not be ranked. The major macrofauna groups recorded in the Taita
benchmark site included: Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Coleoptera, Oligochaeta and Orthoptera and Arenae.
Generally Hymenoptera were the most abundant of the macrofauna groups constituting about 36% of the total followed by Isoptera (22%), Oligochaeta (16%), Coleoptera (10%). The other macrofauna (Arenae,
Diplopoda, Diptera, Orthoptera, Blattidae, Isopoda, Chilopoda- Geopholomorpha, Hemiptera, Opiliones,Chiopoda-Scolopendromorpha, Lepidoptera, Dermaptera, Phasmidae, Blattelidae and Mantodea
each constituted <10% of the total macrofauna recorded. Hymenoptera was ranked 1st as it had the
highest total abundance (59,440 individuals m-2), while Mantodea was ranked 18th and had the lowest total
abundance (6 individuals m-2). Generally macrofauna density was higher in arable systems than forests,
although the differences were not always significant. Except for Chilopoda-Geopholomorpha, Chilopoda-
Scolopendromorpha and Isopoda, all the other macroafauna groups were not significantly different
across land use systems. The three groups (Chilopoda-Geopholomorpha, Chilopoda- Scolopendromorpha and Isopoda) were significantly highest in the forests than in all the other land use systems. These variation
appear to be associated with management practices that consequently results in the destruction of nesting
habitats, modification of soil microclimate within these habitats and removal of substrate, low diversity
and availability of food sources for the associated macrofauna groups. The significant correlations between some soil macrofauna groups with selected soil chemical properties too show that, soil chemical characteristics may indirectly play a role in influencing the density, distribution and structure of macrofauna
communities. This indicates the potential of using these fauna groups as bio-indicators of soil productivity.

Key words: Macrofauna; community structure; diversity; abundance; land use systems.

N.K. Karanja, F.O. Ayuke, E.M. Mua, Musombi BK, Nyamasyo GHN. "Soil Macrofauna community structure across land-use systems of Taita, Kenya, ." Tropical and Sub-tropical Agroecosystems. . 2009:385-396.
Otengi SBB, Stigter CJ, Ng'anga JK, Liniger H. "Soil moisture and its consequences under different management in a six year old hedged agroforestry demonstration plot in semi-arid Kenya, for two successive contrasting seasons.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

Hedged agroforestry (AF) demonstration plots with maize/bean intercrops were studied at Matanya in Laikipia district, Kenya, between 1991 and 1995 inclusive, to understand crop yield behaviour due to selected soil moisture conservation methods applicable in semi-arid areas. The treatments were: Grevillea robusta trees root pruned, compared to unpruned, both in combination with (1) minimum tillage and mulching with 3t/ha maize stalks harvested from the plots with additional stalks collected from the nearby farms, and (2) the locally applied method of deep tillage practiced by the immigrants from wetter regions, acting as the control. Results showed that: (i) plots with root pruned Grevillea robusta trees that were mulched and minimum tilled had most soil moisture available in the shallower layers, during the wettest and the driest season on which this paper is based; (ii) the variation of soil moisture with distance from the Grevillea robusta trees showed patterns that were quite similar for plots with root pruned trees in the dry and the wet season; (iii) beans had greater seed yields and maize had more (stover) biomass and (only in the wettest season) grain in plots with pruned trees, minimum tilled and mulched, than in other AF plots. In the wettest season this resulted in identical maize yields but lower bean seed yields compared to those in the mulched and sometimes also the local control plots without trees. In the driest season bean yields remained the same but maize biomass yields improved above the control yields for the most successful agroforestry intervention applied; (iv) competition between the six year old Grevillea robusta trees and the crops was indirectly confirmed to be stronger than in earlier experiments in the same plots. This way the agroforestry demonstration plots were very successful in showing the consequences of the ageing agroforestry system, where the soil moisture conservation measures of pruning and mulching kept their effects. Statistical analysis only weakly confirmed the positive effect of root pruning on reducing competition for soil moisture between crops and trees that were very clearly shown to exist by the physical error analysis

Otengi SBB, Stigter CJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Liniger H. "Soil moisture and maize-bean yields under different management in a six years old hedged Agroforestry system in Semi-Arid Laikipia, Kenya, for two contrasting seasons.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

Hedged agroforestry (AF) demonstration plots with maize/bean intercrops were studied at Matanya in Laikipia district, Kenya, between 1991 and 1995 inclusive, to understand crop yield behaviour due to selected soil moisture conservation methods applicable in semi-arid areas. The treatments were: Grevillea robusta trees root pruned, compared to unpruned, both in combination with (1) minimum tillage and mulching with 3t/ha maize stalks harvested from the plots with additional stalks collected from the nearby farms, and (2) the locally applied method of deep tillage practiced by the immigrants from wetter regions, acting as the control. Results showed that: (i) plots with root pruned Grevillea robusta trees that were mulched and minimum tilled had most soil moisture available in the shallower layers, during the wettest and the driest season on which this paper is based; (ii) the variation of soil moisture with distance from the Grevillea robusta trees showed patterns that were quite similar for plots with root pruned trees in the dry and the wet season; (iii) beans had greater seed yields and maize had more (stover) biomass and (only in the wettest season) grain in plots with pruned trees, minimum tilled and mulched, than in other AF plots. In the wettest season this resulted in identical maize yields but lower bean seed yields compared to those in the mulched and sometimes also the local control plots without trees. In the driest season bean yields remained the same but maize biomass yields improved above the control yields for the most successful agroforestry intervention applied; (iv) competition between the six year old Grevillea robusta trees and the crops was indirectly confirmed to be stronger than in earlier experiments in the same plots. This way the agroforestry demonstration plots were very successful in showing the consequences of the ageing agroforestry system, where the soil moisture conservation measures of pruning and mulching kept their effects. Statistical analysis only weakly confirmed the positive effect of root pruning on reducing competition for soil moisture between crops and trees that were very clearly shown to exist by the physical error analysis.

M.Ichami S, J.Stoorvogel KDSJ, Hoffland E, N.Karuku G, J.Stoorvogel J. "Soil spatial variation to guide the development of fertilizer use recommendations for smallholder farms in western Kenya." Geoderma Regional. 2020;22.
Shisia K. S1*, Ngure V 4, Oduor F. D. 0.3, Jumba I.O.3, Nyambaka H.2, Murungi J.2. "Soil-plant composition in relation to mineral requirements for grazing cattle in Uasin Gishu district." Journal of Technology & Socio - Economic Development. 2011;Volume 1 No.1(September 2011 Issue ):126. Abstract

Livestock industry is one of the major contributors to the country's GDP and provides one third of the total available food in the country. Mineral deficiencies and imbalances in soils and forages can be a challenge in relation to production in grazing cattle in developing countries. A number of factors influence the availability of such minerals in terms of proper growth and development of cattle. The study was done in selected parts of Uasin Gishu and revealed severe nutritional deficiencies in soils and forages. The study also revealed a number of factors that influenced mineral concentration in the region. The study has suggested recommendations to help identify and alleviate any constraints on animal health and production.
Key words Livestock industry, mineral deficiencies, soils, animal health and production

Shisia KS, Murungi J, Nyambaka H, Jumba IO, Oduor FDO, Ngure V. "Soil-Plant composition in relation to mineral requirements for grazing cattle in Uasin Gishu District." Journal of Technology & Socio-Econmic Development. 2011;1(1).
Alexandra Hiscox, Nicolas Maire, Ibrahim Kiche, Mariabeth Silkey, Tobias Homan, Prisca Oria, Collins Mweresa, Bruno Otieno, Margaret Ayugi, Teun Bousema, Patrick Sawa, Jane Alaii, Thomas Smith, Cees Leeuwis, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Takken W. "The SolarMal Project: innovative mosquito trapping technology for malaria control." Malaria Journal. 2012;11(1):O45 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-S1-O45.
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. "Sole haemorrhage is the most diagnostic sign of subclinical and chronic laminitis in cattle.". 2006.
Ng’ang’a TM, Wachira PM, Kimenju JW, Wango TJ, Matheri JN. "Solid Waste Dumping Site Selection Using GIS and Remote Sensing for Kajiado County, Kenya. ." Journal of Earth Science and Engineering. 2014;4(2014): 693-702.
Njoroge BNK, Gitau AN, Gakungu NK, Kimani MW. "Solid Waste Management in Kenya: A case study of Public Technical Institution." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2012;Vol. 5( No. 3 (2012) ):127-138.gakungu_paper.pdf
Gakungu NK, N GA, K NBN, W. KM. "Solid waste management in Kenya: A case study of public technical training institutions." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2012;Vol. 5 (No. 3 (2012)):127-138.
Gakungu NK, N. GA, K.; NBN, W. KM. "Solid waste management in Kenya: A case study of public technical training institutions." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2012;5(No. 3 (2012)):127-138.
Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt BM, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis of Arginine-vasopressin With Amide Side chain of Asparagine Protected With 1-Tetralinyl Group." Journal of Chemistry & Materials Research. 2014;6(4):60-65.
Yusuf AO, Gitu PM, Bhatt BM, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis of Arginine-vasopressin With Amide Side chain of Asparagine Protected With 1-Tetralinyl Group." Journal of Chemistry & Materials Research. 2014;6(4):60-65.cmr_spps_arg_vaso.pdf
Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis of Arginine-vasopressin with Amide Side-chain of Asparagine Protected with 1-Tetralinyl Group." Chemistry and Materials Research. 2014;6(4):60.scan0010.pdf
Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis of Arginine-vasopressin with Amide Side-chain of Asparagine Protected with 1-Tetralinyl Group." Chemistry and Materials Research. 2014;6(4). AbstractChemistry and Materials Research

Description
Arginine-vasopressin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc-strategy. Benzyl group was used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl, tetralinyl and tosyl groups were used in the protection of glutamine, asparagine and arginine side-chains respectively. TFMSATFA-thioanisole-1, 2-ethanedithiol (2: 20: 2: 1 v/v) was used to cleave the peptide from the resin under different conditions to obtain arginine-vasopressin in a one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40 C for two hours gave argininevasopressin quantitatively (77% yield)

Notohara K, Hamazaki S, Tsukayama C, Nakamoto S, Kawabata K, Mizobuchi K, Sakamoto K, Okada S. "Solid-pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: immunohistochemical localization of neuroendocrine markers and {CD}10." The American journal of surgical pathology. 2000;24:1361-1371. AbstractWebsite
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Farah KO, Nyariki DM, Ngugi RK, Noor IM, Guliye AY. "The Somali and the camel: Ecology, management and economics."; 2004.
Farah KO, Nyariki DM, Noor IM, Guliye AY. "The Somali and the Camel: Ecology, Management and Economics.". 2004. Abstractabstract7.pdfWebsite

The Somali are one of the multi-state communities of Eastern Africa. Somalia is their main state, but they also occupy a large part of Djibuoti, northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia rangelands, loosely referred to as arid and semiarid lands (ASAL). Unpredictable rainfall, long periods of drought, limited water, and inadequate knowledge and technology of water resource management characterize the ASAL. There is also rapid population growth, coupled with low or declining real incomes, low nutritional levels, serious environmental degradation, and the externalities of modernization and economic development (Darkoh, 1996). Somali pastoralists are a camel community mainly because of the dry and harsh environment they live in; pastoralists, by definition, being those who primarily derive their living from the management of livestock on rangelands (Prior, 1994). There is no other community in the world where the camel plays such a pivotal role in the local economy and culture as in the Somali community. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 1979) estimates, there are approximately 15 million dromedary camels in the world, of which 65% are found in the northeast African states of Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Kenya. The Somali community (in Kenya, Somalia and Ethiopia) has the largest population and highest density of camels in the world, and to the same extent this animal also pervades the Somali culture. Historically, the geographical area that is now Somalia may have been a focal point in the introduction and dispersal of the domesticated dromedary (Abokor, 1993). The possession of a certain amount of livestock and of physical strength are the primary requirements for survival and success in the demanding environment of Somali pastoral nomads. The climatic and geographic conditions prompt the Somali pastoral nomads to pursue animal husbandry with constant movement from place to place in search of better pasture and water. This economic system in part determines social relations and institutions and creates a division of labour whereby tasks essential for survival are allocated to particular groups of people. The camel is an important livestock species uniquely adapted to hot and arid environments (Schwartz, 1992) and therefore contributes significantly to the food security of the nomadic pastoral households. This unique adaptability makes it ideal for exploitation under the ASAL conditions. The contribution of camels to the human welfare of developing countries, including Kenya, is generally obscured by a combination of several factors, which tend to underestimate their true value. Firstly, the estimates of camel populations are usually inaccurate due to lack of regular census. Secondly, their products seldom enter a formal marketing system; thus their contribution to subsistence and the national economy tends to be grossly underestimated. As a consequence, less attention has been given to camel improvements for many years when planning national development. For example, the major livestock development effort in Kenya between 1969 and 1982 (funded by the European Community) aimed at developing range areas completely ignored the camel (Njiru, 1993). In Somali occupied northern Kenya, camels are raised under traditional management systems. However, the changing socio-economic and environmental conditions are leading to a change in pastoral production systems from mainly subsistence towards market orientation. Generally, there are few practical, result-oriented studies on camel production. Wilson and Bourzat (1988) stated that the vast amount of research in the last two decades has contributed little to increased productivity. This has been attributed to the fact that most studies have had little general application to the practical aspects of camel production under pastoral production systems. Pastoral camel production is under pressure because of multiple changes in the production environment. Increasing human population pressure on pastoral grazing areas and the economic implications resulting from diseases and lack of veterinary services are some of the factors that adversely affect traditional camel production. Additionally, reproductive performance is low in camels due to late first parturition, long parturition intervals, and high calf mortality. Improvement of the reproductive performance and reduction of animal losses by management measures that are applicable to a mobile system appear to offer possibilities of increasing camel productivity and capacity to support the increasing human population. An adequate understanding of traditional camel production practices forms the foundation upon which improvement and innovations could be based. Using Moyale District as a case, this study was carried out in order to understand the status of traditional camel production systems of the Somali camel keeping pastoralists.

Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Mbwayo A, Mutiso V. "The Somali Experience: Have Mental Health Workers Forgotten The Country?". 2009.
Hogan NM, editor Ndetei, D.M., Kilonzo G, Uwakwe R. "Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders."; 2006.
n Kasina M;, Hagen M;, Kraemer M;, Nderitu JH;, Martius C;, Wittma. "Some aspects of squash ( Cucurbita pepo L.) pollination ecology in Kenya."; 2010.
Kasina M;, Kraemer M;, Nderitu JH;, and MC, Wittmann D. "Some Aspects of squash(Cucurbita pepo L.) pollination ecology in Kenya.". In: KARI Scientific Conference, Nairobi,. Nairobi; 2010.
Kanyari PWN;, Ngatia TA;, Mathiu PM;, Oyejide A;, Srivastava KK. "Some Causes of Poor performance and chick mortality in farmed ostriches in Alabama[USA] and Kenya."; 2005.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Some Consequences of Land Adjudication in Mbeere Division, Embu". Co-authored with David Brokensha.". In: Working Paper No. 320, IDS (Institute for Development Studies), University of Nairobi. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1977. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
M. NL, S G, L W, N. KE. "Some Determinants of Students Performance in Biology in KCSE: A Case of Central Division of Machakos District. ." International Journal of Innovative Research & Studies. 2014;3(1):553-567.Website
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Some impacts of wildlife-livestock interactions in the rangelands of Kenya. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
Mutia GM, Ntiba MJ, Mavutia KM, OMONDI G. "Some observations on the spawning season of Barbus amphigramma in Lake Naivasha, Kenya.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

The objective of the study was to investigate some aspects of the breeding patterns of the cyprinid Barbus amphigramma in Lake Naivasha. The study was carried out from February to October, 2003. Fishing was done with the use of gillnets of mesh size 0.5 inch to 3 inch and a beach seine of mesh size 1 inch. Six gonad maturity stages have been described visually, based on morphological features, and validated by histological features of the ovary, as well as examination of the oocyte diameter. Females dominate the population at all sizes classes. Barbus amphigramma spawns all year round, but with discernible peaks in March, July and October. The peaks in March and October correspond with the beginning of the long and short rains, respectively, in Kenya.

PW K, Mbuthia P G, RM W, Njagi L W. "Some pathological changes in Nile Tilapia and Nile Perch from Lake Victoria.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2010.2010-some_pathological_changes_in_nile_tilapia.pdf
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Some Problems of Income Distribution in Kenya: Report of a Workshop held at IDS". IDS Working Paper No. 308, April 1977.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1977. Abstract
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Ngugi M. "Some Thoughts on Media, Technology and their Role in Development." Garowe, Puntland State, Somalia; 2013.
NDUTA DRWACHIRA-MBUIDAMARIS. "Sorption and Detection of Phenolic Compounds by Rice Husk Ash from Mwea, Kenya.". In: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTR. MBUI DAMARIS; 2001. Abstract
This is a generalization after my work on the projective space of dimension 4 to n.
Harper GW, Ngugi EN, Lemos D, Gikuni A, Riplinger AJ, Hooks K, Hooks K. "Sources of resillience among kenyan youth newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in the nairobi slum of kibera: Implications for intervetion.". 2009. Abstract

Adolescents and young adults who are living with HIV in Kenya comprise a growing percentage of the population. Currently, youth (ages 15-35) represent 38% of the Kenyan population, yet over 60% of new HIV infections occur among this group. In 2008, adolescents and young adults living with HIV accounted for an estimated 6 % of the adolescent population between the ages of 15 and 24 (KDHS, 2009). Of these, the prevalence rates are nearly 6 times higher among young women (2.7% for 15 to 24 year old females; 6.4% for 20 to 24 year old females) as compared to young men (0.7% for 15 to 19 year old males; 1.5% for 20 to 24 year old males) (KDHS, 2009). The difference in prevalence rates among age groups suggests that many youth are becoming infected during adolescence (NASCOP, 2009). Geographic disparities also exist with regards to HIV infection. HIV is more prevalent in urban areas (7.2%) than in rural areas (6.2%). The vast majority ofthe infections are attributed to heterosexual contact in regular partnerships, men who have sex with men, and prisoners (HIV Prevention, Response and Modes of Transmission Analysis, 2009). A study on HIV seroprevalence study found this disparity is even greater in young women aged 15-24 who are four times more likely to become infected with HIV than men of the same age (KDHS, 2009). While having multiple sex partners is seen as a risk factor for HIV transmission, it has also been reported that married persons (6.4%) have higher HIV prevalence rates than nonmarried persons (4.2%) in Kenya, suggesting the need for tailored messages for married partners. Additionally, despite the urgent need for focus on HIV in Kenya, with limited resources there is a need also to focus on urban slum settlements in Kenya as they have higher rates of HIV prevalence than urban regions in general (12% versus 7.1%).

Nzuve FM, Bhavani S, Tusiime G, Singh D, Njau PN, Wanyera R. "Sources of resistance to stem rust among selected wheat germplasm.". 2011. Abstract

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an important staple food crop contributing to food security and income generation among resource poor farmers. However, the crop is threatened by stem rust which pose a major constraint to wheat production in East Africa. This is because the Ug99 (TTKS) a virulent strain of the Puccinia graminis fsp tritici Eriks and Henns, has overcome major resistance genes; Sr31, Sr36 and Sr24 previously deployed against the stem rust. This has led to significant reduction in the wheat yields or sometimes to total crop failure under heavy epidemics. Thus, host resistance remains vital in combating the ug99 spread. A study carried out at Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (Njoro) in the field aimed at identifying sources of resistance to stem rust. This study revealed some promising wheat lines; R07F4-21258 and THELIN#2/TUKURU CGSS02Y00118S-099M-099Y-099M-16Y-OB which should constitute appropriate material for breeding programs. These promising lines have already been used in intercrosses and populations are being advanced into further generations for genetic studies and mapping of the resistance genes. The recurrent selection will be used to accumulate these resistance genes into high yielding wheat background in further breeding work to help avert further wheat yield losses in East Africa which is faced with acute malnutrition, famine and drought.

Kieti J, Waema TM, Ndemo EB, Omwansa TK, Baumüller H. "Sources of value creation in aggregator platforms for digital services in agriculture - insights from likely users in Kenya." https://www.journals.elsevier.com/digital-business. 2020. Abstract

A fragmented digital agriculture ecosystem has been linked to the slow scale-out of digital platforms and other digital
technology solutions for agriculture. This has undermined the prospects of digitalizing agriculture and increasing sectoral outcomes in sub-Saharan African countries. We conceptualized an aggregator platform for digital services in agriculture as a special form of digital platforms that can enhance the value and usage of digital technologies at the industry
level. Little is known about how such a platform can create value as a new service ecology in agriculture. We set out to
examine the underlying structure and prioritizations of value creation sources in such a platform from the perspective
of likely users in Kenya. We used a parallel convergent mixed methods approach to the study. Confirmatory factor analysis of data from 405 respondents supported a two-factor structure, being an adaptation of the framework on value creation sources in e-Business by Amit, R., & Zott, C. (2001). We conceptualized the two factors as platform-wide efficiency
and loyalty-centeredness. User experience related search costs were most impactful on platform-wide efficiency, while
loyalty-centeredness was impacted most by providing guarantees for quality and reliability to platform users. Thematic
analysis of 369 qualitative responses obtained platform inclusivity - comprising value chain coverage and digital inclusivity,
as additional considerations for amplifying sector-wide benefits of an aggregator platform for digital services in agriculture. We discuss implications for policy and practice in the light of resource constraints and the promise to digitally
transform agriculture in SSA countries.

Visser D, Nyanchaga EN. "The South African Engineer Corps’s water supply operations in Kenya during the Second World War: its wartime impact and postwar legacy." Journal for Contemporary History, ISSN 0 285-2422. 2012;Vol./Jg. 37(No. 2. ).
Wabwire EO, Mukhovi SM, Nyandega IA. "The Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Rainfall over the Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya in 1987-2016." Atmospheric and Climate Sciences . 2020;10(2):240-257.
Muthomi JW, Kinyungu TN, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM, Kabira JN. "Spatial Arrangement Of Maize As Border Crop To Manage Aphids And Aphid-Transmitted Viruses In Potato.". 2011. Abstract

Field experiments were conducted over two growing seasons to determine the effect of spatial arrangement of maize as border crop to manage aphid infestation and aphid-transmitted virus diseases in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Maize was planted at a distance of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 m from the potato crop. Aphid infestation and incidence of virus infection was monitored over the growth period of potato. Aphids were recorded on potato leaves and in water pan traps while virus infection was determined by visual symptoms on the potato plant. At harvest, potato tubers were graded into ware, seed, and chatts and weighed. The results show that placement of maize border up to 0.5 m and 1.0 m reduced aphid population and virus disease incidence by up to 48%. The maize borders had no effect on the yield of seed potato grade but only on the ware. Placing maize border at 0.5m had the greatest reduction of ware potato yield by 48%. Maize borders placed up to 1m from the potato crop would be effective in the management of potato aphids and aphid-transmitted virus diseases. This study shows that the technology would be ideal for propagation plots in small scale seed potato production.

Muthomi JW, Kinyungu TN, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM;, Kabira JN. "Spatial Arrangement Of Maize As Border Crop To Manage Aphids And Aphid-Transmitted Viruses In Potato.". 2011. Abstract

Field experiments were conducted over two growing seasons to determine the effect of spatial arrangement of maize as border crop to manage aphid infestation and aphid-transmitted virus diseases in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Maize was planted at a distance of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 m from the potato crop. Aphid infestation and incidence of virus infection was monitored over the growth period of potato. Aphids were recorded on potato leaves and in water pan traps while virus infection was determined by visual symptoms on the potato plant. At harvest, potato tubers were graded into ware, seed, and chatts and weighed. The results show that placement of maize border up to 0.5 m and 1.0 m reduced aphid population and virus disease incidence by up to 48%. The maize borders had no effect on the yield of seed potato grade but only on the ware. Placing maize border at 0.5m had the greatest reduction of ware potato yield by 48%. Maize borders placed up to 1m from the potato crop would be effective in the management of potato aphids and aphid-transmitted virus diseases. This study shows that the technology would be ideal for propagation plots in small scale seed potato production.

Muthomi JW, Kinyungu TN, Nderitu JH, Kabira JN. "Spatial Arrangement Of Maize As Border Crop To Manage Aphids And Aphid-Transmitted Viruses In Potato.". 2011. Abstractabstract4.pdfWebsite

Field experiments were conducted over two growing seasons to determine the effect of spatial arrangement of maize as border crop to manage aphid infestation and aphid-transmitted virus diseases in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Maize was planted at a distance of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 m from the potato crop. Aphid infestation and incidence of virus infection was monitored over the growth period of potato. Aphids were recorded on potato leaves and in water pan traps while virus infection was determined by visual symptoms on the potato plant. At harvest, potato tubers were graded into ware, seed, and chatts and weighed. The results show that placement of maize border up to 0.5 m and 1.0 m reduced aphid population and virus disease incidence by up to 48%. The maize borders had no effect on the yield of seed potato grade but only on the ware. Placing maize border at 0.5m had the greatest reduction of ware potato yield by 48%. Maize borders placed up to 1m from the potato crop would be effective in the management of potato aphids and aphid-transmitted virus diseases. This study shows that the technology would be ideal for propagation plots in small scale seed potato production.

Ng’ang’a M, Matendechero S, l K, Omondi W, Makworo N, Owiti PO, Kizito W, Tweya H, Edwards JK, Takarinda KC, Ogutu O. "Spatial distribution and co-infection with urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis among primary school children in Migori County, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93.
Nyangacha RM, Oyieke F, Erastus Muniu, Stanley Chasia MO. "Spatial distribution, prevalence and potential risk factors of Tungiasis in Vihiga County, Kenya." PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2019;13(3):e0007244.
Nyangacha RM, Odongo D, Oyieke F, Bii C, Muniu E, Chasia S, Ochwoto M. "Spatial distribution, prevalence and potential risk factors of Tungiasis in Vihiga County,Kenya." PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019;13:e0007244.nyangacha_et_al._2019.pdf
Adebanji A, Achia T, Ngetich R, Owino J, Wangombe A. "Spatial Durbin Model for Poverty Mapping and Analysis.". 2008.
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Spatial Framework for Regional and National Development. A discussion paper prepared in conjunction with Mr. /. Maleche. Department ol Urban and Regional Planning. 1982.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1982. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Lumumba, B. O, Nzuma MJ. "Spatial Integration and Price Relationships in Kenyan Sorghum Markets." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2019;7(7):944-949.
of of Nairobi KDTCT-KU; &. Spatial Planning for Tala-Kangundo Town Council.; 2012.
Ochieng’ P, Nyandega IA, Wambua B. "Spatial-temporal analysis of historical and projected drought events over Isiolo County. Kenya." Journal of Theor Appl Climatol, Austria, part of Springer Nature . 2022.

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