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Ngugi RK, Nyariki DM. "Rural livelihoods in the arid and semi-arid environments of Kenya: Sustainable alternatives and challenges.". 2005. Abstract

Abstract The improvement of the welfare of inhabitants of arid and semi-arid lands, either through the enhancement of existing livelihoods or the promotion of alternative ones, and their potential constraints are discussed. Alternative livelihoods are discussed under regenerative and extractive themes with respect to environmental stability. Regenerative (i.e., non-extractive) livelihoods include activities like apiculture, poultry keeping, pisciculture, silkworm production, drought tolerant cash cropping, horticulture, community wildlife tourism, processing of livestock and crop products, agro-forestry for tree products, and micro-enterprises in the informal sector. Examples of livelihoods that are extractive or potentially so include timber production, woodcarving, basketry, brick making, sand scooping, and charcoal making. Suggestions to improve these livelihoods in a sustainable manner are offered.

Ngau PM. Rural-Urban Relations and Agrarian Development in Kutus Area, Kenya .; 1989. Abstract

A considerable flow of resources takes place at the household level from urban to rural and from non-agrictl~tural to agricultural activities by way of urban-rural remittances, nonfarm income, and return migration~ The potential of this flow of resources in spurring rural economic development has ~~ . been accordel~~-ittle significance in development theory and planning. This dissertation uses data from Kutus area, Kenya to show how rural-urban exchange relations drive rural development. First, it investigates the relationship between farm income, xi the propensity to earn income from sources other than the farm, and agricultural production and productivity. Next, it examines where rural households earn their incomes, where they spend and invest it, and the consequences for economic development in the Kutus area. The analysis demonstrates that the use of nonfarm income enables rural households in Kutus area to raise agricultural output, productivity, and farm income. The study also reveals that rural household economic behavior is highly oriented towards spending and re-investing in the local area spurring the grewth of nonfarm acti vi ties in Kutus town and lower market centers. Growth of smallholder production and rural economy has been the main engine of Kenya's sustained economic growth. There is still considerable scope for further development of agriculture. The study emphasizes establishment of rural development policies that encompass both agriculture and non farm activities, rural as well as urban areas, and the need to re-orient institutional infrastructure for rural ,. development to make it more responsive to smallholder production.

NGAU PROFPETERM. "Rural-Urban Relations, Household Income Diversification and Agricultural Productivity,".". In: Development and Change, Vol. 22, pp. 519-545. (With Hugh Evans);. Taylor & Francis; 1991.
NGAU PROFPETERM. ""Rural/Urban Linkages in Kenya and Zimbabwe: A Comparative Perspective.".". In: Regional Development Studies, (with Gary Gaile);. Taylor & Francis; 1997.
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N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "S. M. GITHIGIA, W. K. MUNYUA, P.W. N. KANYARI (1993). " Prevalence of coccidiosis in Kenya.". In: Kenya." Second Seminar on the DANIDA Ruminant Gastro-intestinal Helminth Research Project. University of Nairobi, Kabete College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Kenya. 24 January18th-22nd. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1993. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "S. M.GITHIGIA, MUNYUA W. K. AND KANYARI P. W. N. (1992). " Observations of the pathology of natural Eimeria infection in kids in Kenya". Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 50: 235 - 237.". In: Kenya." Second Seminar on the DANIDA Ruminant Gastro-intestinal Helminth Research Project. University of Nairobi, Kabete College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Kenya. 24 January18th-22nd. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "S. M.GITHIGIA, MUNYUA W. K. and KANYARI P. W. N. (1992). Prevalence of Eimeria species in goats from parts of Central Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 40:283-285.". In: Kenya." Second Seminar on the DANIDA Ruminant Gastro-intestinal Helminth Research Project. University of Nairobi, Kabete College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Kenya. 24 January18th-22nd. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "S. M.Njoroge, S.K.Ngari and B.N.K.Njoroge .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2001. Abstract
Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "S. Wangaruro, N.K. Karanja, E.T. Makatiani, D.W. Odee and P.L. Woomer, 1998. Chemical properties, initial microbial populations and survival of rhizobia in peat, 14 vermiculite and filtermud. (eds. S.M. Mpepereki and F.I. Makonese). pp 160-164. In Harness.". In: Proceedings of the sixth International Conference of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 12-17 September, 1994, Harare, Zimbabwe ISBN 0-908307-58-6.; 1998. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "S.K. Kimani, B.A. Osborne, C.J. Pilbeam, M. Wood and N.K. Karanja, 1998. Agricultural production in semi-arid regions: Use of legume-based mixed cropping systems in Kenya. (eds. S.M. Mpepereki and F.I. Makonese) pp. 207-209. In Harvessing Biological Nitro.". In: Proceedings of the sixth International Conference of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF) 12-17 September, 1994, Harare, Zimbabwe.; 1998. Abstract
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N PROFNYAGAP. "S.M. Mbiuki, G.M. Mugera and P.N. Nyaga. Effects of the technique in intestinal anastomosis in cattle. Modern Vet. pr. (1984). 11: 891-895.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1984. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "S.M. Mbiuki, G.M. Mugera and P.N. Nyaga. Intestinal anastomosis in cattle: Comparison of appositional techniques.". In: Proceedings of 14th World Congress on diseases of cattle (1986): 20. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "S.M. Mbiuki, P.N. Nyaga, and G.M. Mugera. Healing of intestinal anastomoses in cattle: An evaluation of end to end approximating techniques.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "S.M.Njiro, P.N.Nyaga and Kofi-Tsekpo (1993) Immunosuppresive effect of Spirostachys venenifera pax on the response of mice to sheep red blood cells. Bull. Anim. Hlth. and Prod. 42:47-50.". In: Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Jerusalem, Israel, 4-9th August, 1996. au-ibar; 1993. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatta K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin B, Dally L, Johnson B, Muluubya A, Nielsen L, Hayes P, Boaz M, Hughes P, Hanke T´aˇs, McMichael A, Bwayo JJ, Kaleebu P. "Safety and immunogenicity of recombinant low-dosage HIV-1 A vaccine candidates vectored by plasmid pTHr DNA or modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) in humans in East Africa.". 2008. Abstract

The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN- ) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.

Nyarwath O. "Sagacity and Freedom.". In: Sagacious Reasoning: Henry Odera Oruka in memoriam. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang; 1997.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Said, A.N. and P. N. Mbugua (1985). Present situation of compounded feed industry in Kenya and perspectives for use of local feed resources.". In: In proceedings: FAO experts consultative meeting on animal feeds in the tropics, Bangkok, Thailand. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1985.
Farquhar C, VanCott T, Bosire R, Bermudez C, Mbori-Ngacha D, Lohman-Payne B, Nduati R, Otieno P, John-Stewart G. "Salivary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-specific immunoglobulin A in HIV-1-exposed infants in Kenya.". 2008.
Nesbitt A, Odhiambo F, Mirza NB, Achola N. "Salmonella meningitis: the emergence of multi drug resistance.". 1988.
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Salvation and Being Saved, Nairobi: Media Options, 2000.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2000.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Ngau P. and Kumssa(E)A. "Sampling Methods in Data Collection and Analysis.". In: UNCRD Textbook series,. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract

This paper examines the role of institutions in the development process of African countries. It has been show that, whereas institutions have played a greater role in the economic development of several East Asian countries, in Africa they are weaker and ineffective because of poor enforcement of the rule of law, corruption, mismanagement, absence of strong civil society and political interference. It is argued that well-functioning institutions can promote growth and reduce poverty in Africa by providing a conducive environment for implementation and sustainable development programmes Therefore, African countries should Endeavour to establish effective, responsive and democratic institutions that will promote accountable and transparent governance and sustainable socioeconomic development.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Ngau P. and Kumssa(E)A. "Sampling Methods in Data Collection and Analysis.". In: UNCRD Textbook series,. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract

This paper examines the role of institutions in the development process of African countries. It has been show that, whereas institutions have played a greater role in the economic development of several East Asian countries, in Africa they are weaker and ineffective because of poor enforcement of the rule of law, corruption, mismanagement, absence of strong civil society and political interference. It is argued that well-functioning institutions can promote growth and reduce poverty in Africa by providing a conducive environment for implementation and sustainable development programmes Therefore, African countries should Endeavour to establish effective, responsive and democratic institutions that will promote accountable and transparent governance and sustainable socioeconomic development.

N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Sande, S.O., Ogol, K.P, Woomer, P. and Karanja, N.K, 2000. The influence of soil fertility management practises on population sizes of soil fauna in Central highlands of Kenya.". In: Extended abstract in proceedings of the 4th regional Meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry (RF) 10-14th July 2000, Lilongwe, Malawi (pp. 227- 228).; 2000. Abstract
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Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 1. Muriuki D, Ng'ang'a E, eds.; 2011.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 2. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 3. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 4. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 5. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 6. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
Kanoti, Olago, D. O., Akech, Nyamai, C.M., Dulo, Ayah, Taylor, D. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu." Kenya Policy Briefs . 2020;1(1).
Kanoti J, Olago D, Nyamaoi C, Dulo SI, Ayah R, Taylor R. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenya." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2020;1(1):15-16. AbstractSanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenyauonresearch.org

Groundwater is the preferred alternative water source during times of shortages and in areas not served by piped water supplies. Pit latrines are the main sanitation facilities in Kisumu where sewerage extends over less than 20 per cent of the city. Pit latrines contribute to microbial contamination of shallow groundwater in Kisumu.

Ngatia TA, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Njiro SM, Kanyari PWN, Munyua WK, Weda EH, Ngotho JW. "Sarcocystis in slaughtered wild animals in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1998;46:1-4.
Kibet S, Nyangito, Moses M, MacOpiyo L, Kenfack D. "Savanna woody plants responses to mammalian herbivory and implications for management of livestock–wildlife landscape." Ecological Solutions and Evidence. 2021;2(3):e12083.
Njaanake KH, Vennervald BJ, Simonsen PE, Madsen H, Mukoko DA, Kimani G, Jaoko WG, Estambale BB. "Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted Helminths in Tana Delta District of Kenya: infection and morbidity patterns in primary schoolchildren from two isolated villages." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2016;16:57. Abstract

Schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) (hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides) are widely distributed in developing countries where they infect over 230 million and 1.5 billion people, respectively. The parasites are frequently co-endemic and many individuals are co-infected with two or more of the species, but information on how the parasites interact in co-infected individuals is scarce. The present study assessed Schistosoma haematobium and STH infection and morbidity patterns among school children in a hyper-endemic focus in the Tana River delta of coastal Kenya.

Njaanake KH, Vennervald BJ, Simonsen PE, Madsen H, Mukoko DA, Kimani G, Jaoko WG, Estambale BB. "Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted Helminths in Tana Delta District of Kenya: infection and morbidity patterns in primary schoolchildren from two isolated villages." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2016;16:57. Abstract

Schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) (hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides) are widely distributed in developing countries where they infect over 230 million and 1.5 billion people, respectively. The parasites are frequently co-endemic and many individuals are co-infected with two or more of the species, but information on how the parasites interact in co-infected individuals is scarce. The present study assessed Schistosoma haematobium and STH infection and morbidity patterns among school children in a hyper-endemic focus in the Tana River delta of coastal Kenya.

Othieno C, Abdelrahman A, editor Ndetei, D.M., Sebit MB, Musisi S, Szabo CP. "Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders."; 2006.
Neumann CG, Bwibo NO, Jiang L, Weiss RE. "School snacks decrease morbidity in Kenyan schoolchildren: a cluster randomized, controlled feeding intervention trial." Public Health Nutr. 2013:1-12. Abstractschool_snacks_decrease_morbidity_in_kenyan_schoolchildren.pdf

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of three different school snacks on morbidity outcomes. DESIGN: Twelve schools were randomized to either one of three feeding groups or a Control group. There were three schools per group in this cluster randomized trial. Children in feeding group schools received school snacks of a local plant-based dish, githeri, with meat, milk or extra oil added. The oil used was later found to be fortified with retinol. Physical status, food intake and morbidity outcomes were assessed longitudinally over two years. SETTING: Rural Embu District, Kenya, an area with high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency. SUBJECTS: Standard 1 schoolchildren (n 902; analytic sample) enrolled in two cohorts from the same schools one year apart. RESULTS: The Meat and Plain Githeri (i.e. githeri + oil) groups showed the greatest declines in the probability of a morbidity outcome (PMO) for total and severe illnesses, malaria, poor appetite, reduced activity, fever and chills. The Meat group showed significantly greater declines in PMO for gastroenteritis (mainly diarrhoea) and typhoid compared with the Control group, for jaundice compared with the Plain Githeri group, and for skin infection compared with the Milk group. The Milk group showed the greatest decline in PMO for upper respiratory infection. For nearly all morbidity outcomes the Control group had the highest PMO and the least decline over time. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention study showed beneficial effects of both animal-source foods and of vitamin A-fortified oil on morbidity status.

Mark SR, Kelly MR, Gheorghe C, Raymond M, Nikolay A, Sansanee C, Navy H, Karen KA, Odada EO, Oscar P, Geoffrey P, Sergei R. "Science and Management of Transboundary Lakes: Lessons Learned from the Global Environment Facility Program.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The International Waters Science Project Lakes Working Group reviewed 58 Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects that addressed serious environmental and human development issues in transboundary lakes. The lessons learned from the review of these projects were integrated with the intention to contribute to the design and success of future projects. Issues that will continue to impact lake ecosystems and their management include changing agricultural practices, resource extraction, emerging contaminants, energy policies, and water allocation. Future lakes projects addressing these issues must also consider the potential confounding effects of changing land use and climate on watershed processes, water quality, food web structure and biodiversity. Current and future scientific challenges include developing strategies for climate adaptation, improving the capacity to detect change and enhancing the application of an ecosystem approach within lakes management. Failure to consider the unique physical and biological features and processes in lakes can be a barrier to effective remediation. The spatial and temporal variability in lakes and their often slow response to remedial actions need to be considered in the design of monitoring programs. Factors that improved the success of GEF transboundary projects included early and strong communication, engagement of stakeholders, rigorous peer review and international science teams linked to local capacity building and policy development. The application of both natural and socio-economic science based assessment, and adaptive management were essential for full project implementation and led to optimization of water resources allocation while sustaining ecosystems on which social and economic systems depend.

Nicholls N, Gruza GV, Jouzel J, Karl TR, Ogallo LA, Parker DE. The Science of Climate Change.; 1996.
Nyangena IO, Owino WO, Imathiu S, Ambuko J. "Scientific African.". 2019. Abstract
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Cham DT, Fombong AT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCYW, Raina SK. "Scientific note on the first report of Varroa destructor in Cameroon." Journal of Apicultural Research. 2017;56(4):397-399.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCYW, Raina SK. "Scientific note on the first report of Varroa destructor in Cameroon." Journal of Apicultural Research. 2017;56(4):397-399.
Nungo RA, Michael WO, Mbugua SK. "Scientific Research.". 2012. Abstract

A study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of under-five child population within cassava consuming community in Nambale of western Kenya. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio economic data, 24-hour food re-call and anthropometric measurements. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics were used while Pearson’s Chi Square and correlation coefficient (R) were used to test for statistical associations. A total of 320 households with 232 children participated. The findings showed nutrition status of children to be poor (<-2 SD), 26.6% were stunted, 13.9% underweight, and 10.1% were wasting. Malnutrition had reached its peak during the third year affecting boys more than girls despite a high mean score (9.2) for household dietary diversity. The findings established cassava utilization to be high (94.3%) and mainly as “porridge, boiled roots and ugali”. Eight staples including cassava were used for weaning and 66.4% of the children were fed three times daily. Cassava utilization was not a determinant of child nutrition status. Age of child and education level of head of household had strong but negative influence on child nutrition status, (Pearson’s R = -0.207: -0.174) indicating >50% changes in stunting could not be attributed to age of child or education level of the head of household. Farm ownership was a strong positive determinant of nutrition status, Pearson’s R = 0.233. This study has established that cassava cushions hunger and there is need to improve nutrient content.

Kiprok EK;, Narla RD;, Mibey, RK; Akundabweni LMS, Akundabweni LMS. "Screening Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Genotypes for Resistance to Septoria Leaf Spot in Kenya.".; 2004.
Tende RM;, Nderitu JH;, Mugo S;, Songa JM;, Olubayo F;, Bergvinson D. "Screening for development of resistance by the spotted stem borer, Chilo Partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Bt-maize delta-endotoxins."; 2005. Abstract

Stem borers are one of the major limiting factors to maize (Zea mays L.) production in the world. In Kenya the damage caused by stem borers leads to 13.5% yield loss estimated to be 400,000 MT of maize annually. The spotted stem borer Chilo partellus, Swinhoe is one of the major species of stem borers in Kenya. Bt-maize has been proved to reduce losses due to stem borer damage. Development of insect resistance among stem borers is one of the concerns of using Bt-maize. A study was conducted at the KARI Biosafety Greenhouse level 11, to determine the development of stemborer resistance to two Bt cry proteins for over four generation cycles of selection. The cry proteins were cry1Ab and cry1Ba expressed from Bt-maize event 223 carrying Bt cry1Ab gene and event 10 carrying Bt cry1Ba gene. Three hundred neonates of C. partellus were infested into maize leaves and allowed to feed for 24 hours. The surviving larvae were reared in artificial diet up to adult stage. The performance of each protein was assessed over time by estimation of the number of surviving larvae over each generation. The results showed significantly fewer surviving larvae from the Bt-maize events compared to the non-transgenic CML 216 control. The means were70.4 for CML216, 13.3 and 7.4 for Event 10 and 223 respectively. There were highly significant differences between the control and the two Bt-maize events. The two Bt-maize events were statistically not different in controlling the pest over the studied generations, indicating that there was no development of resistance to cry proteins in the tested C.partellus colony.

Njambere EN, Mwang’ombe AW, Kimani PM, Siboe GM. "Screening for resistance to floury leaf spot of beans.". 1997.
Musembi S, Janoo R, Sohanpal B, Ochanda H, ole-Moi Yoi O, Bishop R, Nene V. "Screening for Theileria parva secretory gene products by functional analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. 2000;109:81-87.
P.W M, M.W.K M, R.W N, N K, J.K M, E.M A, R.W M, R.E K. "Screening for tolerance in selected sweet potato germplasm to Sweet-potato Virus Disease in Kenya.". In: Regional Universities Forum Biennial Meeting. Mangochi, Malawi; 2007.
Kosgei RJ, Szkwarko D, Callens S, Gichangi P, Temmerman M, Kihara AB, Sitienei JJ, Cheserem EJ, Ndavi PM, Reid AJ, Carter EJ. "Screening for tuberculosis in pregnancy do we need more than a symptom screen Experience from western Kenya." Public Health Action . 2013;3(4):294-298.screening_for_tuberculosis_in_pregnancy_do_we_need_more_than_a_symptom_screen_experience_from_western_kenya.pdf
Kosgei RJ, Szkwarko D, Callens S, Gichangi P, Temmerman M, Kihara AB, Sitienei JJ, Cheserem EJ, Ndavi PM, Reid AJ, Carter EJ. "Screening for tuberculosis in pregnancy: do we need more than a symptom screen? Experience from western Kenya." Public Health Association. 2013;3:294-298.
Karaya H;, Mugo S;, Njoroge K;, Ariga E;, Nderitu JH;, Kanampiu. "Screening gene bank maize accessions for Straiga hermontica resistance."; 2010.
Karaya H;, Mugo, S; Njoroge ANKK; E; J, Njoroge K;, Ariga E;, Nderitu JH;, Kanampiu. "Screening gene bank maize accessions for Straiga hermontica resistance."; 2010.
Karaya H;, Mugo S;, Njoroge K;, Ariga E;, Nderitu JH;, Kanampiu. "Screening gene bank maize accessions for Straiga hermontica resistance."; 2010.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Screening herbaceous forage legumes on the basis of soil moisture utilization for integration into natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kenya. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
Karaya H, Kiarie N, Mugo S, Nderitu H, Kanampiu F, Ariga S. "Screening maize (Zea mays) genotypes for Striga hermonthica resistance from among genebank accessions.". In: 12th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
Ogoma SB, Lweitoijera DW, Ngonyani H, Furer B, Russell TL, WR M, GF K, SJ. M. "Screening mosquito house entry points as a potential method for integrated control of endophagic filariasis, arbovirus and malaria vectors." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2010;4(8):e773.
Njoroge D, Anyango B, Dossaji SF. "Screening of Phyllanthus Species for Antimicrobial Properties, Chemical Sciences Journal." Chemical Sciences Journal. 2012;2012(CSJ-56):1-12. Abstractcsj-56_2012.pdf

The development of resistant pathogenic microorganism against conventional antibiotic drugs has risen to a point of global concern. New antimicrobial compounds with diverse chemical structures and novel mechanisms of action are therefore needed to curb the new and re-emerging infectious diseases. This study has identified two Phyllanthus species (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus odontadenius) sampled from Nairobi and Siaya counties in Kenya. In vitro activity of extracts of these species and correlated their efficacy was compared with the commercial extracts of P. niruri that are in the Kenyan market. Disk diffusion method was employed to screen the antimicrobial activities of both the extracts and two standard antibiotics; 0.32mg mL-1 gentamycin and 0.30 mg mL-1 Nystatin. The dichloromethane(DCM):methanol (1:1) extracts of Phyllanthus odontodenius showed the strongest activity against all the organisms both at 100 mg μL and 50 mg μL-1 followed by both the hot water and
cold water methanol extracts. The solvents in comparison to antibiotics showed 80% activity for methanol, 48% for DCM:MeOH 1:1, 43% in hot water and 28% for cold water. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) showed that the compounds found in the three species were identical. This study has shown that, the two species possess significant antimicrobial activity and justifies the use
of their extracts by herbalists in the treatment of many microbial diseases. Therefore, further bioassay guided fractionation, isolation and characterization studies of compounds from these extracts are needed to confirm the active components and mechanisms of action of these two species.

Keywords: Phyllanthus amarus; Phyllanthus odontadenius; Phyllanthus niruri; antimicrobial activity; infectious diseases.

Wagate CG, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Nanyingi MO, Kareru PG, Njuguna A, Gitahi N. "Screening of some Kenyan Medicinal Plants for Antibacterial Activity." Phytother. Res, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2009;2866(1002):DOI: 10.1002.screening_of_some_kenyan_medicinal_plants_for_bacterial_activity.pdf
Wagate, Cyrus G, Mbaria, James M, Gakuya DW, Nanyingi MO, Kareru PG, Njuguna A, Gitahi N, Macharia JK, Njonge FK. "Screening of some Kenyan Medicinal Plants for Antibacterial Activity.". 2010. Abstract

Eleven medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Machakos and Kitui District were screened, namely: Ajuga remota Benth, Aloe secundijlora Engl, Amaranthus hybridus L, Cassia didymobotrya Fes, Croton macrostachyus Del, Entada leptostachya Harms, Erythrina abyssinica DC, Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv, Schkuhria pinnata O. Ktze, Terminalia kilimandscharica Engl and Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst for potential antibacterial activity against four medically important bacterial strains, namely: Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Micrococcus lutea ATCC 9341 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts was determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The plant extracts were more active against Gram-positive (G+) than Gram-negative (G-) bacteria. The positive controls were streptomycin and benzylpenicillin for G- and G+ bacteria, respectively, both had a significantMIC at <1mglmL. The most susceptible bacteria were B. cereus, followed by M. lutea, while the most resistant bacteria were Ps, aeruginosa, followed by E. coli. The present study supports the use of these plants by the herbalists in the management of bacterial ailments. H. abyssinica and T. kilimandscharica showed the best antibacterial activity; hence these plants can be further subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation.

Wagate CG, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Mark O. Nanyingi, Kareru PG, Njuguna A, Gitahi N, Macharia K, Njonge FK. "Screening of some Kenyan Medicinal Plants for Antibacterial Activity." Phytotherapy research: .. 2009;24:151-153.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "SE OF ELISA METHOD TO DETERMINE CHLORAMPHENICOL KINETICS IN RED MASAAI SHEEP AFTER INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION.". In: j. VET PHARMACO. THERAP. O Wesongah*l, GA Murilla, AN Guantai, RE Mdachi I, WM Karanja and TE Maitho; 2007. Abstract

hloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic widely used in human and veterinary medicine due to its low cost and ready availability. However its use has been associated with serious adverse effects, (bone marrow suppression, hemolytic anaemia and aplastic anaemia) that may or may not be dose related. Consequently chloramphenicol is currently banned for use in food producing animals and restricted to non-food producing animals and management of life threatening infections in humans in absence of alternative therapy. Exposure to chloramphenicol can occur after regular consumption of animal foods from treated animals. Therefore the pharmacokinetic of chloramphenicol should be determined using a highly sensitive and specific assay method that can detect residue levels at the lowest concentration possible. Previous methods were limited due to low sensitivity (10 ng/m1-50Ong/mi). Therefore the aim of this study was to determine pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol and potential residue levels in food producing animals using a published highly sensitive detection method; Chloramphenicol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with a detection limit of 0.1 ng/ml. Methods: Eight male red Maasai sheep aged 9 to 12 months and weighing between 21kg to 25 kg, were weaned and allowed to acclimatize for three weeks. Pre-treatment blood samples (10m1) was collected from each animal and then 25mg/kg chloramphenicol sodium succinate administered by deep intramuscular injection. Post treatment blood samples were collected at 5, 10, 15 and 30minutes, I, 2, 4, 6 8, 12, 24 and 32 hour intervals then twice a day (week 1), once daily (week 2) thrice daily (week 3) twice daily (week 4). Phannacokinetic parameters were measured using chloramphenicol ELISA method. Data was analyzed by fitting four, parameter logistics regression curve of calibration standards and sample chloramphenicol concentration calculated from optical densities using ELISA data Eiaquik program (MC. Eisler, 1995). Samples were analyzed in duplicate. Results from these assays were compared with those from published data with respect to elimination half life, species variation, and minimum retention time. Results: Chlorarnphenicol elimination half life (36.4+3.66 h) obtained in the present study was significantly (P<0.05) longer than that of 5.75+1.25 h reported in similar species using colorimetric method. The method was able to detect the drug 7 days post administration. The area under the curve of 124,487.8 ng.h/m1 observed in sheep in the present study was significant higher than that of 31.220+3.25 rig.himl reported in literature in goats using similar treatment route and dose but different assay method. Conclusion: Chloramphenicol pharmacokinetic parameters are significantly influenced by animal species and analytical assay methods used in their determination and care must be taken when reporting the residue levels in food producing animals.

Ndiwa TC, Nyingi D, Wemali E, Yusuf HA. "Seafood value chains and mangrove restoration in Mida Creek.". In: In Leew J, Koech G, Yaye A, Nyongesa J. 2017. A review of best practice in the Horn of Africa with biodiversity based value chain development for pro-poor biodiversity conservation. Nairobi: ICRAF; 2017.biodiversity-based_value_chains-_14122017.pdf
Nyanchoga BN. "Seafront Archaeology .". 2010.Website
Njeri KM. "The search for a gender Sensitive Development Policy.". In: Structural Adjustment: Towards indigenising the Policy Debate. Nairobi: Institute of Policy Analysis; 1999.
Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Searching for Optimal Schedule for Parallel Machines Using an Agent-based Technique.". In: 4th International Operations Research Society of East Africa (ORSEA) Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2008.
Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. "Seasonal availability and consumption of wild edible plants in semiarid Ethiopia: Implications to food security and climate change adaptation." Journal of Horticulture and Forestry. 2011;3(5):138-149. Abstract

Quantitative ethnoecological analysis of seasonal availability and implication to food security of wild edible plants (WEPs) was conducted in Boosat and Fantalle districts of semiarid east Shewa, Ethiopia from October, 2009 to September, 2010. Semistructured interview, focus group discussions, key informants discussions, seasonal record of fruits abundance were used to collected data on gathering and consumption of WEPs to cope with food shortage and adapt to climate change. Collected data was summarised into frequency tables, graph and qualitatively described under each subtopic. Thirty seven WEPs were identified for use as human food, and livestock feed and other multipurpose uses. About 24.3 % of WEPs were locally marketed, 75.7% were not marketed. All wild fruits were not included in official production system in the study area. It has indicated the underutilized existing potential of WEPs. Wild edible plants were preferred by local people of the study area not only for their food value, but also for their availability during dry seasons and shortage of food, potential for dryland agrobiodiversity and multipurpose to human wellbeing, livestock and environmental services they provide. Pairwise ranking by key informants was in agreement with direct matrices ranking for multiple uses of WEPs. The pairwise ranking, market survey and participant observations, community preference has confirmed the real potential of top seven priority WEPs species for dryland agrobiodiversity and agroforestry. Hence, these WEPs can be potential for dryland agrobiodiversity and agroforestry, to enhance people’s livelihoods in semiarid areas. This result can shed light on further research and promotion work on WEPs utilization and management.

Key words: Wild, edible plants, seasonal, availability, food security, use, management.

Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Otieno RO, Ngotho JW. "Seasonal availability of gastrointestinal nematode larvae to cattle on pasture in the central highlands of Kenya." Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 2002;69(2):141-146.
Ngugi RK, Ndung'u JN, Nyariki DM;, Musimba NKR. "Seasonal botanical and chemical composition of sheep and goat diets on a common range in eastern Africa.". 2004. Abstract

The botanical and chemical composition, intake and digestibility of local sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hirtus) diets were evaluated over the wet (growing) and dry (dormant) seasons. Diet botanical composition was related to the vegetation composition on the range. Commiphora riperia and Acacia tortilis were the most dominant tree species, while Duosperma kilimandscharicum and Premna hildebrandtii were the most dominant shrub species. Enteropogon macrostachyus, Cenchrus ciliaris and Chloris roxburghiana were the most abundant grass species, while Brepharis integriifolia, Commelina benghalensis and Macrotylomma axillare were the most dominant forb species. Grasses increased towards the end of the wet season and the beginning of the dry season, while the forbs decreased. Eragrostis caespitosa, Cenchrus ciliaris, Eragrostis superba, Enteropogon macrostachyus and Themeda triandra were the most dominant grass species in sheep diets during both seasons, accounting for over 82% of the diet. Acalypha fruticosa, Grewia similis and G. bicolor were the most important browse species in goat diets in both seasons, while Eragrostis caespitosa and E. superba were the most common grass species during both seasons. Overall, goat diets comprised 81% browse, 17% grass and 2% forbs during the wet season; and 82% browse, 15% grass and 3% forbs during the dry season. Whilst the goat diets had higher (P < 0.05) Crude Protein (CP) content than sheep diets during both seasons, the sheep diets were lower in lignin content than goat diets during the wet season. Overall, the goat diets were lower in Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) and Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF) than sheep diets during both seasons. There was no difference (P < 0.05) in digestibility between the two animal species. However, it was higher (P < 0.05) during the dry than the wet season. Although sheep and goats are commonly herded together in east African rangelands, they have differing abilities to utilise forages. These differences must be taken into consideration in grazing management decisions, and selected grazing areas should be able to cater for the forage requirements of both species.

Birithia R, Subramanian S, Muthomi JW, Narla RD. "Seasonal dynamics and alternate hosts of thrips transmitted Iris yellow spot virus in Kenya." African Crop Science Journal . 2018;26(3):365-376.
Nyangito MM, Musimba NKR, Nyariki DM. "Seasonal energy extraction patterns by agropastoral herds in semiarid south-eastern Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

primary energy extraction patterns by livestock under agropastoralism anci ranching were investigated by the bite count method in semiarid south-eastern Kenya. Sward biomass for optimal energy intake by cattle was derived using intake-digestibility constraint curves and realized livestock productivity from the systems compared. Cattle and sheep, and goats primarily consumed herbaceous and woody plants, respectively. Enteropogon macrostachyus and Panicum maximum, E. macrostachyus and Blepharis integrifolia, and Combretum exalatum and Duosperma kilimandscharica accounted for 33.5% and 9.9%, 16.6% and 10'3%, and 11.7"k and 10.7% ot cattle, sheep and goats total energy intake, respectively. cattle optimised energy intake at 370-6'1ogma of sward biomass and 55.5-64.3% organic matter digestibility. Panicum maximum yielded the highest optimal sward biomass. The energy expenditure of the animals was generally lower under agropastoralism across seasons. During the dry season, more animals (33-50%) lost weight under ranching. Agropastoralism was an efficient system as animals were moved across quality grazing microenvironments that minimised feeding costs and enhanced energy intake. Therefore, mobile grazing strategies, plant diversity and complementary trophic interactions stabilise energy extraction patterns and enhance Iivestock productivity under agropastoralism. However, human activities that affect plant diversity and mobility will undermine sustainable livestock production in such environments.

Kemboi DC, Chege HW, Bebora LC, Maingi N, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LG, Githinji JM. "Seasonal Newcastle antibody titre dynamics in village chickens of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2013;25.
Kemboi DC, Chege HW, Bebora LC, Maingi N, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Githinji JM. "Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titer dynamics in village chickens of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya." Livestock for Research for Rural Development. 2013;25(10).kemboi_et_al._2013-seasonality.pdf
Kemboi, D.C., H.W. Chege, L.C. Bebora, N. Maingi, P.N. Nyaga, P.G. Mbuthia, Njagi LW, Githinji JM. "Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titres in village chicken of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya.". In: 3rd RUFORUM Conferenceting. Entebbe, Uganda; 2012.2012-_seasonal_new_castle_disease_antibody_titre_levels_in_village_chickens_of_mbeere_distrct_kenya.pdf
DC K, HW C, C BL, Maingi N, Nyaga P N, Njagi L W. "Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titres in village chicken of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya.". In: 3rd RUFORUM Conference. Uganda: RUFORUM; 2012:.ruforum_2012.pdf
Kemboi DC;, Chege HW;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, P.N N;, Mbuthia PG;, Njagi LW;, Githinji JM. "Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titres in village chicken of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya."; 2012.
Kemboi DC;, Chege HW;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, P.N N;, Mbuthia PG;, Njagi LW;, Githinji JM. "Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titres in village chicken of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya."; 2012.
Kemboi DC, Chege HW;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, P.N N;, Mbuthia PG;, Njagi LW;, Githinji JM. "Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titres in village chicken of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya."; 2012.
Nganga CJ, Maingi N, Kanyari PWN, Munyua WK. "Seasonal patterns of gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2006;54:1-6.14_nganga_et_al_2006.pdf
Ng'ang'a CJ, Maingi N, Kanyari PWN, Munyua WK. "Seasonal patterns of gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep in a semi-arid Kajiado District of Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

The seasonal patterns of trichostrongylid nematode infections in Dorper yearlings in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District, Kenya were investigated by analysis faecal egg output, herbage infectivity and post-mortem worm recovery. Rectal faecal samples from 60 animals as well as herbage samples from their grazing fields were collected at three weeks intervals between May 1999 and December 2001. Fecal egg counts and herbage larval counts closely followed the rainfall distribution pattern. Major peaks in egg output occurred between December and August as a result of increased pasture infectivity and minor peaks between September and November following maturation of hypobiotic larvae of Haemonchus. Self-cure occurred in August/ September and November/ December. From September 2000 to July 2001, post-mortem worm counts conducted on 24 yearlings permanently on pastures during the dry and wet seasons showed mixed infections where Trichostrongylus, Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum occurred in 91.7%, Cooperia in 83.3%, Trichuris and Strongyloides in 4.1% of the animals. Adult and immature worms co-existed in proportions that varied with seasons, where Haemonchus survived the dry season mainly as hypobiotic larvae and Trichostrongylus species as an adult worm population. The mean wet season worm counts in both seasons were considered moderate, usually associated with sub-clinical helminthosis and decreased productivity. There is need, therefore, to control such infections in sheep within the study area in order to achieve higher productivity.

Majanja J, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Wadegu M, Mukunzi S, Njiri J, Mitei K, Opot B, Ocholla S, Mwangi J, Osuna F, Coldren. R. Seasonal trend of Influenza in Kenya from January - October 2013. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: Influenza A and B viruses cause annual epidemics of respiratory illness. The Influenza surveillance network in Kenya through its sentinel surveillance sites located throughout the country has established that Influenza is a major cause of respiratory illness in Kenya.Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the seasonal trend and circulation dynamics of Influenza viruses in Kenya from January to October, 2013.Methods: Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected from consenting patients meeting the ILI case definition and transported to the laboratory in liquid nitrogen dry shippers. RNA was extracted from the specimen using the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit. Specimens were tested for influenza A and B viruses by using the Ag Path-ID One Step Real Time Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR) Kit with CDC Human Influenza Virus RT-PCR Detection Panels (CDC, Atlanta, GA). Results: Of 945 specimens tested between January and October, 152 (16.1%) were positive for Influenza viruses. 38.8% tested positive for Influenza A/H3N2, 34.9% were positive for Influenza B while 26.3% were positive for the pdmH1N1 virus. Circulation of Influenza during this period was marked by three distinct peaks. The first peak was seen in the month of February at 22.7% followed by a steady decline to 5% in May. A second peak of 17.9% was seen in June and the highest circulation observed in August with a peak of 28.6%. PdmH1NI and Influenza A/H3N2 viruses co-circulated from January to April and then sharply declined in May. There were low levels of Influenza B in January which gradually increased peaking in June together with pdmH1N1. Influenza B and A/H3N2 co-circulated between July and September with peaks in August and low levels of pdmH1N1 during this period.Conclusion: Influenza viruses co-circulate throughout the year. Continuing surveillance will assist in determining their clinical and virological impact.

Odhiambo JA, Norton U, Norton JB, Omondi EC, Okeyo JM, Ngosia DS, Ashilenje DS. "Seasonal Variability in GHG emissions and soil N in maize/common bean intercropping under inversion-type tillage in western Kenya.". 2014.
Chege HW, Kemboi DC, Bebora LC, Maingi N, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW, Githinji J. "Seasonality of ecto-and –endoparasites in indigenous chicken of Mbeere Sub-county, Kenya.". In: 9thBiennial Scientific Conference,. FVM Upper Kabete Campus. ; 2014.
Abuom TO;, Mogoa EG;, Gitonga P;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi AN. "Sebaceous Gland Adenocarcinoma In A Cow.".; 2006.
Abuom TO;, Mogoa EG;, Gitonga P;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi AN. "Sebaceous Gland Adenocarcinoma In A Cow.".; 2006.
Abuom TO;, Mogoa EG;, Gitonga P;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi AN. "Sebaceous Gland Adenocarcinoma In A Cow.".; 2006.
Abuom TO;, Mogoa EG;, Gitonga P;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi AN. "Sebaceous Gland Adenocarcinoma In A Cow.".; 2006.
Nishiyama, Y. MMSGPB, et al. "Secondary and Tertiary Isoquinoline Alkaloids from Monodora junodii ." J. Nat. Med . 2000;57 ((2)):74.
Nyangacha RM, Odongo D, Oyieke F, Ochwoto M, Korir R, Ngetich RK, Nginya G. "Secondary bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance among tungiasis patients in Western, Kenya." PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2017;11(9):e0005901.
Nyangacha RM, Odongo D, Oyieke F, Ochwoto M, Korir R, Ngetich RK, Nginya G, Makwaga O, Bii C, Mwitari P, Tolo F. "Secondary bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance among tungiasis patients in Western, Kenya." PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11(9):e0005901. Abstract

Tungiasis or jigger infestation is a parasitic disease caused by the female sand flea Tunga penetrans. Secondary infection of the lesions caused by this flea is common in endemic communities. This study sought to shed light on the bacterial pathogens causing secondary infections in tungiasis lesions and their susceptibility profiles to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Participants were recruited with the help of Community Health Workers. Swabs were taken from lesions which showed signs of secondary infection. Identification of suspected bacteria colonies was done by colony morphology, Gram staining, and biochemical tests. The Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test was used to determine the drug susceptibility profiles. Out of 37 participants, from whom swabs were collected, specimen were positive in 29 and 8 had no growth. From these, 10 different strains of bacteria were isolated. Two were Gram positive bacteria and they were, Staphylococcus epidermidis (38.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (21.3%). Eight were Gram negative namely Enterobacter cloacae (8.5%), Proteus species (8.5%), Klebsiellla species (6.4%), Aeromonas sobria (4.3%), Citrobacter species (4.3%), Proteus mirabillis(4.3%), Enterobacter amnigenus (2.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.1%). The methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated were also resistant to clindamycin, kanamycin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, trimethorprim sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. All the Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and norfloxacin drugs. Results from this study confirms the presence of resistant bacteria in tungiasis lesions hence highlighting the significance of secondary infection of the lesions in endemic communties. This therefore suggests that antimicrobial susceptibility testing may be considered to guide in identification of appropriate antibiotics and treatment therapy among tungiasis patients.

N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Section on Population Education: Social Ethics and Education Syllabus, Kenya Institute of Education 1985.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available.
Ngugi RW, Kimenyi MS, Gakuru O, Nyang’oro O, Muriu P, Nderitu P, Kariuki E, Kimilu G, Bikuri K, Njuguna S. "Security Risk and Private sector growth in Kenya, KIPPRA Special Report #06."; 2004.
L. M, Njoroge K, Bett C, Mwangi W, Verkuijl H, Groote DH. The Seed Industry for Dryland Crops in Eastern Kenya.; 2003.
Bett C, Muhammad L, Mwangi W, Njoroge K. "The seed industry in the semi-arid eastern Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the 6th E & S Africa Regional Maize Conference. CIMMYT, Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia; 1999.
Nyaga JN;, Muthomi JW;, Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH. "Seed potato production and occurrence of Transmitted viruses in Nyandarua District."; 2007.
Nyaga JN;, Muthomi JW;, Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH. "Seed potato production and occurrence of Transmitted viruses in Nyandarua District."; 2007.
Nyaga JN;, Muthomi JW;, Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH. "Seed potato production and occurrence of Transmitted viruses in Nyandarua District."; 2007.
Nyaga JN, J.W. M, Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH;, and Kiretai SM, Aura JA. "Seed potato production and occurrence of Transmitted viruses in Nyandarua District. 7th Workshop on sustainable horticultural production in the tropics. Universit." World J. Agric. Sci. . 2009;6 (3):731-734.
Mumia BI, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nyongesa MW, Olubayo FM. "Seed Potato Production Practices and Quality of Farm Saved Seed Potato in Kiambu and Nyandarua Counties in Kenya." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018;6(1):20-30.
Muhammad L, Bett C, Mwangi W, Omanga PGA, Njoroge K. "Seed production and trade in the semi-arid midlands of Kenya.". In: Maize Production Technology for the Future: Challenges and Opportunities. Proceedings of the 6th E & S Africa Regional Maize Conference. CIMMYT, Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia; 1999.
Opiyo FEO, Ekaya WN, Nyariki DM, Mureithi SM. "Seedbed preparation influence on morphometric characteristics of perennial grasses of a semi-arid rangeland in Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

Semi-arid rangelands in Kenya are an important source of forage for both domestic and wild animals. However, indigenous perennial grasses notably Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye grass) are disappearing at an alarming rate. Efforts to re-introduce them through restoration programs have often yielded little success. This can partly be attributed to failure of topsoil to capture and store scarce water to meet germination and plant growth requirements. A study was undertaken in the semi-arid environment of eastern Kenya to determine the effects of land treatment on morphometric characteristics of E. superba, C. ciliaris and E. macrostachyus. Seed viability of the grasses was estimated by germination tests. Land treatments involved soil ripping using a tractor and hand-clearing. Thirty-five plants were randomly selected per sub-plot and tagged for sampling. Morphometric characteristics of the grass species were measured weekly. Aboveground biomass was estimated by harvesting standing biomass three months after establishment. Seed viability tests showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the three grass species. This was attributed to intrinsic properties of the grass seeds such as dormancy and tegumental hardness. Seedling survival, foliage cover, plant height, leaf and tiller numbers, and aboveground biomass were significantly higher in ripped plots than hand-cleared plots. It was concluded that soil disturbance influences plant morphometric charact

Opiyo FEO, Ekaya WN, Nyariki DM, Mureithi SM. "Seedbed preparation influence on morphometric characteristics of perennial grasses of a semi-arid rangeland in Kenya. Afr. J. Plant Sci. 5(8): 460." African Journal of Plant Sciences. 2011;5(8):460-468. Abstract2011_opiyo_et_al_ajps-5-8_seedbed_influence_on...pdfWebsite

Semi-arid rangelands in Kenya are an important source of forage for both domestic and wild animals.
However, indigenous perennial grasses notably Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis
superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye grass) are disappearing at an
alarming rate. Efforts to re-introduce them through restoration programs have often yielded little
success. This can partly be attributed to failure of topsoil to capture and store scarce water to meet
germination and plant growth requirements. A study was undertaken in the semi-arid environment of
eastern Kenya to determine the effects of land treatment on morphometric characteristics of E. superba, C. ciliaris and E. macrostachyus. Seed viability of the grasses was estimated by germination tests. Land treatments involved soil ripping using a tractor and hand-clearing. Thirty-five plants were randomly selected per sub-plot and tagged for sampling. Morphometric characteristics of the grass species were measured weekly. Aboveground biomass was estimated by harvesting standing biomass three months after establishment. Seed viability tests showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the three grass species. This was attributed to intrinsic properties of the grass seeds such as dormancy and tegumental hardness. Seedling survival, foliage cover, plant height, leaf and tiller numbers, and aboveground biomass were significantly higher in ripped plots than hand-cleared plots. It was concluded that soil disturbance influences plant morphometric characteristics and plays an important role in the success rate of restoration attempts in semi-arid rangelands.

Key words: Perennial grasses, morphometric characteristics, hand-clearing, reseeding, ripping, semi-arid
rangelands.

Njoroge K. "Seedling vigour as a selection criterion in breeding maize under stress.". In: Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference . Harare, Zimbabwe; 1994.
Njiruh PN, Kanya JI, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Wanjogu RK, Kariuki SN. "Segregation distortion of anthocyanin morphological marker in F2 population of cross between basmati and environment genic male sterile rice line." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research . 2014;3:43-52.
Kama-Kama F, Midiwo J, Nganga J, Maina N, Schiek E, Omosa LK, Osanjo G, Naessens J. "Selected ethno-medicinal plants from Kenya with in vitro activity against major African livestock pathogens belonging to the “Mycoplasma mycoides cluster”." Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2016;192:524-534. AbstractFull text link

Members of ‘Mycoplasma mycoides cluster’ are important ruminant pathogens in Africa. Diseases caused by these Mycoplasma negatively affect the agricultural sector especially in developing countries through losses in livestock productivity, mortality and international trade restrictions. There is therefore urgent need to develop antimicrobials from alternative sources such as medicinal plants to curb these diseases. In Kenya, smallholder farmers belonging to the Maasai, Kuria and Luo rely on traditional Kenyan herbals to treat respiratory symptoms in ruminants. In the current study extracts from some of these plants were tested against the growth of members of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster.
Aim

This study aimed at identifying plants that exhibit antimycoplasmal activities using an ethnobotanical approach.

Materials and methods

Kenyan farmers of Maasai, Luo and Kuria ethnic groups were interviewed for plant remedies given to livestock with respiratory syndromes. The plant materials were thereafter collected and crude extracts prepared using a mixture of 50% of methanol (MeOH) in dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), neat methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and water to yield four crude extracts per plant part. The extracts were tested in vitro against five strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, five strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and one strain of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capricolum using broth micro-dilution assays with an initial concentration of 1 mg/ml. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the most active extracts were determined by serial dilution.
Results

Extracts from five plants namely: Solanum aculeastrum, Albizia coriaria, Ekebergia capensis, Piliostigma thonningii and Euclea divinorum exhibited the highest activities against the Mycoplasma strains tested. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides were more susceptible to these extracts than Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and Mycoplasma capricolum susp. capricolum. The activities of the crude extracts varied with the solvent used for extraction. The MICs mean values of the active extracts varied from 0.02 to 0.6 mg/ml.
Conclusions

The results suggested that these plants could potentially contain antimicrobial compounds that might be useful for the treatment of respiratory diseases in ruminants. Future work should focus on the isolation and identification of the active compounds from the plant extracts that showed interesting activities and evaluation of their antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential.
Mycoplasma mycoidesEthnobotanyAntimicrobial activityLivestockEthno-medicinal from plants from Kenya

Gikundi KS, Misiko CW, Nyonje R. "Selected Institutional Reforms and Change of Behavior of Inmates in Correctional Facilities in Nairobi County, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2020;8(7).
Nyamu, D. Maringa; Maranga MSM; SM. "Selecting a Sampling Plan for Reinforcement Bars.". 2013.
Welch 1 RW, Njoroge K, Habgood RM. "Selection for increased grain protein production in Barley.". In: Barley Genetics IV (Chapter 5), Pp 271-278. Edinburgh University Press; 1981.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Ngunjiri JK. "The Selection of Public Investment Projects: A multicriteria Approach.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management vol. 5 January/April,. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract

This study examined the process of project selection to determine the priority public investment project portfolio in any given year. since resources are limited and different stakeholders tend to have different, often conflicting objectives, an efficient and effective approach is necessary. The result of the study indicates that the current approach to the selection of public investment projects lacks objectivity and consequently, may not be sensitive to the needs of various stakeholders. It is demonstrated that the use of multicriteria approach to project selection helps to assess projects from a "wholistic thinking" perspective, which is achieved through the adoption of a systems approach to the selection process. Decision makers can be aided by installing and running a Decision support system. This approach promises the selection of a more superior portfolio of public investment projects.

Ndugire N;, K’omudho B;, Kuhumba F;, Onyango JC;, Okoth MW;, Magambo J;, Ikiara M;, Mutunga C. Selection, design and implementation of economic instruments in the solid waste management sector in Kenya: The case of plastic bags.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

The generation of solid waste has become an increasing environmental and public health problem everywhere in the world, but particularly in developing countries. The fast expansion of urban, agricultural and industrial activities spurred by rapid population growth has produced vast amounts of solid and liquid wastes that pollute the environment and destroy resources.

N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Selective control and rate enhancement of reactions involving catalytic reduction of organohalides and reduced form of myoglobin in microemulsions, Pure Appl.". In: Chem., Vol. 76, No. 4, pp. 815-828, 2004. Survey Review; 2004. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
K DRKARIUKIDAVID, N PROFKARIUKIDAVID, K DRKARIUKIDAVID. "Selenium Status of Livestock in Koibatek District in Kenya.". In: International Journal of BioChem Physics. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare a topical quinolone antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) with a cheaper topical antiseptic (boric acid) for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 427 children with chronic suppurative otitis media enrolled from 141 schools following screening of 39 841 schoolchildren in Kenya. Intervention Topical ciprofloxacin (n = 216) or boric acid in alcohol (n = 211); child-to-child treatment twice daily for 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Resolution of discharge (at 2 weeks for primary outcome), healing of the tympanic membrane, and change in hearing threshold from baseline, all at 2 and 4 weeks. RESULTS: At 2 weeks, discharge was resolved in 123 of 207 (59%) children given ciprofloxacin, and in 65 of 204 (32%) given boric acid (relative risk 1.86; 95% CI 1.48-2.35; P < 0.0001). This effect was also significant at 4 weeks, and ciprofloxacin was associated with better hearing at both visits. No difference with respect to tympanic membrane healing was detected. There were significantly fewer adverse events of ear pain, irritation, and bleeding on mopping with ciprofloxacin than boric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin performed better than boric acid and alcohol for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children in Kenya.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "SELF MEDICATION IN MANAGEMENT OF MINOR HEALTH PROBLEMS IN KENYA.". In: THE EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. C.K. Maitai, AN Guantai, Mwangi; 1981. Abstract
A survey of proprietary pharmaceutical products used inslf-medication, in Kenya, has been undertaken. Out of 472 products covered in the survey, 32% were those used for gastrointestinal disorders and 18% for respiratory disorders. The significance and limitations of self-medication as they relate to management of minor health problems are discussed.
Roth EA, Ngugi EN, Masako F. "Self-deception does not explain high-risk sexual behavior in the face of HIV/AIDS: A test from northern Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, there is resistance to changing sexual behavior despite survey data indicating high levels of knowledge about HIV transmission patterns and high-risk behavior. Previous explanations for this paradox emphasize indigenous cultural models. An alternative explanation is that, due to a strong natural selection for sexual gratification, individuals evoke the evolved trait of selfdeception to continue practicing high-risk sexual behavior. This alternative is tested using survey data from an Ariaal community in Marsabit District, northern Kenya. Results indicate that respondents make highly accurate self-assessments of HIV risk, negating the concept of self-deception in this study. These results are discussed within the larger context of the applicability of evolutionary theory to the AIDS pandemic.

Nganga W. "Semantic analysis of Kiswahili words using the Self-Organizing Map.". 2003:405-423. Abstract

Acquisition of semantic knowledge to support natural language processing tasks is a nontrivial task, and more so if manually undertaken. This paper presents an automatic lexical acquisition method that learns semantic properties of Kiswahili words directly from data. The method exploits Kiswahili’s system of nominal and concordial agreement that is inherently rich with semantic information, to capture the morphological and syntactic contexts of words. Classification of nouns and verbs into clusters of semantically-similar words is done based on this contextual encoding. The method uses training data from the Helsinki corpus of Kiswahili while the machine-learning component is implemented using the Self-organizing Map algorithm. The proposed method offers an efficient and consistent way of augmenting lexicons with semantic information, where electronic corpora of the language in question are available. It also provides researchers with an investigative tool that can be used to identify dependencies within linguistic data and represent them in an understandable form, for further analysis.

Njenga MJ, Munyua SJM, Mutiga ER, Gathuma JM, JM; Kang’ethe EK, Bwangamoi O;, Mugera GM, Mitaru BN. "Semen characteristics of goats with subacute, acute and chronic besnoitiosis : research communication.". 1999. Abstract

A study on the semen obtained from breeding goats suffering from mild to severe chronic besnoitiosis revealed marked changes in semen volume, colour, density, concentration, mass and individual motility and percentage live. There were also many neutrophils and spermatozoa with primary and secondary defects, including missing tails and deformed heads and tails. The observed changes were considered to be severe enough to account for the infertility observed in the flock. Sections of testes obtained for histopathology were characterised by massive blockage of the pampiniform plexus, degeneration of the germinal epithelium, tubular necrosis with an inflammatory infiltrate and, in some cases, accumulation of haemosiderin-like material in the tunica vaginalis.

Njenga MJ, Munyua SJM, Mutiga ER, Gathuma JM, Kangethe EK, Bwangamoi O, Mugera GM, Mitaru BN. "Semen characteristics of goats with subacute, acute and chronic besnoitiosis. Journal of South African Veterinary Association(1999) 70(1):14-17. Citation:.". 1999.
Gichohi KE;, Wandayi OM;, Imungi JK;, Okoth M;, Njenga JN. "Seminar on Food Science and Technology special project proposals and research findings."; 2009.
Gichohi KE;, Wandayi OM;, Imungi JK;, Okoth M;, Njenga JN. "Seminar on Food Science and Technology special project proposals and research findings."; 2009.
Gichohi KE;, Wandayi OM;, Imungi JK;, Okoth M;, Njenga JN. "Seminar on Food Science and Technology special project proposals and research findings."; 2009.
Karanja DN;, Ngatia TA;, Wabacha JK;, Bebora LC. "The Sensitivity And Specificity Of Clinical Signs, Post-mortem Findings And Isolation Of Escherichia Coli In Diagnosing Edema Disease Of Swine."; 2008. Abstract

Commonly used diagnost ic techniques for edema disease in Kenya were tested for their sensitivity and specificity on 84 pig carcasses submitted to Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology between June 2004 and June 2007. Clinical signs gathered from anamnesis, post - mortem lesions revealed at autopsy and E. coli isolated from intestinal contents and characterized using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reacti on were compared using receiver - operating characteristic analyses. A combination of clinical signs, post - mortem findings and isolation of E. coli carrying F18 and shiga - toxin type II variant genes were used as gold standard test. Forty nine (58.3%) cases w ere diagnosed as edema disease, based on clinical signs and post - mortem findings . Of these, thirty eight (77.6%) had variable amounts of edema in various body si tes and clinically, twenty six (53.1%) had neurological signs, 18 (36.7%) were found dead, 3 ( 6.1%) had swollen eyelids and 2 (4.1%) expressed respiratory distress. Hemolytic E. coli carrying the tested genes were isolated from thirty one (62.2%) of these cases. Presence of edema in various body cavities and observation of defined clinical signs h ad 75.3% and 57.4% sensitivity, respectively. Considered individually, the sensitivity was 64.7% for found dead, 50% for neurological signs and 84.4% for isolating hemolytic E. coli. All had a specificity of 81.3%. The results show that none of the diagnos tic techniques had the expected 100% sensitivity and specificity, but isolation of hemolytic E. coli may be an important screening test for suspected edema disease cases

Karanja DN;, Ngatia TA;, Wabacha JK;, Bebora LC. "The Sensitivity And Specificity Of Clinical Signs, Post-mortem Findings And Isolation Of Escherichia Coli In Diagnosing Edema Disease Of Swine.".; 2008. Abstract

Commonly used diagnost ic techniques for edema disease in Kenya were tested for their sensitivity and specificity on 84 pig carcasses submitted to Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology between June 2004 and June 2007. Clinical signs gathered from anamnesis, post - mortem lesions revealed at autopsy and E. coli isolated from intestinal contents and characterized using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reacti on were compared using receiver - operating characteristic analyses. A combination of clinical signs, post - mortem findings and isolation of E. coli carrying F18 and shiga - toxin type II variant genes were used as gold standard test. Forty nine (58.3%) cases w ere diagnosed as edema disease, based on clinical signs and post - mortem findings . Of these, thirty eight (77.6%) had variable amounts of edema in various body si tes and clinically, twenty six (53.1%) had neurological signs, 18 (36.7%) were found dead, 3 ( 6.1%) had swollen eyelids and 2 (4.1%) expressed respiratory distress. Hemolytic E. coli carrying the tested genes were isolated from thirty one (62.2%) of these cases. Presence of edema in various body cavities and observation of defined clinical signs h ad 75.3% and 57.4% sensitivity, respectively. Considered individually, the sensitivity was 64.7% for found dead, 50% for neurological signs and 84.4% for isolating hemolytic E. coli. All had a specificity of 81.3%. The results show that none of the diagnos tic techniques had the expected 100% sensitivity and specificity, but isolation of hemolytic E. coli may be an important screening test for suspected edema disease cases

Karanja DN;, Ngatia TA;, Wabacha JK;, Bebora LC. "The Sensitivity And Specificity Of Clinical Signs, Post-mortem Findings And Isolation Of Escherichia Coli In Diagnosing Edema Disease Of Swine.".; 2008. Abstract

Commonly used diagnost ic techniques for edema disease in Kenya were tested for their sensitivity and specificity on 84 pig carcasses submitted to Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology between June 2004 and June 2007. Clinical signs gathered from anamnesis, post - mortem lesions revealed at autopsy and E. coli isolated from intestinal contents and characterized using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reacti on were compared using receiver - operating characteristic analyses. A combination of clinical signs, post - mortem findings and isolation of E. coli carrying F18 and shiga - toxin type II variant genes were used as gold standard test. Forty nine (58.3%) cases w ere diagnosed as edema disease, based on clinical signs and post - mortem findings . Of these, thirty eight (77.6%) had variable amounts of edema in various body si tes and clinically, twenty six (53.1%) had neurological signs, 18 (36.7%) were found dead, 3 ( 6.1%) had swollen eyelids and 2 (4.1%) expressed respiratory distress. Hemolytic E. coli carrying the tested genes were isolated from thirty one (62.2%) of these cases. Presence of edema in various body cavities and observation of defined clinical signs h ad 75.3% and 57.4% sensitivity, respectively. Considered individually, the sensitivity was 64.7% for found dead, 50% for neurological signs and 84.4% for isolating hemolytic E. coli. All had a specificity of 81.3%. The results show that none of the diagnos tic techniques had the expected 100% sensitivity and specificity, but isolation of hemolytic E. coli may be an important screening test for suspected edema disease cases

LW. N, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Minga U, Olsen JE. "Sensitivity of Listeria species, recovered from indigenous chickens to antibiotis and disinfectants." East African Medical Journal. 2004;81(10):534-537.abstract-_sensitivity_of_listeria_-eamj-2004.pdf
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nanyingi M, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability and its implications for malaria risk in Baringo, Kenya." PloS one. 2018;13(7):e0199357.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nanyingi M, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. Sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability and its implications for malaria risk in Baringo, Kenya.; 2018. Abstractjournal.pone_.0199357.pdfWebsite

The global increase in vector borne diseases has been linked to climate change. Seasonal vegetation changes are known to influence disease vector population. However, the relationship is more theoretical than quantitatively defined. There is a growing demand for understanding and prediction of climate sensitive vector borne disease risks especially in regions where meteorological data are lacking. This study aimed at analyzing and quantitatively assessing the seasonal and year-to-year association between climatic factors (rainfall and temperature) and vegetation cover, and its implications for malaria risks in Baringo County, Kenya. Remotely sensed temperature, rainfall, and vegetation data for the period 2004–2015 were used. Poisson regression was used to model the association between malaria cases and climatic and environmental factors for the period 2009–2012, this being the period for which all datasets overlapped. A strong positive relationship was observed between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and monthly total precipitation. There was a strong negative relationship between NDVI and minimum temperature. The total monthly rainfall (between 94 -181mm), average monthly minimum temperatures (between 16–21°C) and mean monthly NDVI values lower than 0.35 were significantly associated with malaria incidence rates. Results suggests that a combination of climatic and vegetation greenness thresholds need to be met for malaria incidence to be significantly increased in the county. Planning for malaria control can therefore be enhanced by incorporating these factors in malaria risk mapping.

AJ A, DO O, GO O, Oriaso, Nanyingi MO, Nyamongo IK, B.A. B, Estambale BA. "Sensitivity of Vegetation to Climate Variability and its Implications for Malaria Risk in Baringo, Kenya." PLoS One. 2018;13(7).
N. DRNJENGAHELLEN. "Separation of hydrated ethanol from aqueous solutions by alternative strategies.". In: IchemE Symposium Series No. 128. Elsevier; 1992.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Seppala, O.T., Rodiqi, I, Nyangeri,W.N. and Hukka, J.J. (2004). Visionary leadership and knowledge management in water services. Manuscript of an article to be submitted to Journal of Infrastructure Systems. ASCE, USA. Reviewed, corrected and accepted for.". In: Manuscript of an article to be submitted to Journal of Infrastructure Systems. ASCE, USA. Reviewed, corrected and accepted for printing. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Kihu SM, Gachohi JM, Ndungu EK, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, Munene NJ, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Ireri R. "Sero-epidemiology of Peste des petits ruminants virus infection in Turkana County, Kenya." BMC Veterinary Research. 2015;11(87):1-13.
Miheso KO, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Karanja DN, Gathumbi PK, Shah, Wanjohi CW, Murithi MR. "Sero-prevalence of avian leucosis in chicken in Nairobi and surrounding Counties. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(3).
Nanyingi MO, Muchemi GM, Thumbi SM, Ade F, Onyango CO, Kiama SG, Bett B. "Seroepidemiological survey of Rift Valley Fever in ruminants in Garissa, Kenya." Vector Borne Zoonotic Diseases. 2017;2:141-146.
Nanyingi Mark O., Muchemi GM, Samuel M. Thumbi, Ade F, Clayton O. Onyango, G.Kiama S, Bett B. "Seroepidemiological Survey of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Ruminants in Garissa, Kenya Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Volume 17, Number 2, 2017.". 2017.
Nyaboga EN, Ateka EM, Bulimo WD. "Serological detection of virus diseases of sweet potato in Kenya." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2008;7:222-229. AbstractWebsite

Objective: To identify virus diseases attacking sweet potato in the major production areas in Kenya.Methodology and results: A total of 220 symptomatic and 108 asymptomatic sweet potato vines were collected from farmers’ fields, established in an insect-proof screenhouse and tested for viruses by nitrocellulose membrane enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NCM-ELISA). The viruses detected were Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV). SPFMV was the most prevalent virus and the most widespread, detected in 67 and 20% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic plants, respectively. SPCSV was the second most common and it was detected in 64 and 13% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples, respectively. SPMMV was present in 12% of the symptomatic plant samples. SPCFV was rare, being detected in only 4% of the plant samples. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Sweet potato latent virus (SwPLV), Sweet potato caulimo-like virus (SPCaLV), Sweet potato mild speckling virus (SPMSV) and C-6 virus were not detected in any of the samples assayed. SPFMV and SPCSV were detected in all the 15 districts that were surveyed, whereas SPMMV and SPCFV were detected in 9 and 4 districts, respectively. Five different virus complexes were detected in the samples assayed. Dual infection with SPFMV and SPCSV was the most common multiple infection and was detected in 52 and 12% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic plants, respectively.Conclusion and application of findings: This study has provided a quantitative assessment of co-occurrence of viruses in sweet potato plants in Kenya, and highlights the importance of developing resistance specifically targeting SPCSV in either conventional or non-conventional breeding programs as a means of virus disease management.

Watene G-A, Aboge G, Gitau G, Nthiwa D, Bett B. "Seroprevalence And Risk Factors Of Coxiella Burnetii Infecting Cattle Raised In Pastoral Areas Of Narok, Kenya." Research square. 2022.
Njagi LW, Miheso KO, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi PK, Shah DN, Wanjohi CW, Murithi MR. "Seroprevalence of Avian Leucosis in chicken in Nairobi and surrounding Counties." Livestock Research for Rural Development. . 2017;29.
Kagira J.M., Maingi, N., Kanyari. P.W.N., Githigia, S.M., Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Seroprevalence of Cysticercosis cellulosae and associated risk factors in free range Pigs in Kenya." Journal of Helminthology . 2010;84(4):398-403.2010_seroprevalence_of_cysticercus_cellulosae_and_associated_risk_factors_in_free_range_pigs_in_kenya.pdf
Kagira JM, Maingi N, Kanyari PWN, Githigia SM, Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Seroprevalence of Cysticercus cellulosae and associated risk factors in free-range pigs in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Porcine cysticercosis is an emerging zoonosis with public health and economic importance. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the disease in free-range pigs on 182 smallholder farms in Busia District, Kenya. The survey households were selected using a snowballing technique. Serum samples were obtained from 284 pigs of all ages at farm level and 37 pigs from slaughter slabs in the study area. The samples were analysed for the presence of cysticercus antigen using an antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A structured questionnaire was administered to determine the risk factors for porcine cysticercosis on the study farms. At pig level, the total number of pigs testing positive were 11, resulting in a seroprevalence of 4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9–6.2%), while the farms with a positive pig were 9% (95% CI: 3.9–14.1%). All pigs examined in the slaughter slab survey were seronegative. The distribution of possible risk factors for porcine cysticercosis that were observed at farm level was as follows: free-range pig keeping (100%), history of human taeniosis infection in a family (51%), slaughtering of pigs at home (20%), lack of meat inspection (15%) and absence of latrines (15%). The only significant (x2 ¼ 4.4, P ¼ 0.034, odds ratio (OR) ¼ 3.8) risk factor associated with the occurrence of cysticercosis was lack of latrines at household level. The study shows that porcine cysticercosis is prevalent in free-range pigs in Busia District, Kenya and thus control measures need to be instituted.

Nthiwa D, Bett B, Odongo D, Kenya E, Wainaina M, Grazioli S, Foglia E, Brocchi E, Alonso S. "Seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds raised in Maasai Mara ecosystem in Kenya." Prev Vet Med. 2020;176:104929. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) seroprevalence and identify risk factors of exposure among cattle herds raised in three zones with different types of land use and progressively distant from the Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) boundary. We selected five villages purposively; two in zone 1 (area < 20 km from the MMNR), another two in zone 2 (area between 20-40 km away from the MMNR) and one in zone 3 (area >40 km away from the MMNR). A total of 1170 cattle sera were collected from 390 herds in all the zones and tested for antibodies against the non-structural proteins (NSPs) of FMD virus (FMDV) using two 3ABC-based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ELISA kits. All sera samples were also screened for serotype-specific antibodies using Solid Phase Competitive ELISA (SPCE) kits (IZSLER, Italy). We targeted FMDV serotypes A, O, South African Territory [SAT] 1 and SAT 2, known to be endemic in East Africa including Kenya. Data on putative risk factors for FMD seropositivity in cattle were collected using a questionnaire. The overall apparent animal-level FMD seroprevalence based on the parallel comparison of the two anti-NSPs ELISA kits was 83.8 % (95 % CI; 81.8-85.9), and differed significantly across zones. Zone 1 had a higher seroprevalence than zones 2 and 3 (χ = 116.1, df = 2, p < 0.001). In decreasing order, the overall seroprevalences of FMDV serotypes A, SAT 2, O and SAT 1 were 26.3 % (95 % CI; 23.5-29.2), 21.4 % (95 % CI; 18.8-24.0), 21.2 % (95 % CI; 18.7-23.9) and 13.1 % (95 % CI; 11.1-15.3), respectively. The distribution of these serotypes differed significantly between zones (p < 0.05) except for SAT 2 serotype (χ = 0.90, df = 2, p = 0.639). Both serotypes A and O were more prevalent in zones 1 and 2 than zone 3 while serotype SAT 1, was higher in zone 3 compared to other zones. The results of multivariable analyses identified animal sex (i.e., female), raising of cattle in zones 1 and 2 (areas < 40 km away from the MMNR); mixing of cattle from multiple herds at watering points, and pastoral husbandry practices, as significant predictors of animal-level FMD seropositivity. This study established that FMD seroprevalence declined with distance from the MMNR.

Ndegwa P.N, Amayo A.A QKZACS. "Serum CRP in patients with PET." ClinChem. 2005;(51):A89.
Odhiambo AO, Kiarie GW, Ngugi MP, JOSHI MD. "Serum Vitamin D Profile In Black African Men with Prostate Cancer at Tertiary Referral Facility in Sub-Saharan Africa." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences . 2014;13(4):60-64. Abstract

Background: Considerable epidemiological, in vitro, in vivo and clinical data support an association between vitamin D deficiency and prostate cancer risk and outcome. Few studies have examined t his association in African men with p rostate cancer. The vitamin D status in pat ients with prostate cancer in Kenya is unknown. This study aimed to determine the profile of vitamin D levels in patients with prostate cancer and to correlate this to patient and disease characteristics. Methods: H ospital - based cross - sectional study that evaluated black African men with incident or 3 - month prevalent histologically confirmed prostate cance r seeking ambulatory care at KNH . M edical history was obtained by direct interview and the information recorded in questionnaires. Treatment history , pre - diagnostic serum PSA and Gleason score were abstracted from patient records. Every participant had their anthropometric measurements taken and plasma samples drawn for 25 - hydroxyvitamin D (25 - VD) concentrations using the LIAISON® 25 - OH automated chem iluminescent immunoassay method . The relationship between age, body mass index, pre - diagnostic serum PSA and Gleason score on vitamin D status was evaluated using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results: 162 black African men were evaluated. The mean 25 - VD was 19.15 ng/ml and 144 (88. 9 %) men had vitamin D deficiency (25 - VD < 30ng/ml). 29 (17.9%) were severely deficient (25 - VD < 10ng/ml), 115 (71%) were moderately deficie nt (10 - < 30 ng /ml) and 18 (11.1%) were normal ( 30 - 100ng/ml). Gleason scores > 7 (OR 2.9 ; 95% CI 1.5 - 5.5 , p = 0.001) and serum PSA ≥ 50ng/ml (OR 2.2 ; 95% CI 1.7 - 5.1 , p = 0.014) were associated with vitamin D deficiency (25 - VD < 20ng/ml) whereas age and BMI were not. Adjusted for age, BMI and serum PSA l evels, having Gleason scores > 7 was independently associated with vitamin D deficiency (OR 2.5 ; 95% CI 1.2 – 4.9 , p = 0.01). Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is very common in black African men with prostate cancer, p articularly in those with higher Gleason scores.

Odhiambo AO, Kiarie GG, Joshi MD, Ngugi PM. "Serum Vitamin D profile in black African men with Prostate Cancer in a tertiary refferal facility in sub-saharan Africa." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2014;13(4 vers III):60-64. Abstractvitamin_d_prostate_cancer_iosr_jdms.pdf

Abstract:

Background: Considerable epidemiological, in vitro, in vivo and clinical data support an association between vitamin D deficiency and prostate cancer risk and outcome. Few studies have examined this association in African men with prostate cancer.The vitamin D status in patients with prostate cancer in Kenya is unknown. This study aimed to determine the profile of vitamin D levels in patients with prostate cancer and to correlate this to patient and disease characteristics.

Methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study that evaluated black African men with incident or 3-month prevalent histologically confirmed prostate cancer seeking ambulatory care at KNH. Medical history was obtained by direct interview and the information recorded in questionnaires. Treatment history, pre-diagnostic serum PSA and Gleason score were abstracted from patient records. Every participant had their anthropometric measurements taken and plasma samples drawn for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-VD) concentrations using the LIAISON® 25-OH automated chemiluminescent immunoassay method. The relationship between age, body mass index, pre-diagnostic serum PSA and Gleason score on vitamin D status was evaluated using bivariate and multivariate analysis.

Results: 162 black African men were evaluated. The mean 25-VD was 19.15 ng/ml and 144 (88.9%) men had vitamin D deficiency (25-VD < 30ng/ml). 29 (17.9%) were severely deficient (25-VD < 10ng/ml), 115 (71%) were moderately deficient (10-<30 ng/ml) and 18 (11.1%) were normal (30-100ng/ml). Gleason scores >7 (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.5-5.5, p = 0.001) and serum PSA ≥ 50ng/ml (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.7-5.1, p = 0.014) were associated with vitamin D deficiency (25-VD < 20ng/ml) whereas age and BMI were not. Adjusted for age, BMI and serum PSA levels, having Gleason scores > 7 was independently associated with vitamin D deficiency (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.2 – 4.9, p = 0.01).

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is very common in black African men with prostate cancer, particularly in those with higher Gleason scores.

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Service Centres and Rural Development in Kenya: Paper written lor the Overseas Development Agency. 1985.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1985. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Nayak SB, George BM, Mishra S, Surendran S, Shetty P, Shetty SD. "Sessile ileum, subhepatic cecum, and uncinate appendix that might lead to a diagnostic dilemma." Anatomy & Cell Biology. 2013;46:296. AbstractWebsite
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Waldhäusl W, Kleinberger G, Korn A, Dudczak R, Bratusch-Marrain P, Nowotny P. "Severe hyperglycemia: effects of rehydration on endocrine derangements and blood glucose concentration." Diabetes. 1979;28:577-584. Abstract
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Macharia WM, Njeru EK, Muli- Musiime F, Nantulya V. "Severe road traffic injuries in Kenya, quality of care and access.". 2009. Abstract

Road traffic Injury (RTI) is a rapidly growing, yet preventable, public health problem worldwide (1-1) that is projected to become the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality by the year 2020~. Road crashes have enormous impact on national economies and represent a major human tragedy. In 1985 alone, motor vehicle crashes cost United States more than 75 billion US dollarsQ. It has been estimated that there are over 1.18 million road traffic injury related deaths amrually world wide, with 74% occurring in developing countries 1,1. The young and socio-economically disadvantaged tend to experience disproportionately higher RTI fatality rates.8,.2. In East Africa, road traffic crashes are among the top causes of death from ~uries. Fatality from RTI in Kenya is estimated to have increased by 578% between 1962 and 1992, rising from 7.3 to 8.6 per 100,000 population Most of the road traffic crashes occurred on major rural roads and were associated with higher case fatality rate than those occurring in urban areas 10,11. Reports of fatal crashes on roads in Kenya have continued to feature prominently in the local dailies and electronic media in the form of news flashes and editorials. Despite the public health importance of RTI, there is little, if any, published infurmation on how RTI casualties are handled at the crash scenes, evacuated to health facilities or received and managed at the facilities. This survey was motivated by the need to map out the magnitude of road traffic ~uries in Kenya in order to provide baseline data to policy makers and other stakeholders who may wish to undertake interventions to improve road safety in the country. The aim of this study was therefore, to determine access and quality of health care fur road traffic ~ury (RTI) casualties in Kenya. We also undertook to :find out the extent to which health care facilities in Kenya were prepared to manage RTI emergencies. Since the time when this study was conducted, there have not been any targeted efforts to address this concern in the country. While availability of medical supplies may have some how improved as an indirect result of rising economic growth realized over the last few years, access to care and quality of services are unlikely to have changed much.

El-Busaid H, Hassan S, Odula P, Ogeng'o J, Ndung'u B. "Sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli.". 2012. Abstract

Atrioventricular annuli are important in haemodynamic flexibility, competence, and support for tricuspid and mitral valves. The anatomical features of the annuli, such as circumference, organisation of connective tissue fibres, myocardium, and cellularity, may predispose to annular insufficiency and valvular incompetence. These pathologies occur more commonly in females, although the anatomical basis for this disparity is unclear. Sex variation in the structure of the annuli is important in providing a morphological basis for the patterns of these diseases. This study therefore aimed to determine the sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli. One hundred and one hearts (48 males, 53 females) obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi were studied. Annular circumferences were measured using a flexible ruler and corrected for heart weight. Results were analysed using SPSS version 17.0 and sex differences determined using student's t-test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. For light microscopy, specimens were harvested within 48 hours post-mortem, processed, sectioned, and stained with Masson's trichrome and Weigert's elastic stain with van Gieson counterstaining. Females had significantly larger annular circumferences than males after correcting for heart weight (p ≤ 0.05). Histologically, myocardium was consistently present in all male annuli while this was absent in females except in one specimen. The annuli were more elastic and cellular in males especially in the annulo-myocardial and annulo-valvular zones, respectively. The corrected larger annular circumference in females may limit heart valve coaptation during cardiac cycle and may be a risk factor for valvular insufficiency. The predominance of myocardium, annular cellularity, and elasticity may be more protective against heart valve incompetence in males than in females

El-Busaid H, Hassan S, Odula P, Ogeng'o J, Ndung'u B. "Sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli.". 2012. Abstract

Atrioventricular annuli are important in haemodynamic flexibility, competence, and support for tricuspid and mitral valves. The anatomical features of the annuli, such as circumference, organisation of connective tissue fibres, myocardium, and cellularity, may predispose to annular insufficiency and valvular incompetence. These pathologies occur more commonly in females, although the anatomical basis for this disparity is unclear. Sex variation in the structure of the annuli is important in providing a morphological basis for the patterns of these diseases. This study therefore aimed to determine the sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli. One hundred and one hearts (48 males, 53 females) obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi were studied. Annular circumferences were measured using a flexible ruler and corrected for heart weight. Results were analysed using SPSS version 17.0 and sex differences determined using student's t-test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. For light microscopy, specimens were harvested within 48 hours post-mortem, processed, sectioned, and stained with Masson's trichrome and Weigert's elastic stain with van Gieson counterstaining. Females had significantly larger annular circumferences than males after correcting for heart weight (p ≤ 0.05). Histologically, myocardium was consistently present in all male annuli while this was absent in females except in one specimen. The annuli were more elastic and cellular in males especially in the annulo-myocardial and annulo-valvular zones, respectively. The corrected larger annular circumference in females may limit heart valve coaptation during cardiac cycle and may be a risk factor for valvular insufficiency. The predominance of myocardium, annular cellularity, and elasticity may be more protective against heart valve incompetence in males than in females

El-Busaid H, Hassan S, Odula P, OGENGO J, Ndung’u B. "Sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli." Folia Morphol (Warsz).. 2012;71(1):23-7.
El-Busaid H, Hassan S, Odula P, Ogeng'o J, Ndung'u B. "Sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2012;71(1):23-7. Abstract

Atrioventricular annuli are important in haemodynamic flexibility, competence, and support for tricuspid and mitral valves. The anatomical features of the annuli, such as circumference, organisation of connective tissue fibres, myocardium, and cellularity, may predispose to annular insufficiency and valvular incompetence. These pathologies occur more commonly in females, although the anatomical basis for this disparity is unclear. Sex variation in the structure of the annuli is important in providing a morphological basis for the patterns of these diseases. This study therefore aimed to determine the sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli. One hundred and one hearts (48 males, 53 females) obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi were studied. Annular circumferences were measured using a flexible ruler and corrected for heart weight. Results were analysed using SPSS version 17.0 and sex differences determined using student's t-test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. For light microscopy, specimens were harvested within 48 hours post-mortem, processed, sectioned, and stained with Masson's trichrome and Weigert's elastic stain with van Gieson counterstaining. Females had significantly larger annular circumferences than males after correcting for heart weight (p ≤ 0.05). Histologically, myocardium was consistently present in all male annuli while this was absent in females except in one specimen. The annuli were more elastic and cellular in males especially in the annulo-myocardial and annulo-valvular zones, respectively. The corrected larger annular circumference in females may limit heart valve coaptation during cardiac cycle and may be a risk factor for valvular insufficiency. The predominance of myocardium, annular cellularity, and elasticity may be more protective against heart valve incompetence in males than in females.

Ndung.u BM, El-Busaid H, Hassan S, Odula P, Ogeng.o J. "Sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli." Folia Morphol., 2012. 2012;Vol. 71(No. 1 ).2012_journal.pdfsex_variation_in_human_av_annuli.pdf
Mrumbi K, editor Ndetei, D.M., Szabo CP. "Sexual and other types of Child Abuse."; 2006.
Tyndall MW, Agoki E, Malisa W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ronald AR, Plummer FA. "Sexual behavior and perceived risk of AIDS among men in Kenya attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases.". 1994. Abstract

The sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continues at an alarming rate in sub-Saharan Africa despite the fact that awareness of AIDS is high. One explanation for this alarming rate may be that individuals do not believe that they are personally at risk for AIDS and are not sufficiently motivated to make changes in their behavior. We conducted a cross-sectional study of men with genital ulcer disease to assess their sexual behavior and their perceived risk of AIDS. We studied 787 men between the ages of 17 and 54 years who presented to a referral clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Of these 787 men, 188 (24%) were infected with HIV-1. Awareness of AIDS was essentially universal in this population; however, only 64 men (8%) thought that they were personally at risk of developing AIDS. A logistic regression analysis found that men who believed they were personally at risk knew someone with AIDS (odds ratio [OR], 8.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0-19.7), received information about AIDS from television or video (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7-5.5), or had previously had an STD (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.1). Except for a modest increase in condom use, there was no significant difference in sexual behavior between the group who considered themselves to be at risk for AIDS and the group who did not consider themselves to be at risk. The results of this study challenge the current strategies on HIV/AIDS education and prevention for urban men in Kenya.

Nyamongo IK. "Sexual behavior: A comparative study of secondary school adolescents from rural and urban Kenya.". In: Population, Health and Development in Africa: Anthropological Perspectives, Ocholla-Ayayo, A. B. C., Nyamongo, I. K., Ikamari, L. and Ateng’ T. Nairobi: Impress Communications; 2001.
Nyamongo IK. "Sexual behavior: A comparative study of secondary school adolescents from rural and urban Kenya.". In: In Population, Health and Development in Africa: Athropological Perspectives, Ocholla-Ayayo, A.B.C., Nyamongo, I.K., Ikamari, L. and Ateng' T. (Eds.). Pp. 119-126. Nairobi: Impress Communications. Wiley Interscience; 2001. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

Misiani M, Nderitu J, Mandela P, Obimbo M, Gikenye G. "Sexual dimorphism in the morphometric characteristics of the tibial plafond and medial malleolus ." Indian J of Basic and Applied Med Research . 2013;2(7):760-763.
Mrumbi K, editor Ndetei, D.M., Ovuga E, Obondo A, Gakinya B, Ongecha-Owuor F. "Sexual Disorders, Paraphilias and Gender Issues."; 2006.
Plummer FA, Tyndall MW, Ndinya-Achola JO. "Sexual transmission of HIV and the role of sexually transmitted diseases.". 1994.
Sekadde-Kigondu C;, Ojwang SB;, Nyunya BO;, Kamau RK;, Thagana NG;, Nyagero JM. Sexuality and the use of condom among male university students.; 1994.
Ojwang SB;, Sekadde-Kigondu C;, Nyunya BO;, Kamau RK;, Thagana NG;, Nyagero JM. Sexuality and the use of condom among male university students.; 1994.
l. ngesu, a. gichohi. "Sexuality Education: Promoting safe sexual behaviour among university students in Kenya." Msingi Journal. 2016;2(1):175-187.

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