Publications

Found 8538 results

Sort by: Author [ Title  (Asc)] Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is N  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J K L M [N] O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
R
Sitta J, Nzuve F, Olubayo FM, Mutinda C, Muiru WM, Miano DW, Muthomi JW, Leley PK. "Response of Assorted Maize Germplasm to the Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in Kenya." Journal of Plant Studies. 2017;6(2):65-76.
Mugo, N, Nancy N. Karanja, Gachene CS, Klaus Dittert, Harun I. Gitari, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Response of potato crop to selected nutrients in central and eastern highlands of Kenya." Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2021;7(1):1898762.
Wangechi SW;, Chemining’wa GN;, Nderitu JH;, Gachene CKK. "Response of snapbean to inorganic N-fertilizer and farm and Manure in Mwea."; 2007.
W MP, Mburu MWK, Mwololo JK, Ateka EM, Njeru RW. "Response of sweet potato varieties for white flies resistance.". In: K. Njoroge .; 2011.
Ikumi ML, Muchohi SN, Kokwaro GO, Newton CR. "Response to diazepam in children with malaria-induced seizures.". 2008. Abstract

Malaria infection reduces the binding capacity of benzodiazepine receptors in mice. We studied the efficacy of diazepam terminating seizures in children with falciparum malaria. Diazepam stopped seizures in fewer patients with malaria parasitaemia (chi(2)=3.93, P=0.047) and those with clinical diagnosis of malaria (chi(2)=9.84, P=0.002) compared to those without. However malaria was not identified as an independent risk factor for diazepam's failure to stop seizures in children.

Ngesa PN. "The Responses of Nairobi Women Traders to Their Vulnerabilities of the 1960s.". In: IFRA sponsored Conference on the 50 th Anniversary of African Independences. The British Institute of Eastern Africa; 2013.
NGIGI J, WERE A, MUNENE J, NYARERA D, Chokwe T, MUNGAI P, KANYI S, PALACIO A, MONSALVE C, SAVAL N, CRETIN N, OPPENHEIMER F, ALCARATZ A. Restarting a living donor kidney transplant Program in Kenya:24 transplants performed in Less than one year . GLASGOW UK: EUROPEAN SOCIEITY FOR TRANSPLANTION; 2011.
Ngigi J, Were A, Munene J, MUNGAI P. "Restarting a living donor kidney transplant Program in Kenya: 24 transplants performed in Less than one year.". In: 15th Congress of the European Society for Organ Transplantation .; 2011.
Mbogoh SG, Nyameino DM. "Results of a performance monitoring survey of Endao, Eldume and Sandai smallholder irrigation schemes in Marigat division of Baringo district [Kenya].". 1988. Abstract

Presents the results of a monitoring programme of three smallholder irrigation schemes for field crops in Marigat division of Baringo district in Kenya. This was to ascertain the performance of the schemes from both technical and socio-economic criteria and also to identify and document the role of irrigated agriculture in contributing to the farmers household food needs and in improving the overall welfare of the rural farm households. Discusses the results from each irrigation scheme and gives some recommendations

Datta P, Embree JE, Kreiss JK, Ndinya-Achola JO, Muriitha J, Holmes KK, Plummer FA. "Resumption of breast-feeding in later childhood: a risk factor for mother to child human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission.". 1992.
Gachago M, Nyenze M, Ilako, D, Bore M. "Retrobulbar haemorrhage following blunt trauma in a newly diagnosed haemophilia patient: Case report. ." JOECSA. 2013;17(2):77-80.
Nangole FW, Khainga SO. "Retrospective Review of Patients Operated on with Bilateral Cleft Lip through Surgical Outreaches in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

This was a study to evaluate the characteristics and outcome of patients operated on with bilateral cleft lip through surgical outreach programs in Kenya between January 2006 and December 2011. Files for fifty-nine patients operated on during the study period were evaluated. The mean age for surgery was ten months with about forty-five percent of the patients more than one year of age. No presurgical orthopaedic devices were utilized on any of the patients. Mulliken surgical technique and the Manchester technique were the commonest surgical techniques in equal proportions. An overall complication rate of about 7.5 percent was noted. In conclusion we noted a delay in the surgical management of the majority of our patients. This resulted in a backlog of cases. There is thus a need to intensify more surgical outreach camps as well as training more surgeons to assist in the management of clefts. Cleft surgery is a relatively safe surgery that could be carried out in relatively remote centers through surgical outreach programs. This was evidenced by the low complication rates in our series.

Mulwa  NN, Kitaa JMA, Muasya DW, Ngetich W. "Retrospective Study of Canine Hemoplasmosis in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2018.
Mulwa NN, Kitaa JMA, Muasya DW, Ngetich W, others. "A retrospective study of canine hemoplasmosis in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2018;7:162-166. Abstract
n/a
N PROFGUANTAIA. "A Retrospective Study of Childhood Poisoning in Kenya.". In: EAST AND CENTRAL AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES - VOL. 1. CHARLES K. MAITAI*, ISAAC 0. KIBWAGE, ANASTASIA N. GUANTAI, JAMES N. OMBEGA AND FRANCIS A. NDEM0; 1993. Abstract

A literature survey revealed lack of adequate information on poisoning in Kenya, thus providing the impetus for the present work. In this, study, a 3 year retrospective survey of human poisoning in 19 Kenyan District, Provincial hospitals and Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), representing approximately 40% of such public hospitals in the country, was carried out. Cases of poisoning were identified by diagnosis codes entered on hospital records at the time of discharge. A total of 1904 cases of poisoning were recorded and the information analyzed with particular focus on childhood poisoning. Distribution pattern with respect to poisoning agents, age and sex is presented. Children aged 0-5 years account for 29.78% while those aged 6-14 years account for 10.24% of cases of poisoning recorded. In the age group 0-5 years, Kerosine, drugs and organophosphates account for 41.09, 23.81 and 15.17% of poisoning cases respectively. It is concluded that any preventive measures targeted at children must focus on the 3 classes of poisons which together account for approximately 80% of all classes of poisoning in children.

Njagi L W, Nyaga P N, UM M. "A retrospective study of factors associated with Newcastle disease outbreaks in village indigenous chickens.". 2010. Abstract

Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., (2010), 58, 22-33.

A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH NEWCASTLE
DISEASE OUTBREAKS IN VILLAGE INDIGENOUS CHICKENS

L.W. Njagi1*, P.N. Nyaga1, P.G. Mbuthia1, L.C. Bebora1, J.N. Michieka1, and U.M. Minga2

1University of Nairobi,
Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology,
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
P.O. Box 29053 – 00625, Kangemi, Kenya.
2Open, University of Tanzania, P.O. Box 23409, Dar es salaam, Tanzania
ÉTUDE RÉTROSPECTIVE DES FACTEURS ASSOCIÉS À LA DÉCLARATION DE
LA MALADIE DE NEWCASTLE CHEZ LA POULE DE RACE LOCALE
Résumé
Bien que l'épidémiologie de la maladie de Newcastle soit bien documentée dans les systèmes
aviaires commerciaux, les informations relatives à l’écologie de la maladie chez la poule de race locale, en particulier sous les tropiques, sont par contre peu disponible. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs de risque associés à la maladie de Newcastle chez la poule de race locale. L'étude a été menée dans cinq zones agro-écologiques et a concernées
soixante quinze ménages élevant des poules de race locale. Les éleveurs ont été sélectionnés de manière aléatoire et évalués sur leurs connaissances de la maladie, et les signes cliniques
manifestés par les oiseaux infectés. Les données sur les pratiques de gestion, l’incidence des
maladies et les facteurs de risque associés à la déclaration de la maladie de Newcastle ont été
recueillies à l'aide d'un questionnaire et analysées à l'aide d’un logiciel de statistiques. Le taux de fréquence de la maladie de Newcastle était élevé (93,8%) dans la zone sèche et faible (50%) dans la zone fraîche et humide (dans les régions basses de montagnes). Les déclaration de la maladie de Newcastle étaient significativement associées aux différents facteurs suivant cloisonnement des oiseaux dans toutes les zones écologiques, sauf celle située dans le Bas-
Midland où pour la plus part des cas signalés, les oiseaux n’étaient pas enfermés; le mode
d’évacuation des oiseaux infectés ; les carcasses des volailles et les matières fécales; les saisons sèches dans les zones sèches juste avant les pluies ; les conditions de ventilation ; les changements irréguliers de température et l’approvisionnement en volaille sur les marchés (P <0,05). Par contre, la poussière n'était pas significative (P> 0,05) associée aux déclarations de la maladie de Newcastle. Les réponses variaient selon les saisons et entre les zones agro - écologiques. En guise de conclusion, l'étude a montré que plusieurs facteurs à savoir: cloisonner les oiseaux, les températures froides ou très chaudes, la ventilation, l'achat d’oiseaux sur les marchés, l'élimination de la matière fécale et les oiseaux infectés sont des facteurs majeurs de risque pour la survenue de la maladie de Newcastle chez les poules de race locale. Il est recommandé que les éleveurs de volaille soient informés sur la transmission de la maladie de Newcastle et sa prévention.

Mots clés: facteurs de risque, zones agro-écologiques, cloisonnement, saisons chaudes et
fraîches.

Summary
Although the epidemiology of Newcastle disease in commercial poultry systems is well
documented, its ecology in indigenous birds, especially in tropics, is not adequately reported.
The objective of this study, therefore, was to determine the risk factors associated with occurrence of Newcastle disease in village indigenous chickens. The study was carried out in
five agro –ecological zones and seventy five households keeping indigenous chickens. Farmers were randomly selected and assessed on whether they understood Newcastle disease including knowing its local name and clinical signs manifested by the affected birds. Those who did not fit into the above category were excluded from further interviews. Data on management practices, incidence of diseases and risk factors associated with Newcastle disease outbreaks were collected using a questionnaire and analysed using statistical package. The prevalence rate of Newcastle disease was highest (93.8%) in the dry zone (Low midland 5) and lowest (50%) in cool wet zone (Lower Highland 1). Newcastle disease outbreaks were significantly associated with the following factors namely: confinement of birds in all ecological zones except in lower midland 5 where most cases were reported without confinement; mode of disposal of infected birds, carcasses and poultry faecal matter; dry seasons in the dry zones just before the rains; wind conditions; short intermittent temperature changes and the restocking of farms with chickens from the markets (P<0.05). Dust storm was not significantly (P>0.05) associated with Newcastle disease outbreaks. The responses varied across the seasons and between the agro – ecological zones.
In conclusion, the study has shown that several factors namely: confinement; cold or very hot
temperatures; winds; introduction of market birds and disposal of manure and sick birds are
major risk factors to occurrence of Newcastle disease in indigenous chickens. It is recommended that flock owners be educated on Newcastle disease transmission and prevention.

Key – words: risk factors, agro–ecological zones, confinement, hot and cold seasons.

Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG, Mbithi PMF. "Retrospective study of foot conditions in dairy cows in urban and periurban areas of Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

A retrospective study was carried out to determine categories, patterns and outcomes of foot conditions in dairy cows from smallholder units in and around Nairobi, Kenya. Analysis was done on 625 hospital case records of dairy cows admitted and treated for foot conditions from 1981 to 2006 at the Large Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. The records were from cows that had been through one or more parities. Data included type of foot lesion, the affected limb and the claw, and the outcome of treatment. Relative percentages of the foot lesions were computed. Foot lesions with the highest percentages of occurrence were interdigital necrobacillosis (36%), interdigital fibroma (12%) and sole abscess (11%). Others with lower percentages included trauma (8%), claw overgrowth (7%), sole necrosis (severely eroded and necrotized horn of the sole) (6%), septic fetlock arthritis (6%) and septic pedal arthritis (5%). Laminitis and related claw lesions, such as double soles and heel erosion had less than 1% occurrence. The hind feet were affected in 75% of the cases, from which 83% of the lesions involved outer claws. The fore feet were involved in 16% of the cases, of which 57% of the lesions affected inner claws. Simultaneous involvement of both fore and hind feet occurred in only 2% of the cases and 6% of the cows had more than one foot lesion. A total of 90% of the cows were healed after treatment, 6% were slaughtered and 4% died. The results of this study indicated that a high percentage of cases of foot conditions referred to the Animal Hospital from smallholder dairy units in and around Nairobi were infective and a lower percentage was laminitic. We recommend that a farm-level prospective study be conducted in the same area to verify this status.

Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG, Mbithi PMF. "Retrospective study of foot conditions in dairy cows in urban and periurban areas of Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

A retrospective study was carried out to determine categories, patterns and outcomes of foot conditions in dairy cows from smallholder units in and around Nairobi, Kenya. Analysis was done on 625 hospital case records of dairy cows admitted and treated for foot conditions from 1981 to 2006 at the Large Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. The records were from cows that had been through one or more parities. Data included type of foot lesion, the affected limb and the claw, and the outcome of treatment. Relative percentages of the foot lesions were computed. Foot lesions with the highest percentages of occurrence were interdigital necrobacillosis (36%), interdigital fibroma (12%) and sole abscess (11%). Others with lower percentages included trauma (8%), claw overgrowth (7%), sole necrosis (severely eroded and necrotized horn of the sole) (6%), septic fetlock arthritis (6%) and septic pedal arthritis (5%). Laminitis and related claw lesions, such as double soles and heel erosion had less than 1% occurrence. The hind feet were affected in 75% of the cases, from which 83% of the lesions involved outer claws. The fore feet were involved in 16% of the cases, of which 57% of the lesions affected inner claws. Simultaneous involvement of both fore and hind feet occurred in only 2% of the cases and 6% of the cows had more than one foot lesion. A total of 90% of the cows were healed after treatment, 6% were slaughtered and 4% died. The results of this study indicated that a high percentage of cases of foot conditions referred to the Animal Hospital from smallholder dairy units in and around Nairobi were infective and a lower percentage was laminitic. We recommend that a farm-level prospective study be conducted in the same area to verify this status.

Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, Mogoa E MPGOW. "A retrospective study on the prevalence of plastic materials in the rumen of sheep and goats in Nairobi, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2014;62(3):197-205.
Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, Mogoa E MPGOW. "A retrospective study on the prevalence of plastic materials in the rumen of sheep and goats in Nairobi, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2014;62:197-205. Abstract
n/a
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Review article on Urbanisation and Human Settlements Policy in Egypt in Regional Development Vol. 1.1. No., 1992.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Gikunju M, Nyamato-Kwenda R, Kwanya T. "A review of citizen librarianship in academic libraries in Kenya.". In: Digital Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management. Nairobi: Technical University of Kenya; 2019.
NJAMBI MSKINYUNGUALICE, WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "A review of current accessibility Legislation in Kenya, report of the CIB Expert Seminar on Building Non-Handicapping Environments, Harare, 1992 with N. Nzioki and A. Maganjo.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; 1992. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
Njiru FM, Siriba DN, Karanja FN. "Review of GIS System Audit Parameters in an Organization.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference. University of Nairobi; 2020.
Njiru FM, Siriba DN, Karanja FN. "Review of GIS System Audit Parameters in an Organization.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference. University of Nairobi; 2020.
Ronald AR, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Simonsen JN, Ngugi EN, Pamba H, Cameron DW. "A review of HIV-1 in Africa.". 1988. Abstracta_review_of_hiv-1_in_africa.pdf

As the AIDS epidemic reaches a dramatic stage of development, the time for African countries to establish effective control programs has come. The history of AIDS in Africa is different from that other regions of the world. The disease developed among heterosexual communities. By 1987, over 8,000 cases of AIDS had been reported from 37 of the 47 nations of Africa. Over 2,000 of these cases were found in Uganda. However, under-reporting and under-representation of the number of actual cases is still a problem. In many cases, there has been a failure to recognize the disease. The demographic and geographic distribution of seroprevalence is discussed. Because of the inaccuracies in AIDS reporting in Africa, epidemic forecasting is difficult. If 5 million are currently infected, a potential 50 million Africans may be infected by 1993. A further discussion of the risk factors for HIV-1 holds that promiscuity is the major problem. Cures and inexpensive treatments for the infection are years away. Energy, resources, and national committees in Africa and the world must be coordinated to combat the ultimate crisis of this century.

Mitei K, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Majanja J, Mwangi J, Njiri J, Wurapa E. "A review of laboratory-confirmed cases of human parainfluenza viruses in Kenya (2007-2011)." Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:E138. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Mitei K, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Majanja J, Mwangi J, Njiri J, Wurapa E. "A review of laboratory-confirmed cases of human parainfluenza viruses in Kenya (2007-2011).". 2012.
Mitei K, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Majanja J, Mwangi J, Njiri J, Wurapa E. "A review of laboratory-confirmed cases of human parainfluenza viruses in Kenya (2007-2011)." International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012;16:e138. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Kimani MW, Njoroge BNK, Ndunge D. "Review of Municipal Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of Nairobi, Kenya." Research Inventory: International Journal Of Engineering And Science.. 2014;4(2):16-20. Abstract

ABSTRACT : Solid waste management (SWM) is a major public health and environmental concern in urban areas of many developing countries. Nairobi’s solid waste situation, which could be taken to generally represent Kenya’s status, is largely characterized by low coverage of solid waste collection, pollution from uncontrolled dumping of waste, inefficient public services, unregulated and uncoordinated private sector and lack of key solid waste management infrastructure. Solid waste generated on daily basis is 4,016 tonnes as predicted by Allison (2010). The collection rate is as low as 33% (JICA, 2010) which leaves about 2,690 tonnes uncollected (almost equal to the total daily waste generation as predicted by JICA (1998)). Apart from Nairobi City Council (NCC), the body that has the primary responsibility for the provision and regulation of SWM services in the city, other actors have come into play such as private companies and community based organizations among others. The models of operation of these actors are not well understood. Effective coordination among these actors is also absent and regulation of the private companies by the city council is only beginning to emerge. According to Mwangi, 2007, analysis of total costs incurred by various actors and amount of waste collected per month showed that CBOs had the least fixed cost of operation as compared to private companies. Further, the CBOs had the lowest cost per tonne of waste collected as compared to other operators who showed almost twice this amount. These suggest that solid waste management is very expensive and CBOs are the cheapest operators of solid waste. Therefore, CBOs should be left as the waste operators in the low income areas where the residents are unable to pay a lot of money for waste management due to their low operating costs. Due to their relatively high operation costs, the private companies are more suited to operate in the high income areas and CBD where the residents or the owners of building are able to afford for the services. However, private enterprises are primarily interested in earning a return on their investment and may not be efficient due to the complexity of their operations outlay especially when proper coordination and SWM models are lacking.

KEY WORDS: Actors, Efficiency, Models and Solid Waste Management

Nalyanya KM, Rop RK, Onyuka AS, Birech Z. "A Review of Natural Plants as Sources of Substances for Cleaner Leather Tanning Technologies. ." Textile & Leather Review. 2021;4(3):137-148.
NYAWIRA DRRITHOCECILIA. "Review of Natural Resource Management Policy Studies in the East African Highlands Department of Agricultural Economics and ICRAF .". In: BOOK TITLE, Small Enterprises Management and Development. European Psychiatric Journal; 2004.
Njokah JMM. Review Of Omphaloceles (Exomphalos) In Kenyatta National Hospital 1976-1985.; 1985. Abstract

A retrospective study of the omphlocele has been done. The study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital which is the referral hospital for the Republic of Kenya and the teaching hospital for the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Nairobi.

This study covers a ten year period from 1976 ~ 194.

A total of 34 cases have been studied. The yearly incidence has 'heen static notwithstanding our high populati~n growth.

Among the 34 cases there were 18 males and 16

females. Of the 34 cases there were 19 survivals arid15 deaths.

12 deaths (80%) among the 15 followed early surgery.

Only 3 patients ha.dsurgery among 19 survivals. Tne 'major cause of death (6 out of 12) among the surgical cases was respiratory complications. Surgery had been performed within
1-3 days of birth.

Surgical management consisted of excision and repair of the o,mphalocele. Non-surgical regime entailed painting
i'
the omphalocele with mercurochrome (1 patient) or simply

daily clensing with antiseptics followed by sofratule
",
dressing (18 patients).

5

Complication of the ~mphaloceles occured in ~ cases only (Table 4). Malformations co-existing with omphalocele occured in 12 cases of which 7 died. In our series non-surgical regime produced more survival (84.2%) 16 out of 19

Gathura PB;, Kyule MN;, Kagiko MM;, Ogara WO;, Njeru FM;, Kitala PM. "Review of paper entitled: “Water supply and quality control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future."; 1998.
Gathura PB;, Kyule MN;, Kagiko MM;, Ogara WO;, Njeru FM;, Kitala PM. "Review of paper entitled: “Water supply and quality control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future."; 1998.
Gathura PB;, Kyule MN;, Kagiko MM;, Ogara WO;, Njeru FM;, Kitala PM. "Review of paper entitled: “Water supply and quality control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future."; 1998.
Gathura PB;, Kyule MN;, Kagiko MM;, Ogara WO;, Njeru FM;, Kitala PM. "Review of paper entitled: “Water supply and quality control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future."; 1998.
ABONG’ GEORGEOOKO, NDANYI VICTORIACLAIREMAKUNGU, KAAYA ARCHILEO, Shibairo S, Okoth MW, OBIMBO PETER. "A Review of Production, Post-harvest Handling and Marketing of Sweetpotatoes in Kenya and Uganda." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2016;4(3):162-181.abong_2016b_a_review_sweetpotatoes_kenya__uganda.pdf
Bishop RP, Odongo D, Ahmed J, Mwamuye M, Fry LM, Knowles DP, Nanteza A, Lubega G, Gwakisa P, Clausen P-H, Obara I. "A review of recent research on Theileria parva: Implications for the infection and treatment vaccination method for control of East Coast fever." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:56-67. Abstract

The infection and treatment (ITM) live vaccination method for control of Theileria parva infection in cattle is increasingly being adopted, particularly in Maasai pastoralist systems. Several studies indicate positive impacts on human livelihoods. Importantly, the first detailed protocol for live vaccine production at scale has recently been published. However, quality control and delivery issues constrain vaccination sustainability and deployment. There is evidence that the distribution of T. parva is spreading from endemic areas in East Africa, North into Southern Sudan and West into Cameroon, probably as a result of anthropogenic movement of cattle. It has also recently been demonstrated that in Kenya, T. parva derived from cape buffalo can 'breakthrough' the immunity induced by ITM. However, in Tanzania, breakthrough has not been reported in areas where cattle co-graze with buffalo. It has been confirmed that buffalo in northern Uganda national parks are not infected with T. parva and R. appendiculatus appears to be absent, raising issues regarding vector distribution. Recently, there have been multiple field population genetic studies using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences and sequencing of antigen genes encoding targets of CD8+ T-cell responses. The VNTR markers generally reveal high levels of diversity. The antigen gene sequences present within the trivalent Muguga cocktail are relatively conserved among cattle transmissible T. parva populations. By contrast, greater genetic diversity is present in antigen genes from T. parva of buffalo origin. There is also evidence from several studies for transmission of components of stocks present within the Muguga cocktail, into field ticks and cattle following induction of a carrier state by immunization. In the short term, this may increase live vaccine effectiveness, through a more homogeneous challenge, but the long-term consequences are unknown.

Nyamai CM, Mathu EM, Ngecu WM. A review of the geology of the Mozambique Belt in Kenya. In: Peters, J.W., Kesse, G.O. and Acquah, P.C., (Eds.). Accra, Ghana: Geological Society of Africa; 1993.
Kimalu PK, Nafula NN, Manda DK, Bedi A, Mwabu G. "A Review of the Health Sector in Kenya, KIPPRA Working Paper No. 11.". 2004.
Chemonges CC, Joshua N, Granai M, Lazzi S, Ndungu JR, Leoncini L. "A review of the sub-classification of lymph node biopsies reported as reactive lymphadenitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Int. J Pathol Clin Res. . 2021;7(1):120.
Kituku B, Muchemi L, Nganga W. "A Review on Machine Translation Approaches." Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 2016;1(1). Abstractfull website link

There is need to fill the gap between two entities which use different languages to communicate which can be done either via human translation or machine translation means. The world has over 7000 living natural languages, thus making it costly if human translation route is taken hence need for machine translation. There is need to know the available machine translation approaches and their requirement in order to decide which one suits for particular languages or not, hence the motivation for this survey. The survey provide overview and architectures of the three major techniques available namely: rule based translation, corpus based translation and hybrid based translation plus their subcategories available in each approach.

Otianga-Owiti'G.E, Onyango DW, Ouma JO, Njogu A, Mungania SK. "A review on methods employed in studying embryogenesis.". 2000. Abstract

In an endeavour to comprehend the mechanisms of vertebrate embryonic development including how the embryo attains its form and structures, biologist have over the years devised a number of methods. In all the techniques employed, the choice of the method is largely determined by the question to be answered amongst other factors. This review looks at the various methods that have been developed, ranging from the use of simple lenses through histological sectioning and direct manipulation to the use of biochemical probes and extracts

Nderitu JH. "A review on pests of grain legumes."; 1992.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Reviewed H. Glenn Hubert and Obrien, Principles of Economics.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2006.
NZUVE SNM. Reviewed Organization Theory, Study manual for Bachelor of Commerce distance learning. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 2008.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Reviewed two Papers for the Journal of Business and Management.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2006.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Reviewer for Decision Sciences Institute Conference Papers.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2004.
Gitari HI, Nyawade SO, Kamau S, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Raza MA, Maitra S, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Revisiting intercropping indices with respect to potato-legume intercropping systems.". 2020.
Obara I, Githaka N, Nijhof A, Krücken J, Nanteza A, Odongo D, Lubembe D, Atimnedi P, Mijele D, Njeri A, Mwaura S, Owido G, Ahmed J, Clausen PH, Bishop RP. "The Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick vector of Theileria parva is absent from cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) populations and associated ecosystems in northern Uganda." Parasitol Res. 2020;119(7):2363-2367. Abstract

Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is the major tick vector of Theileria parva, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that causes the most economically important and lethal disease of cattle in East and central Africa. The African cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the major wildlife host of T. parva from southern Uganda and Kenya to southern Africa. We show herein that R. appendiculatus appears to be absent from the two largest national parks in northern Uganda. Syncerus caffer is common in both of these national parks, specifically Murchison falls (MFNP) and Kidepo Valley (KVNP). We re-confirmed the previously reported absence of T. parva in buffalo sampled in the two northern parks based on RLB data using a nested PCR based on the T. parva p104 gene. By contrast, T. parva-infected R. appendiculatus ticks and parasite-infected buffalo were present in Lake Mburo (LMNP) in South central Uganda. This suggests that the distribution of R. appendiculatus, which is predicted to include the higher rainfall regions of northern Uganda, may be limited by additional, as yet unknown factors.

Ochieno DMW, Karoney EM, Muge EK, Nyaboga EN, Baraza DL, Shibairo SI, Naluyange V. "Rhizobium-linked nutritional and phytochemical changes under multitrophic functional contexts in sustainable food systems." Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021;4:283. Abstract
n/a
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Rice Husk Ash and its application as a cement replacement material in Kenya," J. Biochemiphysics, 2, 132.". In: Proceedings, Biochemical Society, Nairobi, Sept. 1996. Survey Review; 1993. Abstract
n/a
C O, K KC, N MJ. "Rice Straw and Egg Shell as Partial Replacements of Cement in Concrete." Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research. 2020;Vol 10(6):6481-6487.
Ndiba PK. "Risk assessment of metal leaching into groundwater from phosphate and thermal treated sediments." Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2010;136(4):427-434.
Magal1 RP, N.Wambua2 B. "Risk Assessment of the Coping and Adaptation Mechanisms for Pastoralists to Climate Change and Variability: A Case Study of Kongelai Ward, West Pokot County, Kenya." Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences(ISSN: 2321 – 1571). 2017;Volume 05(Issue 02, April 2017).
Magal1 RP, N.Wambua2 B, 3 SM. "Risk Assessment of Traditional Strategies, Values and Practices of Pastoralists to Climate Change and Variability: A Case of West Pokot County, Kenya." Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences (ISSN: 2321 – 1571). 2017;Volume 05(ssue 04, August 2017).
Mutinda, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, G.Muchemi. "Risk factors associated with infectious bursal disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod.. 2014.
Nsadha, Z., Saimo, M., Waiswa, C., Maingi, N., Ojok, L., Willingham III, A. L., Mutagwanja, R., Nyakarahuka L, Lubega GW. "Risk factors and lingual prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in the Lake Kyoga Basin in Uganda." African Journal of Animal and Biomedical Sciences . 2010;5(3):43-50.2010._risk_factors_and_lingual_prevalence_of_porcine_cycticercosis_in_uganda.pdf
Kerama SK, Okalebo FA, Nyamu DG, Guantai EM, Ndwigah SN, Maru SM. "Risk Factors and Management of Stress Ulcers in the Critical Care Unit in a Kenyan Referral Hospital." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2014;3(2):51-61. Abstract

Background:
Stress ulcers develop due to extreme physiological stress among critically ill patients. Data on it management is scant in resource limited settings.

Objectives:
To determine the incidence, risk factors and management of stress ulcers among adult patients admitted to the Critical Care Unit of a Kenyan referral hospital, Kenyatta National Hospital. The outcome of the prophylaxis was also evaluated.

Methodology:
This was a retrospective cohort study among 186 critically ill adult patients admitted between January and December, 2012. The data was extracted from patient files. Logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors for development of stress ulcers by manual forward stepwise model building.

Results:
Ninety percent of the patients received prophylaxis and this was done within 72 hours of admission. Twenty patients did not qualify for prophylaxis but received it. Most (76.4%) patients received prophylaxis with histamine 2 receptor blockers. The incidence of stress ulcers was 36.6% which was mainly treated with ranitidine (57.4% of cases) and omeprazole (38.8% of cases). The only diagnostic criteria were presence of the following clinical signs: epigastric tenderness (60 patients, 36.6%) and melena (3, 4.4%) and hematemesis (5, 7.4%). Mechanical ventilation of patients was the most important risk factor for stress ulcer development (adjusted OR: 43.76, 95% CI [5.067, 377.9]; followed by hospital stay for more than 7 days (adjusted OR: 11.88, 95% CI [3.923, 36.9]). Antibiotics (adjusted OR: 0.044, 95% CI [0.002, 0.936]) and benzodiazepines (adjusted OR: 0.074, 95% CI [0.013, 0.419] appeared to confer protection. Prophylaxis with histamine receptor antagonists did not seem to confer protection.

Conclusion:
The incidence of stress ulcers was high and methods for prophylaxis of stress ulcer need to be improved.

Key words: Stress ulcers, Critical care, antibiotics, benzodiazepines, antibiotics, CNS depressants

Kerama SK, Okalebo FA, Nyamu DG, Guantai EM, Ndwigah SN, Maru SM. "Risk factors and management of stress ulcers in the critical care unit in a Kenyan referral hospital. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2014;3(2):51-61.
Kerama SK, Okalebo FA, Nyamu DG, Guantai EM, Ndwigah SN, Maru SM. "Risk Factors and Management of Stress Ulcers inthe Critical Care Unit in a Kenyan Referral Hospital." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2014;3(2):51-61.
Otieno CF, Amayo EO, MCLIGEYO SO, Nyamu PN. "Risk factors and prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers at Kenvatta National Hospital, Nairobi."; 2003. Abstract

Diabetic foot ulcers contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of patients with diabetes mellitus. The diabetic patients with foot ulcers require long hospitalisation and carry risk of limb amputation. The risk factors for developing diabetic foot ulcers are manageable. In Kenya there is paucity of data on such risk factors. Objective: To determine the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers and the risk factors in a clinic-based setting . Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus who had active foot ulcers in both outpatient and inpatient units. Main outcome measures: Diabetic foot ulcers glycated haemoglobin, neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease and fasting lipid profile. Results: One thousand seven hundred and eighty eight patients with diabetes mellitus were screened and 82(4.6%) were found to have foot ulcers. The males and females with diabetic foot ulcers were compared in age, duration of foot ulcers, blood pressure, glycaemic control, neurological disability score and their proportion. Diabetic foot ulcers occurred mostly in patients who had had diabetes for a long duration. The types of (occurence) ulcers were neuropathic (47.5%), neuroischaemic (30.5%) and ischaemic (18%). The neuropathic ulcers had significantly poorer glycaemic control compared to other types and the longest duration (23.3 weeks). Ischaemic ulcers had significantly higher total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure compared to other ulcer types. Wagner stage 2 ulcers were the commonest (49.4%) but stage 4 ulcers had their highest neuropathic score (7.8/10) and longest duration (23.6weeks). Aerobic infective pathogens were isolated from 73.2% of the ulcers. Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers was 4.6% in this tertiary clinic. The risk factors of diabetic foot ulcers in the study were poor glycaemic control, diastolic hypertension, dyslipidaemia, infection and poor self-care. These findings are similar to studies done in other environments and they are modifiable to achieve prevention, delay in formation or improved healing of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. Therefore, specific attention should be paid to the management of these risk factors in patients with or without diabetes foot ulcers in this clinic.

Kihu, S.M., Gitao, C.G., Bebora, L.C., Njenga, M.J., Wairire, G.G., Karimuribo, E., Wahome, R.G., Maingi N. "Risk factors and socio-economic effects associated with spread of Peste des petits ruminants in Turkana District, Kenya.". In: 2nd Biennial Ruforum meeting. Kampala, Uganda; 2010.
Mutinda. WU, Nyaga. PN, Mbuthia. PG, Mbuthia. PG, G.Muchemi. "Risk factors associated with Infectious Bursal Disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya." Journal of Tropical animal Health and Production. 2014.
Njagi L W, Nyaga P N. "The risk factors associated with Newcastle disease occurrence in indigenous free – range chickens in Embu and Mbeere districts, Kenya. .". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2006.2006-risk_factors_of_nd-copy.pdf
Mulei IR, Nyaga P, Mbuthia P, Waruiru P, Evensen, Mutoloki S. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of infectious diseases in farmed rainbow trout and tilapia in Kenya.". In: 1st Eastern Africa Aquaculture Symposium and Exhibition (EAASE) 2016. African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD), Kiambu, Kenya; 2016.
Gachohi JW, Ng’ang’a JC, Maingi N, Githigia SM, Kanyari PN, Kagira JM. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya.". 2012.
Kagira JM, Kanyari PN, Githigia SM, Maingi N, Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2012;44:657-664.5_kagira_et_al_2012.pdf
Kagira JM, Kanyari PN, Githigia SM, Maingi N, Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2012;44(3):657-664.
Kagira J.M., Kanyari. P.W.N, Githigia, S.M., Maingi, N., Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free-range pigs in Busia District, Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 2011;44(3):657-664.2011._risk_factors_associated_with_occurence_of_nematodes_in_free-range_pigs_in_busia_district_kenye.pdf
Waruiru RM, Maina KW, Mbuthia PG, Nzalawahe J, Murugami JW, Njagi LW, Mdegela RH, Mavuti SK. "Risk factors associated with parasites of farmed fish in Kiambu County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 2017;5(4):217-223.
Maina KW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nzalawahe J, Njagi LW, Mdegela RH, Mavuti SK, Murugami JW. "Risk factors associated with parasites of farmed fish in Kiambu County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies . 2017;5(4):217-223.
KW M, Mbuthia P G, RM W, J N, JW M, Njagi L W, RH M, RH M, SK M. "Risk factors associated with parasites of farmed fish in Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2017;5(4):217-223.
Nemerimana M, Chege M, Odhiambo EA. "Risk Factors Associated with Severity of Nongenetic Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation) among Children Aged 2–18 Years Attending Kenyatta National Hospital." Neurology Research International. 2018. Abstract

Many of the nongenetic causal risk factors of intellectual disability (ID) can be prevented if they are identified early.
There is paucity on information regarding potential risk factors associated with this condition in Kenya.This study aimed to establish
risk factors associated with severity of nongenetic intellectual disability (ID) among children presenting with this condition at
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted over the period between March
and June 2017 in pediatric and child/youth mental health departments of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya. It included
children aged 2–18 years diagnosed with ID without underlying known genetic cause. Results. Of 97 patients with nongenetic
ID, 24% had mild ID, 40% moderate, 23% severe-profound, and 10% unspecified ID. The mean age of children was 5.6 (±3.6)
years. Male children were predominant (62%). Three independent factors including “labor complications” [AOR = 9.45, 95% CI =
1.23–113.29,

Kihu SM, Gitao CG, Bebora L, Njenga MJ, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Ndiwa NN. "Risk factors associated with spread of Peste des petits ruminants in Turkana district, Kenya.". In: Third RUFORUM Biennial Meeting. Kampala, Uganda; 2012.
Ndegwa EN, Mulei CM, Munyua SJM. "Risk Factors Associated With Subclinical Sub-acute Mastitis In Dairy Goats In Central Kenya.". 2001. Abstract

The prevalence of udder infections in clinically normal mammary gland halves of 315 dairy goats was determined over a three-month period by bacteriological examination. The most prevalent bacteria were Staphylococcus spp. (63.6%) followed by Micrococcus spp (17.7%). Of the Staphylococcus spp, coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most prevalent isolates (64.3%). Other bacteria were Acinetobactor spp. (5%), Actinomyces spp. (5%), and Streptococcus spp. (1.1%). The overall prevalence of intra-mammary bacterial infection was 28.7%. The effects of the type of the doe (milking/suckling), litter size, parity, type of housing, stage of lactation and milking hygiene on intra-mammary infection was determined using logistic multiple regression. The infection status of the udder was significantly influenced (p<0.05) by the type of housing and the milking hygiene. The does housed on earth floors were significantly (p<0.05) at a higher risk (odd ratio 9.9) of having bacteria isolated from their udders than the does housed in raised timber floors. Does that were not routinely washed with warm water before milking had significantly higher (p<0.05) intra-mammary bacterial infections (odd ratio 2.5) than those washed and dried with individual towels.

Shiroya-Wandabwa M, Yuko-Jowi C, Nduati R, Obimbo E, D. W. "Risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in children on treatment for cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. ." East Afr Med J. 2009 Dec;86(12 Suppl):S52-7.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

To determine the point prevalence of abnormal cardiac function and to assess the risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in paediatric oncology patients on treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital.
DESIGN:

Descriptive cross-sectional study with a nested case control.
SETTING:

Kenyatta National Hospital between February and April 2006.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Left ventricular dysfunction if ejection fraction (EF) <55% or fractional shortening (FS) <29% defined cases. Controls had EF >55% or FS >29%.
RESULTS:

One hundred and eleven patients were enrolled of whom 32 had abnormal cardiac function and were classified as cases while 79 had normal cardiac function. About a third, point prevalence 29% (95% CI 21.2-37.9), had cardiac dysfunction. Cumulative anthracycline dose was a risk factor for cardiac dysfunction in this population. Above 200 mg/m2 the attributable risk percentage of cardiac dysfunction was 77%.
CONCLUSIONS:

Serial echocardiography should be performed to identify patients at risk. Alternative treatment protocols should be used when the cumulative anthracycline dose exceeds 200 mg/m2 due to the high attributable risk. Studies to further assess the other associated risk factors and long term effects of anthracycline are recommended.

PMID:
21591510
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya
Samuel Kimani, BScN, MSc, Stephen Kainga, BScN, lV1argaret Chege, MPH, PhD, Miriam Wagoro, BScN,
MScN, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In a sub Saharan Africa cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases including diabetes are increasingly causing significant socio-economic and health burden. The increase has severely affected our health care systems already struggling with the burden of tropical and communicable diseases. Patients with diabetes are 2--4 times likely to develop cardiovascular disease and/or stroke. Although the risk factors for cardiovascular disease among type 2 diabetes may be known, there is inadequate information concerning diabetic patients attending Kenyarta National Hospital (KNH).

Objective: To determine risk for cardiovascular disease among patients with type 2 diabetes at KNH.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 147 participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
Participants were recruited consecutively after provision of written consent. The socio-demographics and
relevant clinical data were obtained. Cardiovascular assessment, heart rate, blood pressures, lipid profile,
and anthropometric parameters were obtained using standard clinical methods.

Results: Majority (63.3%) of the participants were hypertensive and suffered diabetes for more than 10 years. Additionally, they had higher (p < 0.05) total cholesterols; however, only 26.5% were on anti-lipidernia
therapy. The use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors was associated with reduced (P < 0.05) risk of
hypertension. Further, a significant number (69.2%) of participants added salt to food regularly and exhibited
significantly (p < 0.05) higher anthropometric parameters and psychological stress.

Conclusion: Our study underscores the role of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, psychological stress, higher
anthropometric parameters and high dietary salt intake as risk factors for cardiovascular disease among

MS Machoki MS, Saidi H, Raja H, Ndonga A, Njue A, Biomdo I, Kimani S, Arudo J, Mushtaq A. "Risk Factors for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Kenyan Population." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2015;12(1):38-43.
Nguhiu J, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G. "Risk factors for non-infectious claw disorders in dairy cows under varying zero-grazing systems.". In: A Bird's-Eye View of Veterinary Medicine. Rijeka Croatia: InTech Open Science Publishers; 2012.
Nguhiu J, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G. "Risk factors for non-infectious claw disorders in dairy cows under varying zero-grazing systems.". In: A Bird’s-Eye View of Veterinary Medicine. Rijeka Croatia: InTech Open Science Publishers; 2012. Abstract
n/a
Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Ayebazibwe B, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Risk Factors of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Case Control Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-7. AbstractWebsite

Purpose: Microbial keratitis (MK), is a frequent cause of sight loss worldwide, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of MK in Uganda.
Methods: Using a nested case control, we recruited healthy community controls for patients presenting with MK at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. Controls were individually matched for age, gender and village of the cases on a 1:1 ratio. We collected information on demographics, occupation, HIV and Diabetes Mellitus status. In STATA version 14.1, multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for risk factors of MK and a likelihood ratio test used to assess statistical significance of associations.
Results: Two hundred and fifteen case-control pairs were enrolled. The HIV positive patients among the cases was 9% versus 1% among the controls, = .0003. Diabetes 7% among the cases versus 1.4% among the controls, = .012. Eye trauma was 29% versus 0% among the cases and controls. In the multivariable model adjusted for age, sex and village, HIV (OR 83.5, 95%CI 2.01-3456, = .020), Diabetes (OR 9.38, 95% CI 1.48-59.3, = .017) and a farming occupation (OR 2.60, 95%CI 1.21-5.57, = .014) were associated with MK. Compared to a low socio-economic status, a middle status was less likely to be associated with MK (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.09-0.89, < .0001).
Conclusion: MK was associated with HIV, Diabetes, being poor and farming as the main occupation. More studies are needed to explore how these factors predispose to MK.

Mwangangi LEM, Juma R, Scott DK, Nyamu DG, Kuria KAM. "Risk factors, management and outcomes of adverse drug reactions in adult patients on antiretrovirals at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Antiretrovirals have been associated with serious adverse drug reactions. Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these factors may help in prevention and management of the adverse drug reactions.Current standard regimens in resource-limited countries are associated with an increased risk of adverse drug reactions. Almost half of adverse reactions are managed by addition of a non-anti-retroviral drug alone but 41% necessitated a change of anti-retrovirals.

Mwangangi LEM, Juma R, Scott DK, Nyamu DG, Kuria KAM. "Risk factors, management and outcomes of adverse drug reactions in adult patients on antiretrovirals at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Antiretrovirals have been associated with serious adverse drug reactions. Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these factors may help in prevention and management of the adverse drug reactions.Current standard regimens in resource-limited countries are associated with an increased risk of adverse drug reactions. Almost half of adverse reactions are managed by addition of a non-anti-retroviral drug alone but 41% necessitated a change of anti-retrovirals.

Mwangangi LEM, Juma R, Scott DK, Nyamu DG, Kuria KAM. "Risk factors, management and outcomes of adverse drug reactions in adult patients on antiretrovirals at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Antiretrovirals have been associated with serious adverse drug reactions. Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these factors may help in prevention and management of the adverse drug reactions.Current standard regimens in resource-limited countries are associated with an increased risk of adverse drug reactions. Almost half of adverse reactions are managed by addition of a non-anti-retroviral drug alone but 41% necessitated a change of anti-retrovirals.

Keter L, Too R, Mwikwabe N, Mutai C, Orwa J, Mwamburi L, Ndwigah S, Bii C, Korir R. "Risk of Fungi Associated with Aflatoxin and Fumonisin in Medicinal Herbal Products in the Kenyan Market. ." The Scientific World Journal . 2017;2017:1-6.
Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. "Risk of infection from E. coli O157: H7 through informally marketed raw milk in Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common.

Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. "Risk of infection from E. coli O157: H7 through informally marketed raw milk in Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common.

Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. "Risk of infection from E. coli O157: H7 through informally marketed raw milk in Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common.

Onjala J, Ndiritu SW, Stage J. "Risk perception, choice of drinking water and water treatment: evidence from Kenyan Towns." Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. 2014;04(2):268-280.
Onjala J, Ndiritu S, Stage J. "Risk Perception, Choice of Drinking Water, and Water Treatment.". In: Environment for Development Discussion Paper Series EfD DP 13-10 July 2013. Gothenborg Sweden: Environment for Development; 2013.water_risk_perception2013.pdf
Njenga M;, Karanja N;, Magoiya J. "Risks Associated with Urban Wastewater Irrigation and Production of Traditional African Vegetable (TAVs) Seeds in Nairobi, Kenya."; 2009. Abstract

Globally farmers use wastewater to irrigate crops because it also supplies plant nutrients and ensures all year round food availability. A study was carried out in Nairobi with farmers who used wastewater to produce both food and fodder along the Ngong/Motoine River to obtain an understanding of the benefits and risks associated with wastewater farming and to identify mitigation strategies. Farmers cultivated plots below 0.5 acres where they grew vegetables for home consumption, sale for employment. Analysis of the wastewater samples showed that heavy metal contents were within acceptable limits. However, investigation done on plant samples taken from selected crops showed that there was bioaccumulation of cadmium, chromium and lead to levels that were several times higher than the recommended critical limits. Determination of biological contamination samples from these farms and from the wet markets showed that produce from the markets had higher loads of faecal colifoms and parasitic eggs than vegetables irrigated with untreated water. One strategy for mitigating health risks associated with consumption of the contaminated vegetables was to introduce an alternative farming activity to farmers which in this case was to introduce production of Traditional African Vegetables seeds. Eight farmers have for two seasons been able to produce 30 kg of assorted seeds valued at KShs 30000 or USD 400. This has increased both income and assets for farming households and availability of quality seed for rural and urban farmers.

Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi L, Tripathi JN, Ntui VO, Obiero G, Muge E, Dale J. "RNAi technology for management of banana bunchy top disease." Food and Energy Security. 2020;9:e247. Abstract
n/a
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, NJIHIA JM. "Road Maintenance in Kenya: A Soft Systems Approach.". In: Conference Proceedings, all Africa Conference of Engineers,. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract

Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya.

Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Ndwigah SN, Lachenmeier DW. "A Robust Liquid Chromatographic Method for Confirmation of Drug Stability of Azithromycin in Bulk Samples, Tablets and Suspensions." Pharmaceutics. 2017;9(1):11. Abstract

A simple, isocratic and robust RP-HPLC method for the analysis of azithromycin was
developed, validated and applied for the analysis of bulk samples, tablets and suspensions. The
optimum chromatographic conditions for separation were established as a mobile phase comprised
of acetonitrile-0.1 M KH2PO4 pH 6.5-0.1 M tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide pH 6.5-water (25:15:1:59
v/v/v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The stationary phase consisted of reverse-phase
XTerra® (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) maintained at a temperature of 43 °C with a UV detection at 215 nm. The method was found to be linear in the range 50%–150% (r2 = 0.997). The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 0.02% (20 μg) and 0.078% (78 μg), respectively, with a 100.7% recovery of azithromycin. Degradation products of azithromycin in acidic and oxidative environments at 37 °C were resolved from the active pharmaceutical ingredient and thus the method is fit for the purpose of drug stability confirmation.

Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Ndwigah SN, Lachenmeier DW. "A Robust Liquid Chromatographic Method for Confirmation of Drug Stability of Azithromycin in Bulk Samples, Tablets and Suspensions." Pharmaceutics. 2017;9(1):11.
Kiarie E, Romero LF, Nyachoti CM. "The role of added feed enzymes in promoting gut health in swine and poultry." Nutr Res Rev. 2013;26(1):71-88. Abstract

The value of added feed enzymes (FE) in promoting growth and efficiency of nutrient utilisation is well recognised in single-stomached animal production. However, the effects of FE on the microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are largely unrecognised. A critical role in host nutrition, health, performance and quality of the products produced is played by the intestinal microbiota. FE can make an impact on GIT microbial ecology by reducing undigested substrates and anti-nutritive factors and producing oligosaccharides in situ from dietary NSP with potential prebiotic effects. Investigations with molecular microbiology techniques have demonstrated FE-mediated responses on energy utilisation in broiler chickens that were associated with certain clusters of GIT bacteria. Furthermore, investigations using specific enteric pathogen challenge models have demonstrated the efficacy of FE in modulating gut health. Because FE probably change the substrate characteristics along the GIT, subsequent microbiota responses will vary according to the populations present at the time of administration and their reaction to such changes. Therefore, the microbiota responses to FE administration, rather than being absolute, are a continuum or a population of responses. However, recognition that FE can make an impact on the gut microbiota and thus gut health will probably stimulate development of FE capable of modulating gut microbiota to the benefit of host health under specific production conditions. The present review brings to light opportunities and challenges for the role of major FE (carbohydrases and phytase) on the gut health of poultry and swine species with a specific focus on the impact on GIT microbiota.

Xu K, Xu Y, Zhang H, Peng B, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Yao M, Lu H, Zhu H, others. "The role of Anderson’s rule in determining electronic, optical and transport properties of transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 2018;20:30351-30364. Abstract
n/a
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "The Role of Aspect Ratio in the Elastic Modulus-Porosity Relationship of a Triaxial Porcelain." Journal of British Ceramic Transactions. 2000;99(5):206-211.
Ipara BO, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA, Makokha SN. "The role of chicken production systems and management practices on Newcastle Disease outbreaks in Kenya .". In: Tropentag Conference at Universities of Kassel & Goettingen. Germany; 2019.
Falco DG, Cerino G, Leucci E, Nyagol J, Cocco M, Onnis A, Tosi P, Giordano A, Leoncini L. "Role of chromatin remodelling mediated by the HIV-1 Tat protein in the genesis of the HIV-1-associated malignancies." Virchows Archives. 2008;452(S43).
Mutegi CK;, Hendriks SL;, Jones RB;, Okello JJ;, Ngugi HK. "Role of collective action and handling practices on aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts: evidence from Kenya."; 2007. Abstract

Groundnut is a major dietary component and a relatively cheap source of proteins for many people in western Kenya. In order to commercialize groundnut production, the government of Kenya, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and Catholic Relief Services mobilized growers into producer marketing groups (PMGs). The PMGs are trained on practices that minimize groundnut contamination with aflatoxin. This paper examines the effectiveness of PMGs as avenues for promoting practices that reduce the risk of groundnut contamination with aflatoxin based on a household survey conducted in Homabay district, western Kenya. Aflatoxin content of groundnuts samples obtained during the survey was determined by indirect competitive ELISA. The results indicated a significant (P<0.01) level of awareness about aflatoxins among farmers belonging to PMGs (90.6%) than those who did not (58.1%). A significantly higher percentage of PMG farmers practiced sorting and grading. In addition, a significantly (P<0.01) higher percentage of PMG respondents (89.5%) employed cultural methods of pest control compared with the non PMG farmers (52.2%). However, levels of aflatoxins in groundnut samples taken from both categories of farmers did not differ, suggesting a lag between the time farmers receive a message and its implementation. These results indicate that PMGs have contributed substantially to increased awareness about aflatoxins and underscore the need for up-scaling training of farmers on specific measures that reduce the risk of exposure.

Mutisya C, Ndeti N. "Role of Communication and Information Flow in the Adoption and Use of Mobile Technology by Women Entrepreneurs in Machakos County, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2016;Vol. 21(Issue 9):pp 10-23.
Mulwa M, Ndeti N, Muthini F. "The Role of Context of Use in the Stabilization of Mobile Banking Products: A Case of Selected Mobile Banking Products in Kenya." The International Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;Vol. 2,(Issue 6, June 2014):Pp 284-291.
Kweka 5. EJ, Owino EA, Mwang'onde BJ, Mahande AM, Nyindo M, Mosha F. "The role of cow urine in the oviposition site preference of culicine and Anopheles mosquitoes." Parasites & Vectors . 2011;4:184.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "The role of Dairy Cooperative Societies in providing services to small holder dairy farmers in Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
The role of dairy cooperative societies in providing services to small-holder dairy farmers in Kiambu District, Central Kenya was studied. Staff from 15 cooperative societies were interviewed during October to December 1992. In addition, 80 randomly sampled farmers from 6 randomly selected societies were questioned as to the current and potential services their cooperative society could provide. The primary objective of each society was to market milk for small-holder farmers. The price paid to farmers varied form ksh. 5.00 to ksh. 7.00 (US$ 0.15 to US$ 0.20) per litre and was influenced most by the proportion of milk the cooperative society was able to sell locally. A secondary objective for dairy societies was to provide inputs, such as credit and technical services to their members. Their ability to provide input and services increased with the number of members and the amount of cooperative levy charged on milk sales. The farmers sampled ranked the need for higher and more prompt payment for milk as their major concerns and the provision of veterinary services as a secondary concern. Farmers felt that dairy cooperative societies should assume more milk marketing and service responsibilities. Both the recent deregulation of milk marketing and the withdrawal of many government technical services should influence dairy cooperative societies to assume a greater role in these areas.
J. B, O. M, H. P, N.O. O, R. Š, E. V. "The role of dispersal and vicariance in the Pleistocene history of an East African mountain rodent,
 Praomys delectorum. ." Journal of Biogeography . 2014;41:196-208.
Karanja. DN;, Ngatia TA;, Wandera JG. "The Role of Donkeys in Trypanosoma congolense infections.".; 1994.
Karanja. DN;, Ngatia TA;, Wandera JG. "The Role of Donkeys in Trypanosoma congolense infections.".; 1994.
Mogotsi K, Nyangito MM, Nyariki DM. "The role of drought among agro-pastoral communities in a semi-arid environment: The case of Botswana.". 2013. Abstract

Agro-pastoral livelihoods in semi-arid Botswana have evolved and adapted to recurrent droughts endemic to the region. Droughts, more than any other phenomena, have shaped and influenced rural communities' interaction with their environment on which they eke a living. The physical aspect of droughts and their effects are well known, but the often subtle and complex dynamics emanating from drought outbreaks are less understood among communities. A study was conducted during the 2009/2010 season to investigate how communities in Kgalagadi North and Bobonong Sub-districts perceive droughts, anticipate droughts and which sections of the respective communities were most vulnerable to drought shocks. An extensive agro-ecological knowledge base, in form of environmental indicators, was used by communities to predict imminent droughts. Preparations included storing excess crop harvests during good years, storing crop residues for livestock, buying commercial feed to supplement livestock and seeking alternative sources of income outside the agricultural sector. In spite of these efforts, drought still affected the communities negatively mainly through increased livestock mortalities and crop failure-especially among poorer households. Subsequently, it is recommended that any effective aid interventions ought to understand and appreciate these dynamics to enhance resilience to future droughts and ensure sustainable rural development.

Okello JJ;, Lagervisk CJ;, Ngigi M;, Karanja N. "Role of Farmers’ Personal Values in Soil Fertility Management Decisions: Evidence from Means-End Chain Analysis of Peri-urban Leafy Vegetable Production in Kenya."; 2012. Abstract

Peri-urban areas play a major role in the supply of vegetables consumed in urban areas. In order to meet high demand for aesthetic quality characteristics, peri-urban farmers use intensive production practices characterized by use external inputs. This paper uses Means-End Chain analysis approach to examine the role farmers’ personal values play in the decision to use soil fertility improvement inputs namely, animal manures (organic fertilizer) and inorganic fertilizers. It found that use of animal manures and inorganic fertilizers was driven by the need to earn higher profit margins thus making more money in order to meet family needs. This in turn met farmers’ personal values relating to, among others, happiness, leading a comfortable life, independence and healthy life. The major implication of these findings was that farmers’ private goals could, with the urging of the market that demands unique aesthetic quality characteristics, promote intensive applications of both the organic and inorganic inputs with potential negative environmental consequences.

Okello JJ;, Lagervisk CJ;, Ngigi M;, Karanja N. "Role of Farmers’ Personal Values in Soil Fertility Management Decisions: Evidence from Means-End Chain Analysis of Peri-urban Leafy Vegetable Production in Kenya."; 2012. Abstract

Peri-urban areas play a major role in the supply of vegetables consumed in urban areas. In order to meet high demand for aesthetic quality characteristics, peri-urban farmers use intensive production practices characterized by use external inputs. This paper uses Means-End Chain analysis approach to examine the role farmers’ personal values play in the decision to use soil fertility improvement inputs namely, animal manures (organic fertilizer) and inorganic fertilizers. It found that use of animal manures and inorganic fertilizers was driven by the need to earn higher profit margins thus making more money in order to meet family needs. This in turn met farmers’ personal values relating to, among others, happiness, leading a comfortable life, independence and healthy life. The major implication of these findings was that farmers’ private goals could, with the urging of the market that demands unique aesthetic quality characteristics, promote intensive applications of both the organic and inorganic inputs with potential negative environmental consequences.

Mercy Y. Akinyi, Jenny Tung, Maamun Jeneby, Nilesh B. Patel, Jeanne Altmann, Alberts SC. "Role of grooming in reducing tick load in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus)." Animal Behavior. 2013;85:559-568.
Nyerere YFAGOJ, J. MO, D. Fuh N, Sulemana, Mutisya E, Fadairo O, Ameyaw J, Oluoko-Odingo AA. "The Role of Higher Education in Building a Sustainable African Society." African journal of Sustainable Development.. 2014;Vol. 4 (3), (Special).
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH, NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "The Role of Higher Education Loans Board in pro-poor management approaches to enhancing access to University Education in Kenya. Enos H.N. Njeru & Paul Odundo. 46p.". In: Discussion Paper No.036/2003. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. ISBN 9966-948-15-5. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract

The Republic of Kenya, through the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
(MoES&T) has, since independence in 1963, been committed to providing
quality and relevant education to its citizens at all levels. With increasing
population, adverse macroeconomic performance, and increasing cost of education
against increasing demand, the government introduced cost-sharing in
education at all levels. As such, payment of fees by those pursuing degree programmes
was introduced as part of the efforts by government to transfer the
cost of financing university education to the beneficiaries. To cushion the income-
poor against adverse financial difficulties, and to ensure that no eligible
students dropped out ofuniversity due to inability to finance their education, the
loan and bursary schemes were introduced to benefit all university students who
could not fully finance their education. In essence, the government established
the Higher Education Loans Board (HELB) in July 1995 to improve both loans'
disbursement and recovery.
The financial arrangements and processes in question have given rise to a number
ofkey questions and issues, including the need for efficiency in the management
of the scheme; extent to which the loan and bursary schemes effectively cushion
the vulnerable against dropping out ofuniversity; eligibility criteria; alternative
sources of financing university education; other factors against participation;
pertinent information handling; quality of governance in the disbursement
of loans; loan recovery and loan beneficiary tracer efforts; commitment to loan
repaying on the part ofthe beneficiaries; legal empowerment to enable the board
to deliver on its mandates through legislative status with regard to both loan
recovery and alternative sourcing of funds to supplement its regular budgetary
allocations; nature and levels ofnetworking with employers ofuniversity graduates
and other institutions; quality ofinformation content in loan application forms
to control cheating; parallel bursary schemes managed by HELB and MoES&T,
and equity issues as some needy students fail to benefit while some less needy
do benefit; nature and levels of funding co-ordination between HELB and other
bursary/scholarship/grant awarding and sponsor organizations. Other important
issues concern the high default rates, low visibility of HELB's activities, and
underdeveloped loans repayment monitoring structures.
Recommendations include revitalizing HELB into a revolving fund with minimal
budgetary allocation; strengthening and reforming attendant administrative and
efficiency monitoring structures where these exist, and creation of the same
where they do not exist.

Kariuki PM, Onyango CM, Lukhoba CW, Njoka JT. "The Role of Indigenous Knowledge on Use and Conservation of Wild Medicinal Food Plants in Loita Sub-county, Narok County." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. 2018;28(2):1-9.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Role of Indigenous NGO's in Africa Development: Consultancy Report Prepared On Behalf of Voluntary Agents Development Assistance (VADA), Nairobi, October, 1986.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1986. Abstract
n/a
J.O'Connell P, Brown M, Chan TM, Granado RC-D, J.Davies S, Eiam-Ong S, H.Hassan M, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, E.Martin D, Muller E, Ossareh S, Tchokhonelidze I, Trask M, Twahir A, J.O.Were A, Yang C-W, Zemchenkov A, N.Harden P. "The role of kidney transplantation as a component of integrated care for chronic kidney disease." Science Direct. 2020.Website
Ndungu MN. "The Role of Kiswahili in Promoting Peace and Unity in Kenya.". In: National Symposium on Post Election Peace Building . Catholic University of Eastern Africa; Submitted.
Nyapela MA. "The Role of Knowledge Management in Life-Saving Initiatives: Case of COVID-19 Pandemic." The Role of Knowledge Management in Life-Saving Initiatives: Case of COVID-19 Pandemic . 2020.
Nyabuga G. "The Role of Media in Ethnic Splits and Violent Conflict in East Africa.". In: Society for International Development Identities, Resources, Politics and Violent Conflict round table meeting. Nairobi, Kenya; 2009.
Mganga KZ, Musimba NKR, Nyangito MM, Nyariki DM, Mwangombe AW, Ekaya WN, Muiru WM, Clavel D, Francis J, von Kaufmann R, Verhagen J. "The Role of Moisture in the Successful Rehabilitation of Denuded Patches of a Semi-Arid Environment in Kenya." Journal of environmental Science and technology . 2010;3(4):195-207. Abstract

This study investigated the role of moisture in the successful rehabilitation of denuded patches in semi-arid lands of Kenya and the primary productivity of three perennial rangelands grasses namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail), Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) and Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) at three phenological stages (early growth, elongation and reproduction) as pure stands and two-grass mixtures. The grasses were sown on either rainfed (Sites 1 and 2) or simulated rainfall conditions (site 3). Site preparation in all the 3 sites involved mechanical bush clearing, use of fire and creation of micro-catchments using an ox-drawn plough. Soils in site 3 were sandy clay loams and those in sites 1 and 2 were sandy clays. There was total failure in establishment sites 1 and 2 under natural rainfall. Site 3 had good germination and subsequent establishment. These results were attributed to the moisture conditions in the three sites. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in primary production of the three grasses at the different phenological stages. Cenchrus ciliaris was the most productive among the three grasses at the reproduction stage. Eragrostis superba and Enteropogon macrostachyus were ranked second and third respectively. Enteropogon macrostachyus was more prolific at the early growth stages. Results from this study strongly suggest that moisture is the most important ecological factor necessary for successful rehabilitation of denuded patches in semi-arid environments of Kenya and that differences in primary production among the three grass species can be attributed to their growth, morphological and physiological characteristics and competitive advantage.

Mganga KZ, Msimba NKR;, Nyangito, Moses M, Nyariki D, Mwang'ombe AW, Ekaya W, Muiru W, Clavel D, Francis J, von Kaufmann R, Vergahen J. "The role of moisture in the successful rehabilitation of denuded patches of a Semi-Arid environment in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

This study investigated the role of moisture in the successful rehabilitation of denuded patches in semi-arid land, of Kenya and the primary productivity of three perennial rangelands grasses namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail), Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) and Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) at three phenological stages (early growth, elongation and reproduction) as pure stands and two-grass mixtures. The grasses were sown on either rainfed (Sites 1 and 2) or simulated rainfall conditions (site 3). Site preparation ill all the 3 sites involved mechanical bush clearing, use of fire and creation of micro-catchments using an ox-drawn plough. Soils in site 3 were sanely clay loams and those in sites 1 and 2 were sandv clavs. There was total failure in establishment ,./ ..I :' • sites 1 and 2 under natural rainfall. Site 3 had good germination and subsequent establishment These results were attributed to the moisture conditions in the three sites. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in primary production of the three grasses at the different phenological stages. Cenchrus ciliaris was the most productive among the three grasses at the reproduction stage. Eragrostis superba and Enteropogon macrostachyus were ranked second and third respectively. Enterapogan macrostachyus was more prolific at the early growth stages. Results from this study strongly suggest that moisture is the most important ecological factor necessary for successful rehabilitation of denuded patches in semi-arid environments of Kenya and that differences in primary production among the three grass species can be attributed to their growth. morphological and physiological characteristics and competitive advantage.

Oredo J, Njihia J, Iraki XN. "The Role of Organizing Vision in Cloud Computing Adoption by Organizations in Kenya." American Journal of Information Systems. 2017;5(1).
P.M M, Ndiritu J. Role of Parliament in Peacebuilding. VDM Verlag Dr. Muller, German ISNB 978-3-639-36651-8; 2011.
Nzainga H, Olale P. "The Role of Participatory Planning for Effective Environmental Management .". In: UNCRD Workshop on Environmental Protection and Capacity Building for Conflict Prevention .; 2013.
Nyarwath O. "The Role of Philosophy in Social Development." Hekima: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. 2005;III(1):53-65.
Hassan M, Agaba M, Bulimo W, Noyes, Brass A, Hinsley T, Iraqi F, Kemp S. "Role of plasma lipids in the susceptibility of laboratory mice to trypanosomosis." In: Rege JEO, Nyamu AM, Sendalo D, eds. The role of biotechnology in animal agriculture to address poverty in Africa: Opportunities and challenges. Proceedings of the 4th All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture and the 31st annual meeting of Tanzania Society for Animal Production, Arusha, . Arusha, Tanzania: TSAP (Tanzania Society for Animal Production), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya.; 2006:. Abstract

The current debate on agricultural biotechnology is, at best, confusing—even to the better informedsections of the public. A complex set of issues, all intertwined, combine to complicate the debate.These include, ethical, moral, socio-economic, political, philosophical and scientific points ofview being expressed. While champions provide fascinating arguments illuminating howbiotechnology could save the world from poverty and hunger, opponents deride it as the doomsdaydevil of agriculture. The rest of the public remain sandwiched between the two camps eitherengaged enough to take a semi-informed stand or indifferent to the discussions.Africa is emerging as one of the frontlines in the battle for acceptance (or otherwise) of agriculturalbiotechnology. For Africa, the debate is occurring at a crucial time. The local policy makers whowill ultimately decide on the future of biotechnology, including genetically modified foods, arebeing pushed and pulled in both directions. Only a few countries, namely Burkina Faso, Egypt,Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe are involved in some form of biotechnology researchor (at least for South Africa) commercial use, especially in crop agriculture. A few of thesecountries have introduced regulations to govern transgenic agriculture.Clearly, biotechnology issues specific to Africa must include crop and animal productivity, foodsecurity, alleviation of poverty and gender equity, and discussions must not be allowed todegenerate into political and philosophical battles, usually led by those who are least affected bythe plight of the poor in the continent. Like any new technology, the risks and benefits ofbiotechnology should be assessed in a cost–benefit analysis framework. The final verdict on awell-tested technology should be untainted by views of zealots on either side of the debate,driven by the needs of the people and supported by solid scientific facts taking into considerationsocial and monetary costs and benefits. In all the debate to date, the application of biotechnologyin animal agriculture has received much less consideration than that for crops. With a focus onthe animal sector of agriculture, this conference was designed to provide opportunity for expertsand policy makers to examine the potential role of the public sector (notably national governmentsin developing countries and development partners), the private sector and public–privatepartnerships that could facilitate North–South transfer of relevant biotechnology.The overall objective of the conference was to provide an opportunity for African scientists andthe broader stakeholder groups of the livestock sector to discuss the potential role of biotechnologyin animal agriculture to improve the livelihoods of African people. The conference aimed toattempt, through discussions of a series of papers, to answer the questions: Is biotechnology amenace or an opportunity to address the pressing needs for sustainable livelihoods of poor people?What are the potentials and limitations/threats of biotechnology? The conference organisersenvisioned that at the end of the conference some of the following questions would have beenaddressed, at least in part: Are there proven technologies currently available which Africa canimmediately take up to address the known constraints? What are the current technical andinstitutional constraints to livestock biotechnology research and development in Africa? Howcan Africa organise itself to take full advantage of available opportunities and to minimise possiblethreats?The conference was organised by the All Africa Society for Animal Production (AASAP) inassociation with the Tanzania Society for Animal Production (TSAP). We would like to expressour gratitude to the sponsors of the conference. Special thanks are due to the Government of theUnited Republic of Tanzania which was a major sponsor and also host of the conference, presentersand authors of papers and posters, our colleagues on the organising committee, institutions,groups and individuals who assisted in one way or the other, and everyone who attended theconference.While the following pages provide a good coverage of the proceedings of the conference, theydo not, indeed could not, cover the sense of enthusiasm and commitment that characterised theconference itself. Contributions were critical, open and frank, but also constructive and objectivein content. The conference atmosphere was truly that of a sense of purpose by a people united toaccomplish a task, i.e. to translate the potential of biotechnology for Africa into improvedlivelihoods for Africa’s people. The collegial atmosphere also provided opportunity for networkingby participants from across the continent and with colleagues from other corners of the globe.Many new friendships were made, old ones strengthened/renewed, and collaborations born. Wehave made no attempt to summarise the outcomes of the wide array of discussions on the manypapers presented in the six sessions of the conference. After the conference, presenters wereasked to submit or revise their papers, taking into account the issues raised during the conferencediscussions. The papers were then subjected to light technical reviews and language editing, thusensuring that the intellectual content remains that of the authors.It is our hope that these proceedings will provide useful reference material for those interested inbiotech applications in animal agriculture in developing countries generally and Africa inparticular.

Ogutu BR, Nzila AM, Ochong E, Mithwani S, Wamola B, Olola CH, Lowe B, Kokwaro G, Marsh K, Newton CR. "The role of sequential administration of sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine following quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria in children.". 2005. Abstract

Sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) is often administered with quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria to shorten the course of quinine. The efficacy of SP alone in the treatment of non-severe malaria has been declining rapidly in East Africa, raising concerns of the usefulness of a shortened course of quinine followed SP. We audited the efficacy of quinine/SP in the treatment of severe malaria in Kenyan children. Children with severe falciparum malaria were treated with parenteral quinine followed by a single oral dose of SP. A clinical evaluation was performed 3 weeks later in which a blood sample was obtained for full haemogram, blood slide and analysis of the parasite dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) codons, mutations of which are associated with resistance to SP. A total of 452 children were enrolled, of whom 374 completed the study. Fifty-two (13.9%) children were parasitaemic by 3 weeks of whom 17 (4.5%) had fever as well. The treatment failure group had a significantly higher parasitaemia (129 061 vs. 43 339; P<0.001) and haemoglobin on admission, but only admission parasitaemia independently predicted treatment failure. Those with treatment failure had a significantly lower rise in haemoglobin at 3 weeks compared with treatment successes (9.0 vs. 10.0 g/dl). Of the 76 parasite isolates collected before treatment, 40 (53%) were triple mutant DHFR-double DHPS (Tp-Db), the genotype most associated with SP resistance. Three weeks after SP treatment, the proportion of Tp-Db increased to 72% (31/43). The high treatment failure rate and proportion of parasites with Tp-Db negate the use of SP to shorten the course of quinine treatment in East Africa

Anzala AO, Simonsen JN, Kimani J, Ball TB, Ngugi EN, Bwayo JJ, Nagelkerke N, Kakai NJD, Plummer FA. "Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Accelerated HIV-1 Disease Progression.". 2000.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Role of Small Towns in Kenya's National Development." African Urban Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 3 and 4, August and Nov. 1990.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1990. Abstract
n/a
Odundo P, Njeru EHN. "The role of the Higher Education Loans Board in pro-poor management approaches to enhancing access to university education in Kenya." Institute of Policy Analysis & Research. 2003;Discussion paper No. 036/2003(ISBN 9966-948-15-5).
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "The role of traditional medicine in ophthalmology in Kenya. Kimani V, Klauss V. Soc Sci Med. 1983;17(22):1827-30.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1983;17(22):1827-30. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1983. Abstract

45 Kenyan traditional healers were interviewed with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. Traditional management of eye diseases is based on the healers' concept of the disease causation as well as their knowledge of the herbal, animal and chemical substances that possess (or are reported to possess) remedial effect on the disease. While many of the healers interviewed failed to give a clear distinction between the various eye conditions, diseases such as cataract, foreign bodies and injuries were recognized easily. In almost all cases the medicinal substances were first diluted in water before they were applied to the eyes. Human milk, blood and the white of the egg were the animal substances listed as medicinal to various eye conditions. A solution of sugar was one of the chemical substances used in the treatment of specific eye conditions. Given correct information, some of these healers could f

Ipara BO, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA, Makokha SN. "The role of unregulated chicken marketing practices on the frequency of Newcastle Disease outbreaks in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2019;12(24):2093-2100. AbstractWebsite

In developing countries, chicken trade is characterized by complex chains comprising of many actors with limited biosecurity. This increases the spread of chicken diseases like Newcastle disease (ND). In Kenya, there is lack of uniformity in practices used in live bird markets, leading to increased disease outbreaks. This study aimed at assessing the effects of the chicken marketing practices on the frequency of ND outbreaks. A Poisson regression (PRM) was used on data collected from 336 traders selected using multi-stage sampling in Kakamega, Machakos, and Nairobi. Results highlight the low access of trainings and credit by traders. From the PRM results, breed composition, market channel, transportation, origin of birds, mixing of birds, slaughter of birds, disposal of waste, and housing as well as trader attributes like ND awareness, licensing, gender, and age had significant effects on the frequency of ND outbreaks. The study recommends that County governments collaborate with development partners to develop innovative ways of disseminating information on ND. The County governments should invest in market infrastructure such as slaughter facilities, special shelters and waste disposal equipment. There is also need for enforcement of biosecurity and hygiene measures through regular market inspections.

Keywords: biosecurity; live bird market; marketing channel; unregulated practice.

Otieno Z, Okello JJ, Nyikal R, Mwang'ombe AW, Clavel D. "The role of varietal traits in the adoption of improved dryland crop varieties: The case of pigeon pea in Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

This study uses a multivariate probit model and the Poisson regression to examine the role of varietal attributes in farmers’ adoption of improved pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) varieties in Taita District, Kenya. It is based on data collected from 200 households stratified by adoption of improved pigeon pea varieties between April and May 2009. The study finds correlation in the decisions made by farmers to adopt different varieties, implying that using simple probit analysis could yield biased and inefficient results. The results further indicate that the major pigeon pea varietal traits driving rapid adoption are drought tolerance, pest tolerance, yield, ease of cooking, taste and price. Early maturity, a major focus of recent research, has no effect on farmers’ adoption decisions. These findings imply that developers of improved crop varieties should pay attention to consumption and market characteristics in addition to production traits to increase technology uptake and satisfy farmers’ multiple needs.

Zipora O, Okello J, Nyikal R, Mwang’ombe A, Clavel D. "The role of varietal traits in the adoption of improved dryland crop varieties: The case of pigeon pea in Kenya." AfJARE. 2011;6(2):176-193 . AbstractWebsite

This study uses a multivariate probit model and the Poisson regression to examine the role of varietal attributes in farmers’ adoption of improved pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) varieties in Taita District, Kenya. It is based on data collected from 200 households stratified by adoption of improved pigeon pea varieties between April and May 2009. The study finds correlation in the decisions made by farmers to adopt different varieties, implying that using simple probit analysis could yield biased and inefficient results. The results further indicate that the major pigeon pea varietal traits driving rapid adoption are drought tolerance, pest tolerance, yield, ease of cooking, taste and price. Early maturity, a major focus of recent research, has no effect on farmers’ adoption decisions. These findings imply that developers of improved crop varieties should pay attention to consumption and market characteristics in addition to production traits to increase technology uptake and satisfy farmers’ multiple needs.

ndeti ndati, M M. "The Role of Wireless Communication in Financial Inclusion: A Case of Agency Banking in Kenya.". In: East African Communication Association. St Augustine University, Tanzania; 2012.
NJAMBI MSKINYUNGUALICE, WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "The Role of Women in Rural Land Management and the Impact of HIV/AIDS .". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; 2006. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
NYAWIRA DRRITHOCECILIA. "The Role of Women in Small-scale Farm Production in Kenya. Presented at the workshop organized by the Ford Foundation on Women in Agricultural Production in Eastern and Southern Africa. 9th - 11th April, 1980 in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: workshop organized by the Ford Foundation on Women in Agricultural Production in Eastern and Southern Africa. 9th - 11th April, 1980 in Nairobi, Kenya. European Psychiatric Journal; 1980.
Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Ni G, Wu L, Li J, Lu H, Jin Q, Zhu H. "Room-temperature bound exciton with long lifetime in monolayer gan." ACS Photonics. 2018;5:4081-4088. Abstract
n/a
Scott-Villier P, Ondicho T, Lubaale G, Ndungu D, Kabala N, Oosterom M. Roots and Routes of Political Violence in Kenya's Civil and political Society: A case Study of Marsabit County. London: IDS; 2014.
NYABOKE DROBAEMOSOTIROSE. "Rose Mosoti-Obae, Achieving full enrolment in Kenya. A projection by Dr. Gravinir and R. Mosoti Obae.: Maseno Journal of Education, Art and Science Vol. No.1.". In: Maseno Journal of Education, Art and Science Vol. No.1. Opuscula Mathematica,; Submitted. Abstract
Most economically developing countries, after having implemented the democratization of primary education, are now setting their sights on the goal of achieving full enrolment in countries a gradual approach of increasing enrolment annually into secondary schools is perhaps the only realistic option available. This study attempts to project, given this gradual approach, in how many years full enrolment will be achieved not only in each of the 6 provinces in Kenya but also in Kenya as a whole. The results obtained show two distinct categories of provinces: the educationally advantaged provinces which are likely to achieve full enrolment about twenty years before the group of educationally disadvantaged provinces do so.
Nyagol J, Nyong'o A, BYAKIKA B, Muchiri L, Cocco M, de Santi MM, Spina, D; Bellan C, Lazzi S, Kostopoulos I, Luzi P, Leoncini L. "Routine assessment of hormonal receptor and her-2/neu status underscores the need for more therapeutic targets in Kenyan women with breast cancer.". 2006. Abstract

To report the expression of estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her-2/neu) in 158 Kenyan women with breast cancer and correlation with other prognostic indicators in this high-risk group. This study stressed the importance of routine assessment of the steroid receptors and Her-2/neu as a mode of therapeutic selection of patients for antihormonal or targeting monoclonal antibody (Herceptin) therapy, directed at the juxtamembrane domain of Her-2/neu protein in the developing countries such as Kenya. STUDY DESIGN: The study population consisted of 158 female patients with histologically confirmed breast carcinoma seen at the pathology department of The Nairobi Hospital. An immunohistochemical (IHC) study of ER, PR and Her-2/neu was conducted, followed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) validation for Her-2/neu gene amplification in cases initially scored as positive 2+ with IHC. Mastectomy samples registered at the pathology department of The Nairobi Hospital were used for this study. The study was approved by the institution's ethical review committee and informed consent obtainedfrom the concerned patients. RESULTS: In the studied cohort, positivity for both hormonal receptors and Her-2/neu was noted in 10 (6.33%) cases and negativity in 44 (27.85%) cases. Conversely, Her-2/neu negativity was noted in 32 (20.25%) cases with both steroid receptors positive and Her-2/neu positivity with both steroid receptors negative in 20 (12.66%) cases. Overall, no predictive factor was found in the Her-2/neu amplified 31/153 (20.26%) cases completely assessed with IHC and FISH. Grade III invasive ductal carcinomas, however, had a high prevalence of Her-2/neu overexpression. Association of both menopausal status (p = 0.044) and progesterone receptor status (p = 0.004) with high grade tumors were found to be statistically significant at 95% CI (p < 0.5). Consistent with other studies, Her-2/neu overexpression in this cohort was 20.26%. CONCLUSION: Her-2/neu positivity may activate ER expression through signaling kinases, and the combined target of mitogenic estrogen plus the monoclonal antibody therapy against Her-2/neu-overexpressing tumors expand chances of survival for patients in developing countries such as Kenya. The cost factor for these tests, selection for appropriate combined therapies and lack of awareness were noted as limiting factors for access to basic health care service and resulted in advanced tumor grade at time of patient presentation.

Chhetri BBK;, Lund JF;, Nielsen ØN. "Rural development potential of Community Forestry in Nepal."; 2010.
Chhetri BBK;, Lund JF;, Nielsen ØN. "Rural development potential of Community Forestry in Nepal."; 2010.

UoN Websites Search