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Njenga D, Irungu B, Mbaria J, Mutai C, Nguta J. "Antiplasmodial activity, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of Zanthoxylum Chalybeum Engl. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences,." World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences,. 2016;5(11), :208-217.
Chepkirui C, Ochieng PJ, Sarkar B, Hussain A, Pal C, Yang LJ, Coghi P, Akala HM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia. 2020;149:104796. AbstractFitoterapia

Abstract
Five known compounds (1–5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Similar investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6–8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Some of the compounds were also tested for antileishmanial activity. Dehydrolupinifolinol (2) and sericetin (5) were active against drug-sensitive Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) with IC50 values of 9.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively. In a cytotoxicity assay, lupinifolin (3) showed significant activity on BEAS-2B (IC50 4.9 μM) and HePG2 (IC50 10.8 μM) human cell lines. All the other compounds showed low cytotoxicity (IC50 > 30 μM) against human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549), human liver cancer cells (HepG2), lung/bronchus cells (epithelial virus transformed) (BEAS-2B) and immortal human hepatocytes (LO2)

Graphical abstract
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Chepkirui C, Ochieng PJ, Sarkar B, Hussain A, Pal C, Yang LJ, Coghi P, Akala HM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia. 2020;149:104796. AbstractFitoterapia

Description
A new flavanonol, 3-hydroxyerythrisenegalone (1), and four known compounds (2–5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6–8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Some of the compounds were also tested for antileishmanial activity. Dehydrolupinifolinol (2) and sericetin (5) were active against drug-sensitive Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) with IC50 values of 9.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively. In a cytotoxicity assay, erythrisenegalone (3) showed significant …

Chepkirui C, Ochieng PJ, Sarkar B, Hussain A, Pal C, Yang LJ, Coghi P, Akala HM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia. 2021;149:104796. AbstractView Website

Description
Five known compounds (1–5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Similar investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6–8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Some of the compounds were also tested for antileishmanial activity. Dehydrolupinifolinol (2) and sericetin (5) were active against drug-sensitive Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) with IC50 values of 9.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively. In a cytotoxicity assay, lupinifolin (3) showed significant activity on BEAS-2B (IC50 4.9 μM) and HePG2 (IC50 10.8 μM …

CN M, Keriko JM, Mutai C, A Y, Gathirwa JW, Irungu BN, Nyangacha R, Mungai GM, s. D. "Antiplasmodial potential of traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru-Tharaka Nithi County of Kenya." J Ethnopharmacol.. 2015;175(3):15-23. Abstract

J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Dec 4;175:315-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.017. Epub 2015 Sep 25.
Antiplasmodial potential of traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru-Tharaka Nithi County of Kenya.
Muthaura CN1, Keriko JM2, Mutai C3, Yenesew A4, Gathirwa JW5, Irungu BN5, Nyangacha R5, Mungai GM6, Derese S4.
Author information
Abstract
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Medicinal plants play a major role in many communities across the world, in the treatment and prevention of disease and the promotion of general health. The aim of the study was to escalate documentation from an earlier study of medicinal plants, traditionally used to combat malaria by the Ameru community of Imenti Forest area and Gatunga in Eastern Region of Kenya, and validate their ethnopharmacological claims by evaluating their antiplasmodial efficacies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The study was carried out in Meru County at Imenti Forest Game Reserve and in Tharaka Nithi County at Gatunga. Traditional health practitioners (THP) were interviewed with a standard questionnaire to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for management of malaria. Group interviews were also held among THPs and members of the community. The antiplasmodial activities of the crude extracts against chloroquine sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum were determined using the semi-automated micro-dilution technique that measures the ability of the extracts to inhibit the incorporation of (G-3H) hypoxanthine into the malaria parasite.
RESULTS:
Ninety nine (99) species in eighty one (81) genera and forty five (45) families were documented and evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity. Compositae, Fabaceae, Meliceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae had the highest number of species mentioned in treatment of malaria in Meru/Tharaka Nithi study area. Twenty four (24.2%) species showed antiplasmodial efficacy of IC50≤5µg/ml and were considered to have potential for isolation of antimalarial compounds. Eight plant (8) species with moderate antiplasmodial activity namely; Cordia africana, Commiphora africana, Elaeodendron buchananii, Gomphocarpus semilunatus, Tarena graveolens, Plectranthus igniarius, Acacia senegal and Ziziphus abyssinica were documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. The antiplasmodial activity of MeOH root bark extract of Maytenus obtusifolia was very promising (IC50<1.9µg/ml) and this is the first report on traditional use of M. obtusifolia for treatment of malaria and antimalarial activity.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results seem to indicate that ethnopharmacological inquiry used in search for new herbal remedies as predictive and could be used as the basis for search of new active principles. Eight plant (8) species are documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. This is the first report on traditional use of M. obtusifolia for treatment of malaria and evaluation of its antiplasmodial activity.

Endale M, Alao JP, Akala HM, Rono NK, Eyase FL, Solomon D, Ndakala A, Mbugua M, Walsh DS, Erdelyl M, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial Quinones from Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata." Planta Medica . 2012;78(1):31-35.
N. MM. "Antiplasmodial Quinones from Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata." Planta medica. 2012; 78 :31-35. Abstract

The dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extracts of the roots of Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata showed low micromolar (IC(50) = 0.9-3 µg/mL) IN VITRO antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant (W2) and chloroquine-sensitive (D6) strains of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. Chromatographic separation of the extract of PENTAS LONGIFLORA led to the isolation of the pyranonaphthoquinones pentalongin (1) and psychorubrin (2) with IC(50) values below 1 µg/mL and the naphthalene derivative mollugin (3), which showed marginal activity. Similar treatment of Pentas lanceolata led to the isolation of eight anthraquinones ( 4-11, IC(50) = 5-31 µg/mL) of which one is new (5,6-dihydroxydamnacanthol, 11), while three--nordamnacanthal (7), lucidin-ω-methyl ether (9), and damnacanthol (10)--are reported here for the first time from the genus Pentas. The compounds were identified by NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques.

Njenga D, Irungu B, Mbaria J, Mutai C, Nguta JM. "Antiplasmodial, Cytotoxic and Acute Toxicity Activities of Vernonia lasiopus O. Hoffman." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2015;4(1):16-20.
Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

Yenesew A., and N. Mascolo, A. Pinto DE. "Antipyretic and analgesic studies of the ethanolic extract of Teclea nobilis Delile." Phytotherapy Research. 1988; 2:154-156. Abstractpaper_6_mascolo_et_al_phytotherapy_1988.pdf

The crude ethanol extract of the leaves of an African medicinal plant Teclea nobilis has been studied for its antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The extract exhibited marked antipyretic and analgesic activities while it was found to be weakly active against carrageenin oedema.

Graham SM, Masese L, Gitau R, Jalalian-Lechak Z, Richardson BA, Peshu N, Mandaliya K, Kiarie JN, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Antiretroviral adherence and development of drug resistance are the strongest predictors of genital HIV-1 shedding among women initiating treatment." J. Infect. Dis.. 2010;202(10):1538-42. Abstract

Persistent genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) shedding among women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) may present a transmission risk. We investigated the associations between genital HIV-1 suppression after ART initiation and adherence, resistance, pretreatment CD4 cell count, and hormonal contraceptive use. First-line ART was initiated in 102 women. Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA levels were measured at months 0, 3, and 6. Adherence was a strong and consistent predictor of genital HIV-1 suppression (P < .001), whereas genotypic resistance was associated with higher vaginal HIV-1 RNA level at month 6 (P = .04). These results emphasize the importance of adherence to optimize the potential benefits of ART for reducing HIV-1 transmission risk.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Okombo J, Singh K, Ndubi F, Barnard L, Wilkson C, Peter M. Njogu, Mireille V, Keiser Jennifer, Egan T, Chibale K. "Antischistosomal activity of pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives and correlation with inhibition of β-hematin formation." ACS Infect. Dis.. 2017;3:411-420.
Wadegu. M, Bulimo. WD, Achilla. RA, Majanja. J, Mukunzi. S, Osuna. F, Wangui. J, Mitei. K, Ocholla. S, Nyambura. J, Mwangi. J, Njiri. J, Opot. B, Wurapa. EK. Antiviral susceptibility of influenza A viruses obtained in Kenya 2008-2011 . Vienna, Austria; 2013. Abstract
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Kilonzo G, Musisi S, Sebit MB, editor Ndetei, D.M., Szabo CP. "Anxiety and Adjustment Disorders."; 2006.
Clegg-Lamptey JN, Naaeder SB. "Appendicitis {In} {Accra}: {A} {Contemporary} {Appraisal}." Ghana medical journal. 2003;37:52-6. Abstract
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Ngesa JL. Applicability of tooth size predictions in the Mixed Dentition Analysis in a Kenya Sample.. Cape Town: University of the Western Cape; 2005.
Simiyu MT, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Birech Z, Mwebaze G. "Application of An Organic Plant-Derived Binder in the Fabrication of Diatomaceous Earth Waste- Based Membranes for Water Purification Systems.". In: Materials Research Society Advances. Cambridge; 2020. Abstract

This work reports on the use of diatomaceous earth (DE) waste and organic binder derived from Corchorus olitorius, locally known as “Mrenda” in the design of an efficient water filtration membranes. Charcoal powder was incorporated to enhance the porosity of the membrane. The firing was done at temperatures varying from 700.0 °C to 1150.0 °C. The DE waste samples comprised 79.0% silica (by mass) and 11.0% total flux content compared to porter's clay that had 50.0% silica, 28.8% AL2O3 and 7.0% total flux content. On the other hand, the “Mrenda” binder contained 6.5% total organic matter. The use of the plant- derived binder enhanced the mechanical strength of the greenware by 52.7% and the fired membranes by 152.2%. The fabricated DE waste-based membranes were 15.0% stronger than clay-based ceramic membranes prepared under similar conditions. A sintering temperature of 900.0 °C was optimal in producing porous membranes for filtering of 4.1 liters of water per hour. The pore diameter of the membranes fabricated from DE waste only ranged between 2.0 nm – 99.0 nm. On micro-organisms filtering efficacy, the DE waste-based membranes and those fabricated with 5.0% charcoal were 99.9% and 88.4% effective in the removal of E. coli and Rotavirus respectively.

Simiyu MT, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Birech Z, Mwebaze G. "Application of An Organic Plant-Derived Binder in the Fabrication of Diatomaceous Earth Waste-Based Membranes for Water Purification Systems." MRS Advances. 2020;5(26):1339-1348.
Nancy M, Birech Z, Kaduki K. "Application of butterfly wing iridescence, reflection spectroscopy, and chemometric tools in adulteration sensing in gasoline.". In: Laser Science. Optical Society of America; 2019:. Abstract
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Nancy M, Birech Z, Kaduki K. "Application of butterfly wing iridescence, reflection spectroscopy, and chemometric tools in adulteration sensing in gasoline.". In: FiO/Laser Science (pp. JTu4A-13). Washington DC; 2019.
Otieno DJ;, Omiti J;, Nyanamba T;, McCullough E. "Application of Chow test to improve analysis of farmer participation in markets in Kenya."; 2009. Abstract

High population growth rates and emergence of urban settlements provide opportunities as well as challenges to economic development in many countries. While the supply of labour and markets are potential positive outcomes of these processes, the underlying pressure on scarce resources is often intense. In low-income agriculture-dependent countries such as Kenya, inadequate food supply and lack of other basic social amenities characterize a large share of rural and urban population. The productive capacity and commercial orientation of agriculture and foodrelated sectors need to be improved in order to reduce famine, malnutrition and poverty. This would entail enhancing farmers’ access and participation in both input and out markets. Horticulture (especially vegetables) is one of the most important sectors in Kenya, where smallholder farmers account for nearly 70% of the output (McCulloch and Ota, 2002). About 23% of Kenya’s export revenue is derived from horticultural exports (CBS, 2006; Minot and Ngigi, 2003). Cultivation of vegetable crops (mainly cabbages, tomatoes, kales – sukuma wiki, onions and a variety of indigenous vegetables such as amaranthus) forms a crucial source of livelihood for many households in rural and peri-urban areas of Kenya (Omiti et al., 2004). Promoting investments in agricultural commercialization, more so in developing marketing channels are critical for poverty reduction (Geda et al., 2001). The potential benefits of higher product prices and lower input prices due to commercialization are effectively transmitted to poor households when markets function fairly (IFAD, 2001). In Kenya, recent research show evidence that prioritizing infrastructure development for vegetable production and marketing are necessary for improvement of most livelihoods (Omiti et al., 2006). Recent transformations in agri-food systems (particularly the rise of supermarkets and technological advances in developing countries’ agriculture during the last decade) offer opportunities for smallholder farmers (McCullough et al., 2008). However, these prospects might 2 be countered by population pressure, on-going global economic downturn and the adverse effects of climate change, if alternative policies and strategies are not urgently instituted to reverse the decline in real purchasing power of many households (Food Ethics Council, 2008). In order to support the process of sustained economic growth, there is need for a more refined and targeted analysis of pertinent issues that constrain farm-to-market distribution of food. The analytical role of agricultural economists must therefore expand to comprehensively capture site-specific dynamics of the agri-food systems. Previous studies on market participation (for example, Alene et al., 2008; Chianu et al., 2008; Makhura et al., 2002) have been based on single or multiple sites. However, the decision to pool data or perform separate analysis is often subjective. In these studies, authors provide elaborate discussions to differentiate sites in terms of geographic features, climatic conditions and socioeconomic profiles. Although the findings from such studies might offer useful insights on necessary policies, they lack rigorous objective criteria to support the choice between pooled versus disaggregated analyses. It is important to anchor market analysis on solid statistical criteria in order to give more credence to the resulting site-specific or nation-wide strategies. This would enable implementation of policy interventions that reliably address salient challenges which may vary across sub-regions within a country. As a standard practice, data from multiple sites should be tested to confirm similarities or differences, and to guide the process of data organization (pooling or separation) for analysis. This study contributes to knowledge on farm-level analysis of market participation through application of the Chow’s seminal test (Chow, 1960) to examine differences between data from two sites (rural and urban). A truncated regression model is applied in the analysis. The specific objectives of the study are: i. To assess difference in the level of market participation between rural and peri-urban farmers; ii. To estimate factors that influence the share of vegetable marketed by farmers.

Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Application of differential equation modelsto the population dynamics of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid - Diadegma semiclausum (Helllen).". In: The 5th International Workshop on “Management of Diamondback Moth and other Crucifer Insect Pests”. Beijing, China; 2007.
Wambugu M, Nyandega I, Kithia S. "Application of Hydrological Models in Poorly Gauged Watersheds: A review of the Usage of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research. 2017;6(8):132-141.
Ng’ang’a JW, Odero D, Buigutt KSA. "Application of Library Service Charter in Quality Service Delivery in University Libraries." Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). . 2020;4007(4007).Website
WASWA AARONK, Nyamai CM, Mathu E, Ichang'i D. "Application of Magnetic Survey in the Investigation of Iron Ore Deposits and Shear Zone Delineation: Case Study of Mutomo-Ikutha Area, SE Kenya." International Journal of Geosciences,. 2015;6(7):729-740.
Nyamai CM, MATHU ELIUDM, Ichang’i DW, WASWA AARONK. "Application of magnetic survey in the investigation of iron ore deposits and shear zone delineation: case study of Mutomo-Ikutha area, SE Kenya." International Journal of Geosciences,. 2015;6(7). AbstractFull Text

The main objective of this research was to use ground magnetic survey to delineate shear zone and iron ore deposit within the Neoproterozoic rocks of Mutomo-Ikutha area of south eastern Kenya. Total field magnetic data was recorded by using high resolution proton precision geometric magnetometer which recorded total components of the ground magnetic anomaly data running through sixteen traverses. The field data was qualitatively and quantitatively interpreted and the results gave values for the total component measurements of ground magnetic anomaly that varied between a minimum negative peak value of about 250 nanoTesla and a maximum of about 1000 nanoTesla. 550 nanoTesla was considered to be threshold of the iron mineralization within the area. The results indicated that the western part of Mutomo-Ikutha was sheared, faulted and contained iron ore mineralization trending in the north-south direction. Areas with high anomalous values were geochemically proven to contain magnetite.

Mary T. Simiyu, Nyongesa FW, Birech Z, Njenga L, Ilin N, Thomas F. Krauss, Pitruzzello G, Aduda BO. "Application Of Molasses In Improving Water Purification Efficiency Of Diatomaceous Earth-Waste Ceramic Membranes.". In: EAI International Conference on Innovations and Interdisciplinary Solutions for Underserved Areas (INTERSOL 2022) . Nile University Of Nigeria Abuja ; 2022. Abstract

The World Health Organization predicts that 90.0% of the 2.3 million people who die annually due to water-borne diseases come from developing countries. At the same time fluorosis occurrence in the world’s geological fluoride belts has left many people maimed due to drinking highly fluoridated water. This work reports on the use of molasses in making carbon-activated diatomaceous earth waste (DE-waste) ceramic membranes with improved mechanical strength and water purification efficiency. The fabricated diatomaceous membranes were soaked in molasses for 24.0 hours and fired at 600.0 for 3.0 hours. The carbon-activated membranes were used to filter water contaminated with Escherichia coli, Rotavirus, and sodium fluoride. The activated carbon obtained in this work had a bulk density of 450.0 kg/m3 and it reduced the porosity of the DE-waste membranes by 18.0%. The activated carbon improved the modulus of rupture (MOR) of the DE-waste membrane by 47.8% and the average pore size of the active DE-waste membrane was 18.4 nm. The filtration process was found to be dependent on the contaminant’s size, concentration, and the external pressure applied to the water during the filtration process. The filtration efficiency of >99.9 in E. coli was concentration and pressure. Membranes reported efficiency of 97.1% and 98.9% in deflouridation and Rotavirus filtration. Thus, molasses is potential material in fabrication of water membranes

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Application of Participatory Appraisal Methods in Regional Planning. A paper prepared with Mr. Z. Maleche for a Workshop on Participatory Rural Appraisal Methods. Nairobi, July 30-31. 1992.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Birech Z, Mwangi PW, Sehmi PK, Nyaga NM. "Application of Raman spectroscopy in comparative study of antiobesity influence of oxytocin and freeze-dried extracts of Uvariodendron anisatum Verdeck (Annonaceae) in Sprague Dawley rats." Journal of Raman SpectroscopyJournal of Raman Spectroscopy. 2020;51(3):398-405. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Obesity is a condition affecting a substantial number of people in the world. Obese people have increased risks of developing chronic metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes, hypertension, and cancer, among others. Predicting potential development together with rapid diagnosis of the condition followed by early interventions is therefore necessary. This work investigated, first, utility of Raman spectroscopy in performing comparative antiobesity influence studies of oxytocin and a freeze-dried extract of a local herbal plant exhibiting oxytocin-like properties called Uvariodendron anisatum Verdeck (Annonaceae) (UAV) on diet induced obesity in Sprague Dawley rat models. Second, we looked for obesity biomarker Raman spectral bands. The blood extracted from the rats were applied onto conductive silver paste smeared glass slides and excited using a 785-nm laser. Raman spectra of blood from oxytocin- and UAV-treated rats displayed similar profiles with low doses of UAV (100 mg/kg of body weight) being more similar to oxytocin than high doses (200 mg/kg of body weight) as revealed by cosine similarity value of 0.997. Their profiles were also different from blood of obese and nonobese (normal controls) animals. A prominent peak in spectra of treated rats centred at 401 cm?1 can be oxytocin's biomarker band in blood. Comparison of average intensity trend of fructose bands at around 638 and 812 cm?1 between prepared fructose solution and blood of treated rats revealed elevated levels of fructose in blood of rats intraperitoneally injected oxytocin and UAV extracts. The result implied upregulation of fructose in oxytocin- and UAV-treated animals. Principal component analysis confirmed that Raman spectral profiles from blood of obese rats were different from those of nonobese rats with bands ascribed to fructose (638, 812, and 1,217 cm?1) and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs; 478, 1,318, and 1,443 cm?1), being utilized in the segregation of the spectral data sets. It also showed that spectra from oxytocin-treated and UAV-treated rat's blood were similar implying identical influence of the drugs on the animals. The study showed potential of Raman spectroscopy as tool for quick obesity (or metabolic syndrome) screening with intensity of Raman bands associated with fructose and BCAAs as biomarkers. Besides, the same bands may be used in comparative efficacy studies of antiobesity drugs. The results reported here are rare in literature.

Mbuge DO, Negrini R, Nyakundi LO, Kuate SP, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Muiru WM, Baldwyn Torto RM. "Application of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) as desiccants to dry maize and reduce aflatoxin contamination.". In: 2nd International Conference of the Pan African Society of Agricultural Engineers (PASAE), . Rabat, Morocco; 2019.
Muchai K, Gathuma J, Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF, Gathuma JM, Wachira TM, Magambo JK, Zeyhle E. "Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of 14 hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan.". 1970.
Nyangeri EN, Omosa I, Shikoli. "Application of water demand management strategies in Kenya journal of civil engineering research and practice under review.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.

Zachariah R, Reid T, Van den Bergh R, Dahmane A, Kosgei RJ, Hinderaker SG, Tayler-Smith K, Manzi M, Kizito W, Khogali M, Kumar AMV, Baruani B, Bishinga A, Kilale AM, Nqobili M, Patten G, Sobry A, Cheti E, Nakanwagi A, Enarson DA, Edginton ME, Upshur R, Harries AD. "Applying the ICMJE authorship criteria to operational research in low-income countries: the need to engage programme managers and policy makers." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2013;18(8):1025-8.applying_the_icmje_authorship_criteria_to_operational_research_in_low-income_countries_the_need_to_engage_programme_managers_and_policy_makers.pdf
Kihu. SM, Gitao. CG, Bebora. LC, Njenga. MJ, G.G. Wairire, Maingi. N, Wahome. RG. "Appraisal of Pese des petitis ruminants disease by Turkana Pastoral community of Turkana County in Kenya." American Journal of Research Communication. 2014;2(10):186-214.kihu_vol210.pdf
Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG, Macharia JN, Mwaniki G, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN. "Appraisal of Village Chickens Potential in Egg Production.". 2005. Abstract

A study was carried out on the laying capacities of Village / indigenous and exotic / commercial hens that were brought to the Agricultural Society of Kenya show, Nairobi, over a period of 10 years. The parameter of egg-production capacity was estimated by the pliability of bones, especially the pubic bone spread and the space between the pubic bone and the keel bone; measured as number of fingers that can fit between each space, respectively. The results showed that some of the indigenous birds had good laying capacities, contrary to popular belief. Some indigenous birds were close to, and others had higher laying capabilities than the respective commercial ones. This observation indicates that, with a little extra effort in management and genetic selection, these village birds have a potential of increasing their egg yields.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Approaches to Family Planning in East Africa". Co-authored with J. Mbula Bahemuka and Speciosa Kabwegyere. ROMA: FEDEREZIONI ORGANISMI CRISTIANI SERVIZIO INTERNAZIONALE VOLONTARIO (FOCSIV) CENTRO STUDIE RESERCHE AFRICA. Collana CONTRIBUTI 15. NOVEMBRE 19.". In: Magazine of the Kenya Medical association. April 1992. Volume 11 No. 4. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Ocholla S, Jumba G, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Wadegu MO, Mukunzi S, Majanja JM, Opot B, Osuna F, Muthoni J, Njiri J, Mwangi J, Kibet K, Coldren R. The Appropriateness of WHO influenza B vaccine component to Kenya in 2011-2012. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: In the 1980’s, influenza B viruses were discovered to belong to two evolutionary groupings (B/Victoria/2/87-like viruses and B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses) that continue to co-circulate globally in the human population. These viruses exist as independent lineages. Information about lineage of circulating influenza B viruses in a country is important for determination of the appropriateness of either a trivalent or a quadrivalent vaccine composition for that country.Objective: To genetically analyze the HA1 of influenza B viruses isolated in Kenya during the 2011-2012 season with reference to WHO vaccine strains recommended for Kenya.Method: Nasopharyngeal swab specimens obtained from patients meeting WHO definition criterion for ILI were screened by real-time PCR for influenza B viruses. Influenza B virus positive samples were inoculated onto MDCK cells and the lineages of the isolates determined by hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI). To confirm the lineages, HA1 gene segments of selected isolates were amplified by PCR and sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics tools.Results: Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all the 24 influenza B viruses that circulated between 2011- 2012 were closely related to B/Brisbane/60/2008 vaccine Strain. Comparison of the HA1 amino acid sequences of influenza B viruses with the reference vaccine strain (B/Brisbane/60/2008 lineage) revealed substitutions at 19 amino acid positions. FLU-MBG-11-02-010 had R188K amino acid change in the 120-loop antigenic receptor binding site relative to B/Brisbane vaccine reference strain. FLU-MBG-12-05-011 had V124I amino acid change in the 120-loop antigenic receptor binding site relative to the vaccine reference strain. The majority (87.5%) had I146V/A amino acid change in the 150-loop antigenic receptor binding site. All the Kenyan isolates had D197N amino acid change in the 190-helix antigenic receptor site. The other fifteen positions that showed polymorphisms were outside of the antigenic sites with these mutations being randomly distributed among the isolates.Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that the WHO vaccine strain recommendations for the southern hemisphere were appropriate for use in Kenya.

Awori RM, Ng'ang'a PN, Nyongesa LN, Amugune NO. "approved with reservations.". 2016.
N. DRIRAKIW. "April 14, 2007: Remittances, The good and the Ugly, SIRAS Conference, Frankfort, KY.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2007.
Ogana W, Oyieke H, Ntiba MJ. Aquatic Resources Sector, in F.M. Mutua and F. K. Karanja (eds),Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation in Kenya . UNDP/GEF Project, Building Capacity in Sub-Sahara Africa to respond to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). ; 1998.
Maithya JM, I.Mugivane F, Busienei JR, Chimoita E, Nyang’ang HT. "Are commercial crops displacing food crops and compromising Kenya’s food security?" Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM. 2015;Vol. 5(3): 1794-1797.smallholding_farming_and_diversification__in_mumias_kenya.pdf
Busienei JR, Maithya JM, Mugivane FI, Chimoita E, Babu MI, Nyang’anga HT. "Are Commercial Crops Displacing Food Crops and Compromising Kenya’s Food Security”?" Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2015;5(3)( ISSN:2251-1261):pp:1794-1797.
Nyumba TO. Are elephants flagships or battleships? : understanding impacts of human-elephant conflict on human wellbeing in Trans Mara District, Kenya. England: University of Cambridge; 2018. Abstract

This thesis examines the impacts of human-elephant conflict on human wellbeing and the implications for elephant conservation and management in Trans Mara District, Kenya. The District comprises communal lands bordering the world-famous Masai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya. Trans Mara supports a range of land use types and provides refuge to one of Kenya’s large elephant population comprised of over 3,000 transient and 500 resident animals. This study used interdisciplinary methods to gain insights into the nature and consequences of conflict on the wellbeing of communities living with elephants. In particular, I used a combination of existing wellbeing indices and a set of indicators developed through consultations with local communities in TM to measure impacts of HEC on specific wellbeing domains. The results show that elephants still use the communal lands in Trans Mara but are increasingly restricted to the riverine forest remnants in central Trans Mara. However, there was no evidence of a further decline in the elephant range. Instead, this study points to a shift in elephant range against a background of increasing human settlement, land sub-division and agricultural expansion. The wellbeing of Trans Mara residents comprised eight indicators. Human-elephant conflict negatively affected peoples’ wellbeing, but the impacts were limited to certain dimensions. Elephants affected school-going children within elephant range. Attitudes towards elephants and its conservation in TM were influenced by the location of human residence relative to elephant refuge, diversity of income sources, and age and gender. Finally, conflict mitigation in Trans Mara is still elusive and challenging, but opportunities exist to develop simple and dynamic mitigation tools. The findings of this study have important implications for the future of elephant conservation in the face of competing human needs, both in Trans Mara District and elsewhere in Africa.

Opondo C, Ntoburi S, Wagai J, Wafula J, Wasunna A, Were F, Wamae A, Migiro S, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, English M. "Are hospitals prepared to support newborn survival.". 2009;14(10):1165-1172. Abstractare_hospitals_prepared_to_support_newborn_survival.pdf

objective
To assess the availability of resources that support the provision of basic neonatal care in eight first referral level (district) hospitals in Kenya.
methods
We selected two hospitals each from four of Kenya’s eight provinces with the aim of representing the diversity of this part of the health system in Kenya. We created a checklist of 53 indicator items necessary for providing essential basic care to newborns and assessed their availability at each of the eight hospitals by direct observation, and then compared our observations with the opinions of health workers providing care to newborns on recent availability for some items, using a self administered structured questionnaire.
results
The hospitals surveyed were often unable to maintain a safe hygienic environment for patients and health care workers; staffing was insufficient and sometimes poorly organised to support the provision of care; some key equipment, laboratory tests, drugs and consumables were not available while patient management guidelines were missing in all sites.
conclusion
Hospitals appear relatively poorly prepared to fill their proposed role in ensuring newborn survival. More effective interventions are needed to improve them to meet the special needs of this at-risk group.

Opondo C, Ntoburi S, Wagai J, Wafula J, Wasunna A, Were F, Wamae A, Migiro S, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, English M. "Are hospitals prepared to support newborn survival? - An evaluation of eight first-referral level hospitals in Kenya." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2009;14(10):1165-72. Abstract

To assess the availability of resources that support the provision of basic neonatal care in eight first-referral level (district) hospitals in Kenya.

Watete PW, Wambui-Kogi Makau, Njoka JT, MacOpiyo LA, Mureithi SM. "Are there options outside livestock economy? Diversification among households of northern Kenya." PastoralismPastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2016.
Watete PW, Wambui-Kogi Makau, Njoka JT, MacOpiyo LA, Mureithi SM. "Are there options outside livestock economy? Diversification among households of northern Kenya." PastoralismPastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2016.
Ondieki-Mwaura FN;, Njoroge LM;, Okello, J J; Bahemuka JM, Okello, J J; Bahemuka JM. "Are There Significant Welfare Outcomes For Farmers Who Participate In Global Commodity Chains? The Case Of Export Horticultural Farmers In Kirinyaga Region Of Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine whether farmers participating in export horticulture were better off than farmers who did not. This study is informed by debates on how globalisation and specifically global trade impacts on small farmers in third world countries, with proponents arguing that it has positive impacts and opponents arguing that participation in global commodity systems has little impact or ueven detrimental to small farmers. This study aimed to compare the welfare of participants in export horticulture with those of non-participants using both income and non-income indicators. A survey of 360 farmers was carried out in Kirinyaga to obtain household data with 240 export farmers and 120 non-export farmers being interviewed. Simple mean comparisons were used to determine whether significant differences existed between French bean and non-French bean farmers. Both income and non-income indicators were used to determine welfare outcomes for the two groups of farmers. The study found that there were some differences in welfare indicators between those who participated and those who do not participate in French bean production, specifically in the type of housing, asset endowment and income. However, although export French beans,had a positive impact on participating farmers, its impact is declining as farmers’ incomes from it are reducing.

Kaimuri J, Otieno SPV. Aritwa. Kaimuri J, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2013.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Arshad, M.A., Mureria, N.K., Keya, S.O. 1982. Effect of termite activity on soil microflora. Pedobiologia 24, 161-167.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1982. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Arshad, M.A., Mureria, N.K., Keya, S.O. 1982. Effect of termite activity on soil microflora. Pedobiologia 24, 161-167.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1982. Abstract
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Njuguna NM, Ongarora DSB, Chibale K. "Artemisinin derivatives: a patent review (2006 - present)." Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents. 2012;22(10):1179-1203.
Ngatia TA, Mugera GM, Njiro SM, Kuria JKN, A.B. C. "Arteriosclerosis and related lesions in Rabbits." Journal of Comparative Pathology. 1989;101:279-286.
Ngatia TA, Mugera GM, Njiro SM, Kuria JK, Carles AB. "Arteriosclerosis and related lesions in rabbits.". 1989. Abstract

Eleven female rabbits, mainly of the NZW breed, aged between 1 and 3.5 years, were examined post mortem. All had originated over the years 1982 to 1987 from the same rabbitry where they had been fed on pellets from the same manufacturer. Apart from one rabbit, all had a history of progressive loss of bodily condition and six of them had also been infertile. Grossly, most of them were emaciated and their arteries were hardened. In some, hepatopathy, nephropathy and pulmonary emphysema were evident. In one case, mummified foetuses were recovered from the abdominal cavity. Microscopically, degenerative changes and calcification were found in the walls of arteries, kidneys, lungs, hearts and ovaries.

Goo Y-K;, erkawi A;M, ia H;, Aboge O;G, Ooka H, Nelson B;, Kim S;, Sunaga F, Namikawa K;, Igarashi I. "Artesunate, a potential drug for treatment of Babesia infection.". 2010. Abstract

The effects of artesunate, a water-soluble artemisinin derivative, against Babesia species, including Babesia bovis, Babesia gibsoni and Babesia microti were studied. Cultures of B. bovis and B. gibsoni were treated with 0.26, 2.6, 26 and 260 μM artesunate, showing inhibition of parasite growth at concentrations equal to and greater than 2.6 μM artesunate by days 3 post-treatment for B. gibsoni and B. bovis in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with in vitro experiments, artesunate was effective in the treatment of mice infected with B. microti at doses equal to and greater than 10 mg/kg of body weight on days 8–10 post-infection. Taken together, these results suggest that artesunate could be a potential drug against Babesia infection.

Nyang’anga MH:, Mande JD. Artificial Intelligent System for Diagnosis and Management of Maize Pest in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Nairobi, KE Doctoral Thesis University of Nairobi; 2015. Abstract
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Ngatia EM, Ng'ang'a PM, Imungi JK, Muita J. "Artificial sucking habits and malocclusion in 3-5-year-olds in Nairobi.". 2001. Abstract
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Nalule, A S; Mbaria KOJM; JW;. Ascaricidal activity of Rhoicissus tridentata root-tuber ethanolic and water extracts.; 2012. Abstract

This study was conducted to determine in vitro ascaricidal activity of ethanolic and water extract of root tuber Rhoicissus tridentata against adult nematodes. Adult worm motility inhibition assay was conducted using Ascaris suum model. Ethanolic and water root tuber Rhoicissus tridentata extracts were used in serial dilutions including 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64mg/ml and; 8,16, 32, 64 and 128mg/ml respectively, parallel to Albendazole and Goodwins’ controls in three replicates. Ten adult Ascaris suum were added to each concentration and controls and incubated at 370C for 48hours. Standard phytochemical analysis methods were used to determine the secondary plant metabolites in the extracts. A significant motility inhibition in all dose levels that was dose-dependent was observed (F (5, 53) = 4.14, p =0.005; R2 = 0.90). There was however, no significant interaction between methods of extraction and the dose effect on motility inhibition in R. tridentata (F (10, 53) =1.02, p =0.450). The ethanolic and water extracts maximum response did not significantly differ (p=0.082) although their median effective doses were 12.3 and 23.5mg/ml respectively. R. tridentata extracts have immense in vitro ascaricidal potential supporting its use in ethno-veterinary medicine although anthelmintic potency of plant extracts depend on solvent used for extraction. There is however, need to determine in vivo ascaricidal activity and safety for sustainable utilization of this medicinal plant.

NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Asian Question in Uganda" The Black 1, June 1973.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1973. Abstract
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Nyariki BN, S.M O, S. N. "Aspects African History Nairobi:." Catholic University Press. 2008.
Nyandemo S, Singh. Aspects of project planning, monitoring, evaluation and implementation. Bishen Sighn Publishers; 2004.
W. MUTHOMIJ, K. MUREITHIB, N. CHEMINING'WAG, K. GATHUMBIJ, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE. "Aspergillus species and Aflatoxin b1 in soil, maize grain and flour samples from semi-arid and humid regions of Kenya." International Journal of AgriScience . 2012;2(1):22-34.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Assembly of electroactive ordered multilayer films of cobalt pthalocyanine tetrasulfonate and polycations, J.". In: colloid and Interface Science, 212, 570-575, 1999. Survey Review; 1999. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
OGOLLAH ENNEDY, NJUNGE GEOFFREYTHIGE, Mburu DK. "AN ASSESMENT OF THE EFFECT OF OVER INDEBTEDNESS ON THE SUSTAINABILITY OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN KENYA (CASE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI COUNTY)." International journal of Reaserch & Development organization. 2015;1(1).
Opondo M, Abdi U, Nangiro P. "Assessing gender in resilience programming: Uganda." BRACED Resilience Intel. 2016;2(2). Abstractassets.publishing.service.gov.uk

There are a number of opportunities that the project can harness to increase its gender-related impact and drive resilience in the region, including a committed team with strong technical capabilities, a strong legal and policy framework on gender equality and Mercy Corps’ own experience from the field of gender and resilience in the Sahel and Somalia.

Okoth S, Lindy J Rose, Abigael Ouko, Nakisani EI Netshifhefhe, Henry Sila, Viljoen A. "Assessing genotype-by-environment interactions in aspergillus ear rot and pre-harvest aflatoxin accumulation in maize inbred lines." Agronomy. 2017;7(4):86.
Nyamongo IK. "Assessing Intracultural Variability Statistically Using Data on Malaria Perceptions in Gusii, Kenya.". In: Field Methods, Vol. 14(2): 148-160. Wiley Interscience; 2002. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

Wasonga VO;, Nyariki DM, Ngugi RK. "Assessing Socio-Ecological Change Dynamics Using Local Knowledge in the Semi-Arid Lowlands of Baringo District, Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

A clear understanding of the social and ecological change dynamics in pastoral ecosystems is imperative for formulation of appropriate policies that ensure sustainable resource use and livelihood security of pastoral households. Spatial and temporal ecological knowledge expressed by those with long familiarity with the ecology has been shown to be more superior in quality and resolution than those gathered remotely and modelled digitally. This study adopted a local-perceptions approach in assessing the social and ecological change dynamics in the Njemps Flats of Baringo district over a period of four decades. The results reveal a changing vegetation structure, declining diversity and increasing soil erosion that are attributed to the rise in both human and livestock populations. The results also show a rising trend in diversification of asset portfolios in response to impoverishment as a result of the declining pasture and livestock productivity. These findings suggest that pastoralism in Baringo is a system in transition, attempting to maintain itself while at the same time trying to adapt progressively to a continuously shrinking resource base.

Wasonga VO, Nyariki DM, Ngugi RK. "Assessing socioecological change dynamics using local knowledge in the semi-arid lowlands of Baringo district, Kenya." Environmental Research Journal. 2011;5:11-17. Abstract
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Njeru CM, Ekesi S, Mohamed SA, Kinyamario JI, Kiboi S, Maeda EE. "Assessing stock and thresholds detection of soil organic carbon and nitrogen along an altitude gradient in an east Africa mountain ecosystem." Geoderma Regional. 2017;10:29-38.
Kihuba E, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Mulaku M, Kosgei R, Mogoa W, Nyamai R, English M. "Assessing the ability of health information systems in hospitals to support evidence-informed decisions in Kenya." Glob Health Action. 2014;7:24859.
Kihuba E, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Mulaku M, Kosgei R, Mogoa W, Nyamai R, English M. "Assessing the ability of health information systems in hospitals to support evidence-informed decisions in Kenya." Glob Health Action. 2014;7:24859. Abstractassessing_the_ability_of_health_information_systems_in.pdf

Hospital management information systems (HMIS) is a key component of national health information systems (HIS), and actions required of hospital management to support information generation in Kenya are articulated in specific policy documents. We conducted an evaluation of core functions of data generation and reporting within hospitals in Kenya to facilitate interpretation of national reports and to provide guidance on key areas requiring improvement to support data use in decision making.

N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Assessing the ability of two soil types in the removal and retention of N and P nutrients from fish pond effluents. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 4:75-83.".; 2004. Abstract

Effectiveness of two soil types found at Sagana, Kenya, black clay soil (eutric Vertisol) and a red clay soil (chromic Cambisol), in retaining nutrients from pond effluent was investigated. A laboratory experiment was conducted with soil columns containing either of the two soils. Pond effluent application intensities of 31, 81 and161 mm day-1 were tested on both soils. Both soils retained over 60% of total P from pond effluents, with red clay retaining 27% more P than black clay. At the high effluent loading rate, low % N removal was observed in both soils. Total N removal efficiency declined with time after 21 days at the high rate, and after that time no N removal was observed where red clay was used. Black clay was more enriched by N than red clay, while P enrichment was higher in red clay than in black clay. It appears that land application can remove substantial amounts of P and N from pond effluent.

Nyumba TO, Sang CC, Olago DO, Marchant R, Waruingi L, Githiora Y, Kago F, Mwangi M, Owira G, Barasa R, others. "Assessing the ecological impacts of transportation infrastructure development: A reconnaissance study of the Standard Gauge Railway in Kenya." PLoS one. 2021;16:e0246248. Abstract
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Nyumba TO, Sang CC, Olago DO, Marchant R, Waruingi L, Githiora Y, Kago F, Mwangi M, Owira G, Barasa R, Omangi S. "Assessing the ecological impacts of transportation infrastructure development: A reconnaissance study of the Standard Gauge Railway in Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2021;16(1):e0246248-. AbstractWebsite

Transportation infrastructure, such as railways, roads and power lines, contribute to national and regional economic, social and cultural growth and integration. Kenya, with support from the Chinese government, is currently constructing a standard gauge railway (SGR) to support the country’s Vision 2030 development agenda. Although the actual land area affected by the SGR covers only a small proportion along the SGR corridor, a significant proportion of the area supports a wide range of ecologically fragile and important ecosystems in the country, with potential wider impacts. This study used a qualitative content analysis approach to gain an understanding and perceptions of stakeholders on the potential ecological impacts of the interactions between the SGR and the traversed ecological systems in Kenya. Three dominant themes emerged: 1) ecosystem degradation; 2) ecosystem fragmentation; and 3) ecosystem destruction. Ecosystem degradation was the most commonly cited impact at while ecosystem destruction was of the least concern and largely restricted to the physical SGR construction whereas the degradation and fragmentation have a much wider footprint. The construction and operation of the SGR degraded, fragmented and destroyed key ecosystems in the country including water towers, protected areas, community conservancies and wildlife dispersal areas. Therefore, we recommend that project proponents develop sustainable and ecologically sensitive measures to mitigate the key ecosystem impacts.

Deng H;, Nzuma J. "Assessing the Effects of NAFTA ON Canada/US Agricultural Trade."; 2005. Abstract

While there seems to be an agreement that Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUSTA)/North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have benefited member countries, some analysts have argued that the agreements had little effect on the bilateral Canada/US agricultural trade as many other factors have contributed to the increased trade flows. Results from this study reveal that the aggregate bilateral agricultural trade flows have generally experienced a steady growth since the implementation of NAFTA with trade flows seemingly favoring Canada more than the US since 1992. At the industry level, the impacts of NAFTA on Canada/US agricultural trade were varied with the sub-sectors analyzed responding differently to the bilateral trade liberalization

Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Assessing the impact of biological control of Plutella xylostella through the application of Lotka-Volterra model." Ecological Modelling . 2008;220:60-70.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Assessing the impact of biological control of Plutella xylostella through the application of Lotka–Volterra model." Ecological Modelling. 2009;220(1):60-70. Abstract

The Lotka–Volterra model was applied to the population densities of diamondback moth
(DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) and its exotic larval parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum
(Hellen) data that was collected earlier by icipe's DBM biological control team. The
collections were done for 15 months before the release and 36 months after release of the
parasitoid in two areas; in Werugha, Coast Province of Kenya and Tharuni, Central Province
of Kenya, respectively. For each area in pre-and post-release periods, we estimated Lotka ...

Bergin P, Langat R, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Farah B, Ouattara G, Park H, Coutinho H, Laufer D, Fast P, Verlinde C, Bizimana J, Umviligihozo G, Nyombayire J, Ingabire R, Kuldanek K, Cox J, McMorrow M, Fidler S, Karita E, Gilmour J, Anzala O. "Assessment of anti-HIV-1 antibodies in Oral and Nasal Compartments of Volunteers from Three different Populations." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016. Abstract

In this study, we assessed the feasibility of collecting standardized nasal and salivary samples at centers in Nairobi (Kenya), Kigali (Rwanda) and London (UK) using different collection devices and media (Synthetic absorptive matrices versus flocked swabs, and Salimetrics Oral swabs versus whole oral fluid collection). We detected anti Gag (p24) and envelope (gp140) antibodies in both nasal fluid and salivary collections from all HIV-infected individuals, and cross-reactive anti-p24 antibodies were detected in 10% of HIV-uninfected individuals enrolled at one site. Collections from the nasal turbinates were comparable to samples collected deeper in the nasopharyngeal tract, and the yield of anti-p24 IgA in the whole oral fluid samples was higher than in samples collected from the parotid gland. We noted a trend toward reduced levels of anti-HIV antibody in the volunteers receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Levels of antibodies were stable over multiple collection visits. Overall, this study shows that nasal and salivary samples can be collected in a standardized manner over repeated visits in both low and high resource settings. These methods may be used in support of future HIV vaccine clinical trials.

Njagi JM, Piero MN, Ngeranwa JJN, Kibiti CM, Njue WM, Maina D, Gathumbi PK. "Assessment of Antidiabetic Potential of Ficus Sycomorus on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Mice.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Diabetes mellitus is a predominant public health concern, causing substantial morbidity, mortality, and long-term complications. Many of the conventional drugs used for the management of this disease are not only expensive but also have numerous side effects. Herbal medications are cheaper and locally available. Many plants have been traditionally used to manage diabetes without authentication on their antidiabetic properties and assessment of their safety. In this study aqueous stem bark extract of Ficus sycomorus was assessed for its antidiabetic potential along with evaluation its preliminary in vivo toxicity in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Results show that the plant harbours remarkable antidiabetic potential. It safely lowered blood glucose level to levels below what insulin, the model drug, lowers, in a dose-dependent manner.

Cheserek JJ, Ngugi K, Muthomi JW, Omondi CO. "Assessment of Arabusta coffee hybrids [Coffea arabica L. X Tetraploid Robusta (Coffea canephora )] for green bean physical properties and cup quality." African Journal of Food Science. 2020;14(5):119-127.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Assessment of cottage-derived heavy metal pollution of soils.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 1, No. 2, 52-62 (2000). Survey Review; 2000. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
Moni, N.A., Nzuma, M.J., Munei, K. "Assessment of Demand for Meat in Rural and Peri-urban Areas of Central Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development. 2016;4(10):480-488.
Ngigi MW;, Okello JJ;, Lagarkvist C;, Karanja N, Mburu J. "Assessment of developing-country urban consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of leafy vegetables: The case of middle and high income consumers in Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

The improvement in income in developing countries has led to emergence of middle and high income consumers in urban centers. Improvement in income usually causes the shift to consumption of non-staples including leafy vegetables. Thus in major developing country urban centers there has been rapid expansion of the grocery sections featuring leafy vegetables in leading retail stores. Specialty stores have also emerged featuring broad range vegetables. Many middle and high income consumers shop these stores. This study examines the willing of the middle and high income consumers who shop specialized stores to pay for quality of leafy vegetables and drivers of willingness to pay for quality. The study uses contingent valuation and the payment card method in eliciting consumers’ WTP. It considers a broad range of quality attributes including safety, nutrition, environmental friendliness, hygiene in handling. The study finds that mean willingness to pay for quality is higher among high income consumers (>60%). It also finds that income, age of children the consumer has, access to information of food safety are among the significant drivers of kale consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of kales. The study concludes that there is demand for quality of leafy vegetables and discusses policy implications.

Ngigi MW;, Okello JJ;, Lagarkvist C;, Karanja N;, Mburu J. "Assessment of developing-country urban consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of leafy vegetables: The case of middle and high income consumers in Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

The improvement in income in developing countries has led to emergence of middle and high income consumers in urban centers. Improvement in income usually causes the shift to consumption of non-staples including leafy vegetables. Thus in major developing country urban centers there has been rapid expansion of the grocery sections featuring leafy vegetables in leading retail stores. Specialty stores have also emerged featuring broad range vegetables. Many middle and high income consumers shop these stores. This study examines the willing of the middle and high income consumers who shop specialized stores to pay for quality of leafy vegetables and drivers of willingness to pay for quality. The study uses contingent valuation and the payment card method in eliciting consumers’ WTP. It considers a broad range of quality attributes including safety, nutrition, environmental friendliness, hygiene in handling. The study finds that mean willingness to pay for quality is higher among high income consumers (>60%). It also finds that income, age of children the consumer has, access to information of food safety are among the significant drivers of kale consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of kales. The study concludes that there is demand for quality of leafy vegetables and discusses policy implications.

Degu A, Njogu P, Weru I, Karimi P. "Assessment of drug therapy problems among patients with cervical cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Gynecol. Oncol. Res. Pract. 2017;4(15):1-15.
Mburu DK, Ngugi PK, Ogollah K. "AN ASSESSMENT OF EFFECT OF RISK IDENTIFICATION MANAGEMENT STRATEGY ON SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE IN MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN KENYA ." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management . 2015;3(4):71.mburu_ngugi_and_ogollah_2015.pdf
Njue LG, Ombui JN, Kanja LK, Gathumbi JK. "Assessment of effectiveness of garlic extract from Laikipia County on shelf life of meat." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2017;5(5):632-641.
Gathumbi JK, Njue LG, Ombui JN, Kanja LW. "Assessment of Effectiveness of Garlic Extract from Laikipia County, on Shelf-Life of Meat." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2017;5(5):632-641.
Mutua GK;, Kinyari P;, Githuku C;, Kironchi G;, Kang’ethe E;, Prain G;, Njenga M;, Karanja NN. "Assessment of environmental and public health hazards in wastewater used for urban agriculture in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Thirty percent of residents in Nairobi practise urban agriculture (UA) with a majority of the farmers using untreated sewage to irrigate crop and fodder. Due to the environmental and health risks associated with wastewater irrigation, a study was carried out in partnership with farmers in Kibera and Maili Saba which are informal settlements along the Ngong River, a tributary of the Nairobi River Basin. Soil, water, crops and human faecal samples from the farming and non-farming households were analysed to elucidate sources, types and level of heavy metal pollutants in the wastewater and the pathogen loads in humans and vegetable crops. Heavy metal accumulation in soils collected from Kibera and Maili Saba were Cd (14.3 mg kg-1), Cr (9.7 mg kg-1) and Pb (1.7 mg kg-1) and Cd (98.7 mg kg-1), Cr (4.0 mg kg-1) and Pb (74.3 mg kg-1), respectively. This led to high phytoaccumulation of Cd, Cr and Pb in the crops that exceeded the maximum permissible limits. No parasitic eggs were detected in the vegetables but coliform count in the wastewater was 4.8 x108±2.2 x1011/100ml. Soils irrigated with this water had parasitic eggs and non-parasitic larvae counts of 54.62 and 27.5/kg respectively. Faecal coliform and parasitic eggs of common intestinal parasites increased in leafy vegetable sampled from the informal markets along the value chain.

Nguli M, Gatari MJ, Keith Shepherd, Njenga L, Boman J. "Assessment of Essential Micronutrient Levels in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Kenya by Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF)." X-Ray Spectrometry. 2022;2022. Abstract

This study reports concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn analysed from Kenyan bean grains and leaves using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) methods. Samples of fresh bean leaves and 7 species of dry grains were collected from small scale farmers in Machakos and Kiambu counties. They were delivered to the laboratory where bean grain samples for TXRF analysis were prepared and leaves for both TXRF and ICP-OES. Standard methods of sample preparation successfully tested and used by other authors were used, Average elemental concentrations of the samples were then compared with established sufficiency values mainly given in ranges. Bean leaves from Muguga had sufficient Mn, Ni and Cu concentrations while 6% of the samples had Zn concentrations higher than the sufficiency range. Fe concentrations were consistently high with 97% of the samples having concentrations that were higher than the sufficiency range. No deficiencies were observed from bean leaves from Kyevaluki. For dry bean grains, deficiencies were observed in which four species were found to be deficient in Mn while Zn deficiency was observed in all the species. Fe concentrations were above the sufficiency ranges for all the species but not to toxic levels and 29% of the samples had Cu concentrations that were within the sufficiency range. The obtained data will be essential information for both farmers and policy makers on the nutritional quality of beans in the sampled areas. However, further studies are recommended including soil analysis and elemental bioavailability for full nutritional assessment. Keywords: ICP-OES, hidden hunger, mortality rate, cognitive development, bioavailable

Ndambiri HK;, Ritho C;, Mbogoh SG;, Ng’ang’a SI;, Muiruri EJ;, Nyangweso PM;, Kipsat MJ;, Ogada JO;, Omboto PI;, Kefa C;, Kubowon PC;, Cherotwo FH. "Assessment of Farmers' Adaptation to the Effects of Climate Change in Kenya: the Case of Kyuso District.". 2012. Abstract

The study was carried out to assess how farmers in Kyuso District have adapted to the effects of climate change. Survey data was collected from 246 farmers from six locations that were sampled out through a multistage and simple random sampling procedure. The probit regression model was fitted into the data in order to assess factors influencing farmers’ adaptation to the effects of climate change. The analysis revealed that 85% of the farmers had adapted in various ways to the effects of climate change. In this regard, the age of the farmer, gender, education, farming experience, farm income, access to climate information, household size, local agro-ecology, distance to input/output market, access to credit, access to water for irrigation, precipitation and temperature were found to have significant influence on the probability of farmers to adapt to climate change. The study suggests that more policy efforts should thus be geared towards helping all the farmers in the district to adapt to climate change.

S. M. Githigia, M. Mutugi, P. G. Kareru, F. K. Njonge, R. Waihenya, Nyakundi. WO. "Assessment of herbal anthelmintics used by the farmers in Kirinyaga county, Kenya, for the treatment of helminthiosis in cattle." African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2013;Vol. 7(29):2100-2104. Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess and validate the herbal anthelmintic remedies used by farmers in
Kirinyaga county, Kenya for the treatment of their cattle against gastrointestinal nematodes. The herbs
used were identified via questionnaire surveys through focused group discussions. The aqueous
extracts of plants used: Aspillia pluriseta, Vernonia lasiopus, Entada leptostachya and Erythrina
abyssinica were prepared and using dosage between 10 and 30%, the viability of infective strongyle
larvae were assessed for a period of 48 h. The results of the in vitro antihelmintic study indicated a high
to moderate anthelmintic activity for the tested extracts. E. leptostachya exhibited the highest in vitro
anthelmintic activity, while E. abyssinica had the lowest activity. The anthelmintic activity may have
been due to the presence of saponins in the herbal remedies. There was a positive correlation between
the saponin concentration and the anthelmintic activity of the extracts. In general, the in vitro
anthelmintic activity increased with the extract concentration for the medicinal plants examined.

Kisangaki P, Nyamasyo G, Ndegwa P, Kajobe R. "Assessment of honey bee colony performance in the agro-ecological zones of Uganda." Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research. 2018;1(5):1-6.
Nyagol J, Kisato V, Ochuk W, Wakio M. "Assessment of hormonal receptors and Her-2/neu status in breast cancer using cell block: a case study. ." J. Afr. Cancer.. 2013;5:180-184.
Njororai WWS, Gitonga ER, N.K. B, Mwisukha A. "Assessment of injuries in PE lessons in Kenya Science Teachers College, Kenya." West African Journal of Physical and Health Education. 2004;8:152-159.
Bailasha NK, Njororai WW, Rintaugu EG, Andanje M. "Assessment of injuries in physical education lessons in Kenya science teachers college, Kenya:." West Africa journal of Physical education (WAJOPHE). 2004;8:153-189.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Assessment of inpatient paediatric care in first referral level hospitals in 13 districts in Kenya. Lancet . 2004 Jun 12; 363 ( 9425 ): 1948-53 . PMID: 15194254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow .". In: Lancet . 2004 Jun 12; 363 ( 9425 ): 1948-53 . John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract

KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, PO Box 230, Kilifi, Kenya. menglish@wtnairobi.mimcom.net

BACKGROUND: The district hospital is considered essential for delivering basic, cost-effective health care to children in resource poor countries. We aimed to investigate the performance of these facilities in Kenya. METHODS: Government hospitals providing first referral level care were prospectively sampled from 13 Kenyan districts. Workload statistics and data documenting the management and care of admitted children were obtained by specially trained health workers. FINDINGS: Data from 14 hospitals were surveyed with routine statistics showing considerable variation in inpatient paediatric mortality (range 4-15%) and specific case fatality rates (eg, anaemia 3-46%). The value of these routine data is seriously undermined by missing data, apparent avoidance of a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, and absence of standard definitions. Case management practices are often not in line with national or international guidelines. For malaria, signs defining severity such as the level of consciousness and degree of respiratory distress are often not documented (range per hospital 0-100% and 9-77%, respectively), loading doses of quinine are rarely given (3% of cases) and dose errors are not uncommon. Resource constraints such as a lack of nutritional supplements for malnourished children also restrict the provision of basic, effective care. INTERPRETATION: Even crude performance measures suggest there is a great need to improve care and data quality, and to identify and tackle key health system constraints at the first referral level in Kenya. Appropriate intervention might lead to more effective use of health workers' efforts in such hospitals.

PMID: 15194254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Assessment of inpatient paediatric care in first referral level hospitals in 13 districts in Kenya. Lancet . 2004 Jun 12; 363 ( 9425 ): 1948-53 . PMID: 15194254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow .". In: Lancet . 2004 Jun 12; 363 ( 9425 ): 1948-53 . F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract

KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, PO Box 230, Kilifi, Kenya. menglish@wtnairobi.mimcom.net

BACKGROUND: The district hospital is considered essential for delivering basic, cost-effective health care to children in resource poor countries. We aimed to investigate the performance of these facilities in Kenya. METHODS: Government hospitals providing first referral level care were prospectively sampled from 13 Kenyan districts. Workload statistics and data documenting the management and care of admitted children were obtained by specially trained health workers. FINDINGS: Data from 14 hospitals were surveyed with routine statistics showing considerable variation in inpatient paediatric mortality (range 4-15%) and specific case fatality rates (eg, anaemia 3-46%). The value of these routine data is seriously undermined by missing data, apparent avoidance of a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, and absence of standard definitions. Case management practices are often not in line with national or international guidelines. For malaria, signs defining severity such as the level of consciousness and degree of respiratory distress are often not documented (range per hospital 0-100% and 9-77%, respectively), loading doses of quinine are rarely given (3% of cases) and dose errors are not uncommon. Resource constraints such as a lack of nutritional supplements for malnourished children also restrict the provision of basic, effective care. INTERPRETATION: Even crude performance measures suggest there is a great need to improve care and data quality, and to identify and tackle key health system constraints at the first referral level in Kenya. Appropriate intervention might lead to more effective use of health workers' efforts in such hospitals.

PMID: 15194254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Omwenga I, Kanja L, Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Irungu P. "Assessment of lead and cadmium residues in farmed fish in Machakos and Kiambu counties, Kenya." Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 2014;96(1):58-67.
Gathumbi J.K., Kanja L.W., Maitho T.E., Mbaria J.M., Nduhiu J.G., Gitau F.K., J.G. N, Lucy M.W, K. M. "Assessment of lead and copper in fish and soil sediments in Kirinyaga South District, Kenya." Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation. 2013;8 (3):145-150.
Aluvaala J, Nyamai R, Were F, Wasunna A, Kosgei R, Karumbi J, Gathara D, English M. "Assessment of neonatal care in clinical training facilities in Kenya.". 2014;10(306423):42-47. Abstractassessment_of_neonatal_care_in_clinical_training_facilities_in_kenya..pdf

Objective
An audit of neonatal care services provided by clinical training centres was undertaken to identify areas requiring improvement as part of wider efforts to improve newborn survival in Kenya.
Design
Cross-sectional study using indicators based on prior work in Kenya. Statistical analyses were descriptive with adjustment for clustering of data.
Setting Neonatal units of 22 public hospitals.
Patients Neonates aged <7 days.
Main outcome measures
Quality of care was assessed in terms of availability of basic resources (principally equipment and drugs) and audit of case records for documentation of patient assessment and treatment at admission.
Results
All hospitals had oxygen, 19/22 had resuscitation and phototherapy equipment, but some key resources were missing—for example kangaroo care was available in 14/22. Out of 1249 records, 56.9% (95% CI 36.2% to 77.6%) had a standard neonatal admission form. A median score of 0 out of 3 for symptoms of severe illness (IQR 0–3) and a median score of 6 out of 8 for signs of severe illness (IQR 4–7) were documented.
Maternal HIV status was documented in 674/1249
(54%, 95% CI 41.9% to 66.1%) cases. Drug doses
exceeded recommendations by >20% in prescriptions for
penicillin (11.6%, 95% CI 3.4% to 32.8%) and
gentamicin (18.5%, 95% CI 13.4% to 25%),
respectively.
Conclusions
Basic resources are generally available, but there are deficiencies in key areas. Poor documentation limits the use of routine data for quality improvement. Significant opportunities exist for improvement in service delivery and adherence to guidelines in hospitals providing professional training.

Aluvaala J, Nyamai R, Were F, Wasunna A, Kosgei R, Karumbi J, Gathara D, English M. "Assessment of neonatal care in clinical training facilities in Kenya." Arch Dis Child. 2016;(100):42-47. Abstractassessment_of_neonatal_care_in_clinical_training_facilities_in_kenya.pdf

Objective: An audit of neonatal care services provided by clinical training centres was undertaken to identify areas requiring improvement as part of wider efforts to improve newborn survival in Kenya.
Design: Cross-sectional study using indicators based on prior work in Kenya. Statistical analyses were descriptive with adjustment for clustering of data. Setting Neonatal units of 22 public hospitals. Patients Neonates aged <7 days.
Main outcome measures: Quality of care was assessed in terms of availability of basic resources (principally equipment and drugs) and audit of case records for documentation of patient assessment and treatment at admission.
Results: All hospitals had oxygen, 19/22 had resuscitation and phototherapy equipment, but some key resources were missing—for example kangaroo care was available in 14/22. Out of 1249 records, 56.9% (95% CI 36.2% to 77.6%) had a standard neonatal admission form. A median score of 0 out of 3 for symptoms of severe illness (IQR 0–3) and a median score of 6 out of 8 for signs of severe illness (IQR 4–7) were documented. Maternal HIV status was documented in 674/1249 (54%, 95% CI 41.9% to 66.1%) cases. Drug doses exceeded recommendations by >20% in prescriptions for penicillin (11.6%, 95% CI 3.4% to 32.8%) and gentamicin (18.5%, 95% CI 13.4% to 25%), respectively.
Conclusions: Basic resources are generally available, but there are deficiencies in key areas. Poor documentation limits the use of routine data for quality improvement. Significant opportunities exist for improvement in service delivery and adherence to guidelines in hospitals providing professional training.

Aluvaala J, Nyamai R, Were F, Wasunna A, Kosgei R, Karumbi J, Gathara D, English M. "Assessment of neonatal care in clinical training facilities in Kenya." Arch. Dis. Child.. 2014. Abstractassessment_of_neonatal_care_in_clinical_training.pdf

An audit of neonatal care services provided by clinical training centres was undertaken to identify areas requiring improvement as part of wider efforts to improve newborn survival in Kenya.

Njoroge PK. Assessment of parental sex education to own adolescents among parents in a Peri urban community.; Submitted. Abstract

This was a Survey of Parents' Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of sex education to their own adolescents. The study was conducted between January and March in three divisions of Kiambaa Division of Kiambu District, Central Province of Kenya. This study area is located about 20 km from the city of Nairobi. The study population were parents with at least one child in adolescence. Depending on availability either one or both parents were included in the study. The study instrument was structured, mainly pre-coded questionnaire. The data was obtained through personal interviews conducted from house La ho u sc . The sample population was made up of 729 parents, 70.4% of whom were females. The survey found that 46.3% of parents gave sex education to their own adolescents, majority of them giving it to those of their sex only. Parents gave their adolescents sex education from a mean age (of the adolescent) of 10.33 years (SD=3.51) and the practice was associated with Parents Social, Economic and Demographic factors. 'Of these factors, knowledge that own adolescents received sex education from sources other than the parent had highest odds ratio 10R=4.l8). Age of the parent was the only other factor with odds for the practice (OR=.l.03 ). The level of sex education given to adolescents was higher for girls than for boys. The level of practice to boys was associated with age and socio-economic status (SES) inde~ of the parent. Knowledge of sex education among parents was high and associated with a parents' sex and SES index. Males scored signi ficantly higher than females and parents of Jow SES scored significantly higher than those of high SES index. The attitude to sex education was positive, with nearly all parents feeling that sex education for adolescents was appropriate and that it should be given by own parents, starting from a mean age of 10.61 years (SD=2. 84) and that it should include contraceptive education. The study recommended further studies on parents to understand why the level of practice is unmatched with the high levels of knowledge and attitude and to determine why those parents who know that their adolescents receive sex education from other sources are more likely to give sex education to their adolescents than those who did not. 'Other recommendations were: a study to assess the feasibility of using PTA' s to impart sex education to adolescents in schools, beginning Family Life education in primary schools at standard four (corresponding to age .10-11 years),and establishing of community based centres for sex education counselling for parents with adolescents and adolescents out of school.

Mutero CM, Mbogo C, Mwangangi J, Imbahale S, Kibe L, Orindi B, Girma M, Njui A, Lwande W, Affognon H, Gichuki C, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana. "An assessment of participatory integrated vector management for malaria control in Kenya." Environmental health perspectives. 2015;123(11):1145.
Noor LM;, Wahome RG;, Wakhungu JW;, Wanyoike MM. "Assessment of Pastoral Camel Production System in Moyale District, Kenya.". 2002. Abstract

Data was collected in a survey to assess the Somali and Borana camel production system in Moyale district. The survey focussed on calf, health, nutritional, reproductive and breeding management aspects. The respective percentages of respondents allowing calves access to initial colostrum, attend calvings, splitting herds (home/nomadic), camels manifesting bone eating (an indication of poor minerai nutrition) and owners allowing inbreeding were: 25, 96,57,98 and 69. The home-based camels were more frequently watered. Serving bulls were kept in the herd for an averageof between 4.5 and 7 years. Age at first calving and calving interval reported in the questionnaire were 57.4 ± 12.8 (n=296) and 27.5 ±9.1 (n=528) months respectively. In conclusion, camel production can be greatly improved by use of simple and basic technologies in calf management, camel health care. mineral supplementation and breeding management.

Rintaugu EG, Ngetich EDK. "Assessment of physical fitness components as prediction factors of long jump performance." International Journal of Current Research. 2013;5(1):17-21.
Mutai BK, Muthama NJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Mwanthi MA, Wagner T. Assessment of Population Exposure to Future Climate Change-Induced Exceedances of Health-Based Air Pollutants over Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Nabulindo DSM. Assessment of preoperative evaluation of geriatric Patients by anaesthetists at the Kenyatta national hospital.; 2010. Abstract

Geriatric is a term used to refer to any patient aged 65years and above. These patients have special needs when it comes to the practice and conduct of anaesthesia. Physiological changes in various organ systems occuring with age compounded by the high incidence of comorbidities in the elderly affect the conduct of anaesthesia .Currently about 1000 geriatric patients are admitted annually into orthopedic, gynecological and general surgical wards at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and most of them require some form of surgery. Part of the preparation before surgery includes preanaesthetic evaluation by the anaesthetist who will administer anaesthesia on the day of surgery. Currently there is no anaesthetist with a subspecialization in geriatric anaesthesia at KNH. Objective. The objective of this study was to assess the practice of preanaesthetic evaluation of geriatric patients by the anaesthetists at KNH and compare it with the international guidelines formulated by the American Society of Anaesthesiologists. Methodology. The study was an observational, descriptive, cross- sectional study of preanaesthetic evaluations by anaesthetists at KNH done on 100 geriatric patients scheduled for elective surgery.The study site was the KNH general surgical, orthopedic and gynecological wards.The eligible patients who formed the basis of a preanaesthetic review and the anaesthetists were required to fill a consent form before being recruited. Data was collected using a questionnaire from the patients' medical records .The data collected included demographic information,risk assessment,whether functional/mental status was assessed,presence of co-morbidities and if preoperative optimization and medical consultation was requested for 7 Results. Data from the medical records of 100 geriatric patients scheduled for elective surgery was collected with focus on the preanaesthetic evaluation.The ages ranged from 65 - 92 years with a mean of 72.6 years.90% of the patients in the study had a preanaesthetic evaluation done by anaesthetists of different cadres. Most of the patients (81%) were evaluated on the day before surgery.57.8% of the patients were found to have at least one co-morbid condition.ASA physical status was used for risk stratification in all patients although the functional and mental status of the patients was only evaluated in 8.9% of those evaluated.Prepoerative tests were mainly used routinely without considering the patients co-morbidities or the type of surgery.Preoperative optimization of geriatric patients at KNH was requested for by anaesthetists but requests for medical consultation were made for only 11.1% of the evaluated patients. Conclusions. The preoperative evaluation of geriatric patients at KNH does not meet the international standards as per guidelines formulated by the ASA.

Njenga L, Nguli1 M, M. J. Gatari1, Shepherd2 K. "Assessment of Selected Micronutrients in Common Beans in Kenya.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Mugo JN, Karanja NN, Gachene CK, Klaus Dittert, Nyawade SO, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Assessment of soil fertility and potato crop nutrient status in central and eastern highlands of Kenya.". 2020.
James. N. Mugo, Nancy N. Karanja, Gachene CS, Klaus Dittert, Nyawade SO, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Assessment of soil fertility and potato crop nutrient status in Central and Eastern Highlands of Kenya." Nature research. 2020.
Namoi NL, Onwonga RN, Onyango CM, Karuku GN, Kathumo VN. "Assessment of Soil Nutrient Balances in Organic Based Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Cropping Systems of Yatta Sub-county, Kenya." American Journal of Experimental Agriculture . 2014;4(12):1557-1578.
Namoi NL, Onwonga RN, Onyango CM, Karuku GN, Kathumo VM. "Assessment of Soil Nutrient Balances in Organic Based Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Cropping Systems of Yatta Subcounty, Kenya." American Journal of Experimental Agriculture . 2014;4(12 ):1557-1578.
Makori AO, Nyongesa AW, Odongo HO, Masai RJ. "Assessment of stress on serum estradiol and cortisol levels in female subordinate naked mole rats following isolation from natal colony." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2020;8:9-17.
Ritho, N C, Nzuma J, Moyo S, Herrero M. "An assessment of the factors influencing household willingness to pay for non-marketed benefit of cattle in the agro-pastoral systems of Mozambique." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2013;8(18).
Kamau G, Njiraine D. "An Assessment of the Accessibility of Electronic Information Resources by Academic Library Users: A Case of the University of Nairobi.". In: Emerging Trends in Information and Knowledge Management. Eldoret; 2017.
Mumbua MJ, Irungu P, Nyikal RA, Kirimi L. "An assessment of the effect of a national fertiliser subsidy programme on farmer participation in private fertiliser markets in the North Rift region of Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics (AfJARE). 2016;11(4):292-304.
Nyakundi, Mberia H, Ndeti N. "An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Communication Campaigns in Enhancing Knowledge of Mental Health Among Secondary School students in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies,. 2014;Vol. 2,(Issue 12,):pp 96-107.
Ng’ang’a, J.C., Ritho, N C, Nzuma, M.J., Moyo, S., Herrero, M. "An Assessment of the Factors Influencing Household Willingness to Pay for Non-marketed Benefit of Cattle in the Agro-pastoral Systems of Mozambique." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2013;8(18):1949-1957.
Ogana W, Ntiba MJ, Kudoja WM. "Assessment of the potential impact of climate change on fisheries in Lake Victoria using the predictor rule. ." Importance of Mathematical Modelling in Biological and Biomedical Processes. Luboobi, L.S., J.Y.T. Mugisha and J. Kasozi, Eds. Makerere University Press, Kampala. 2004;(African Society for Biomathematics Series No. 1):pp. 139-148.
M. M, Gathura PB, Njeru FM, P.M K, H.F.A K, J.N. G, J.K M, J.M K. "An assessment of the Presence of Escherichia coli in the Roof-collected Rain Water from some areas around Nairobi. ." . The Kenya veterinarian. 2004; 27: 97-102.
Kamau JM;, Macharia JK;, Gitahi JN;, Kaburia HK;, Kitala PM;, Mbaria JM;, Njeruh, F. M., M; Gathura PB, Mbaka M. "An Assessment of the Presence of Escherichia coli in the roof-collected rainwater from some areas around Nairobi.". 2004. Abstract

One of the sources of feacal contamination of rainwater harvested from roofs is wind-blown dust containing particulate matter from animal faeces, or through direct defecation. Since the primary habitat for Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the gastro-intestinal tract of mammals and birds (Atlas 1984), it\'s a good indictor of feacal contamination (Hazen, 1988). This study aimed to investigate the presence of E.coli. In rainwater samples collected from roofs in some areas around Nairobi, which have different levels of livestock density. Forty four of the 89 samples collected tested positive for the presence of E.coli from Ngong Division, which had a cattle density of 1446 per square Kilometre was, 55%, but it was not significantly different from both Kikuyu Division: cattle density of 166; both of which had 34% of the samples testing positive to E.coli (p=0.3094). It was concluded that rain water harvested from roofs for human consumption in the study area should be treated before use.

Mbaka M, Gathura PB, Njeruh FM, Mbaria JM, Kitala PM, Kaburia HK, Gitahi JN, Macharia JK, Kamau JM. "An Assessment of the Presence of Escherichia coli in the roof-collected rainwater from some areas around Nairobi." Kenya Veterinarian. 2004;27:97-102. Abstract
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Wachira SN, Ndwigah SN, Ongarora DSB, Okaru AO. "Assessment of the Quality of Sodium Hypochlorite and Hydrogen Peroxide product samples in Nairobi County." International Journal of Novel Research and Development. 2022;7(3):503-514.
J. M’eruaki, Njeru L, Kiunga G. "An Assessment of the Roleof Internal Savings and LendingCommunities (SILC) in Community Empowerment in Igembe North SubCounty, Kenya." Scholars Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (SJAHSS). 2017;5(8)(ISSN): 2347-5374.
Baden LR, Karita E, Mutua G, Bekker L-G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, Page-Shipp L, Walsh SR, Nyombayire J, Anzala O, Roux S, Laher F, Innes C, Seaman MS, Cohen YZ, Peter L, Frahm N, McElrath JM, Hayes P, Swann E, Grunenberg N, Grazia-Pau M, Weijtens M, Sadoff J, Dally L, Lombardo A, Gilmour J, Cox J, Dolin R, Fast P, Barouch DH, Laufer DS. "Assessment of the Safety and Immunogenicity of 2 Novel Vaccine Platforms for HIV-1 Prevention: A Randomized Trial." Ann. Intern. Med.. 2016;164(5):313-22. Abstract

A prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is a global health priority.

Ndeti N, Mecha E. "Assessment of the Use of Contraceptives among young Women in Nairobi." Journal of African Communication Research. 2016;Vol. 7(No. 1):pg 103 to 117.
Wesonga FD;, Kitala PM;, Gathuma JM;, Njenga MJ;, Ngumi PN. "An assessment of tick-borne diseases constraints to livestock production in a smallholder livestock production system in Machakos District, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

The principle objective of the study was to determine the tick- borne diseases constraints to livestock production in Machakos District. The survey was carried out in eight randomly selected sub- locations spread across the district. Two hundred farmers were recruited into the study. All cattle from the selected farms were bled to determine the prevalence of tick- borne diseases. Clinical examination of sick animals was carried out during the survey. Questionnaires with questions designed to identify and rank various tick- borne disease production constraints, occurrence of tick- borne diseases, mortality and disease control strategies were administered. A total of 634 zebu and 15 cross- breed (Friesian-zebu crosses) cattle were sampled on the 200 farms for blood parasite infections (serology and direct parasite detection) and tick infestation. From the farmers’ perceptive, East Coast fever (ECF) and anaplasma were ranked as the main tick -borne diseases prevalent in the district. Although babesia was not ranked as one of the main tick-borne diseases in the district by the farmers, serological analysis did indicate a high prevalence of the disease. Tick challenge was high in seven of the eight sub-locations where the survey was carried out. The most common tick species were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi, Rhipicephalus pulchellus and Boophilus decoloratus. Veterinary services in the district are inadequate with up to 92 % of the farmers in one of the sub-locations treating their sick animals without the assistance of qualified veterinary personnel.

Njeru L. "An Assessment of Vulnerability and Risks of Climate Change and Possible Solutions to Enhance Resilience to Adapt to the Change in Meru County, Kenya." Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences . 2017;4(7)( e-ISSN 2348–1854):267-272.
Narang S., Seawright J.A., T.K. M, N.L.Willis. "Assignment of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase to chromosome 2 of Anopheles albimanus.Can." J.Genet.Cytol. 1983;25:567.
MO F, M ET, NM A, OB A-B, RJ S, JL C, JI V, BO G, R A, A K, A V, CA F. "Association between early childhood caries and poverty in low and middle-income countries." BMC Oral health. 2020;2020; 20:8(2020; 20:8):2020; 20:8.
Nyagetuba MJK, Saidi H, Githaiga J. "The association between pitch conditions and incidence of injury in rugby." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2015;12(2):73-76.
Lokken EM, Manguro GO, Abdallah A, Ngacha C, Shafi J, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Srinivasan S, Fiedler TL, Munch MM, Fredricks DN, McClelland SR, Balkus JE. "Association between vaginal washing and detection of by culture and quantitative PCR in HIV-seronegative Kenyan women: a cross-sectional analysis." Sex Transm Infect. 2019. Abstract

Vaginal washing has been associated with reductions in cultivable and an increased risk of both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV infection. The effect of vaginal washing on the quantity of individual species is not well characterised. This analysis tested the hypothesis that vaginal washing would be associated with a lower likelihood of spp. detected by both culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR).

Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Holmes KK, McClelland SR. "Associations between intravaginal practices and bacterial vaginosis in Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of vaginal infections." Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34(6):384-8. Abstract

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is highly prevalent among African women and has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV-1.

Anyenda EO, Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, Nguyen TTT, et al. "Associations of Cough Prevalence with Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen and Sulphur Dioxide." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016;13:800.
Yadav G, Saskin R, Ngugi E, Kimani J, Keli F, Fonck K, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M, Moses S, others. "Associations of sexual risk taking among Kenyan female sex workers after enrollment in an HIV-1 prevention trial." JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2005;38:329-334. Abstract
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Maloba F, Kagira JM, Gitau G, Ombui JN, Hau J, Ngotho M. "Astrocytosis as a biomarker for late stage human African Trypanosomiasis in the vervet monkey model." Scientia Parasitologica . 2011;12(2):53-59.
Malonza I, Keli F, Kaul R, Kimani J, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Plummer FA, Temmerman M, Moses S. "Asymptomatic STDs and HIV Among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2000. Abstract
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Mwaniki JM, TIMAMMY RAYYA, Ndung'u MN. "Athari za Mtagusano Kati ya Jamii na Ekolojia Katika Ushairi wa Mberia: BaraJingine na Rangi ya Anga." East African Journal of Swahili Studies. 2019;Volume 4(1):23-34.
Virmani R, Kolodgie FD, Burke AP, Finn AV, Gold HK, Tulenko TN, Wrenn SP, Narula J. "Atherosclerotic {Plaque} {Progression} and {Vulnerability} to {Rupture} {Angiogenesis} as a {Source} of {Intraplaque} {Hemorrhage}." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2005;25:2054-2061. AbstractWebsite

Observational studies of necrotic core progression identify intraplaque hemorrhage as a critical factor in atherosclerotic plaque growth and destabilization. The rapid accumulation of erythrocyte membranes causes an abrupt change in plaque substrate characterized by increased free cholesterol within the lipid core and excessive macrophage infiltration. Neoangiogenesis is associated closely with plaque progression, and microvascular incompetence is a likely source of intraplaque hemorrhage. Intimal neovascularization is predominantly thought to arise from the adventitia, where there are a plethora of pre-existing vasa vasorum. In lesions that have early necrotic cores, the majority of vessels invading from the adventitia occur at specific sites of medial wall disruption. A breech in the medial wall likely facilitates the rapid in-growth of microvessels from the adventitia, and exposure to an atherosclerotic environment stimulates abnormal vascular development characterized by disorganized branching and immature endothelial tubes with “leaky” imperfect linings. This network of immature blood vessels is a viable source of intraplaque hemorrhage providing erythrocyte-derived phospholipids and free cholesterol. The rapid change in plaque substrate caused by the excessive accumulation of erythrocytes may promote the transition from a stable to an unstable lesion. This review discusses the potential role of intraplaque vasa vasorum in lesion instability as it relates to plaque rupture.

Virmani R, Kolodgie FD, Burke AP, Finn AV, Gold HK, Tulenko TN, Wrenn SP, Narula J. "Atherosclerotic {Plaque} {Progression} and {Vulnerability} to {Rupture} {Angiogenesis} as a {Source} of {Intraplaque} {Hemorrhage}." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2005;25:2054-2061. AbstractWebsite

Observational studies of necrotic core progression identify intraplaque hemorrhage as a critical factor in atherosclerotic plaque growth and destabilization. The rapid accumulation of erythrocyte membranes causes an abrupt change in plaque substrate characterized by increased free cholesterol within the lipid core and excessive macrophage infiltration. Neoangiogenesis is associated closely with plaque progression, and microvascular incompetence is a likely source of intraplaque hemorrhage. Intimal neovascularization is predominantly thought to arise from the adventitia, where there are a plethora of pre-existing vasa vasorum. In lesions that have early necrotic cores, the majority of vessels invading from the adventitia occur at specific sites of medial wall disruption. A breech in the medial wall likely facilitates the rapid in-growth of microvessels from the adventitia, and exposure to an atherosclerotic environment stimulates abnormal vascular development characterized by disorganized branching and immature endothelial tubes with “leaky” imperfect linings. This network of immature blood vessels is a viable source of intraplaque hemorrhage providing erythrocyte-derived phospholipids and free cholesterol. The rapid change in plaque substrate caused by the excessive accumulation of erythrocytes may promote the transition from a stable to an unstable lesion. This review discusses the potential role of intraplaque vasa vasorum in lesion instability as it relates to plaque rupture.

Nyakwada William, Laban A. Ogallo ROEA. "The Atlantic-Indian Ocean Dipole and it's Influence on East African Seasonal Rainfall." Journal of Meteorology and related Sciences. 2009;3:21-35.jkms_vol3_n01_for_editing_kinguyu.pdf
Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Lu H, Zhang X, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "Atomically sharp 1D SbSeI, SbSI and SbSBr with high stability and novel properties for microelectronic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric applications." arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.05732. 2017. Abstract
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NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Attempts to coordinate the work of traditional and modern doctors in Nairobi in 1980. Kimani VN. Soc Sci Med [B]. 1981 Jul;15(3):421-2.". In: Soc Sci Med [B]. 1981 Jul;15(3):421-2. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1981. Abstract

45 Kenyan traditional healers were interviewed with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. Traditional management of eye diseases is based on the healers' concept of the disease causation as well as their knowledge of the herbal, animal and chemical substances that possess (or are reported to possess) remedial effect on the disease. While many of the healers interviewed failed to give a clear distinction between the various eye conditions, diseases such as cataract, foreign bodies and injuries were recognized easily. In almost all cases the medicinal substances were first diluted in water before they were applied to the eyes. Human milk, blood and the white of the egg were the animal substances listed as medicinal to various eye conditions. A solution of sugar was one of the chemical substances used in the treatment of specific eye conditions. Given correct information, some of these healers could f

NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Attended the 11th International Ottawa Conference on Medical Education on 2004 in Barcelona where co- presented the research work.". In: Commun Statist. Theor. Meth. Vol. 16, No. 10, 3095 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
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Nzuve SNM, K. SC. "Attitudes of Shop Floor Employees Toward Women Managers In Fuel Depots: A Case Of The Fuel Depots In Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic Of The Congo." Problems of Management in the 21st Century [PMC]. . 2014;9(3):206-212. Abstract

The International Labour Organization and all organizations of human rights advocate against any form of negative attitude in employment based on gender, its terms, promotion and relations. Shop floor employees play a very important role in the daily advancement and profitability of an organisation. The purpose of this study was to establish the attitude of shop floor employees toward women managers in fuel depots in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with the population consisting of one hundred and ninety three (193) shop floor employees. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. In total one hundred and twenty one (121) shop floor employees responded yielding a response rate of sixty three percent (63%). The findings of this study indicate that a negative attitude toward woman managers is prevalent in the Fuel Depots of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. At the fuel depots, the number of women working was less than a third of the males. In spite of this, women managers are rated higher in management qualities and are considered to be more honest, diligent, compassionate, creative and intelligent when compared to their male counterparts. The study recommends a culture change among employees in fuel depots in Lubumbashi in order to enable them perceive women as equal partners at the work place.

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