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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""All Expenditures must be properly authorized." Continuing on the theme of planning and management control, this article delineates and discusses some of the most effective financial control mechanisms. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 9-10). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""All Expenditures must be properly authorized." Continuing on the theme of planning and management control, this article delineates and discusses some of the most effective financial control mechanisms. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 9-10).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

Mugo SN, Njoroge K. "Alleviating the effects of drought on maize production in the moisture stress areas of Kenya through escape and tolerance." Symposium on developing drought and low nitrogen tolerant maize, El-Batan, Mexico. CIMMYT. 1996:35-38.
Maloiy GMO, Alexander, McN; R, Njau R, Jayes AS. "Allometry of the legs of running birds.". 2008. Abstract

The principal bones, muscles and tendons of the legs have been measured in a selection of running birds, ranging in size from 0–1 kg quail to 40 kg ostrich. Maximum stride frequencies of the same species have been determined from films. Allometric equations have been derived. Most of the exponents agree well with McMahon's (1973, 1975a) theory of elastic similarity, which is discussed.

Garcia-Knight MA, Nduati E, Hassan AS, Gambo F, Odera D, Etyang TJ, Hajj NJ, Berkley JA, Urban BC, Rowland-Jones SL. "Altered Memory T-Cell Responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination and Altered Cytokine Responses to Polyclonal Stimulation in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Kenyan Infants." PLoS ONE. 2015;10(11):e0143043. Abstract

Implementation of successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategies has resulted in an increased population of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. HEU infants have higher rates of morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed (HU) infants. Numerous factors may contribute to poor health in HEU infants including immunological alterations. The present study assessed T-cell phenotype and function in HEU infants with a focus on memory Th1 responses to vaccination. We compared cross-sectionally selected parameters at 3 and 12 months of age in HIV-exposed (n = 42) and HU (n = 28) Kenyan infants. We measured ex vivo activated and bulk memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells and regulatory T-cells by flow cytometry. In addition, we measured the magnitude, quality and memory phenotype of antigen-specific T-cell responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid vaccine antigens, and the magnitude and quality of the T cell response following polyclonal stimulation with staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Finally, the influence of maternal disease markers on the immunological parameters measured was assessed in HEU infants. Few perturbations were detected in ex vivo T-cell subsets, though amongst HEU infants maternal HIV viral load positively correlated with CD8 T cell immune activation at 12 months. Conversely, we observed age-dependent differences in the magnitude and polyfunctionality of IL-2 and TNF-α responses to vaccine antigens particularly in Th1 cells. These changes mirrored those seen following polyclonal stimulation, where at 3 months, cytokine responses were higher in HEU infants compared to HU infants, and at 12 months, HEU infant cytokine responses were consistently lower than those seen in HU infants. Finally, reduced effector memory Th1 responses to vaccine antigens were observed in HEU infants at 3 and 12 months and higher central memory Th1 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens were observed at 3 months only. Long-term monitoring of vaccine efficacy and T-cell immunity in this vulnerable population is warranted.

Ndunda EN, Madadi VO, Mizaikoff B. "An alternative clean-up column for Polychlorinated Biphenyls in solid matrices." Environmental Science. Processes and Impacts, Royal Society of Chemistry. 2015;17(12):2101-2109,.
Wahome A, Ngunjiri GMN, Shitanda D, Ogola WO. "Alternative Diesel Engine Fuel From Kenyan Pishori Rice Bran." International Journal of Engineering Science Invention. 2013;2(8):75-79.journal_paper__-_aug_2013.pdf
Okeyo MP, Rambo CM, NYONJE RO. "Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanism and Resolution of Contractual Disputes in Construction Industry: the case of Road Construction Projects in Kenya. ." American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) . 2021;10(2):61-70 .
Cruickshank DL, Y. Y, Njuguna NM, Ongarora DSB, Chibale K, Caira MR. "Alternative solid-state forms of a potent antimalarial aminopyridine: X-ray crystallographic, thermal and solubility aspects." CrystEngComm. 2014;16:5781-5792.
Njenga LW, Maina DM, Kariuki DN, Mwangi FK. Aluminium exposure from vegetables and fresh raw vegetable juices in Kenya.; 2007.
Njenga MJ, Wabacha JK, Abuom TO, Ndurumo SM, Gitonga PN, Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004. .". In: Presented at Annual Scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association. University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2004.
Njenga MJ;, Wabacha JK;, Ndurumo SM;, Gitonga PN;, Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.".; 2004.
Njenga MJ;, Wabacha JK;, Ndurumo SM;, Gitonga, PN; Kirui G, Gitonga, PN; Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.".; 2004.
Njenga MJ;, Wabacha JK;, Ndurumo SM;, Gitonga PN;, Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.".; 2004.
Njenga MJ;, Wabacha JK;, Ndurumo SM;, Gitonga PN;, Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.".; 2004.
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Ameyaw MM, Regateiro F, Li T, Liu X, Tariq M, Mobarek A, Thornton N, Folayan GO, Githang'a J, Indalo A, Ofori-Adjei D, Price-Evans DA, McLeod HL..MDR1 pharmacogenetics: frequency of the C3435T mutation in exon 26 is significantly influenced by ethnicity. .". In: Pharmacogenetics. 2001 Apr;11(3):217-21. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2001. Abstract
P-glycoprotein (PGP), the product of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), acts as an energy-dependent efflux pump that exports its substrates out of the cell. PGP expression is an important factor regulating absorption of a wide variety of medications. It has also been associated with intrinsic and acquired cross resistance to a number of structurally unrelated anticancer drugs. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 26 of the MDR1 gene, C3435T, was recently correlated with PGP protein levels and substrate uptake. Individuals homozygous for the T allele have more than four-fold lower PGP expression compared with CC individuals. As overexpression of PGP has been associated with altered drug absorption, therapy-resistant malignancies, and lower concentrations of HIV-1 protease inhibitors, this SNP may provide a useful approach to individualize therapy. To facilitate clinical application throughout the world, 1280 subjects from 10 different ethnic groups were evaluated for this SNP using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and the genotype and allele frequency for each group were ascertained. Marked differences in genotype and allele frequency were apparent between the African populations and the Caucasian/Asian populations (P < 0.0001). The Ghanaian, Kenyan, African American and Sudanese populations studied had frequencies of 83%, 83%, 84% and 73%, respectively, for the C allele. The British Caucasian, Portuguese, South-west Asian, Chinese, Filipino and Saudi populations had lower frequencies of the C allele compared to the African group (48%, 43%, 34%, 53%, 59%, and 55%, respectively). The high frequency of the C allele in the African group implies overexpression of PGP and may have important therapeutic and prognostic implications for use of PGP dependent drugs in individuals of African origin. PMID: 11337937 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Osuna. F, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Opot. B, Wadegu. M, Opanda. S, Mitei. K, Njiri. J, Nyambura. J, Mwangi. J, Majanja. J, Wurapa. E. "Amino acid changes at the hemagglutinin antigenic site amongst Kenyan Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses in 2009-2011.". In: 2nd Medical and Veterinary Virology Research -2 symposium. Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi Kenya.; 2012. Abstract
n/a
Gachara G, Symekher S, Mbithi J, James S, Ng’ayo M, Magana J, Bulimo W. "Amino acid sequence analysis and identification of mutations in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya." Virus Genes. 2011:1-6. AbstractWebsite

Although the important role of the nonstructural (NS) gene of influenza A virus in virulence and replication is well-established, the knowledge about the extent of variation in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) viruses in Kenya and Africa is scanty. This study analysed the NS gene of 31 isolates from Kenya in order to obtain a more detailed knowledge about the genetic variation of NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya. A comparison with the vaccine strain and viruses isolated elsewhere in Africa was also made. The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein, NS1 of the viruses from this study and the vaccine strain revealed 18 differences. Conversely, the nuclear export protein (NEP) of the isolates in this study had 11 differences from the vaccine strain. Analysis of the NS1 protein showed only one fixed amino acid change I123V which is one of the characteristics of clade 7 viruses. In the NEP, the amino acid at position 77 was the most mutable with 9 (39%) of all mutations seen in this protein. A mutation A115T which is a characteristic of clade 5 viruses was noted in the isolates from Lagos, Nigeria. The study shows a substantial number of mutations in the NS gene that has not been reported elsewhere and gives a glimpse of the evolution of this gene in the region.

Njage PMK, Dolci S, Jans C, Wangoh J, Lacroix C, Meile L. "Ampicillin Resistance And Extended Spectrum Β-lactamases In Enterobacteriaceae Isolated From Raw And Spontaneously Fermented Camel Milk.". 2012. Abstract

The prevalence of ampicillin resistance and extended-spectrum β-lactamases(ESBL)in the dominant Enterobacteriaceae from raw and spontaneously fermented camel milk (suusac) in Kenya and Somalia was characterized both phenotypically and genotypically. Globally important SHV and CTX-M-type extended spectrum β–lactamases (ESBLs)were tested. The Enterobacteriaceaebelonged to 15 species from 10 genera. Dominant isolates wereEscherichia coli (50), Klebsiellapneumoniasubsp.pneumoniae (35) and Enterobactersakazakii (20).Salmonella arizonae, Serratia odorifera and E. coli occurred at viable counts greater than 8 log cfu/ml. ESBL was studied f or 96 E. coli, K. pneumoniasubsp. pneumoniae andE.sakazakii. Total of 61 (63% )isolates consisting of 46 (48%) ofE. coli, 45 (46%)K.pneumonia subsp.Pneumoniaand 16 (7%) E.sakazakiiwere resistant to ampicillin.blaSHV ,blaCTX-M-3-like blaCTX-M-14-like genes were detectedin 37 (60%), 25 (40%) and 11 (18%) of theEnterobacteriaceae isolates respectively.K.pneumonia subsp.pneumoniae harbored majority of these bla genes (74%)with1 strain possessing all 3 genes and 13 harbouring both bla SHV and bla CTX-M-3-like genes. Thediversity ofEnterobacteriaceae in camel milk calls for improvedhandling of camel milk.The ESBLgenes intheisolates fromremotesemi-arid regions emphasises the global antimicrobial resistanceproblemamong Enterobacteriaceae

Ross N, Iwuoha EI, Ikpo CO, Baker P, Njomo N, Mailu SN, Masikini M, Matinise N, Tsegaye A, Mayedwa N, Waryo T, Ozoemena KI, Williams A. "Amplification of the discharge current density of lithium-ion batteries with spinel phase Li (PtAu) 0.02 Mn1. 98O4 nano-materials." Electrochimica Acta. 2014;128:178-183. AbstractElectrochimica Acta

Description
In this study the synergistic and catalytic properties of a novel nano-composite cathode material of nominal composition Li(M)xMn2-xO4 (M = Pt-Au; x # 0.2) has been explored. Li(PtAu)xMn2-xO4 nanomaterial for use in lithium-ion batteries (LIB) was synthesized by incorporation of the Pt-Au (1:1) nanoparticles onto the spinel phase LiMn2O4. Ultra-low scan rate (0.01 mV s−1) cyclic voltammetry of the cathode material in 1 M LiPF6 (in 1:1 EC:DMC), showed four sets of redox peaks, which reflect the typical redox process of the active material in the spinel structure due to lithium intercalation and deintercalation. The Li/Li(PtAu)0.02Mn1.98O4 cell had less polarization as it effectively accommodates the structural transformation during Li+ ion charge and discharge. The Li(PtAu)0.02Mn1.98O4 cathode showed an increase in discharge currents densities with an exchange current density, i0, value of 2.8 × 10−4 A cm−2 …

Epiu I, Tindimwebwa JV, Tindimwebwa JV, Mijimbi C, Chokwe T, Lugazia E, Ndarugirire F, Twagirumugabe T, Dubowitz G. "Anaesthesia in Developing countries ." Value in Health . 2015;18(7):A679.
Mogoa EGM;, Ndurumo S. "Anaesthesia Practices Among Kenyan Veterinarians:."; 2008.
Njung'e K, Muriuki G, Mwangi JW, Kuria KA. "Analgesic and antipyretic effects of Myrica salicifolia (Myricaceae).". 2002. AbstractWebsite

Myrica salicifolia Hoechst (Myricaceae) root extract was found to have analgesic activity in mice. In rats there was antipyretic but no antiinflammatory activity.

Kanduma EG, Mwacharo JM, Githaka NW, Kinyanjui PW, Njuguna JN, Kamau LM, Kariuki E, Mwaura S, Skilton RA, Bishop RP. "Analyses of mitochondrial genes reveal two sympatric but genetically divergent lineages of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2016;9:1-15. Abstract
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Boon TRE;, Nathan I;, Buttoud G;, Kouplevatskaya I, Lund DH;. Analysis along procedural elements.; 1998.Website
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Analysis and Evaluation of Poverty in Kenya." CH. 1 pp. 1-36. Co-authored with Bahemuka et al. In Bahemuka J. et al. Poverty Revisited: Analysis and Strategies Towards Poverty Eradication in Kenya. Nairobi:.". In: Ruaraka Printing Press Ltd. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Njiru EN;, Kironchi, G; Mbuvi NJP; S, Kironchi G;, Mbuvi JP;, Nguluu S. "Analysis of climate data and the associated risks to maize production in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya."; 2010.
Njiru, E N; Kironchi MNG; JP;, Kironchi G;, Mbuvi JP;, Nguluu S. "Analysis of climate data and the associated risks to maize production in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya."; 2010.
Adolwa IS, Okoth PF, Mulwa RM, Esilaba AO, Mairura FS, Nambiro E. "Analysis of Communication and Dissemination Channels Influencing the Adoption of Integrated Soil Fertility Management in Western Kenya." The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. 2012;18(1):71-86.
Mogambi, H., Nzonzo, D. "Analysis of Communication and Information Communication Technologies Adoption in Irrigated Rice Production in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2016;Vol. 4 ( No. 12):295-316.
Otieno D, Nyikal R. "Analysis of Consumer Preferences for Quality and Safety Attributes in Artisanal Fruit Juices in Kenya." Journal of Food Products Marketing. 2016. AbstractWebsite

This study used choice experiment survey data from a random sample of 374 respondents to analyze consumer preferences for quality and safety attributes of artisanal fruit juices in Kenya. Results show that consumers had a positive and significant preference for single fruit juices compared to fruit mixtures, private rather than public inspection of the juices, traceability of fruit origin, and vendor’s health. Additives such as colorants, flavors, and preservatives were not preferred. Consumers were willing to pay premiums of up to 200% for artisanal juices that contain single fruits, lack additives, and are inspected by private agencies. These insights should be incorporated in ensuring that artisanal fruit juice designs comply with food quality and safety requirements. Further, there is a need to license and regulate the artisanal juice preparation and handling and to provide training to the handlers on safety and quality requirements.

Roberts LC, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "An analysis of determinants of access to and use of credit by smallholder farmers in Suakoko district, Liberia." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR). 2017;12(24)(ISSN – 1991-637x):2093-2100.
Roberts LC, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "An analysis of determinants of access to and use of credit by smallholder farmers in Suakoko District, Liberia." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;12(24): 2093-2100. AbstractWebsite

Agricultural credit has been argued to be very important for sustainable agricultural development and poverty reduction in rural areas. This study seeks to identify and to analyze the determinants of smallholder farmers’ access to and use of credit in Suakoko district, Bong County, Liberia. This research is quantitative using a survey questionnaire distributed to 105 smallholder farmers. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and causal analysis was performed using a binary Logit regression model. Results from regression indicate that 39% of the farmers were credit users. The marginal effects of bank account and other sources of income show significant and positive effects on access to credit. However, education, occupation and group membership are significant but have negative effects on access to credit by smallholder farmers. The results also show that 38% of credit users applied credit received for agricultural activities, while the rest utilized it for non-agricultural activities. It is recommended that a policy should be established to ensure older farmers gets adult literacy while younger farmers get formal education. Moreover, the government should issue a policy aimed at increasing opportunities for off-farm activities through creation of jobs and motivating self-employment. Finally, the government should promote the creation of development groups geared towards providing collateral support for members and also serve as guarantors for farmers to receive banks credit/loans in order to increase agricultural productivity in the study area.

Key words: Credit access, rural, farmers, smallholder, Suakoko district, Liberia.

Nyaory GM, K’Onditi DBO, Ouma HA, Musyoki S. "Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Radiation from a Rectangular Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna Using ADI-FDTD Method." Journal Of Information Engineering and Applications . 2012;2(No. 8):1-8. Abstract

In this paper, a rectangular Cavity Backed Slot Antenna (CBSA) Model excited by a probe is investigated.
The analysis is carried out using the Alternating Direction Implicit - Finite Difference Time Domain (ADIFDTD)
Method which is applied to investigate its characteristics in terms of radiation patterns and power.
This is because the method is capable of providing a more accurate definition of the electromagnetic fields
within the rectangular apertures, while eliminating the Courant-Friedrich-Levy (CFL) stability condition
which is present in the regular Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. A cavity-backed slot
antenna structure with dimensions of 14cm×22cm×30cm is analyzed with the slot and aperture
measurements done at 3GHz. Results showing current distribution on the material surrounding the
apertures are presented and a discussion on the physical aspects of the aperture radiation phenomenon is
also presented.

**This research was sponsored by The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)**

N PROFKARIUKIDAVID, W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Analysis of fluoride in locally available beverages: Comparison of direct, oven diffusion and hexamethyldisiloxane diffusion methods.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, 13: 30 -35, 2004. UoN; 2004. Abstract

Analysis of fluoride in a variety of beverages was carried out using three different methods inconjunction with a fluoride ion selective electrode. The three methods gave comparable results for 26samples of fruit juices. However, 68% of the juices were found to contain fluoride levels higher than theWHO recommended limits (0.6 - 1.0 mgl-1). Soft drinks (sodas) and beers were found to contain values lower than 0.6 mgl-1. The amount of fluoride in tea infusion was found to increase both with increase inboiling time and amount of tea leaves used. Chocolate and coffee infusions were found to contain 4.3 mgl-1and 4.0 mgl-1fluoride, respectively.

Nunow A, Nzioka JM, Kinama JM. "Analysis of gender parity in climate change adaptation actions within Kajiado and Kiambu counties, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;1(2).
Nzuve F. "Analysis of Genotype x Environment Interaction for Grain Yield in Maize Hybrids." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2013;5(11):75-85.
Susan Gachau, Nelson Owuor, NJAGI EDMUNDNJERU, Ayieko P, English M. "Analysis of Hierarchical Routine Data With Covariate Missingness: Effects of Audit & Feedback on Clinicians' Prescribed Pediatric Pneumonia Care in Kenyan Hospitals." Frontiers in public health. 2019;7( ):198. AbstractWebsite

Background:
Routine clinical data are widely used in many countries to monitor quality of care. A limitation of routine data is missing information which occur due to lack of documentation of care processes by health care providers, poor record keeping or limited health care technology at facility level. Our objective was to address missing covariates while properly accounting for hierarchical structure in routine paediatric pneumonia care.
Methods:
We analysed routine data collected during a cluster randomized trial to investigating the effect of audit and feedback (A&F) over time on inpatient pneumonia care among children admitted in 12 Kenyan hospitals between March and November 2016. Six hospitals in the intervention arm received enhance A&F on classification and treatment of pneumonia cases in addition to a standard A&F report on general inpatient paediatric care. The remaining six in control arm received standard A&F alone. We derived and analysed a composite outcome known as Paediatric Admission Quality of Care (PAQC) score. In our analysis, we adjusted for patients, clinician and hospital level factors. Missing data occurred in patient and clinician level variables. We did multiple imputation of missing covariates within the joint model imputation framework. We fitted proportion odds random effects model and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to the data before and after multilevel multiple imputation.

N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Analysis of Mercury in Soils around Lake Naivasha," J. Biochemiphysics, 4 (1995) 27.". In: Proceedings, Biochemical Society, Nairobi, Sept. 1996. Survey Review; 1995. Abstract
n/a
Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. "Analysis of multipurpose uses and management of Zizphus spina-christi (L.) desf. in semi-arid Ethiopia: Implications for food security." Second RUFORUM Biennial Meeting . 2010. Abstract

Quantitative ethnobotanical study of Ziziphus spina-christi
was undertaken in six areas of east Shewa, Ethiopia. Both
structured questionnaire and focus-group interviews were
conducted with about 200 households. Arable land cultivation,
and increased frequencies of drought are reducing areas under
Z. spina-christi. The multi-purpose tree is highly nutritious,
helps main soil fertility, and is an important source of income in
the region. Research and policy support are needed to exploit
the potential of this agroforestry tree species.
Key words: East Shewa, food security, nutrition, wild fruits,
Ziziphus spina-christi

Madadi VO, Wandiga SO, Ndunda EN, Mavuti KM. "Analysis of Organochlorine Pesticides in Lake Naivasha Catchment." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):139-149.
Nwaka S, Ochem A, Besson D, Ramirez B, Fakorede F, Botros S, Inyang U, Mgone C, Adae-Mensah I, Konde V, Nyasse B, Okole B, Guantai A, Loots G, Atadja P, Ndumbe P, Sanou I, Olesen O, Ridley R, Ilunga T. "Analysis of pan-African Centres of excellence in health innovation highlights opportunities and challenges for local innovation and financing in the continent." 12. 2012;11(12):2-15.analysis_of_pan-african_centres_of_excellence_in_health_innovation_highlights_opportunities_and_challenges_for_local_innovation_and_in.pdf
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Zessin KH, N.M. K, Baumann MPO, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Analysis of post-mortem diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle. ." Online Journal of Veterinary Research . 2002;1:1-9.
Mwisukha A, E.R. G, Njororai WWS. "Analysis of Postgraduate Research in the department of Physical Education, Kenyatta University, Kenya. ." African Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology and Sports Facilitation. 2004;6:81-86.
S.M.Kihu, Gachohi JM, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG. "Analysis of small ruminants’ pastoral management practices as risk factors of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) spread in Turkana District, Kenya." Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences. 2013;3(9):304-313.pub_2_kihu_et_al_303-314.pdf
JI Adungo, Mutispo VM, Ngugi M, Khainga S, A Mouki, Kimeu M. "Analysis of Soft Tissue Injuries and Scarring Following Terrorist Bomb Explosion at the American Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2015.Website
Ngugi RW, Sifunjo EK, Wainaina G, Pokhariyal G. "An analysis of the efficiency of foreign exchange market in Kenya." Economic Bulletin. 2008.
Gituro W, Kisaka SE, Ngugi RW, Pokhariyal G. "An analysis of the efficiency of the foreign exchange market in Kenya." Economics Bullletin. 2008. Abstractan_analysis_of_the_efficiency_of_the_foreign_exchange_market_in_kenya.pdf

This study examined the Efficiency Market hypothesis in its weak form using run tests, unit root tests and the Ljung-Box Q-statistics. The motivation was to determine whether foreign exchange rate returns follow a random walk. The data covered the period starting January 1994 to June 2007 for the daily closing spot price of the Kenya shillings per US dollar exchange rate. The main finding of this study is that the foreign exchange rate market is not efficient. The results showed that most of the rejections are due to significant patterns, trend stationarity and autocorrelation in foreign exchange returns. This is attributed to both
exchange rate undershooting and overshooting phenomena.

JessicaOsanya, I.Adam R, Otieno DJ, Nyikal R, Jaleta M. "An analysis of the respective contributions of husband and wife in farming households in Kenya to decisions regarding the use of income: A multinomial logit approach." Women's Studies International Forum. 2020;83. AbstractWebsite

This paper analyzes the socio-economic characteristics of households that affect husbands and wives' contributions to decisions regarding the use of income from crop and livestock sales in Kenya. Using a sample of 276 households, we apply a multinomial logit model to assess factors affecting decision-making. Results show that husbands make most decisions concerning agriculture, while wives mainly decide on daily household expenditure. Higher education levels were found to increase women's involvement in decision-making on income use. Group membership had a positive effect on joint decision-making on income use. The study recommends improving women's access to education, which will improve their access to productive resources, hence their decision-making power. Providing incentives for members of agricultural groups can provide avenues for learning. Gender-transformative approaches that empower women and sensitize men to allow space for women to engage in decision-making, can have an impact in improving the decision-making capacity of women in households.

Mutai BK, Muthama JN, Ngaina JN. "Analysis of the Temporal Evolution of Total Column Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone over Nairobi, Kenya using Daily OMI Measurements." Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. 2015;8(5):530-540. Abstractanalysis_of_the_temporal_evolution_of_total_column_nitrogen_dioxide_and_ozone_over_nairobi_kenya_using_daily_omi_measurements.pdfAfrican Journals Online(AJOL)

Concurrent measurement and analysis of Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)and Ozone (O3) are essential for improved understanding of ozone distribution. This study sought to analyse the temporal evolution of total column NO2 and O3 over Nairobi using satellite-derived daily data between 2009 and 2013. Seasonality is observed in O3 distribution with minimum and maximum occurring during the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Additionally, a lag of about a month or two occurs between the onset of a season and corresponding minimum or maximum NO2 and O3 concentration. The established association between monthly NO2 and O3 is such that, above average concentration of NO2 is likely to lead to above average levels of O3 during the same month (r=0.79) and below average levels about 5 months later (r=0.39). The Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) is the main phenomenon behind the oscillating biennial feature exhibited by NO2 and O3 interannual trend. The study shows that NO2 and O3 are increasing at annual average rates of about 0.27% and 0.46% per year compared to mean values, respectively. Daily variation of both NO2 and O3 depicts stagnating trends over the entire period of study. This difference is attributed to the fact that, whereas daily NO2 and O3 are influenced by mechanisms that control the slow shift between the dry and wet periods within the course of a year, interannual variability is driven by the differences in each year’s general weather conditions.

Key Words: Evolution, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Total Column, Quasi Biennial Oscillation

Mutai BK, Muthama NJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Ngaina JN. "Analysis of the Temporal Evolution of Total Column Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone over Nairobi, Kenya using OMI Measurements." Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. 2015;8(5):530-540.
Augustus ON, Mberia H, Ndeti N. "An Analysis of the Use of Mass Media during Commuication Campaigns for Mental Health in Nairobi County." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies. 2015;Vol. 3(Issue 2).
Ndavi PM, Muia EG OJ, et al. An analysis of Training in the Provision of Family Planning Services in Factors thatContribute to the Utilization of Quality RH Care: Findings from Further Analysis of the Service Provision Assessment of 1999: . Nairobi: Ministry of Health, National Council for Population and Development-Ministry of Planning and National ; 2003.
Ndiritu AW, Kimani DG, NYAGAH DGRACE. "AN ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS AND ITS EFFECT ON SCHOOL EFFICIENCY.". In: 7th Annual International Conference.; 2011. Abstract

Education is a fundamental human right enshrined in all major United Nations and other international charters, and need to be provided in the most efficient manner. Education has been found to play a major role in social, political, economic and cultural perspectives of a country (Mbeche and Ndiritu, 2005). It is therefore important to find out how education can be achieved in the most efficient manner. Like any other organization, the success and failure of the school is associated with the quality of its leadership (Schultz (2003). Scholars have tried to establish the kind of leadership behaviour that would enhance efficiency in organizations (Kouzes and Posner, 2002). The current study links transformational leadership with school efficiency. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between transformational leadership styles of secondary school principals and school efficiency as measured by academic performance and discipline in Nairobi Province. Kouze’s and Posner’s Leadership Practice Inventory(LPI) was used to measure the transformational leadership styles of school principals while information on school discipline and academic performance was gathered from the questions attached to the LPI. Data was analysed by the use of Pearson correlation coefficient and ANOVA. The findings indicated that transformational leadership is correlated with the two variables. The findings of also provide implications for the leadership of secondary school principals as they practice transformational leadership in their schools. This has a direct implications for institutions that prepare secondary school principals to come up with programs that will enhance secondary school principals skills to create learning organizations Secondary school principals must exhibit strong leadership skills in all five of the practice areas measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory in order to succeed in today’s high stress and ever-changing world of educational leadership..

NDIRANGU MAINADAVID, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Wang’ondu V, Kairo JG. "Analysis of wave energy reduction and sediment stabilization by mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2017;7(2):83-94.
NDIRANGU MAINADAVID, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Wang’ondu V, Kairo JG. "Analysis of wave energy reduction and sediment stabilization by mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2017;7(2):83-94.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Mwabu D, Ndenge G. "Analyzing the Correlates of Poverty in Kenya: An Institutional Approach." African Journal of Economic Policy. 2009;16(1):1-35.Website
Okahara M, Kiyosue H, Mori H, Tanoue S, Sainou M, Nagatomi H. "Anatomic variations of the cerebral arteries and their embryology: a pictorial review." European radiology. 2002;12:2548-2561. AbstractWebsite
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Carl JL, Julius O, Nancy K. "Anchored vs. relative best–worst scaling and latent class vs. hierarchical Bayesian analysis of best–worst choice data: Investigating the importance of food quality attributes in a developing country.". 2012. Abstract

Applying best–worst (BW) scaling to a multifaceted feature, e.g. food quality, is challenging as attribute non-attendance or lack of attribute discrimination risks invalidating the transformation of choice data to unidimensional scale. The relativism of BW scaling also typically prevents distinction of respondents or groups of respondents based on similarities to the study object. A dual-response BW scaling method employed here to obtain an anchored scale allowed comparisons of importance ratings across individuals. Attribute importance ratings and rankings obtained were compared with those from relative BW scaling. Latent class (LC) and hierarchical Bayesian (HB) analyses of individual specific BW choice data were also compared for ability to consider within- and between-respondent choice heterogeneity. Personal interviews with 449 consumers provided data on the importance of 16 food quality attributes of kale produced in peri-urban farming in Kenya. Major findings were that the anchoring model improved individual choice predictions compared with conventional relativistic BW scaling, i.e. was more reliable in measuring consumer preferences, and that HB analysis fitted the data better than LC analysis. HB analysis also successfully obtained individual parameter estimates from sparse data and is thus a promising tool for analysis of BW choices in sensory and consumer-orientated research.

Ogot M, Nganga W. "Anchoring and Weighting Knowledge Economy and Knowledge Indices as Improved Measures of a Country's Readiness for the Knowledge Economy: A Case Study of Kenya." OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development. 2012;4:25-40. Abstract

This study sought to develop a set of indices better able to track a country's readiness for the knowledge economy. The new indices, the Anchored Knowledge Index and the Anchored Knowledge Economy Index are based on the World Bank (WB) knowledge economy framework. The rationale for the introduction, and the procedures to calculate the new indices are presented. The WB indices provide for rank-ordered normalization based on the latest data available for a benchmarking group of countries. The proposed anchored set of indices, however, provides for a relative ordering of the data. Relative-order (weighting) determines by how much each country, along a particular indicator, is better (or worse) than the others. The new indices address the short-coming of rank-order where as long as the relative positions of the benchmarking countries remain the same, the indices do not change even though the gaps between countries could be decreasing (desired) or increasing (cause for alarm). Further, the subject country now appears twice, based on both the latest data available, and a baseline (anchor) from the World Bank Knowledge Assessment Methodology 2009 data. Using Kenya as a case study, a basic scorecard for Kenya is proposed and used for the calculation of the indices for Kenya and five benchmark countries, Singapore, South Africa, Japan, South Korea. The results clearly illustrate the efficacy of the proposed approach in tracking a countries readiness for the knowledge economy.

Ogot M, Nganga W. "Anchoring and Weighting Knowledge Economy and Knowledge Indices as improved measures of a country’s readiness for the Knowledge Economy: A case study of Kenya.". 2012;4(10):25-40. Abstract

This study sought to develop a set of indices better able to track a country's readiness for the knowledge economy. The new indices, the Anchored Knowledge Index and the Anchored Knowledge Economy Index are based on the World Bank (WB) knowledge economy framework. The rationale for the introduction, and the procedures to calculate the new indices are presented. The WB indices provide for rank-ordered normalization based on the latest data available for a benchmarking group of countries. The proposed anchored set of indices, however, provides for a relative ordering of the data. Relative-order (weighting) determines by how much each country, along a particular indicator, is better (or worse) than the others. The new indices address the short-coming of rank-order where as long as the relative positions of the benchmarking countries remain the same, the indices do not change even though the gaps between countries could be decreasing (desired) or increasing (cause for alarm). Further, the subject country now appears twice, based on both the latest data available, and a baseline (anchor) from the World Bank Knowledge Assessment Methodology 2009 data. Using Kenya as a case study, a basic scorecard for Kenya is proposed and used for the calculation of the indices for Kenya and ve benchmark countries, Singapore, South Africa, Japan, South Korea. The results clearly illustrate the efficacy of the proposed approach in tracking a countries readiness for the knowledge economy.

Ngugi RW. "Andati Samuel Obulemire, Duration dependence in stock prices: A duration analysis of bull and bear markets on NSE, University of Nairobi, 2004." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Ang."; 2002. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Angawa, J.A., Karanja, N.K. and Odee, D. 1998. Estimation of the effects of NO3-N on nodulation, dry matter yield and N2 fixed by Calliandra calothyrsus. (ed. F.D. Dakora) pp 6-7.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1989. Abstract
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Dywili N, Njomo N, Ikpo CO, Yonkeu ALD, John SV, Hlongwa NW, Raleie N, Iwuoha EI. "Anilino-Functionalized Graphene Oxide Intercalated with Pt Metal Nanoparticles for Application as Supercapacitor Electrode Material." Journal of Nano Research. 2016;44:79-89. AbstractJournal of Nano Research

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Nanostructured anilino-functionalized reduced graphene oxide intercalated with Pt metal nanoparticles was successfully synthesized. Graphene oxide nanosheets were synthesized using a modified Hummers method with simultaneous in-situ functionalization with aniline and ionic Pt reduction and dispersion through sonication. The nanomaterial was characterised with FTIR, UV-visible, SEM, TEM, EDX, XRD and Raman spectroscopy to ascertain surface, chemical, elemental and crystalline properties, composite structures, size, morphology and successful entrapment of metal nanoparticles while the electro-conductivity of the nanomaterial was interrogated using CV. The graphene oxide was successfully functionalized with aniline with new peaks belonging to the NH and CN group being present and calculated band gaps of 5.35 eV and 4.39 eV which are attributed to …

Xu Y, Ning Z, Zhang H, Ni G, Shao H, Peng B, Zhang X, He X, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "The anisotropic ultrahigh hole mobility in strain-engineering two-dimensional penta-SiC $ \_2$." arXiv preprint arXiv:1701.03715. 2017. Abstract
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Xu Y, Ning Z, Zhang H, Ni G, Shao H, Peng B, Zhang X, He X, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "Anisotropic ultrahigh hole mobility in two-dimensional penta-SiC 2 by strain-engineering: electronic structure and chemical bonding analysis." RSC advances. 2017;7:45705-45713. Abstract
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NDOTI DRKIAMBAANITA. "Anita Kiamba & Attiya Waris ' An African Feminist Perspective on Security and Early Warning Mechanisms'.". In: Mwagiru Makumi & Oculli Okello '. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 2006. Abstract
Fourteen patients received oral premedication of temazepam in soft gelatin capsules before minor surgery. The plasma concentrations of temazepam and its sedative, anxiolytic and amnesic effects were measured for 24 hours. Absorption was rapid and peak concentrations occurred 49 minutes after administration. Clinical effects were evident at 30 minutes and persisted for about 4 hours. The decline in plasma concentration was biexponential with a distribution half-life of 1.24 hours. The end of the distribution phase coincided approximately with the termination of its clinical effects. A relationship between plasma concentration and effect was observed; concentrations above 300 ng/ml produced measurable changes in tests of mental function. Patients had recovered fully from the effects of temazepam after 24 hours. This dose of temazepam is reliable and effective as premedication before surgery
NDOTI DRKIAMBAANITA. "Anita Kiamba 'Leadership and Governance in Africa: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly.". In: paper presented at a conference organized by USIU on the "Enhancement of the study of the International Relations in Africa's May 26-27. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 2006. Abstract
Fourteen patients received oral premedication of temazepam in soft gelatin capsules before minor surgery. The plasma concentrations of temazepam and its sedative, anxiolytic and amnesic effects were measured for 24 hours. Absorption was rapid and peak concentrations occurred 49 minutes after administration. Clinical effects were evident at 30 minutes and persisted for about 4 hours. The decline in plasma concentration was biexponential with a distribution half-life of 1.24 hours. The end of the distribution phase coincided approximately with the termination of its clinical effects. A relationship between plasma concentration and effect was observed; concentrations above 300 ng/ml produced measurable changes in tests of mental function. Patients had recovered fully from the effects of temazepam after 24 hours. This dose of temazepam is reliable and effective as premedication before surgery
Kugonza DR;, Okeyo AM;, Mutetikka D;, Mpairwe DR;, Nabasirye M;, Kiwuwa, GH; Hanotte O, Hanotte O. "Ankole cattle breed of Uganda: functions and criteria used in identification, selection and parentage assignment by herdsmen."; 2005.
Mweu MM, Nielsen SS, Halasa T, Toft N. "Annual incidence, prevalence and transmission characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2012;106:244-250. Abstractinc_prev_paper.pdf

Contagious mastitis pathogens continue to pose an economic threat to the dairy industry. An understanding of their frequency and transmission dynamics is central to evaluating the effectiveness of control programmes. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to estimate the annual herd-level incidence rates and apparent prevalences of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the population of Danish dairy cattle herds over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 inclusive and (2) to estimate the herd-level entry and exit rates (demographic parameters), the transmission parameter, ˇ, and recovery rate for S. agalactiae infection.
Data covering the specified period, on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected annually as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme, were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and subsequently analysed. There was an increasing trend in both the incidence and prevalence of S. agalactiae over the study period. Per 100 herd-years the value of ˇ was 54.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.0–63.7); entry rate 0.3 (95% CI 0.2–0.4); infection-related exit rate 7.1 (95% CI 5.6–8.9); non-infection related exit rate 9.2 (95% CI 7.4–11.5) and recovery rate 40.0 (95% CI 36.8–43.5). This study demonstrates a need to tighten the current controls against S. agalactiae in order to lower its incidence.

Nderitu JH, Kabira J, Tigoni David Kipkoech, MKU T, Mathenge S. ANNUAL PLANNING WORKSHOP FOR NCST SEED POTATO PROJECT. THIKA: KARI; 2013.annual_planning_workshop_for_ncst_seed_potato_project_final.pdf
Aduda BOC, Egbe PDDDAM, Musembi RJ, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Kaduki KA, Simiyu J, Agacho A, Nyongesa F. "ANSOLE Mini-Symposium in Kenya (AMSK 2013).". Submitted. Abstract
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Siameto EN, Okoth S, Amugune NO, Njoroge NC. "Antagonism of Trichoderma farzianum isolates on soil borne plant pathogenic fungi from Embu District, Kenya." Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research . 2010;Vol. 1(3):47-54.
Vogel JP, Oladapo OT, Pileggi-Castro C, Adejuyigbe EA, Althabe F, Ariff S, Ayede AI, Baqui AH, Costello A, Chikamata DM, Crowther C, Fawole B, Gibbons L, Jobe AH, Kapasa ML, Kinuthia J, Kriplani A, Kuti O, Neilson J, Patterson J, Piaggio G, Qureshi R, Qureshi Z, Sankar MJ, Stringer JSA, Temmerman M, Yunis K, Bahl R, Gülmezoglu AM. "Antenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of imminent preterm birth in low-resource countries: the case for equipoise and the need for efficacy trials." British Medical Journal Global Health. 2017;2(3). AbstractWebsite

The scientific basis for antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) for women at risk of preterm birth has rapidly changed in recent years. Two landmark trials-the Antenatal Corticosteroid Trial and the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids Trial-have challenged the long-held assumptions on the comparative health benefits and harms regarding the use of ACS for preterm birth across all levels of care and contexts, including resource-limited settings. Researchers, clinicians, programme managers, policymakers and donors working in low-income and middle-income countries now face challenging questions of whether, where and how ACS can be used to optimise outcomes for both women and preterm newborns. In this article, we briefly present an appraisal of the current evidence around ACS, how these findings informed WHO's current recommendations on ACS use, and the knowledge gaps that have emerged in the light of new trial evidence. Critical considerations in the generalisability of the available evidence demonstrate that a true state of clinical equipoise exists for this treatment option in low-resource settings. An expert group convened by WHO concluded that there is a clear need for more efficacy trials of ACS in these settings to inform clinical practice.

Keywords: antenatal corticosteroids; neonatal mortality; preterm birth.

Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Kabura MN, John FN, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha DA, John-Stewart GC. "Antenatal couple counseling increases uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2004;37(5):1620-6. Abstract

To determine effect of partner involvement and couple counseling on uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission, women attending a Nairobi antenatal clinic were encouraged to return with partners for voluntary HIV-1 counseling and testing (VCT) and offered individual or couple posttest counseling. Nevirapine was provided to HIV-1-seropositive women and condoms distributed to all participants. Among 2104 women accepting testing, 308 (15%) had partners participate in VCT, of whom 116 (38%) were couple counseled. Thirty-two (10%) of 314 HIV-1-seropositive women came with partners for VCT; these women were 3-fold more likely to return for nevirapine (P = 0.02) and to report administering nevirapine at delivery (P = 0.009). Nevirapine use was reported by 88% of HIV-infected women who were couple counseled, 67% whose partners came but were not couple counseled, and 45%whose partners did not present for VCT (P for trend = 0.006). HIV-1-seropositive women receiving couple counseling were 5-fold more likely to avoid breast-feeding (P = 0.03) compared with those counseled individually. Partner notification of HIV-1-positive results was reported by 138 women (64%) and was associated with 4-fold greater likelihood of condom use (P = 0.004). Partner participation in VCT and couple counseling increased uptake of nevirapine and formula feeding. Antenatal couple counseling may be a useful strategy to promote HIV-1 prevention interventions.

Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Karumi EW, Maitai CK, Okalebo FA, Mungai NN, Ndwigah SN, Mutai PC, Mukungu NA. "Anthelmintic and Antibacterial Activity of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel (Rosaceae)." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;16:75-80.
Karumi EW, Maitai CK, Okalebo FA, Mungai NN, Ndwigah SN, Mutai PC, Mukunu NA. "Anthelmintic and Antimicrobial Activity of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2014;16(4):77-82.
Karumi EW, Maitai CK, Okalebo FA, Mungai NN, Ndwigah SN, Mutai PC, Mukungu NA. "Anthelmintic and Antimicrobial Activity of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J. F. Gmel (Rosaceae). ." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2013;16(4):77-82.
Karumi EW, Maitai CK, Okalebo FA, Mungai NN, Ndwigah SN, Mutai PC, Mukungu NA. "Anthelmintic and Antimicrobial Activity of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J. F. Gmel (Rosaceae)." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2013;16(4):77-82.
Karumi EW, Maitai CK, Okalebo FA, Mungai NN, Ndwigah SN, Mutai PC, Mukungu NA. "Anthelmintic and Antimicrobial Activity of Hageniaabyssinica (Bruce) J. F. Gmel (Rosaceae)." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2013;16(4):77-82.
Maingi N, Bjørn H, Thamsborg SM, Bøgh HO, Nansen P. "Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in Denmark." Small Ruminant Research. 1997;23:171-181.1997._anthelmintic_resistance_in_nematode_parasites_of_sheep_in_denmark.pdf
N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Anthelmintic resistance in nematode species of goats on some farms in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 41: 195-201.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Anthelmintics usage in Kenya and its implications. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 42:71-73.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

Ngugi K, Jerono Cheserek, Muchira C, Chemining’wa G. "Anthesis to silking interval usefulness in developing drought tolerant." Journal of Renewable Agriculture . 2013;, 1(50):84-90.anthesis_to_silking_interval_usefulness_in_developing_drought.pdf
Endale M, Ekberg A, Alao JP, Akala HM, Ndakala A, Sunnerhagen P, Erdelyi M, Yenesew A. "Anthraquinones of the roots of Pentas micrantha." Molecules. 2013;18:311-321.
Yenesew A, Endale M, M., Erdelyi, Ekberg A, HM A, Ndakala A, A., Sunnerhagen. "Anthraquinonesof the roots of Pentas micrantha." Molecules . 2013;18,:311-321. Abstractpaper_61_endale_et_al_molecules-2013-18-00311.pdf

Pentas micrantha is used in the East African indigenous medicine to treat malaria. In the first investigation of this plant, the crude methanol root extract showed moderate antiplasmodial activity against the W2- (3.37 μg/mL) and D6-strains (4.00 μg/mL) of Plasmodium falciparum and low cytotoxicity (>450 μg/mL, MCF-7 cell line). Chromatographic separation of the extract yielded nine anthraquinones, of which 5,6-dihydroxylucidin-11-Omethyl ether is new. Isolation of a munjistin derivative from the genus Pentas is reported
here for the first time. The isolated constituents were identified by NMR and mass spectrometric techniques and showed low antiplasmodial activities.

Keywords: anthraquinone; malaria; Pentas micrantha; Rubiaceae; 5,6-dihydroxylucidin-11-O-methyl ether 1.

Nyamongo IK. "Anthropolgy: A Social Science in the Control of HIV Transmission in Africa.". In: African Anthropology, Vol. 2(1): 45-58. Wiley Interscience; 1995. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

Nyamongo IK. "The Anthropology of Infectious Diseases: International Health Perspectives. Edited by Marcia C. Inhorn and Peter J. Brown. xv + 495 pp. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach. 1997.". In: American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 12: 143-144. Wiley Interscience; 2000. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

Drannik AG, Nag K, Yao X-D, Henrick BM, Jain S, Ball BT, Plummer FA, Wachihi C, Kimani J, Rosenthal KL. "Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Elafin Is More Potent than Its Precursor's, Trappin-2, in Genital Epithelial Cells.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Cervicovaginal lavage fluid (CVL) is a natural source of anti-HIV-1 factors; however, molecular characterization of the anti-HIV-1 activity of CVL remains elusive. In this study, we confirmed that CVLs from HIV-1-resistant (HIV-R) compared to HIV-1-susceptible (HIV-S) commercial sex workers (CSWs) contain significantly larger amounts of serine antiprotease trappin-2 (Tr) and its processed form, elafin (E). We assessed anti-HIV-1 activity of CVLs of CSWs and recombinant E and Tr on genital epithelial cells (ECs) that possess (TZM-bl) or lack (HEC-1A) canonical HIV-1 receptors. Our results showed that immunodepletion of 30% of Tr/E from CVL accounted for up to 60% of total anti-HIV-1 activity of CVL. Knockdown of endogenous Tr/E in HEC-1A cells resulted in significantly increased shedding of infectious R5 and X4 HIV-1. Pretreatment of R5, but not X4 HIV-1, with either Tr or E led to inhibition of HIV-1 infection of TZM-bl cells. Interestingly, when either HIV-1 or cells lacking canonical HIV-1 receptors were pretreated with Tr or E, HIV-1 attachment and transcytosis were significantly reduced, and decreased attachment was not associated with altered expression of syndecan-1 or CXCR4. Determination of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Tr and E anti-HIV-1 activity indicated that E is ~130 times more potent than its precursor, Tr, despite their equipotent antiprotease activities. This study provides the first experimental evidence that (i) Tr and E are among the principal anti-HIV-1 molecules of CVL; (ii) Tr and E affect cell attachment and transcytosis of HIV-1; (iii) E is more efficient than Tr regarding anti-HIV-1 activity; and (iv) the anti-HIV-1 effect of Tr and E is contextual

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Anti-infiammatory and Anti-Diarrimeai Activities of a Steroidal indoxy.". In: East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 6. F. N. KAMAU., 1.0. KIBWAGE, A. N. GUANTAI, G. MURIUKI R. MUNENGE; 2003. Abstract

The anti-inflammatory and antidiarrhoeal activities of 3(1-Hydroxy-16. 17-seco-16- nor-5-androsten-15-(2-indoxyliden)-17-oic acid (I) are reported. After intraperitoneal administration, compound (I) gave an ED50 of 9.5 mg/kg using the carrageenan induced rat paw oedema anti-inflammatory assay method. Indomethacin had an ED50 of 5.8 mg/kg in this assay. Compound (I) and indomethacin caused comparable and dose-dependent varying degrees of delay in diarrhoea and also significantly reduced net colonic water flux into the colon of rats induced by castor oil. Key words: Steroidal Indoxyl, Anti-Inflammatory, Antidiarrhoeal.

Kimondo J, Mutai P, Njogu P, Kimwele C. "Anti-inflammatory activity of selected plants used by the Ilkisonko Maasai, Kenya." Afr. J. Therapeut. Pharmacol. 2020;9(2):39-43.
Owor RO, Bedane KG, Zühlke S, Derese S, Ong’amo GO, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Anti-inflammatory Flavanones and Flavones from Tephrosia linearis." Journal of Natural Products. 2020;83(4):996-1004. AbstractJournal of Natural Products

Description
Phytochemical analysis of a methanol–dichloromethane (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosialinearis led to the isolation of 18 compounds. Seven of these, namely, lineaflavones A–D (1–4), 6-methoxygeraldone (5), 8″-acetylobovatin (6), and 5-hydroxy-7-methoxysaniculamin A (7) are new compounds. The compounds were characterized based on their NMR and HRMSn data. The anti-inflammatory effects of the crude extract and isolated compounds were evaluated by measuring the levels of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The crude extract inhibited the release of all cytokines except IL-1β, which slightly increased in comparison to the LPS control. All the tested compounds suppressed the production of IL-2, GM-CSF, and …

Mukavi J, Omosa LK, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Nyaga J, Omole R, Bitchagno GTM, Spiteller M. "Anti-inflammatory norhopanes from the root bark of Fagaropsis angolensis (Engl.) H. M. Gardner." Fitoterapia. 2020;146:104690.mukavi_et_al_2020_fitoterapia.pdf
Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Omosa LK, Bedane KG, Derese S, Brieger L, Strohmann C, Spiteller M. "Anti-inflammatory Steroidal Sapogenins and a Conjugated Chalcone-stilbene from Dracaena usambarensis Engl." Fitoterapia. 2020;146:104717.alexe_et_al_2020_fitoterapia.pdf
Ngugi M. "Anti-Kikuyuism, Media and the New Bills." Nairobi Law Monthly Jan 1996 (1996).
Hashim I, Omosa LK, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Onyari JM, Maru SM, Guefack M-GF, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V. "Antibacterial Activities and Phytochemical Screening of Crude Extracts from Kenyan Macaranga Species Towards MDR Phenotypes Expressing Effux Pumps." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2021;11(2):119-126.hashim_et_al_2021_pharmacognosy_communications.pdf
Djeussi DE, Sandjo LP,.Noumedem JAK, Omosa LK, Ngadjui BT, Kuete V. "Antibacterial Activities of the Methanol Extracts and Compounds from Erythrina sigmoidea against Gram-negative Multi-drug Resistant Phenotypes." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015;15:453.bmc_2015_djeussi_et_al._erythrina1.pdf
Musi, C, MIRIKAU, N, D. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2017;11(8):1003-1014 . Abstractantibacterial_antifungal_plectranthus_2017.pdfWebsite

Background Information: Plectranthus L’Hér. is an economically important genus with horticultural, medicinal and food uses. Most Plectranthus species are used in traditional medicine and have attracted the interest of researchers who have studied them in attempt to explore the bioactivities of their phytoconstituents.
Materials and Methods: The current study investigated the antimicrobial activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species through disc diffusion and broth dilution method.
Results:Results indicated that, dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) total leaf extracts from Plectranthus barbatus displayed the highest antimicrobial activity compared to the other nine Plectranthus species with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 25, 40, 100, 50, and 100 mg/ml against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger, respectively. At a concentration of 200 mg/ml, the antibacterial activity of total leaf extracts of P. barbatus (MIC value = 25 mg/ml) and Plectranthus lanuginosus (MIC value = 40 mg/ml) againstMRSA was not significantly different from positive control drug; amoxicillin. Similarity, at a concentration of 200 mg/ml,total leaf extracts from Plectranthus ornatus (MIC value= 50 mg/ml) and P. barbatus (MIC value = 50 mg/ml) exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans which was not significantly different from that of the positive control; ketoconazole.
Conclusion: The study reports for the first time, the antimicrobial activity of Plectranthus pseudomarrubioides, Plectranthus edulis, Plectranthus aegyptiacus, Plectranthus Otostegioides, and Plectranthus lanuginosus. The study has demonstrated broad bacteriostatic activity of P. barbatus and thus recommends further studies on this plant aimed at discovery of novel antimicrobial agents.
KEY WORDS: Antimicrobial activity, Bioguidance, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Plectranthus

Musila FM, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research| Vol. 2017;11(8):1003.
Musila, F.M., Nguta, CM, Lukhoba CW, S.F. D. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research . 2017;11(8):1003-1014.
Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Mugo HN, Kibwage. IO. "Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Dombeya torrida ( J. F. Gmel) and Hydnora abyssinica (A. Braun)." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2014;3(1):14-18.
Kibwage IO, Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Mugo HN. "Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Dombeya torrida (J.F. Gmel) and Hydnora abyssinica (A. Braun)." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2014;3(2303-9841):14-18.abstract.pdf
Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO. "Antibacterial and antifungal study of Dombeya torrida (J.F. Gmel) and Hydnora abyssinica (A. Braun). ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2014;3(1):14-18.
Wagate CG, Gakuya D, Nanyingi W;, Mark O, Njonge, Francis K, Mbaria JM. "Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Kenyan medicinal plants.". 2008. Abstract

Seven medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Kenya, mainly for management of infectious conditions, were chosen and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Antibacterial activity was tested using the broth dilution method. Harrisonia abyssinica and Terminalia kilimandscharica extracts showed significant activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. The methanolic extracts of T. kilimandscharica bark and H. abyssinica bark and leaves showed minimum inhibitory activity against all tested bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 25-150 mg/mL. Ajuga remota and Amaranthus hybridus, which are lethal to brine shrimp nauplii, showed significantly lower antibacterial activity than those that were relatively non-toxic.

Wagate CG, Gakuya DW, Nanyingi MO, Njonge FK, Mbaria JM. "Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of some Kenyan Medicinal plants." Memorias de Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 2008; 103( 7).
Wagate GC, Gakuya DW, Nanyingi MO, Njonge FK, G Nduhiu, Mbaria JM. "Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of some Kenyan Medicinal plants.". In: . Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2008.
Jepkoech C, Omosa LK, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Kenanda EO, Guefack M-GF, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M. "Antibacterial secondary metabolites from Vernonia auriculifera Hiern (Asteraceae) against MDR phenotypes." Natural Products Research. 2021:https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1953024.jepkoech_et_al_2021_natural_products_research.pdf
Wanja DW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Ngowi, H. "Antibiotic and disinfectants susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens recovered from farmed fish in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." Hindawi International Journal of Microbiology. 2020;2020(Article ID 8897338. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8897338).
Momanyi L, Opanga S, Nyamu D, Oluka M, Kurdi A, Godman B. "Antibiotic Prescribing Patterns at a Leading Referral Hospital in Kenya: A Point Prevalence Survey." Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice. 2019;8(3):149-154.momanyi_et_al-jrpp-8-149.pdf
Igizeneza A, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW. "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from indigenous slaughter chicken in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal . 2018;95(10).
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Antibiotic resistance in milk received by Dairy Cooperative Societies in Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1994. Abstract
A survey of antibiotic inhibitors in milk received by dairy cooperative societies in Kiambu District was done qualitatively using microbiological assay method.  No antimicrobial inhibitors were detected in all the samples tested. Informal discussions indicated a high level of awareness of withdrawal requirements of veterinary drugs after animal treatment in both farmers and the management staff of dairy cooperative societies. The results show that milk from this area is free of antibiotic residues and farmers could be adhering to the withdrawal requirements of veterinary drugs. Such milk therefore does not pose a risk to the public and dairy industry.
Plummer F, Chubb H, Simonsen JN, Bosire M, Slaney L, Nagelkerke NJ, Maclean I, Ndinya-Achola JO, Waiyaki P, Brunham RC. "Antibodies to opacity proteins (Opa) correlate with a reduced risk of gonococcal salpingitis."; 1994. Abstract

Acute salpingitis complicating cervical gonococcal infection is a significant cause of infertility. Relatively little data are available concerning the pathophysiologic mechanisms of this disease. A cohort of 243 prostitutes residing in Nairobi were followed between March 1985 and April 1988. Gonococcal cultures were performed at each visit, and acute salpingitis was diagnosed clinically. Serum at enrollment was tested by immunoblot for antibody to gonococcal outer membrane proteins. 8.6% (146/1689) of gonococcal infections were complicated by salpingitis. Increased risk of salpingitis was associated with younger age, shorter duration of prostitution, HIV infection, number of gonococcal infections, and episodes of nongonococcal salpingitis. Rmp antibody increased the risk of salpingitis. Antibody to Opa decreased the risk of salpingitis. By logistic regression analysis, antibody to Opa was independently associated with decreased risk of gonococcal salpingitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.17-0.76); HIV infection (adjusted OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.96-12.8) and episodes of nongonococcal salpingitis (adjusted OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.8-6.4) were independently associated with an increased risk of salpingitis. Antibody to Opa appears to protect against ascending gonococcal infection, perhaps by interfering with Opa mediated adherence and endocytosis. The demonstration of natural immunity that protects against upper genital tract infection in women suggests that a vaccine to prevent gonococcal salpingitis is possible.

Plummer FA, Chubb H, Simonsen JN, Bosire M, Slaney L, Maclean I, Ndinya-Achola JO, Waiyaki P, Brunham RC. "Antibody to Rmp (outer membrane protein 3) increases susceptibility to gonococcal infection.". 1993. AbstractWebsite

The severe adverse effects of gonococcal infection on human fertility suggests that Neisseria gonorrhoeae would exert powerful selection for the development of a protective immune response in humans. N. gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and must persist in humans to survive. Since it is an ecologically successful organism, it must have evolved strategies to evade any human immune response it elicits. In a longitudinal study among 243 women working as prostitutes and experiencing frequent gonococcal infection, younger women, women with HIV infection, and women with antibody to the gonococcal outer membrane protein 3 (Rmp) were at increased risk of infection (adjusted odds ratio 3.4, CI95% 1.1-10.4, P < 0.05). Rmp is highly conserved in N. gonorrhoeae and the blocking of mucosal defences may be one of its functions. As similar proteins occur in many gram negative mucosal pathogens, the enhancing effect of such proteins may be a general strategy whereby bacteria evade human immune responses.

PIP:

Between March 1985 and July 1986 researchers enrolled 243 female prostitutes in Pumwani community of Nairobi, Kenya, in a longitudinal study to examine the relationship between the antibody to the gonococcal outer membrane protein 3 (Rmp Ab) and gonococcal mucosal infection. Few women used condoms. 69% were HIV-1 seropositive. Just 9.5% (23) of the women had not had any gonococcal infections, despite probable exposure to them, indicating the possibility of some acquired protective immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoea. 90.5% had had at least 1 gonococcal infection. Women with Rmp Ab faced a greater risk of gonococcal infection than those who were Rmp Ab negative (OR = 3.4;l p .05), denoting that Rmp Ab increases susceptibility to gonococcal mucosal infections. Women older than 29 years were at lower risk of gonococcal infection than those younger than 29 years (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3; p .03). Women who used oral contraceptives (OCs) were also likely to be infected with N. gonorrhoea (OR = 3; p = .062). Further, 31% of OC users had cervical ectopy compared to just 14% of nonusers (OR = 2.8; p .005), suggesting that the effect of OCs on the cervix make it more susceptible to gonococcal infection. Rmp Ab also exists in many other gram-negative mucosal pathogens, often playing the same role as it does in N. gonorrhoea infection. Thus, Rmp Ab may be a common scheme bacteria used to elude human immune responses. These findings provide more understanding as to why N. gonorrhoea is an ecologically successful human pathogen

Nyaga SN, Mathiu PM, Onyango CM, Areba GO. "Antidiabetic properties of Solanum villosum and Solanum nigrum var.sarrachoides in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice model." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2019;8(11):2396-2402.
Ndurumo MS;, Mande JD;, Kihurani D;, Abuom TO. "Antidrool Cheiloplasty; Plastic Surgery Of The Canine Lip. Poster Presentation.".; 2006.
Ndurumo MS;, Mande JD;, Kihurani D;, Abuom TO. "Antidrool Cheiloplasty; Plastic Surgery Of The Canine Lip. Poster Presentation.".; 2006.
Ndurumo MS;, Mande JD;, Kihurani D;, Abuom TO. "Antidrool Cheiloplasty; Plastic Surgery Of The Canine Lip. Poster Presentation.".; 2006.
Nanteza A, Obara I, Kasaija P, Mwega E, Kabi F, Salih DA, Njahira M, Joyce Njuguna, Odongo D, Bishop RP, Skilton RA, Ahmed J, Clausen P-H, Lubega GW. "Antigen gene and variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) diversity in Theileria parva parasites from Ankole cattle in south-western Uganda: Evidence for conservation in antigen gene sequences combined with extensive polymorphism at VNTR loci." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:99-107. Abstract

Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted apicomplexan protozoan parasite that infects lymphocytes of cattle and African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), causing a frequently fatal disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa. A live vaccination procedure, known as infection and treatment method (ITM), the most frequently used version of which comprises the Muguga, Serengeti-transformed and Kiambu 5 stocks of T. parva, delivered as a trivalent cocktail, is generally effective. However, it does not always induce 100% protection against heterologous parasite challenge. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of T. parva in target cattle populations is therefore important prior to extensive vaccine deployment. This study investigated the extent of genetic diversity within T. parva field isolates derived from Ankole (Bos taurus) cattle in south-western Uganda using 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) satellite loci and the sequences of two antigen-encoding genes that are targets of CD8+T-cell responses induced by ITM, designated Tp1 and Tp2. The findings revealed a T. parva prevalence of 51% confirming endemicity of the parasite in south-western Uganda. Cattle-derived T. parva VNTR genotypes revealed a high degree of polymorphism. However, all of the T. parva Tp1 and Tp2 alleles identified in this study have been reported previously, indicating that they are widespread geographically in East Africa and highly conserved.

Nyaga PN;, Kasiiti J;, Macharia, J M;, Shimanter E;, Panshim, A;, Lipkin M. "Antigenic characterisation of Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) Isolated in Kenya."; 1996.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "The antihypertensive Effect of an extract from the Bark of Podocarpus Sp",.". In: Submitted, East Africa Medical Journal. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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Andima M, Ndakala A, Derese S, Biswajyoti S, Hussain A, Yang LJ, Akoth OE, Coghi P, Pal C, Heydenreich M, Wong VK-W, Yenesew A. "Antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity of secondary metabolites from Taberneamontana ventricosa and two aloe species." Natural Product Research. 2021:1-5. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
In this study, the antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of secondary metabolites isolated from Tabernaemontana ventricosa Hochst. ex A. DC., Aloe tororoana Reynolds, and Aloe schweinfurthii var. labworana Reynolds were investigated. Overall, nineteen known compounds were isolated from the three plant species. The compounds were characterized based on their spectroscopic data. Voacristine and aloenin were the most active compounds against promastigotes of antimony-sensitive Leishmania donovani (IC50 11 ± 5.2 μM and 26 ± 6.5 µM, respectively) with low toxicity against RAW264.7, murine monocyte/macrophage-like cells. The in silico docking evaluation and in vitro NO generation assay also substantially support the antileishmanial effects of these compounds. In a cytotoxicity assay against cancer and normal cell lines, ursolic acid highly inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells, A549 …

Andima M, Ndakala A, Derese S, Biswajyoti S, Hussain A, Yang LJ, Akoth E, Coghi P, Pal C, Heydenreich M, Wong VK-W, Yenesew A. "Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Taberneamontana ventricosa and Two Aloe Species." Natural Product Research. 2021.
Ochora DO, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Akunda EM. "Antimalarial activity and acute toxicity of four plants traditionally used in treatment of malaria in Msambweni District of Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;3(7):31-40.publication_sept_2014.pdf
Ochora DO, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Akunda EM. "Antimalarial activity and acute toxicity of four plants traditionally used in treatment of malaria in Msambweni District of Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;3(7).
Murithi CK, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, w. Lukhoba C. "Antimalarial activity and in vivo toxicity of selected medicinal plants naturalised in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(4):395-406.published_paper_june_2014.pdf
Murithi CK, Fidahusein DS, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW. "Antimalarial activity and in vivo toxicity of selected medicinal plants naturalised in Kenya." Int J Edu Res. 2014;2:395-406.
Murithi CK, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW. "Antimalarial activity and in vivo toxicity of selected medicinal plants naturalised in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(5).
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Antimalarial activity of some plants traditionally used in Meru district of Kenya.Muthaura CN, Rukunga GM, Chhabra SC, Omar SA, Guantai AN, Gathirwa JW, Tolo FM, Mwitari PG, Keter LK, Kirira PG, Kimani CW, Mungai GM, Njagi EN.Phytother Res. 2007 Sep;21(9).". In: Phytother Res. 2007 Sep;21(9):860-7. FA Okalebol , L Wiesner, AN Guantai, K Chibale, P Smith; 2007. Abstract

Ten plant extracts commonly used by the Meru community of Kenya were evaluated for the in vitro antiplasmodial, in vivo antimalarial, cytotoxicity and animal toxicity activities. The water and methanol extracts of Ludwigia erecta and the methanol extracts of Fuerstia africana and Schkuhria pinnata exhibited high antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) < 5 microg/mL) against chloroquine sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum clones. The cytotoxicity of these highly active extracts on Vero E6 cells were in the range 161.5-4650.0 microg/mL with a selectivity index (SI) of 124.2-3530.7. In vivo studies of these extracts showed less activity with chemosuppression of parasitaemia in Plasmodium berghei infected mice of 49.64-65.28%. The methanol extract of Clerodendrum eriophyllum with a lower in vitro activity (IC(50) 9.51-10.56 microg/mL) exhibited the highest chemosuppression of 90.13%. The methanol and water extracts of Pittosporum viridiflorum were toxic to mice but at a lower dose prolonged survival of P. berghei infected mice (p < 0.05) with no overt signs of toxicity. However, the extracts were cytotoxic (SI, 0.96-2.51) on Vero E6 cells. These results suggest that there is potential to isolate active non-toxic antimalarial principles from these plants.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Antimalarial activity of some plants traditionally used in treatment of malaria in Kwale district of Kenya.Muthaura CN, Rukunga GM, Chhabra SC, Omar SA, Guantai AN, Gathirwa JW, Tolo FM, Mwitari PG, Keter LK, Kirira PG, Kimani CW, Mungai GM, Njagi EN.J Et.". In: J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jul 25;112(3):545-51. Epub 2007 May 5. FA Okalebol , L Wiesner, AN Guantai, K Chibale, P Smith; 2007. Abstract

Methanolic and water extracts of five medicinal plant species used for treatment of malaria in traditional/cultural health systems of Kwale people in Kenya were tested for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei, respectively and for their cytotoxic effects. The most active extracts (IC(50)<10 microg/ml) screened against chloroquine (CQ) sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) P. falciparum clones, were the water and methanol extracts of Maytenus undata (Thunb.) Blakelock (Celasteraceae), methanol extracts of Flueggea virosa (Willd.) Voigt (Euphorbiaceae), Maytenus putterlickioides (Loes.) Excell and Mendoca (Celastraceae), and Warburgia stuhlmannii Engl. (Canellaceae). These extracts showed various cytotoxic levels on Vero E6 cells with the water extract of M. undata exhibiting least cytotoxicity. At least one of the extracts of the plant species exhibited a high chemo suppression of parasitaemia >70% in a murine model of P. berghei infected mice. These results indicate that there is potential for isolation of a lead compound from the extracts of the five plants. W. stuhlmannii and M. putterlickioides have not been reported before for antiplasmodial activity.

N PROFGUANTAIA, N PROFGUANTAIA. "The Antimalarial and Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Clematis Brachiata Extracts.". In: East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 5. F.A. OKALEBO*, H.A. RABAHI, A.N. GUANTAII, C.K. MALTA', I.0. K1BWAGE, J.W. MWANGI AND W. MASENGO; 2002. Abstract

The in vitro antimalarial activity of the root extract in partly supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria. Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders. Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against the inulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 jig/nil). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity. The leaf, stein and root extracts had no bacterial or fungal inhibitory effects even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The Lll50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 jig/ml, respectively. Key Words: Clematis brachiata, Ranuneulaceae, antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp.

Ongarora DSB, Strydom N, Wicht K, Njoroge M, Wiesner L, Egan TJ, Wittlin S, Jurva U, Masimirembwa CM, Chibale K. "Antimalarial benzoheterocyclic 4-aminoquinolines: Structure-activity relationship, in vivo evaluation, mechanistic and bioactivation studies." Bioorg. Med. Chem.. 2015;23(17):5419-32. Abstract

A novel class of benzoheterocyclic analogues of amodiaquine designed to avoid toxic reactive metabolite formation was synthesized and evaluated for antiplasmodial activity against K1 (multidrug resistant) and NF54 (sensitive) strains of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Structure-activity relationship studies led to the identification of highly promising analogues, the most potent of which had IC50s in the nanomolar range against both strains. The compounds further demonstrated good in vitro microsomal metabolic stability while those subjected to in vivo pharmacokinetic studies had desirable pharmacokinetic profiles. In vivo antimalarial efficacy in Plasmodium berghei infected mice was evaluated for four compounds, all of which showed good activity following oral administration. In particular, compound 19 completely cured treated mice at a low multiple dose of 4×10mg/kg. Mechanistic and bioactivation studies suggest hemozoin formation inhibition and a low likelihood of forming quinone-imine reactive metabolites, respectively.

NGUTA DRJOSEPHMWANZIA. "Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni, Kenya J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama." Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 424. 2010;128:424-432.Website
Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG. "Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Malaria is a serious cause of mortality globally. The disease is of regional concern in Africa and of national interest in Kenya due to its high morbidity and mortality as a result of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to many existing drugs such as chloroquine. Alternative medicine using herbal remedies are commonly used to treat malaria in Kenya. However, plants used in some rural areas in Kenya are not documented. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from plants. This study was conducted to document medicinal plants that are traditionally used by the Msambweni community of Kenyan South Coast to treat malaria, where the disease is endemic. Herbalists were interviewed by administration of semistructured questionnaires in order to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for the
treatment of malaria. Focused group discussions held with the herbalists supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Twenty-seven species of plants in 24 genera distributed in 20 families were reported to be used in this region for the treatment of malaria. Labiatae, Rutaceae and Liliaceae families had each eleven percent of the plant species reported and represented the species that are most commonly used. Thirteen plant species, namely; Aloe deserti Berger (Liliaceae), Launea cornuta (Oliv and Hiern) C. Jeffrey (Compositae), Ocimum bacilicum L. (Labiatae), Teclea simplicifolia (Eng) Verdoon (Rutaceae), Gerranthus lobatus (Cogn.) Jeffrey (Cucurbitaceae), Grewia hexaminta Burret. (Tiliaceae), Canthium glaucum Hiern. (Rubiaceae), Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae), Combretum padoides Engl and Diels (Combretaceae), Senecio syringitolius O. Hoffman. (Compositae), Ocimum suave Willd (Labiatae), Aloe macrosiphon Bak. (Liliaceae) and Laudolphia buchananii (Hall.f) Stapf. (Apocynaceae) are documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. These results become a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plant based antimalarial drugs.

Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID: 20096761
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ndakala AJ, Gessner RK, Gitari PW, October N, White KL, Hudson A, Fakorede F, Shackleford DM, Kaiser M, Yeates C, Charman SA, Chibale K. "Antimalarial Pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles." Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2011;54:4581-4589.Website
Kawaljit S, Okombo J, Brunschwig C, Ndubi F, Barnard L, Wilkson C, Njogu PM, Njoroge M, et al. "Antimalarial pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles: Lead optimization, parasite life cycle stage profile, mechanistic evaluation, killing kinetics and in vivo oral efficacy in a mouse model." J. Med. Chem. 2017;60(4):1432-1448.
Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG. "Antimalarial Remedies of Musambweni, Kenya." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010;128 :424-432.
Mubiu JK, Ndwigah SN, Abuga KO, Ongarora DSB. "Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts and Phytosterols from Lonchocarpus eriocalyx." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017;20:13-16.
Mubiu JK, Ndwigah SN, Abuga KO, Ongarora DSB. "Antimicrobial activity of extracts and phytosterols from the root bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2017;20:13-16. Abstract

The root bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx was dried, powdered and extracted using chloroform, methanol and hot water. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The decoction (100mg/ml) was more active than the chloroform and methanol extracts against the four microorganisms. Chromatographic fractionation of the chloroform extract using normal phase silica yielded the phytosterols lupeol and lupenone. At 100 mg/ml, the compounds were active against all the four microorganisms, with lupeol being more active than lupenone. This is the first report of the isolation of lupenone from Lonchocarpus eriocalyx.

Mubiu JK, Ndwigah SN, Abuga KO, Ongarora DSB. "Antimicrobial activity of extracts and phytosterols from the root bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. . 2017;20:13-16.
Abubakar LU, Mwangi CN, Uku J, Ndirangu S. "Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Echinoidea)." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2012;1(1): 19-23. Abstractabstract-ajpt.pdfWebsite

Background:
Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro.
Methods:
Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells.
Results:
Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.
Discussion:
These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
Key words:
Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates

Kaigongi MM, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Musila FM. "Antimicrobial Activity, Toxicity and Phytochemical Screening of Four Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Msambweni District, Kenya." Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(28):6-12. Abstractkagongi_et_al._2014.pdf

This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, toxicity and phytochemical composition of
organic and aqueous crude extracts of Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. (Rutaceae), Adansonia digitata L.
(Bombacaceae), Launaea cornuta (Hocht. ex Oliv. & Hern) C.Jeffrey (Compositae) and Grewia trichocarpa
Hochst. ex A.Rich (Tiliaceae) traditionally used by local communities of Msambweni District in Kenya.
Aqueous and organic [Chloroform: Methanol (1: 1)] crude extracts were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using broth dilution and disc diffusion methods. Toxicity was determined using Brine-shrimp larvae (Artemia salina L. nauplii) assay. The crude extracts were screened to determine the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and sesquiterpene lactones using standard techniques. It was observed that the organic crude extracts from all the species tested except L. cornuta exhibited dose dependent activity against B. cereus, MRSA, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. None of the crude extracts showed any inhibition against E. coli. Adansonia digitata and Grewia trichocarpa had LC50>1000 μg/ml and were shown to be non-toxic to Brine shrimp larvae unlike those of Z. chalybeum and L. cornuta which both had LC50<500 ug/ml and were considered to be toxic. Phytochemical screening of the crude extracts showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, sesquiterpene lactones and saponins were present in the four plants tested.The study has shown that A. digitata and Z. chalybeum possess promising antimicrobial activity against microbes of health importance and could lead to the isolation of new and potentially effective antimicrobial compounds.
Keywords: Medicinal plants; Antimicrobial activity; Brine shrimp lethality test; Phytochemical analysis;
Msambweni district; Kenya.

Kaigongi MM, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Musila FM. "Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and phytochemical screening of four medicinal plants traditionally used in Msambweni district, Kenya." Journal of Biology Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(28).
Kaigongi MM, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Musila FM. "Antimicrobial Activity, Toxicity and Phytochemical Screening of Four Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Msambweni District, Kenya." Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(28).
Aboge GO;, Kang’ethe EK;, Arimi SM;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Kanja LW;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua A. "Antimicrobial Agents Detected In Marketed Milk In Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

Drug residues in foods are a major public health concern in many countries, especially where most food sales bypass official quality assurance channels. In common with many tropical countries, sales of unpasteurized milk in Kenya account for over 85% of marketed milk. This milk is either sold directly from producers to consumers or via various cadres of informal market agents. Besides residues that may arise from lack of adherence to withdrawal times following cow therapy, there have been concerns that some antimicrobial agents may be added to informally marketed milk to extend its shelf life. As part of a large study to assess public health hazards associated with marketed milk, samples were collected seasonally between January 1999 and January 2000 from raw (unpasteurized) milk consuming households and informal market agents of various cadres. Pasteurised milk samples were also collected from retail points and tested for comparison. All samples were screened for antimicrobial residues using charm AIM-96 and Charm-ROSA (Charm Sciences Inc, USA) tests. The former detects a wide range of anti-microbials, and the latter detects β-lactams and tetracyclines specifically, at levels above maximum residue limits (MRLS) recommended by the European Union (EU). The Charm-AIM screening test showed that 9.4% and 5.7% of samples from consumer households and market agents had antimicrobial residues above EU MRLS, respectively. It was concluded that antimicrobial residues were more likely to have originated at farm-level than because of poor market handling practices.

Aboge GO;, Kang’ethe EK;, Arimi SM;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Kanja LW;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua A. "Antimicrobial Agents Detected In Marketed Milk In Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

Drug residues in foods are a major public health concern in many countries, especially where most food sales bypass official quality assurance channels. In common with many tropical countries, sales of unpasteurized milk in Kenya account for over 85% of marketed milk. This milk is either sold directly from producers to consumers or via various cadres of informal market agents. Besides residues that may arise from lack of adherence to withdrawal times following cow therapy, there have been concerns that some antimicrobial agents may be added to informally marketed milk to extend its shelf life. As part of a large study to assess public health hazards associated with marketed milk, samples were collected seasonally between January 1999 and January 2000 from raw (unpasteurized) milk consuming households and informal market agents of various cadres. Pasteurised milk samples were also collected from retail points and tested for comparison. All samples were screened for antimicrobial residues using charm AIM-96 and Charm-ROSA (Charm Sciences Inc, USA) tests. The former detects a wide range of anti-microbials, and the latter detects β-lactams and tetracyclines specifically, at levels above maximum residue limits (MRLS) recommended by the European Union (EU). The Charm-AIM screening test showed that 9.4% and 5.7% of samples from consumer households and market agents had antimicrobial residues above EU MRLS, respectively. It was concluded that antimicrobial residues were more likely to have originated at farm-level than because of poor market handling practices.

Aboge GO;, Kang’ethe EK;, Arimi SM;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Kanja LW;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua A. "Antimicrobial Agents Detected In Marketed Milk In Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

Drug residues in foods are a major public health concern in many countries, especially where most food sales bypass official quality assurance channels. In common with many tropical countries, sales of unpasteurized milk in Kenya account for over 85% of marketed milk. This milk is either sold directly from producers to consumers or via various cadres of informal market agents. Besides residues that may arise from lack of adherence to withdrawal times following cow therapy, there have been concerns that some antimicrobial agents may be added to informally marketed milk to extend its shelf life. As part of a large study to assess public health hazards associated with marketed milk, samples were collected seasonally between January 1999 and January 2000 from raw (unpasteurized) milk consuming households and informal market agents of various cadres. Pasteurised milk samples were also collected from retail points and tested for comparison. All samples were screened for antimicrobial residues using charm AIM-96 and Charm-ROSA (Charm Sciences Inc, USA) tests. The former detects a wide range of anti-microbials, and the latter detects β-lactams and tetracyclines specifically, at levels above maximum residue limits (MRLS) recommended by the European Union (EU). The Charm-AIM screening test showed that 9.4% and 5.7% of samples from consumer households and market agents had antimicrobial residues above EU MRLS, respectively. It was concluded that antimicrobial residues were more likely to have originated at farm-level than because of poor market handling practices.

Aboge GO;, Kang’ethe EK;, Arimi SM;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Kanja LW;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua A. "Antimicrobial Agents Detected In Marketed Milk In Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

Drug residues in foods are a major public health concern in many countries, especially where most food sales bypass official quality assurance channels. In common with many tropical countries, sales of unpasteurized milk in Kenya account for over 85% of marketed milk. This milk is either sold directly from producers to consumers or via various cadres of informal market agents. Besides residues that may arise from lack of adherence to withdrawal times following cow therapy, there have been concerns that some antimicrobial agents may be added to informally marketed milk to extend its shelf life. As part of a large study to assess public health hazards associated with marketed milk, samples were collected seasonally between January 1999 and January 2000 from raw (unpasteurized) milk consuming households and informal market agents of various cadres. Pasteurised milk samples were also collected from retail points and tested for comparison. All samples were screened for antimicrobial residues using charm AIM-96 and Charm-ROSA (Charm Sciences Inc, USA) tests. The former detects a wide range of anti-microbials, and the latter detects β-lactams and tetracyclines specifically, at levels above maximum residue limits (MRLS) recommended by the European Union (EU). The Charm-AIM screening test showed that 9.4% and 5.7% of samples from consumer households and market agents had antimicrobial residues above EU MRLS, respectively. It was concluded that antimicrobial residues were more likely to have originated at farm-level than because of poor market handling practices.

Omosa LK, Amugune B, Ndunda B, Milugo TK, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A, Midiwo JO. "Antimicrobial flavonoids and diterpenoids from Dodonaea angustifolia." South African Journal of Botany. 2014;91:58-62.omosa_eet_al._sajb.pdf
Yenesew A, L. K., Omosa, Beatrice, Amugune, Ndunda B, Milugo TKTK, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO. "Antimicrobial flavonoids and diterpenoids from Dodonaea angustifolia." South African Journal of Botany. . 2014;91, :58-62. Abstractpaper_67_omosa_et_al_south_africa_jou..2014.pdf

The surface exudates of the leaves of Dodonaea angustifolia from Ngong forest population (6 km from Nairobi city center, Kenya) demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli), Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pumilus) bacteria and the fungus Sacchromyces cerevisiae. Chromatographic separation of the exudates yielded eight methylated flavonoids; 5-hydroxy-3, 4′,7-trimethoxyflavone (1), 3,5-dihydroxy-4′,7-dimethoxyflavone (2), santin (3), kumatakenin (4), rhamnocitrin (5), isokaempferide (6), 3,4′,5,7, tetrahydroxy-6-methoxyflavone (7), pinocembrin (8); two clerodanes, dodonic acid (9) and 2β-hydroxyhardwickiic acid (10) and one labdane; (ent-3β,8α)-15,16-epoxy-13(16),14-labdadiene-3,8-diol (11) diterpenoids. The flavonoid aglycones; 6, 7 and the clerodane diterpenoids; 9 and 10 and labdane diterpenoid, 11 were isolated for the first time from this plant species. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified using ultraviolet (UV), mass spectroscopy (MS), one dimension (1D) and two dimension (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and by comparison of the spectral data with literature. The quercetin derivative, 3,4′,5-trihydroxy-3′,7-dimethoxyflavone (12) showed broad spectrum antibacterial activities against E. coli and B. pumilus with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values less than 31.25 μg/well and against S. aureus with MIC below 62.5 μg/well. This compound showed poor antifungal activity against S. cerevisiae (MIC < 500 μg/well). Good antifungal activities were observed for 5,4′-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (13) and hautriwaic acid lactone (14) against S. cerevisiae with MIC values less than 7.8 μg/well. The most active antifungal compound was 5,7-dihydro-3,4′,6-trimethoxyflavone (3, santin) with an MIC value less than 3.9 μg/well against S. cerevisiae. The rest of the compounds exhibited weak to moderate activities. For comprehensive structure activity relationship studies (SAR), hautriwaic acid lactone (14), hautriwaic acid (15), penduletin (16) isolated from the surface exudates of D. angustifolia from Voi (200 km from Mombasa city center, Kenya) and 12 and 13 from Senecio roseiflorus isolated earlier were included in the bioassays.

Omosa LK, Amugune B, Ndunda B, Milugo TK, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A, Midiwo JO. "Antimicrobial flavonoids and diterpenoids from Dodonaea angustifolia." South African Journal of Botany. 2014. Abstract

The surface exudates of the leaves of Dodonaea angustifolia from Ngong forest population (6 km from Nairobi city center, Kenya) demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli), Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pumilus) bacteria and the fungus Sacchromyces cerevisiae. Chromatographic separation of the exudates yielded eight methylated flavonoids; 5-hydroxy-3, 4′,7-trimethoxyflavone (1), 3,5-dihydroxy-4′,7-dimethoxyflavone (2), santin (3), kumatakenin (4), rhamnocitrin (5), isokaempferide (6), 3,4′,5,7, tetrahydroxy-6-methoxyflavone (7), pinocembrin (8); two clerodanes, dodonic acid (9) and 2β-hydroxyhardwickiic acid (10) and one labdane; (ent-3β,8α)-15,16-epoxy-13(16),14-labdadiene-3,8-diol (11) diterpenoids. The flavonoid aglycones; 6, 7 and the clerodane diterpenoids; 9 and 10 and labdane diterpenoid, 11 were isolated for the first time from this plant species. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified using ultraviolet (UV), mass spectroscopy (MS), one dimension (1D) and two dimension (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and by comparison of the spectral data with literature. The quercetin derivative, 3,4′,5-trihydroxy-3′,7-dimethoxyflavone (12) showed broad spectrum antibacterial activities against E. coli and B. pumilus with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values less than 31.25 μg/well and against S. aureus with MIC below 62.5 μg/well. This compound showed poor antifungal activity against S. cerevisiae (MIC < 500 μg/well). Good antifungal activities were observed for 5,4′-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (13) and hautriwaic acid lactone (14) against S. cerevisiae with MIC values less than 7.8 μg/well. The most active antifungal compound was 5,7-dihydro-3,4′,6-trimethoxyflavone (3, santin) with an MIC value less than 3.9 μg/well against S. cerevisiae. The rest of the compounds exhibited weak to moderate activities. For comprehensive structure activity relationship studies (SAR), hautriwaic acid lactone (14), hautriwaic acid (15), penduletin (16) isolated from the surface exudates of D. angustifolia from Voi (200 km from Mombasa city center, Kenya) and 12 and 13 from Senecio roseiflorus isolated earlier were included in the bioassays.

Omosa LK, Amugune B, Ndunda B, Milugo TK, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A, Midiwo JO. "Antimicrobial flavonoids and diterpenoids from Dodonaea angustifolia." South African Journal of Botany. 2014. Abstract

The surface exudates of the leaves of Dodonaea angustifolia from Ngong forest population (6 km from Nairobi city center, Kenya) demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli), Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pumilus) bacteria and the fungus Sacchromyces cerevisiae. Chromatographic separation of the exudates yielded eight methylated flavonoids; 5-hydroxy-3, 4′,7-trimethoxyflavone (1), 3,5-dihydroxy-4′,7-dimethoxyflavone (2), santin (3), kumatakenin (4), rhamnocitrin (5), isokaempferide (6), 3,4′,5,7, tetrahydroxy-6-methoxyflavone (7), pinocembrin (8); two clerodanes, dodonic acid (9) and 2β-hydroxyhardwickiic acid (10) and one labdane; (ent-3β,8α)-15,16-epoxy-13(16),14-labdadiene-3,8-diol (11) diterpenoids. The flavonoid aglycones; 6, 7 and the clerodane diterpenoids; 9 and 10 and labdane diterpenoid, 11 were isolated for the first time from this plant species. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified using ultraviolet (UV), mass spectroscopy (MS), one dimension (1D) and two dimension (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and by comparison of the spectral data with literature. The quercetin derivative, 3,4′,5-trihydroxy-3′,7-dimethoxyflavone (12) showed broad spectrum antibacterial activities against E. coli and B. pumilus with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values less than 31.25 μg/well and against S. aureus with MIC below 62.5 μg/well. This compound showed poor antifungal activity against S. cerevisiae (MIC < 500 μg/well). Good antifungal activities were observed for 5,4′-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (13) and hautriwaic acid lactone (14) against S. cerevisiae with MIC values less than 7.8 μg/well. The most active antifungal compound was 5,7-dihydro-3,4′,6-trimethoxyflavone (3, santin) with an MIC value less than 3.9 μg/well against S. cerevisiae. The rest of the compounds exhibited weak to moderate activities. For comprehensive structure activity relationship studies (SAR), hautriwaic acid lactone (14), hautriwaic acid (15), penduletin (16) isolated from the surface exudates of D. angustifolia from Voi (200 km from Mombasa city center, Kenya) and 12 and 13 from Senecio roseiflorus isolated earlier were included in the bioassays.

Omosa LK, Amugune BK, Ndunda B, Milugo TK, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A, Midiwo JO. "Antimicrobial flavonoids and diterpenoids from Dodonaea angustifolia." South African Journal of Botany 91 . 2014;91:58-62.
Maima AO, Ndwigah SN, Thoithi GN, Kamau FN, Kibwage IO. "Antimicrobial Properties of Some Medicinal Plants of the Luo Community of Kenya." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2014;3(4):112-115.
Gichangi PB, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ombete J, Nagelkerke NJ, Temmerman M. "Antimicrobial prophylaxis in pregnancy: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with cefetamet-pivoxil in pregnant women with a poor obstetric history." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1997;177(3):680-4. Abstract

This study was undertaken to measure the impact of a single oral dose of cefetamet-pivoxil on pregnancy outcome in a population with substantial rates of low birth weight and high prevalence rates of maternal infections.

Ombui JN, Kimotho AM, Nduhiu JG. "Antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmid profiles of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and meat." East African Medical Journal. 2000;77(9):463-467.
Juma M, Sankaradoss A, Ndomb R, Mwaura P, Damodar T, Nazir J, Pandit A, Khurana R, Masika M, Chirchir R, Gachie J, Krishna S, Sowdhamin R, Anzala O, Iyer MS. "Antimicrobial resistance profiling and phylogenetic analysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates from Kenya in resource limited setting." Frontiers in Microbiology. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Background: Africa has one of the highest incidences of gonorrhea. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is gaining resistance to most of the available antibiotics, compromising treatment across the world. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is an efficient way of predicting AMR determinants and their spread in the population. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies like Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) have helped in the generation of longer reads of DNA in a shorter duration with lower cost. Increasing accuracy of base-calling algorithms, high throughput, error-correction strategies, and ease of using the mobile sequencer MinION in remote areas lead to its adoption for routine microbial genome sequencing. To investigate whether MinION-only sequencing is sufficient for WGS and downstream analysis in resource-limited settings, we sequenced the genomes of 14 suspected N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Nairobi, Kenya.

Methods: Using WGS, the isolates were confirmed to be cases of N. gonorrhoeae (n = 9), and there were three co-occurrences of N. gonorrhoeae with Moraxella osloensis and N. meningitidis (n = 2). N. meningitidis has been implicated in sexually transmitted infections in recent years. The near-complete N. gonorrhoeae genomes (n = 10) were analyzed further for mutations/factors causing AMR using an in-house database of mutations curated from the literature.

Results: We observe that ciprofloxacin resistance is associated with multiple mutations in both gyrA and parC. Mutations conferring tetracycline (rpsJ) and sulfonamide (folP) resistance and plasmids encoding beta-lactamase were seen in all the strains, and tet(M)-containing plasmids were identified in nine strains. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 10 isolates into clades containing previously sequenced genomes from Kenya and countries across the world. Based on homology modeling of AMR targets, we see that the mutations in GyrA and ParC disrupt the hydrogen bonding with quinolone drugs and mutations in FolP may affect interaction with the antibiotic.

Conclusion: Here, we demonstrate the utility of mobile DNA sequencing technology in producing a consensus genome for sequence typing and detection of genetic determinants of AMR. The workflow followed in the study, including AMR mutation dataset creation and the genome identification, assembly, and analysis, can be used for any clinical isolate. Further studies are required to determine the utility of real-time sequencing in outbreak investigations, diagnosis, and management of infections, especially in resource-limited settings.

Ngaywa C, O.Aboge G, Obiero G, Omwenga I, Ngwili N, Wamwere G, Wainaina M, Bett B. "Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolates detected in raw milk of livestock in pastoral areas of northern Kenya." Food Control. 2019;102:173-178.
Gichuki H.K., Nyamu DG, Amugune BK, T M. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria that infect diabetic foot ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2018;7(2):34-40.
Omwenga I, Aboge GO, Mitema ES, Obiero G, Ngaywa C, Ngwili N, Wamwere G, Wainaina M, Bett B. "Antimicrobial Usage and Detection of Multidrug-Resistant , Including Methicillin-Resistant Strains in Raw Milk of Livestock from Northern Kenya." Microb Drug Resist. 2020. Abstract

The association of antimicrobial usage (AMU) with prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) , including methicillin-resistant (MRSA) in livestock raw milk consumed by pastoralists in Kenya remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between AMU and emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) , including MRSA in raw milk of livestock. AMU data were obtained using sales records from veterinary pharmacies. was isolated from 603 milk samples from various livestock species, including sheep, goat, cow, and camel reared in Isiolo and Marsabit counties in Kenya. Resistant phenotypes and genotypes were determined by disc diffusion and molecular methods, respectively. Correlation between AMU and occurrence of resistance was determined by Pearson's correlation coefficient () method. The consumption of various antimicrobial classes were as follows; 4,168 kg of oxytetracycline, 70 kg of sulfonamides, 49.7 kg of aminoglycosides, 46 kg of beta-lactams, 39.4 kg of macrolides, and 0.52 kg for trimethoprim. The isolates were mainly resistant to tetracycline (79%), ampicillin (58%), and oxacillin (33%), respectively. A few isolates (5-18%) were resistant to clindamycin, cephalexin, erythromycin, kanamycin, and ciprofloxacin. Most of the MDR- isolates were MRSA (94%). The genetic determinants found in the AMR isolates included K/M (96.5%/19%) for tetracycline, (79%) for penicillin, (53%) for aminoglycosides, A (41%) for oxacillin, and A/A (24%/7%) for macrolides. Oxytetracycline usage was correlated to K/M ( = 0.62/1) detection, penicillins to A/ ( = 0.86/0.98), aminoglycoside to ( 0.76/-13), and macrolide usages for detection of A/A ( = 0.94/0.77). AMU appeared to be associated with occurrence of MDR-SA and the M detection. Consumption of raw milk contaminated with MRSA could pose a serious public health risk in pastoral communities in northern Kenya.

Nguta JM, Appiah-Opong R, Nyarko AK, Yeboah-Manu, D., Addo GA, Otchere, I., Kissi-Twum A. "Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016;182, :10-15.
Kama-Kama F, Omosa LK, Nganga J, Maina N, Osanjo G, Yaouba S, Ilias M, Midiwo J, Naessens J. "Antimycoplasmal Activities of Compounds from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii against Strains from the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster." Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2017;9:920.
Kama-Kama F, Omosa LK, Nganga J, Maina N, Osanjo G, Yaouba S, Ilias M, Midiwo J, Naessens J. "Antimycoplasmal Activities of Compounds from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii against Strains from the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster." Frontiers in pharmacology. 2017;8:920. Abstract

Infections caused by Mycoplasma species belonging to the ‘mycoides cluster’ negatively affect the agricultural sector through losses in livestock productivity. These Mycoplasma strains are resistant to many conventional antibiotics due to the total lack of cell wall. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop new antimicrobial agents from alternative sources such as medicinal plants to curb the resistance threat. Recent studies on extracts from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii revealed interesting antimycoplasmal activities hence the motivation to investigate the antimycoplasmal activities of constituent compounds. The CH2Cl2/MeOH extracts from the berries of S. aculeastrum yielded a new β-sitosterol derivative (1) along with six known ones including; lupeol (2), two long-chain fatty alcohols namely undecyl alcohol (3) and lauryl alcohol (4); two long-chain fatty acids namely; myristic acid (5) and nervonic acid (6) as well as a glycosidic steroidal alkaloid; (25R)-3β-{O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-22α-N-spirosol-5-ene (7) from the MeOH extracts. A new furan diglycoside, (2,5-D-diglucopyranosyloxy-furan) (8) was also characterized from the CH2Cl2/MeOH extract of stem bark of P. thonningii. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 7 and 8 isolated in sufficient yields were tested against the growth of two Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm), two M.mycoides. capri (Mmc) and one M. capricolum capricolum (Mcc) using broth dilution methods, while the minimum …

N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "The Antinociceptive Antipyretic Effects of Solanum incanum (Linneaus) in Animal Models Mwonjoria J. K, Kariuki H N, and Waweru FN. International Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2011, 2(1), 22-26.". In: Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. International Journal of Phytopharmacology; 2011. Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
Okalebo FA, Ngaruiya MN, Changwony P, Oluka MO, Karume DW, Maloba KN. "The antinociceptive effects of Hydrazinocurcumin." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2013;2(2):66-69.
Okalebo FA, Ngaruiya MN, Changwony P, Oluka MN, Karume DW, Maloba KN. "The antinociceptive effects of Hydrazinocurcumin." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2013;2(2):66-69.
Erick A, Omosa L, Midiwo J, Ndakala A, Mwaniki J. "Antioxidant Activities of Flavonoid Aglycoes from Kenyan Gardenia ternifolia Schum and Thonn." IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2016;11(3):136-141.
Awas E, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Ndakala A, Mwaniki J. "Antioxidant Activities of Flavonoid Aglycones from Kenyan Gardenia ternifolia Schum and Thonn." IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS). 2016;11(3):136-141. Abstract

Phytochemical investigation of surface exudates of the leaves of Gardenia ternifolia resulted to
characterization of four flavonoids; 3,5,3′-trihydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavone (1), 5,7-trihydroxy-4′-
methoxyflavone (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-3,4′-dimethoxyflavone (3), 5,4′-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (4) and two
tritepenoids; β-sitosterol (6) and stigmasterol (7). Compound 1 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with
IC50 = 40.3± 1.55 μΜ. The rest of the flavonoids showed minimal activities with IC50 values of 75.5±1.75,
89±0.22, 94±0.11 μΜ for 2-4, respectively. The antioxidant activities of 1 was substantially lower than the
standard, quercetin (IC50 = 20.1±1.34 M). Methoxylation of quercetin at 7 and 4′-position in 1 substantially
reduced antioxidant potential. Lack of oxygenation at 3′ position, as observed for kaempferol derivatives was
responsible for further reduction in the radical scavenging potential as observed for 2 and 3. Furthermore,
methylation of 3-OH position in kaempferol derivatives further reduced the antioxidant activities as exhibited by
3 with an oxygenation pattern similar to 2 except for the methylation at 3-position. The results of this study are
consistent with previous findings that revealed that flavonols, exhibited better anti-oxidant activities as
compared to 3-methoxyflavones. Acetylation of 3 at the 5 and 7 positions resulting to 3,4′dimethoxy-5,7-
diacetylflavone (5), substantially reduced the activity of this compound. The triterpenoids exhibited were
inactive as expected.
Keywords: Antioxidant activities, Gardenia ternifolia, surface exudates

N. KC, K. BH, V. S, V. V, K. IJ, W. OM. "Antioxidant activity of phenolics in indigenous foods.". In: International Conference on “African Nutritional Epidemiology” organized by Centre for Public Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute. Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
Babiaka SB, Nia R, Abuga KO, Mbah JA, Nziko VN, Paper DH, Ntie-Kang F. "Antioxidant potential of flavonoid glycosides from Manniophyton fulvum Müll. (Euphorbiaceae): Identification and molecular modeling." Scientic African. 2020;8(e00423):1-7. Abstract

Chemical investigation of the leaves of Manniophyton fulvum led to the isolation of seven flavonoid glycosides: myricetin-3-O-β-Dd-rhamnoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-β-d-rhamnoside (2), quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (3), quercetin-3-O-β-d-rhamnoside (4), quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside (5), rutin (6) and quercetin (7). The structures of the compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses as well as by comparison with published data. Some of the compounds showed strong antioxidant activity which validates the traditional use of the plant. An attempted correlation between the computed HOMO-LUMO energies and the measured antioxidant activities was established. We have also estimated the cardiotoxicity of the compounds by calculating the predicted logarithm of the human Ether-`a-go-go Related Gene (loghERG) using the QikProp program. These purified flavonoids are new potential lead compounds for the development of antioxidant drugs.

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