Publications

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Submitted
Mwangi E, Gatari M. "Curriculum Development of a Nuclear Engineering Course for Human Resources Enhancement in the Kenya Nuclear Energy Program." kns.org. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

In order to increase generation capacity from reliable sources, Kenya has proposed to install a low-end nuclear power plant to supplement the envisaged short fall. At the moment, most of the power is generated from hydro and geothermal sources. Although an expansion of …

NYAMBANE MN, GATARI MJ, Githiri JG,... "Energy and Exergy Analysis Concepts: Modelling of Olkaria II Geothermal Power Plant in Kenya." promitheasnet.kepa.uoa.gr. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Condensers of geothermal power plants need to operate at low pressures to ensure optimal use of energy resources. To optimize the steam condensation process cooling water temperature is varied to determine the value that gives a higher condenser efficiency …

Maina DM, Gatari MM, Bartilol SK, Nguli MK. "ESSENTIAL TRACE METALS IN SELECTED MAIZE FLOUR BRANDS CONSUMED IN NAIROBI, KENYA: APPLICATION OF TXRF." imeko.org. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Human beings obtain their essential trace metals form their diets. The objective of this study was to determine the Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentration levels in maize flour and based on the results estimate the daily intake of these essential metals through consumption of Ugali; …

Kairu WM, Gatari MM, MUIA ML, Mumenya SW,... "Health monitoring of concrete using rebar-guided ultrasound." pdfs.semanticscholar.org. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Concrete is one of the commonly used materials worldwide in the construction industry due to its durability [1]. Civil infrastructures such as power plants, bridges and large buildings are typically built using concrete. It is typically composed of aggregate, sand, cement, water as …

BIRIR JK, GATARI MJ, RAJAGOPAL P, MUIA ML. "Improved Resolution in Guided Wave Testing." pdfs.semanticscholar.org. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Guided wave technology is today widely used for long range ultrasonic testing, especially for pipeline, tank floor and rail track condition monitoring. In pipeline inspection for instance guided wave testing (GWT) offers advantages over other mainstream technologies such as …

MWANIA MJM, GATARI MJ, MAINA MDM, KINYUA R. "Recycled waste plastics composite: Possible construction material for wind turbine blades." promitheasnet.kepa.uoa.gr. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Electrical power supply in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) is expensive and very low, and most families have no chance of accessing clean lighting and cooking power. Off grid systems are the best viable solution in SSA and wind energy has a potential. However, the components …

2019
GATARI MJ. "First WHO Global Conference on Air Pollution and Health: A Brief Report." Clean Air Journal. 2019. AbstractWebsite

The subject conference (documented in www. who. int) was organized by WHO in collaboration with WMO, CCAC, UNFCC, UNECE, The World Bank, UN-DESA and EU-DEVCO in Geneva, Switzerland from 30 October to 01 November 2018. The conference …

GATARI MJ, Kinney PL, Yan B, Sclar E,... "High airborne black carbon concentrations measured near roadways in Nairobi, Kenya." … Research Part D …. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Airborne black carbon (BC) particles have serious implications for human health and climate change and thus represent a prime target for mitigation policies. The sources of BC include vehicles burning diesel fuel, which are common in urban areas in low-income countries. The …

Gitau J, GATARI MJ, Pant HJ. "Investigation of flow dynamics of porous clinkers in a ball mill using technitium-99m as a radiotracer." Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2019. AbstractWebsite

A radiotracer investigation was carried out in a ball mill of a cement plant in Kenya. Residence time distribution (RTD) of raw feed to the mill was measured using Technetium-99m adsorbed on the clinkers as a radiotracer. From the measured RTDs, solid holdup and …

2018
Maina EG, Gachanja AN, Gachanja AN, Price H. "Demonstrating PM2.5 and road-side dust pollution by heavy metals along Thika superhighway in Kenya, sub-Saharan Africa." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2018;(190):251.
Pope FD, Michael Gatari, Ng’ang’a D, Poynter A, Blake R. "Particulate matter air pollution monitoring in Nairobi, Kenya using calibrated low cost sensors. ." Atmos Chem and Phys. 2018.
Pope FD, Gatari M, Ng'ang'a D,... "Airborne particulate matter monitoring in Kenya using calibrated low cost sensors [discussion paper]." Atmospheric …. 2018. AbstractWebsite

East African countries face an increasing threat from poor air quality, stemming from rapid urbanisation, population growth and a steep rise in fuel use and motorization rates. With few air quality monitoring systems available, this study provides the much needed high temporal …

Blake R, Pope F, Gatari M. "Airborne particulate matter monitoring in Nairobi, Kenya using calibrated low cost sensors." EGU General Assembly …. 2018. AbstractWebsite

This study investigated the use of low cost optical particle counters (OPCs) to measure particulate matter (PM) pollution in Nairobi, Kenya, between February and March 2017. Measurements were performed in three locations, an urban background and urban roadside …

Maina EG, Gachanja AN, GATARI MJ, Price H. "Demonstrating PM2.5 and road-side dust pollution by heavy metals along Thika superhighway in Kenya, sub-Saharan Africa." … monitoring and assessment. 2018. AbstractWebsite

This study assessed the level of heavy metal in roadside dust and PM 2.5 mass concentrations along Thika superhighway in Kenya. Thika superhighway is one of the busiest roads in Kenya, linking Thika town with Nairobi. Triplicate road dust samples …

Maier Y, Schneider L, Thomson ES,... "Ice nucleating particles at the Mt. Kenya GAW Station." EGU General …. 2018. AbstractWebsite

The number concentration and composition of ice nucleating particles (INP) at Mt. Kenya Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Station (0 9'S, 37 19'O, 3678 m asl) were measured during August and September 2015. With the ITCZ being located some 1900 km north of the station …

2017
Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Raphael G Wahome, Karatu K. "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5(3):104-110.
Gatari MJ, Kinney PL, Yan B, Sclar E, Volavka-Close N, Ngo N, Gaita SM, Law A, Ndiba PK, Gachanja A, Graeff J, Chillrud SN. "High airborne black carbon concentrations measured near roadways in Nairobi, Kenya. Transportation Research." Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2017;68:99-109.
Mburu CW, Gaita SM, Knee CS, Gatari MJ, Karlsson M. "Influence of Yttrium Concentration on Local Structure in BaZr1−xYxO3−δ Based Proton Conductors." J. Phys. Chem.. 2017;121(30):16174-16181.
O.M.Ondimu, V.A.Ganesan, GATARI MJ, Marijnissen JCM, Agostinho LLF. "Modeling simple-jet mode electrohydrodynamic-atomization droplets' trajectories and spray pattern for a single nozzle system." Journal of Electrostatics. 2017;89:77-87.
Mukaria SM, Wahome KKRG, Thenya T, Michael Gatari. "Traffic Police Knowledge Awareness, Attitude and Practice on Motor Vehicle Pollution City of Nairobi-Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5(3):111-116.
Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Wahome RG,... "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." … Pollution and Human …. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Clean air is important for human health and well-being, air pollution has increased in many parts worldwide and thus posing a significant threat people's health. In Kenya, the traffic police officers who constantly un covered stand on road junctions continuously expose …

Mburu CW, Gaita SM, Knee CS, GATARI MJ,... "Influence of Yttrium Concentration on Local Structure in BaZr1–xYxO3−δ Based Proton Conductors." The Journal of …. 2017. AbstractWebsite

The evolution of local structure, coordination of protons, and proton conductivity in yttrium-doped barium zirconate, BaZr1–x Y x O3− δ (x= 0–0.5), has been investigated using thermal-gravimetric analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. Low-frequency …

Mukaria SM, Wahome RG, Gatari M,... "Particulate Matter from Motor Vehicles in Nairobi Road Junctions Kenya." Journal of Atmospheric …. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Motor air pollution has become a problematic issue both within as it contributes to environmental degradation. It is evident that air crises in cities continue to rise partly because of the increasing levels of motor vehicle emissions. With the expansion of the …

Mukaria SM, Wahome KKRG, Thenya T,... "Traffic Police Knowledge Awareness, Attitude and Practice on Motor Vehicle Pollution City of Nairobi-Kenya." Journal of Environment …. 2017. AbstractWebsite

People's knowledge of awareness, attitudes and practices towards motor vehicle emissions that are dangerous and a requirement is paramount for reducing exposure among people, their impact and response of interventions that are aimed at encouraging behavioral …

2016
DM M, DM N, MM M, J B, K S, MJ G. "Environmental implications of high metal content in soils of a titanium mining zone in Kenya." Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2016;23(21):21431-21440.
Gaita SM, Boman J, GATARI MJ, Wagner A,... "Characterization of size-fractionated particulate matter and deposition fractions in human respiratory system in a typical African city: Nairobi, Kenya." Aerosol Air Qual …. 2016. AbstractWebsite

Information from elemental and mass composition of size-fractionated airborne particle matter (PM) provides insightful knowledge about their impact on human health, meteorology and climate. To attain insight into the nature of sizefractionated PM from a typical African city …

Maina DM, Ndirangu DM, Mangala MM,... "Environmental implications of high metal content in soils of a titanium mining zone in Kenya." … Science and Pollution …. 2016. AbstractWebsite

Mining activities contribute to an increase of specific metal contaminants in soils. This may adversely affect plant life and consequently impact on animal and human health. The objective of this study was to obtain the background metal concentrations in soils around the …

Egondi T, Muindi K, Kyobutungi C, Gatari M,... "Measuring exposure levels of inhalable airborne particles (PM2. 5) in two socially deprived areas of Nairobi, Kenya." Environmental …. 2016. AbstractWebsite

Introduction Ambient air pollution is a growing global health concern tightly connected to the rapid global urbanization. Health impacts from outdoor air pollution exposure amounts to high burdens of deaths and disease worldwide. However, the lack of systematic collection of …

2015
Ngo NS, Gatari M, Yan B, Chillrud SN,... "Occupational exposure to roadway emissions and inside informal settlements in sub-Saharan Africa: A pilot study in Nairobi, Kenya." Atmospheric …. 2015. AbstractWebsite

Few studies examine urban air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), yet urbanization rates there are among the highest in the world. In this study, we measured 8-hr average occupational exposure levels of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), black carbon (BC), ultra …

2014
Omanga E, Ulmer L, Berhane Z, Michael Gatari. "Industrial air pollution in rural Kenya: community awareness, risk perception and associations between risk variables." BMC Public Health. 2014;14:377.
Nyambura M, Gatari M, Hillier S, Shepherd KD,... "Development of an X-ray method for mineralogical analysis of Africa soils using a benchtop diffractometer." Food and nutrition …. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Page 1. www.mtt.fi/foodafrica Development of an x-ray method for mineralogical analysis of Africa soils using a benchtop diffractometer 16 June 2014, Helsinki, Finland. FoodAfrica midterm seminar Mercy Nyambura1*, 2, Michael Gatari1, Stephen Hillier3*, Keith D. Shepherd2, Esala Martti4 …

Borgese L, Bilo F, Tsuji K, Fernández-Ruiz R,... "First total reflection X-ray fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results." … Acta Part B: Atomic …. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of …

Omanga E, Ulmer L, Berhane Z, Gatari M. "Industrial air pollution in rural Kenya: community awareness, risk perception and associations between risk variables." BMC public health. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Background Developing countries have limited air quality management systems due to inadequate legislation and lack of political will, among other challenges. Maintaining a balance between economic development and sustainable environment is a challenge …

Gatari M, Berhane Z, Ulmer L, Omanga E. Industrial air pollution in rural Kenya: community awareness, risk perception and associations between risk variables. oa.las.ac.cn; 2014. AbstractWebsite

Background Developing countries have limited air quality management systems due to inadequate legislation and lack of political will, among other challenges. Maintaining a balance between economic development and sustainable environment is a challenge …

Gaita SM, Boman J, GATARI MJ, Pettersson JBC,... "Source apportionment and seasonal variation of PM2.5 in a Sub-Saharan African city: Nairobi, Kenya." … Chemistry & Physics. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Sources of airborne particulate matter and their seasonal variation in urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa are poorly understood due to lack of long-term measurement data. In view of this, filter samples of airborne particulate matter (particle diameter≤ 2.5 µm, PM2. 5) were …

Galgallo A, Gatari M, Keskinen R, Esala M,... "Total and Extractable Trace Elements in Soil." 한국토양비료학회 학술 …. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Although agriculture is the main economic activity in Sub Saharan Africa, this region still has the highest prevalence of malnutrition in the world. Its per capita food production has also been on the decline for the last two decades. The African soil resource is over utilized and …

Mutuli SM, BIRIR JK, Maina DM, Kairu WM, Gatari MM. Welding Quality in Kenya: Application of Radiography. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2014. AbstractWebsite

In Kenya, welding services are extensively employed in both the formal and informal sectors. The needs continue to increase with increasing population, infrastructure and vehicle fleet, and economic development. Welding need is even currently very important in support of …

2013
Kinyua AM, Maina DM, MANGALA MJ, GATARI MJ. "Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) in Non-Destructive Testing of Oil Samples.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

A rapid non-destructive, multi-elemental and ultra-sensitive analytical technique of engine oil analysis is described. Using" an x-ray excitation source and Si(Li) detector for the1 measurements, the deterioration of an internal combustion engine) is evaluated from results of concentration levels of Ti, Ca, Mn, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Br. Analysis of these elements from samples of new and used engine oil from a commercial brand showed significant increases in the levels of Fe(164%), Br(5022%) and Pb (65000%) after an engine had run a distance of 1103 km. No major increases were noticed for the other elements. The changes are due to the wear and tear of engine parts and subsequent contamination of the engine oil. The increase of Pb and Br is due to the leakage of exhaust fuel gases from the combustion chambers which indicate the need for new piston rings, for this particular motor car engine.

2012
Kinney, Patrick L; Gichuru MG; V-CN; NN; NPLA; GA;K; G. "Traffic Impacts on PM2.5 Air Quality in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012.
2011
Kinney PL, Gichuru MG, Volavka-Close N,... "Traffic impacts on PM2. 5 air quality in Nairobi, Kenya." Environmental science & …. 2011. AbstractWebsite

Motor vehicle traffic is an important source of particulate pollution in cities of the developing world, where rapid growth, coupled with a lack of effective transport and land use planning, may result in harmful levels of fine particles (PM 2.5) in the air. However, a lack of air …

2010
Boman, Johan; Wagner A; GMJ. "Trace elements in PM2.5 in Gothenburg, Sweden.". 2010.
Gatari M, Ngo N, Ndiba P,... "Impacts of Roadway Emissions on Urban Fine Particle Exposures: the Nairobi Area Traffic Contribution to Air Pollution (NATCAP) Study." EGU General Assembly …. 2010. AbstractWebsite

Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), due to rapid urbanization, growing vehicle fleets, changing life styles, limited road infrastructure and land use planning, and high per-vehicle emissions. However, the …

Gatari M, Lavrich R, Preston B, Gaita S,... "Speciation of particulate carbonaceous species at an urban-background site in Nairobi, Kenya." EGU General …. 2010. AbstractWebsite

Tropospheric aerosols have adverse implications on human health, climate, and visibility. Particles in combustion source emissions have complex physical and chemical characteristics. They regularly contain Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) molecules …

Boman J, Wagner A, GATARI MJ. Trace elements in PM {sub 2.5} in Gothenburg, Sweden. osti.gov; 2010. AbstractWebsite

Ambient aerosol particles smaller than 2.5 {mu} m (PM {sub 2.5}) are getting more and more attention worldwide. While legal focus is mainly on sample mass, the composition of the particles is an important research field gaining increased interest. The interest is not only …

Boman J, Wagner A, GATARI MJ. "Trace elements in PM2. 5 in Gothenburg, Sweden." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic …. 2010. AbstractWebsite

Ambient aerosol particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM 2.5) are getting more and more attention worldwide. While legal focus is mainly on sample mass, the composition of the particles is an important research field gaining increased interest. The interest is not only connected to …

2009
Boman J, GATARI MJ, Janhall S, Shannigrahi AS, Wagner A. "Elemental content of PM2.5 aerosol particles collected in G¨oteborg during the G¨ote-2005 campaign in February 2005.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

The Gote–2005 measurement campaign aimed at studying the influence of the winter thermal inversions on urban air pollution. Elemental speciation of PM2.5 aerosol particles, collected on Teflon filters at three urban sites and one rural site in the Goteborg region, was a major part of the study. Trace element analysis was done by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry and the concentrations of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were determined. The elemental content of the particles, local wind speed and direction, and backward trajectories were used to investigate possible sources for the pollutants. We concluded that S, V, Ni, Br, and Pb had their main sources outside the central Goteborg area, since elevated concentrations of these elements were not observed during an inversion episode. Sea traffic and harbour activities were identified, primarily by the S and V content of the particles. This study showed that the elemental analysis by EDXRF presents valuable information for tracing the origin of air masses arriving at a measurement site.

Boman J, GATARI MJ, Gaita SM, Zhang X, Xue B, Wagner A. "Seasonal variation in trace elemental concentrations in PM2.5 particles in Nairobi, Kenya."; 2009.
GATARI MJ, Boman J, Wagner A. "Characterization of aerosol particles at an industrial background site in Nairobi, Kenya." X‐Ray Spectrometry: An …. 2009. AbstractWebsite

Air pollutants from industrial and urban sources contain harmful elements and chemical compounds. This work presents a study on background industrial and urban aerosol particles in the city of Nairobi. Its main focus was the understanding of elemental, black …

GATARI MJ, Pettersson JBC, Kimani W,... "Inorganic and black carbon aerosol concentrations at a high altitude on Mt Kenya." X‐Ray Spectrometry …. 2009. AbstractWebsite

Aerosol samples were collected at an altitude of 3678 m on Mt Kenya in August 2001. A virtual impactor was used to collect particles in fine (aerodynamic diameter, da< 2.5 µm) and coarse (2.5 µm< da< 10 µm) size fractions. The samples were analyzed for particulate mass …

2008
Wagner A, Boman J, Gatari MJ. "Elemental analysis of size-fractionated particulate matter sampled in Göteborg, Sweden.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

The aim of the study was to investigate the mass distribution of trace elements in aerosol samples collected in the urban area of Göteborg, Sweden, with special focus on the impact of different air masses and anthropogenic activities. Three measurement campaigns were conducted during December 2006 and January 2007. A PIXE cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter in 9 size fractions ranging from 16 to 0.06 µm aerodynamic diameter. Polished quartz carriers were chosen as collection substrates for the subsequent direct analysis by TXRF. To investigate the sources of the analyzed air masses, backward trajectories were calculated. Our results showed that diurnal sampling was sufficient to investigate the mass distribution for Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Sr and Zn, whereas a 5-day sampling period resulted in additional information on mass distribution for Cr and S. Unimodal mass distributions were found in the study area for the elements Ca, Cl, Fe and Zn, whereas the distributions for Br, Cu, Cr, K, Ni and S were bimodal, indicating high temperature processes as source of the submicron particle components. The measurement period including the New Year firework activities showed both an extensive increase in concentrations as well as a shift to the submicron range for K and Sr, elements that are typically found in fireworks. Further research is required to validate the quantification of trace elements directly collected on sample carriers.

G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Boman J., Gatari M. J., Janh.". In: Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss; 8, 7703-7724. University of Nairobi.; 2008.
Gatari M, Boman J. Design and Development of an Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2008. AbstractWebsite

Contribution of scientific research to local and international journals from Africa and indeed Kenya is weak in comparison to other regions. One of the main problems is the non-availability of reliable and affordable analytical instrumentation. Energy-Dispersive X-ray …

Wagner A, Boman J, GATARI MJ. "Elemental analysis of size-fractionated particulate matter sampled in Göteborg, Sweden." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic …. 2008. AbstractWebsite

The aim of the study was to investigate the mass distribution of trace elements in aerosol samples collected in the urban area of Göteborg, Sweden, with special focus on the impact of different air masses and anthropogenic activities. Three measurement campaigns were …

G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M. J., Pettersson J. B. C., Kimani W., Boman J., (2008). Inorganic and black carbon aerosol concentrations at a high altitude on Mt Kenya.". In: X-Ray Spectrometry; DOI 10.1002/xrs.1094. University of Nairobi.; 2008.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Wagner A., (2008). Characterization of aerosol particles at an industrial background site in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: X-Ray Spectrometry; DOI 10.1002/xrs. 1097. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
Air pollutants from industrial sources contain harmful elements and chemical compounds. This work presents a study on background industrial and urban aerosol particles in the city of Nairobi. Its main focus was the understanding of elemental, black carbon (BC) and particulate mass (PM) concentrations in the perspective of identifying their sources. Aerosol particles were collected on Teflon filters in two size fractions, a fine fraction of particles having an aerodynamic diameter (da) < 2.5 m and a coarse fraction with particles between 2.5 m and 10 m. A photometer and an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer were used to analyze BC and trace elements (Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb), respectively. The sampled mass of the particulate matter was determined gravimetrically. The measured concentrations of the analysable species were dominated by BC, K, and S in the fine fraction and Si, Ca, and Fe in the coarse fraction. Principal component analysis and correlation evaluation of the fine fraction concentrations implicated industrial, vehicular, and biomass burning emissions as the main sources of the measured elements. The average Pb concentration of 105 ng m-3 in the PM10 sample at the background industrial site is approximately 20% of the Air Quality Guideline (AQG) recommended by World Health Organisation (WHO). Most of the measured elements exhibited higher concentrations than those measured in Francistown in Botswana, Dar es Salaam in Tanzania and Edinburgh in United Kingdom but less than those measured in Barcelona in Spain and from previous studies in Nairobi.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Maina D.M., Bartilol S., Gaita S.M., Determination of trace metals in bottled Commercial Drinking water using TXRF in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Poster presentation, European conference on X-Ray Spectrometry (XRS2008), Cavtat, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 16-20 June 2008. University of Nairobi.; 2008.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J.G., Boman J., Design and Development of an Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer: A tool for Environmental Research in Kenya.". In: Oral Presentation, 1st National Conference and Exhibition for Dissemination of Research Results and Review of Innovations and Exhibition, Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology. Nairobi, Kenya, 28-30 April 2008: Poster presentation, European. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
Contribution of scientific research to local and international journals from Africa and indeed Kenya is weak in comparison to other regions. One of the main problems is the non-availability of reliable and affordable analytical instrumentation. Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis is a special analytical technique for trace elements in that it is economical and easy to use. Its analytical capacity has the advantage of having multi-elemental characteristics and satisfactory speed. Convectional EDXRF analysis is used in identifying toxic trace elements in the general environment, trace elements in airborne particles for source apportionment, investigation of micronutrients in different ecosystems and agriculture practices among other areas of scientific investigations. A new EDXRF Spectrometer has been built and installed at the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, College of Architecture and Engineering, University of Nairobi. It is a new research tool that has improved local analytical detection limits of heavy metals in environmental and air pollution samples. A Siemens type D x-ray tube-stand was modified to facilitate x-ray irradiation of a Mo-secondary target. The target is a glued disk that was cut from a 1 mm thick Mo plate of 99.99 % purity. The fluoresced secondary x-rays propagate through three Ag collimators giving a near monochromatic Mo characteristic x-rays for sample excitation. The disk holder was designed to be easily removable, from the Al-measuring head, thus allowing the flexibility of carrying out experiments using different secondary targets. Air samples on Teflon filters and water samples on Cellulose filters were analyzed. The results were better than those obtained in previous spectrometer setups. The detection limits of trace elements improved by a factor of 10. The spectrometer is an extra facility for direct analysis of trace elements in air and other environmental samples.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J.G., Strengthening National Facilities for the Maintenance and Repair of Medical and Scientific Instruments.". In: Oral presentation, First Project coordination meeting, AFRA IV, RAF/4/021. Arusha, Tanzania, 3-7 March 2008: Oral presentation, Workshop for Project Coordinators of National and AFRA/IAEA funded projects, Nairobi, Kenya, 4-5 August 2008. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
The project is hosted at the Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology (INST), University of Nairobi. One of the core mandates of the Institute is provision of scientific instrumentation maintenance and repair services to Educational and Research Institutions besides income generation through the wide scope of services. Nuclear instrumentation is part of the scientific instruments; consequently, the project enjoys the professional services of a strong technical team. INST is strongly founded on peaceful utilization of nuclear techniques in research and teaching and its management interest in this project is well demonstrated by the achievements, that is documented in this report. This report describes the achievement and impact of the just ended project, AFRA IV RAF/4/017 over the period 2002 to 2007. It also includes the available human resources to drive the new project, beneficiary institutions, expected needs and support as well as priorities. A brief on SWOT is included that highlights those that are perceived unique for Kenya otherwise most of it is the same as described in the last evaluation meeting of RAF/4/017 in Libya.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Naziriwo B.B., Wandiga S.O., Gatari M.J.G., Madadi O.V., Ssebuwufu P.J., Determination of trace metal concentrations in waters of Nakivubo Channel and Lake Victoria using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis.". In: Poster presentation, European conference on X-Ray Spectrometry (XRS2007), Cavtat, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 16-20 June 2008. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
In an effort to understand the pollution levels in waters of Nakivubo channel in Kampala, Uganda and Lake Victoria (Fig 1) concentrations of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Pb were determined using convectional EDXRF and TXRF analysis. Water samples were collected with a 1-litre Van Don sampler (code, 1077) and transferred into polyethylene containers that were stored in an ice cooled box. Five samples were obtained at each sampling site and were all stored at -21 0C until analysis. Filtration on cellulose filter gave a particulate deposit that was analyzed for trace metals on a convectional EDXRF spectrometer. Pre-concentration and evaporation at 50 0C were used for extraction of dissolved metal content that was analyzed on TXRF. Samples of the unfiltered water were treated with HNO3 and H202 in a process for extracting total trace metal content that was subsequently prepared and analyzed on TXRF. Spectra from the spectrometers were analyzed for the trace elements of interest and elemental quantification was achieved using Quantitative X-ray Analysis software from International Atomic Energy Agency. The results showed high concentrations of particulate Fe and Mn, and relatively low Zn upstream the Nakivubo Channel. These were lower in the Lake Victoria waters. At the shores of Lake Victoria the dissolved Fe and Zn were higher than in the channel. The concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn in Lake Victoria were below the USEPA maximum contamination limits of 0.3, 0.05 and 5 mg/L respectively. However, Fe at the mouth of Nakivubo Channel was high and in general the quantified total elemental concentrations increased upstream along the channel. This meant increased water pollution input upstream and along the channel.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Wagner A., Boman J., Gatari M. J., (2007). The elemental analysis of size-fractionated particulate matter using TXRF.". In: Corrected and re-Submitted to Spectrochimica Acta Part B. University of Nairobi.; 2008.
2007
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Gaita S.M., Hays M.D., Bond T. C., Boman J., Assessment of criteria pollutants and NO in a typical urban aerosol in Africa.". In: Oral presentation, The 5th Asian Aerosol Conference (AAC2007), Kaohsiung, Taiwan (ROC), 26-29 August 2007. University of Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
Criteria pollutants have health implications that are not only of concern to the urban population but also to governments in formulating their policies. These pollutants are also important to climate change investigations and any sustainable development programs require a properly informed population on their effects, concentration levels and sources. However, without the knowledge of the characteristic aerosol and information on the levels of pollutant concentrations, implementation of controls and enforcement of regulation remains difficult. NO and five species in the group of the criteria pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and PM10 were measured at an urban background site in Nairobi, Kenya. The site is approximately 20 m above the ground, on top of a building at the main campus, University of Nairobi. Eight hour measurements at intervals of 10 s were obtained using pollutant gas monitors and 24 h samples of PM2.5 and PM10 particles were collected on glass fiber filters by a size segregating impactor. Figure 1 and 2 shows preliminary typical hourly average concentrations trends on a day in a weekend. The results imply a different daytime chemistry of NOX (= NO + NO2) from that reported in the literature. Typical measurements in urban boundary layer shows peaking of NO in early morning hours followed by NO2 and O3 in the afternoon. O3 oxidizes NO in a fast reaction to NO2 and O2. The recorded trend showed high rate of NO concentration replenishment, throughout the measurement period, in competition to its conversion to NO2. Similar trends of NO and NO2 were observed from about 1200 h until the end of the 8 h daytime measurement. This implied a near constant rate of NO oxidation that may have been the indicator of O3 production after 1130 at a concentration which was not capable of decreasing NO substantially. Normally, in urban aerosol, CO concentration is far much higher than the other gaseous pollutants but it was comparable to NO from midday. There was daytime SO2 which persisted at constant concentration of 0.1 ppm, the instrument indicator resolution value. High levels of CO were recorded in the early hours of the night and NO2 that persisted at 0.1 ppm. Considering that NO was high during the mid afternoon the nighttime NO2 concentrations portrayed a nighttime chemistry that converted NO to NO2. This conversion may have been driven by the peroxy radicals that are produced by reactions between NO3 radicals and reactive organic gases in the absence of sunlight. Since NO3 is a product of NO and O3 it followed that concentrations of the latter continued into nighttime.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Hays D.M., Lavrich R.J., Gaita S.M., Determination of particulate carbonaceous species in an urban background aerosol in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Poster presentation, The 5th Asian Aerosol Conference (AAC2007). Kaohsiung, Taiwan (ROC), 26-29 August 2007: Poster presentation, European Aerosol Conference (EAC2007), Salzburg, Austria, 9-14 September 2007. University of Nairobi.; 2007.
2006
GATARI MJ, Boman J, Wagner A, Janhäll S,... "Assessment of inorganic content of PM2. 5 particles sampled in a rural area north-east of Hanoi, Vietnam." Science of the total …. 2006. AbstractWebsite

Atmospheric aerosols from seven rural sites in northern Vietnam, east of Hanoi, were sampled and analyzed. The aim of the study was to evaluate trace elemental and black carbon (BC) concentrations in fine particles (PM 2.5) and to investigate the influence of the …

GATARI MJ. Atmospheric aerosol studies in Kenya. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2006. AbstractWebsite

There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which …

G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Atmospheric aerosol studies in Kenya. Contribution by the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Oral presentation, invited presentation, Copenhagen Centre for Atmospheric Research, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. 15th March 2006. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Wagner A., Janhall S., Isakson J., (2006). Assessment of inorganic content of PM2.5 particles sampled in a rural area north-east of Hanoi, Vietnam. Sc. of Total Environ. 368: 675-685.". In: Sc. of Total Environ. 368: 675-685. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
Maina DM, GATARI MJ, Bundi P, Muturi H. Impact of road transport on air quality in Kenya: Roadside survey in the cities of Mombasa and Nairobi. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2006. AbstractWebsite

Vehicle emissions have profound implications in human health and welfare, ecosystems and on climate (Finlayson-Pitts and Pitts Jnr., 12000; IPCC, 2001; Cacciola et aI., 2002). These emissions include particulate matter (PM), NOx (NO+ N02), volatile organic …

M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Impact of road transport on air quality in Kenya; Roadside survey in the cities of Mombasa and Nairobi.". In: Poster presentation, abstract in the proceedings of the, International Aerosol Conference, St Paul Minnesota, USA,10 -15 September 2006: Poster presentation, Joint CACP-IGAC-WMO Conference, Cape Town, South Afric, 17 -23 September 2006. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
Criteria pollutants have health implications that are not only of concern to the urban population but also to governments in formulating their policies. These pollutants are also important to climate change investigations and any sustainable development programs require a properly informed population on their effects, concentration levels and sources. However, without the knowledge of the characteristic aerosol and information on the levels of pollutant concentrations, implementation of controls and enforcement of regulation remains difficult. NO and five species in the group of the criteria pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and PM10 were measured at an urban background site in Nairobi, Kenya. The site is approximately 20 m above the ground, on top of a building at the main campus, University of Nairobi. Eight hour measurements at intervals of 10 s were obtained using pollutant gas monitors and 24 h samples of PM2.5 and PM10 particles were collected on glass fiber filters by a size segregating impactor. Figure 1 and 2 shows preliminary typical hourly average concentrations trends on a day in a weekend. The results imply a different daytime chemistry of NOX (= NO + NO2) from that reported in the literature. Typical measurements in urban boundary layer shows peaking of NO in early morning hours followed by NO2 and O3 in the afternoon. O3 oxidizes NO in a fast reaction to NO2 and O2. The recorded trend showed high rate of NO concentration replenishment, throughout the measurement period, in competition to its conversion to NO2. Similar trends of NO and NO2 were observed from about 1200 h until the end of the 8 h daytime measurement. This implied a near constant rate of NO oxidation that may have been the indicator of O3 production after 1130 at a concentration which was not capable of decreasing NO substantially. Normally, in urban aerosol, CO concentration is far much higher than the other gaseous pollutants but it was comparable to NO from midday. There was daytime SO2 which persisted at constant concentration of 0.1 ppm, the instrument indicator resolution value. High levels of CO were recorded in the early hours of the night and NO2 that persisted at 0.1 ppm. Considering that NO was high during the mid afternoon the nighttime NO2 concentrations portrayed a nighttime chemistry that converted NO to NO2. This conversion may have been driven by the peroxy radicals that are produced by reactions between NO3 radicals and reactive organic gases in the absence of sunlight. Since NO3 is a product of NO and O3 it followed that concentrations of the latter continued into nighttime.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Michael James Gatari, (2006). PhD Thesis:- Studies of atmospheric aerosols and development of an EDXRF spectrometer in Kenya, Gotenburg University, Gotenburg, Sweden, ISBN 91-628-6755-5.". In: Publicly Defended , PhD Thesis: ISBN 91-628-6755-5. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
GATARI MJ. Studies Of Atmospheric Aerosols And Development Of An EDXRF Spectrometer In Kenya, Gotenburg University, Gotenburg, Sweden. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2006. AbstractWebsite

There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which …

2005
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Boman J., Gatari M.J., wagner A., Hossain M.I., (2005). Elemental characterization of aerosols in urban and rural locations in Bangladesh.". In: X-ray Spetrometry; DOI: 10, 1002/xrs.864, 460-467. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
Gatari M, Wagner A, Boman J. "Elemental composition of tropospheric aerosols in Hanoi, Vietnam and Nairobi, Kenya." Science of the Total Environment. 2005. AbstractWebsite

Air pollution problems in major cities within the developing countries need to be studied. There are scanty measurements from the developing countries on airborne particles despite their adverse implications to human health, visibility and climate. One of the major sources of …

G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Air pollution over East Africa.". In: Oral presentation, First International Workshop on Climate Variability over Africa. Alexandria, Egypt, 15-26 May 2005. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., "Trace Element categorization of pollution sources in the Equator town of Nanyuki, Kenya".". In: X-ray Spectometry, 34:118-123. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Kimani W., Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J., Zakey A.S., Oral presentation "Study of inorganic and black carbon aerosols at a high altitude site on Mount Kenya, East Africa".". In: Oral presentation, The 6th informal conference on atmospheric and molecular science at Helsingor, Denmark, 3 - 5 June 2005. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J.,Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J.B.C, Space Measurements of near surface aerosols in the central district of Nairobi City, Kenya.". In: Poster presentation, abstrct in the preceedings, European Aerosol Conference (EAC2000), Ghent, Belgium, 28 August . University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
Gatari M, Boman J, Maina D. "Trace element categorization of pollution sources in the equator town of Nanyuki, Kenya." X‐Ray Spectrometry: An …. 2005. AbstractWebsite

An air pollution campaign was carried out in the town of Nanyuki at four different sites during July and August 1999. Nanyuki is situated on the equator on the northwestern slope of Mount Kenya at about 1930 m above sea level. The intention of the project was to …

2004
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M., Wagner A., Boman J., Elemental composition of tropospheric aerosols in Hanoi, Vietnam and Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Sc. of Total Environ, 341: 241-249. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J.B.C., Application of Cd109 Source in evaluation of background industrial aerosols in Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa. - 2004.". In: Poster presentation, European Conference on X-ray Spectrometry (XRS2004), Alghero, Italy, 6 - 11 June 2004. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Kimani W., Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J., Zakey A.S., "study of trace metals in PM10 at Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station on Mount Kenya, Kenya, east Africa". European Aerosol Conference at Budapest, Hungary, 6 - 10 September 2004.". In: Poster presentation, European Aerosol Conference (EAC2004), Budapest, Hungary, 6 . University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Maina D.M., Air pollution problems in the perspective of the Kenyan situation, regulation and awareness.". In: Oral Presentation, International workshop on Environmental Health education in the Eastern African region: challenges and the way forward at Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya. 24 - 26 March 2004. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
2003
GATARI MJ, Boman J. "Black carbon and total carbon measurements at urban and rural sites in Kenya, East Africa." Atmospheric Environment. 2003. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports measurements of black carbon (BC) and total carbon (TC)(TC= BC+ organic carbon) in the lower troposphere in Nairobi and the towns of Nanyuki and Meru in Kenya. The rural sites of Nanyuki and Meru are both located on the equator on the …

G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J. (2003). Black Carbon and total carbon measurements at urban and rural sites in Kenya, East Africa.". In: Atmospheric environ., 37: 1149-1154. University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
2002
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., (2002). Studies of Atmospheric Aerosols at selected sites in Kenya.". In: Publicly Defended, Licentiate Thesis, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, G. University of Nairobi.; 2002.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., Trace Element Categorization of Pollution Sources in the Equator Town of Nanyuki, Kenya.". In: Oral Presentation, abstract in the proceedings of the, European Conference on Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry(XRS2002), Berlin, Germany: 16 - 21 June 2002. University of Nairobi.; 2002.
GATARI MJ. Studies of tropospheric aerosols at selected sites in Kenya. Chalmers University of Technology; 2002. Abstract
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2001
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., Inorganic elemental concentrations in near surface aerosols sampled on the northwest slopes of Mount Kenya.". In: Atmospheric Environ., 35: 6015-6019. University of Nairobi.; 2001.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ, ODHIAMBO MRMATINIA. "Training of Equipment Maintenance Personnel Matini A.O., Gatari M.J.". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. University of Nairobi.; 2001.
1998
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Stikans M.,. Gatari M.J., Lindgren E.S., .". In: J. Aerosol Sci. 29, suppl. 1: 747-748: 5th International Aerosol Conference, Scotland: 14-18 September 1998. University of Nairobi.; 1998.
1996
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Kinyua, A.M., Maina D.M., Maina C., Mangala M.J., Jumba I.O., Gatebe C. K., Gatari M.J., Non-destructive analysis of Mercury (Hg) by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique in Beauty Creams sold in Kenya.". In: Presented at International Symposium on harmonization of health related environmental measurements using nuclear and isotopic techniques, Hyderabad, India, 4-7 November 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
1994
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Kinyua A.M., Projects implementation in Africa.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994.

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