Bio

Prof. McLigeyo S.O

PRESENT EMPLOYMENT

Associate professor in Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences.

Deputy Director, Board of Postgraduate Studies, University Of Nairobi, January   2006 to date.

PROF. MCLIGEYO SETH O CV

PDF Upload: 

Publications


2015

Kubo, MN, Kayima JK, Were AJ, McLigeyo SO, Ogola EN.  2015.  Factors Associated with Uncontrolled Hypertension among Renal Transplant Recipients Attending Nephrology Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya., 2015. Journal of transplantation. 2015:746563. Abstract

Objective. To determine the factors associated with poor blood pressure control among renal transplant recipients in a resource-limited setting. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out on renal transplant recipients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Sociodemographic details, blood pressure, urine albumin : creatinine ratio, and adherence using the MMAS-8 questionnaire were noted. Independent factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension were determined using logistic regression analysis. Results. 85 subjects were evaluated. Mean age was 42.4 (SD ± 12.2) years, with a male : female ratio of 1.9 : 1. Fifty-five patients (64.7%) had uncontrolled hypertension (BP ≥ 130/80 mmHg). On univariate analysis, male sex (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.4-9.5, p = 0.006), higher levels of proteinuria (p = 0.042), and nonadherence to antihypertensives (OR 18, 95% CI 5.2-65.7, p < 0.001) were associated with uncontrolled hypertension. On logistic regression analysis, male sex (adjusted OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.1-19.0, p = 0.034) and nonadherence (adjusted OR 33.8, 95% CI 8.6-73.0, p < 0.001) were independently associated with uncontrolled hypertension. Conclusion. Factors associated with poor blood pressure control in this cohort were male sex and nonadherence to antihypertensives. Emphasis on adherence to antihypertensive therapy must be pursued within this population.

2012

2011

Kim, HN, Scott J, Cent A, Cook L, Morrow RA, Richardson B, Tapia K, Jerome KR, Lule G, John-Stewart G, Chung MH.  2011.  HBV lamivudine resistance among hepatitis B and HIV coinfected patients starting lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in Kenya., 2011 Oct. Journal of viral hepatitis. 18(10):e447-52. Abstract

Widespread use of lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy may lead to hepatitis B virus resistance in HIV-HBV coinfected patients from endemic settings where tenofovir is not readily available. We evaluated 389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6.9%) were HBsAg positive and anti-HBs negative, 24 were HBeAg negative, and 18 had HBV DNA levels ≤ 10,000 IU/mL. Sustained HBV suppression to <100 IU/mL occurred in 89% of 19 evaluable patients. Resistance occurred in only two subjects, both with high baseline HBV DNA levels. Lamivudine resistance can emerge in the setting of incomplete HBV suppression but was infrequently observed among HIV-HBV coinfected patients with low baseline HBV DNA levels.

Gatua W.K, Makumi J.K, NKMWEMCS.  2011.  Evaluation of urinary tubular enzymes as screening markers of renal dysfunction in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences . 3(3):84-90.

2010

Otieno C.F, Kiyima J.K, MAMPKAA.  2010.  Prognostic factors in patients hospitalized with diabetic ketoacidosis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. . East African Medical Journal . 87(2):67-73.
MCLIGEYO, SO, AMAYO AA, MBUGUA PK, KAYIMA JK.  2010.  Prognostic Factors In Patients Hospitalised With Diabetic Ketoacidosis At Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East African Medical Journal. 87(10) Abstract

Background: In spite of many advances in the management of diabetes in the last 25 years, the mortality associated with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remains high, especially in the developing countries. The mortality appears greatest in the first 24 - 48 hours of their treatment. Most of the previous studies on DKA focused on children and the precipitating factors thereof but not particularly on clinical predictors of outcomes.
Objective: To determine the clinico-laboratory predictors of outcomes of patients hospitalised with diabetic ketoacidosis who were undergoing treatment.
Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study.
Setting: The accident and emergency department and medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital.
Subjects: Fifty one patients hospitalised with diabetic ketoacidosis over a nine month period were evaluated clinically and by laboratory tests. They were managed in the standard way with insulin, intravenous fluids and appropriate supportive care.
Main outcome measures: Serial assays of serum electrolytes, glucose and blood pH, HbA1c and clinical outcome of either discharge home or death.
Results: Of the 51 patients enrolled, 47 were included in the final analysis. Fourteen (29.8%) patients died, and the deaths occurred within less than 48 hours of hospitalisation and treatment. Of the patients who died, all (100%) had altered level of consciousness at hospitalisation, 71.4% had abnormal renal functions, 64.3% were newly diagnosed and an
equal proportion of 64.3% were females. The alteration in the level of consciousness was significantly associated systolic hypotension and severe metabolic acidosis, (p<0.001).
Patients with altered level of consciousness also had poorer renal function.
Conclusion: Apparently DKA still carries high mortality during treatment in hospital.
Altered level of consciousness, which is an obvious and easily discernible clinical sign, was a major predictor of mortality in our study patients. The majority of patients with altered level of consciousness also had systolic hypotension, severe metabolic acidosis and impaired renal function. Even where and when detailed laboratory evaluation is elusive, clinical signs, especially altered level of consciousness and systolic hypotension are very important markers of severity of DKA that may be associated
with unfavourable outcomes. Further studies are necessary to establish why DKA still carries high mortality in the patients who are already receiving treatment in hospitals in developing countries.

2009

Mwangi, DM, Njagi LJ, MCLIGEYO SO, Kihoro JM, Ngeranwa JJ, Orinda GO, Njagi EN.  2009.  Subclinical nephrotoxicity associated with occupational silica exposure among male Kenyan industrial workers. Abstract

To determine early signs of renal injury due to occupational silica exposure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analytical research. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital for the referent population and Clayworks ceramics, bricks and tiles factory for the assessment of occupational silica exposure. SUBJECTS: Thirty three non-smoking silica-exposed male industrial workers and 38 non-smoking male referents participated in this study. RESULTS: Silica-exposed males excreted significantly increased levels of U.TP, U.Malb, U.ALP, U.y-GT and U.LDH compared to referent males. Among the silica-exposed males, U.Si negatively correlated significantly with age, U.TP correlated significantly to each of U.ALP and U.LDH. However, no correlation was observed between work duration and U.Si. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that there is associated glomerular and proximal tubular damage among silica exposed workers which is not duration related and is seemingly subclinical and nonprogressive and urinary silica levels appears to be similar in all groups and are not affected by exposure and work duration: the reason for which is unclear.

Ochieng P, Mcligeyo S.O, KJK.  2009.   Amphotericin B nephrotoxicity in HIV infected patients at The Kenyatta national Hospital. . East African Medical Journal . 86(9)
S.O, M.  2009.  Drug adherence or compliance. East African Medical Journal . 86(11):497-498.

2005

MCLIGEYO, SO, PK M, CF O, JK K, AA A.  2005.  Diabetic ketoacidosis: clinical presentation and precipitating factors at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S191-6.. Chiromo Campus, University of Nairobi. : University of Nairobi. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinico-laboratory features and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Inpatient medical and surgical wards of KNH. SUBJECTS: Adult patients aged 12 years and above with known or previously unknown diabetes hospitalised with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. RESULTS: Over a nine month period, 48 patients had DKA out of 648 diabetic patients hospitalised within the period, one died before full evaluation. Mean (SD) age was 37 (18.12) years for males, 29.9 (14.3) for females, range of 12 to 77 years. Half of the patients were newly diagnosed. More than 90% had HbA1c > 8%, only three patients had HbA1c of 7-8.0%. More than 90% had altered level of consciousness, with almost quarter in coma, 36% had systolic hypotension, almost 75% had moderate to severe dehydration. Blunted level of consciousness was significantly associated with severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Over 65% patients had leucocytosis but most (55%) of them did not have overt infection. Amongst the precipitating factors, 34% had missed insulin, 23.4% had overt infection and only 6.4% had both infection and missed insulin injections. Infection sites included respiratory, genito-urinary and septicaemia. Almost thirty (29.8%) percent of the study subjects died within 48 hours of hospitalisation. CONCLUSION: Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in about 8% of the hospitalised diabetic patients. It was a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The main precipitant factors of DKA were infections and missed insulin injections. These factors are preventable in order to improve outcomes in the diabetic patients who complicate to DKA.

2003

MCLIGEYO, SO, PN N, CF O, O AE.  2003.  Risk factors and prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2003 Jan;80(1):36-43.. East African Medical Journal. 2003; 80(1):56 - 58. : University of Nairobi. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of patients with diabetes mellitus. The diabetic patients with foot ulcers require long hospitalisation and carry risk of limb amputation. The risk factors for developing diabetic foot ulcers are manageable. In Kenya there is paucity of data on such risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers and the risk factors in a clinic-based setting. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus who had active foot ulcers in both outpatient and inpatient units. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diabetic foot ulcers glycated haemoglobin, neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease and fasting lipid profile. RESULTS: One thousand seven hundred and eighty eight patients with diabetes mellitus were screened and 82 (4.6%) were found to have foot ulcers. The males and females with diabetic foot ulcers were compared in age, duration of foot ulcers, blood pressure, glycaemic control, neurological disability score and their proportion. Diabetic foot ulcers occurred mostly in patients who had had diabetes for a long duration. The types of (occurence) ulcers were neuropathic (47.5%), neuroischaemic (30.5%) and ischaemic (18%). The neuropathic ulcers had significantly poorer glycaemic control compared to other types and the longest duration (23.3 weeks). Ischaemic ulcers had significantly higher total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure compared to other ulcer types. Wagner stage 2 ulcers were the commonest (49.4%) but stage 4 ulcers had their highest neuropathic score (7.8/10) and longest duration (23.6 weeks). Aerobic infective pathogens were isolated from 73.2% of the ulcers. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers was 4.6% in this tertiary clinic. The risk factors of diabetic foot ulcers in the study were poor glycaemic control, diastolic hypertension, dyslipidaemia, infection and poor self-care. These findings are similar to studies done in other environments and they are modifiable to achieve prevention, delay in formation or improved healing of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. Therefore, specific attention should be paid to the management of these risk factors in patients with or without diabetes foot ulcers in this clinic.

S, MKSOG.  2003.  Polycystic kidney disease in a patient with achondroplasia: case report.. East African Medical Journal. 2003; 80(1):56 - 58. : University of Nairobi. AbstractWebsite

Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a multisystem disease involving many organs. An association with other diseases such as tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau disease and Marfan syndrome have been previously described. We describe a 35 year old female with achondroplasia who developed polycystic kidney disease involving both kidneys and progressing to end-stage renal disease. To the best of our knowledge this is the first such case described in the literature. We also delve, briefly, into the possibility of the genes and chromosomes involved in Marfan syndrome, polycystic kidney disease, tuberous sclerosis and achondroplasia playing a role in the co-occurrence of these entities.

O, PROFMCLIGEYOSETH.  2003.  Diagnostic utility of cerebrospinal fluid studies in patients suspected to have tuberculous meningitis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and lung Diseases. 2003;7(8):787-796.. International Journal of Tuberculosis and lung Diseases. 2003;7(8):787-796.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinico-laboratory features and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Inpatient medical and surgical wards of KNH. SUBJECTS: Adult patients aged 12 years and above with known or previously unknown diabetes hospitalised with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. RESULTS: Over a nine month period, 48 patients had DKA out of 648 diabetic patients hospitalised within the period, one died before full evaluation. Mean (SD) age was 37 (18.12) years for males, 29.9 (14.3) for females, range of 12 to 77 years. Half of the patients were newly diagnosed. More than 90% had HbA1c > 8%, only three patients had HbA1c of 7-8.0%. More than 90% had altered level of consciousness, with almost quarter in coma, 36% had systolic hypotension, almost 75% had moderate to severe dehydration. Blunted level of consciousness was significantly associated with severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Over 65% patients had leucocytosis but most (55%) of them did not have overt infection. Amongst the precipitating factors, 34% had missed insulin, 23.4% had overt infection and only 6.4% had both infection and missed insulin injections. Infection sites included respiratory, genito-urinary and septicaemia. Almost thirty (29.8%) percent of the study subjects died within 48 hours of hospitalisation. CONCLUSION: Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in about 8% of the hospitalised diabetic patients. It was a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The main precipitant factors of DKA were infections and missed insulin injections. These factors are preventable in order to improve outcomes in the diabetic patients who complicate to DKA.
and Otedo A. E. O., McLigeyo S.O., OKFAJK.  2003.  Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in maintenance dialysis in a public hospital in a developing country South African Medical Journal, 93 (3): 380-384; 2003. South African Medical Journal, 93 (3): 380-384; 2003. 93(3):380-384.: University of Nairobi. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis are predisposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for a number of reasons. In a similar way, the prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies among patients on chronic haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis is consistently higher than in healthy populations. There are few published data on these diseases in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in patients on maintenance dialysis. SETTING: Renal Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest public referral and teaching hospital in Kenya. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. STUDY POPULATION: All 100 patients on maintenance dialysis during the 9-month study period were evaluated. METHOD: The following information was obtained from all the patients: socio-demographic data, date of diagnosis of ESRD and commencement of dialysis, and number of blood transfusions. Additionally, a history suggestive of hepatitis in spouses was looked for and physical examination for tattoos and other scars was carried out. Laboratory investigations included urea, electrolytes and serum creatinine, liver enzymes, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), immunoglobulin M anti-hepatitis B core antibody (IgM anti-HBc), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and anti-HCV antibodies. Student's t-test was used to assess the significance of the data collected. RESULTS: The results were expressed as mean (+/- SD). Fifty-seven males and 43 females were studied. Mean age was 44.3 +/- 14.6 years. Ten patients (10%) had elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (> 40 U/l for both). HBsAg was found in 8 patients (8%), IgM anti-HBc in 2%, and HBeAg in none. Anti-HCV antibody was found in 5%. Six of the HBsAg-positive patients were on haemodialysis, the other 2 on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). There was no coexistence of HBV and HCV markers. Longer duration of dialysis and the number of blood transfusions were associated with an increased seroprevalence of HBV and HCV. CONCLUSION: There is a low seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in our dialysis population. This should not lead to complaisance in screening for these potentially lethal complications.

2002

O, M’ligeyoS.  2002.   Emerging alternatives to autologous blood transfusions. . East African Medical Journal . 78(1):561-563.
O, MS.  2002.   Pain management in Kidney Diseases. . Health Line.. 6(4):56–60.
N, S, SO ML.  2002.  Neurofibromatosis type 1: report of two contrasting cases.. East African Medical Journal.2002:79 (11);563 . 79(11)::614-7.: University of Nairobi. AbstractWebsite

We present two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), one a 35 year old male who first recognised his problem at the age of fifteen years and at the time of assessment, satisfied the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF-1 and had a nodular plexiform neurofibroma involving the left fifth dorsal nerve root and a diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving the left lower limb. The second patient, a 45 year old female recognised her problem at the age of 39 years, did not quite satisfy the NIH diagnostic criteria for NF 1 and had diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving both lower limbs and buttocks almost symmetrically, a finding which has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge. The scarcity of management options are briefly outlined.

N, S, SO. ML.  2002.  Ageing population in Africa and other developing communities: a public health challenge calling for urgent solutions. East Afr Med J. 2002 Jun;79(6):281-3. Review. No abstract available. East African Medical Journal.2002:79 (11);563 . 79(6):281-283.: University of Nairobi. AbstractWebsite

We present two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), one a 35 year old male who first recognised his problem at the age of fifteen years and at the time of assessment, satisfied the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF-1 and had a nodular plexiform neurofibroma involving the left fifth dorsal nerve root and a diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving the left lower limb. The second patient, a 45 year old female recognised her problem at the age of 39 years, did not quite satisfy the NIH diagnostic criteria for NF 1 and had diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving both lower limbs and buttocks almost symmetrically, a finding which has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge. The scarcity of management options are briefly outlined.

N, S, O MS.  2002.  Neurofibromatosis type I: Report of two contrasting cases.. East African Medical Journal. 79(11):614.: University of Nairobi. AbstractWebsite

We present two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), one a 35 year old male who first recognised his problem at the age of fifteen years and at the time of assessment, satisfied the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF-1 and had a nodular plexiform neurofibroma involving the left fifth dorsal nerve root and a diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving the left lower limb. The second patient, a 45 year old female recognised her problem at the age of 39 years, did not quite satisfy the NIH diagnostic criteria for NF 1 and had diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving both lower limbs and buttocks almost symmetrically, a finding which has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge. The scarcity of management options are briefly outlined.

O, MS.  2002.  Curtailing maternal to child transmission of HIV.. East African Medical Journal.2002:79 (11);563 . 79(11):563.: University of Nairobi. AbstractWebsite

We present two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), one a 35 year old male who first recognised his problem at the age of fifteen years and at the time of assessment, satisfied the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF-1 and had a nodular plexiform neurofibroma involving the left fifth dorsal nerve root and a diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving the left lower limb. The second patient, a 45 year old female recognised her problem at the age of 39 years, did not quite satisfy the NIH diagnostic criteria for NF 1 and had diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving both lower limbs and buttocks almost symmetrically, a finding which has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge. The scarcity of management options are briefly outlined.

2001

O, M’ligeyo.S.  2001.  The Vagaries of Therapeutics – A Tantalising experience from a single transplant patient.. The Nairobi Hospital Proceedings.

2000

1999

O, PROFMCLIGEYOSETH.  1999.  McLigeyo SO.Low birthweight: more than a single hit malady of the first months of life. East Afr Med J. 1999 Feb;76(2):61-2. No abstract available. The Nairobi Hospital Proceedings vol.3:7-9.1999.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
We present two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), one a 35 year old male who first recognised his problem at the age of fifteen years and at the time of assessment, satisfied the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF-1 and had a nodular plexiform neurofibroma involving the left fifth dorsal nerve root and a diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving the left lower limb. The second patient, a 45 year old female recognised her problem at the age of 39 years, did not quite satisfy the NIH diagnostic criteria for NF 1 and had diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving both lower limbs and buttocks almost symmetrically, a finding which has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge. The scarcity of management options are briefly outlined.
MCLIGEYO, SO.  1999.  Haemolytic uraemic syndrome: a review.. The Nairobi Hospital Proceedings vol.3:7-9.1999.. , East Afr Med J. 1999 Mar;76(3):148-53. Review.: University of Nairobi. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the current understanding of the classification of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) and to describe the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, renal histopathological findings, treatment and prevention of shiga toxin (Stx)-associated HUS, the most common type of HUS and; to compare and contrast features of idiopathic (atypical) HUS and inherited HUS with those of Stx-associated HUS. DATA SOURCE: A literature review was performed of major published series between 1989 and 1998 inclusive, using the Index Medicus and MEDLINE search. Some earlier published series were also reviewed in instances where they indirectly led to the current studies or reported on rarer organ involvements in HUS. STUDY SELECTION: Data and opinions from twelve general reviews of HUS, twelve on aetiology and classification, twelve on clinical features, eight on pathogenesis and nine on treatment and prognosis are summarised. CONCLUSION: HUS is a thrombotic microangiopathy with several aetiologies currently thought to play a role. Vascular endothelial cell injury appears to be central to the pathogenesis of all forms of HUS, although the triggering factors may be different and not well understood in some cases. In HUS, supportive therapy is of paramount importance. Reported specific therapies do not have sufficient evidence to support them. Prevention of HUS is possible in Stx-associated form, but not in the others. In patients who go on to develop end-stage renal failure, transplantation is possible, but recurrence rates are high in forms other than those which are Stx-associated. Persisting sequelae in other organs in HUS are infrequent.

S.O., ML, L.S O, F.K M, S.G W, J.O S, M L.  1999.  Kaposis Sarcoma in a transplant patient. African Journal of Medical Practice 2(3): 81-80, 1999. African Journal of Medical Practice 2(3): 81-80, 1999. : University of Nairobi. AbstractWebsite

We present two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), one a 35 year old male who first recognised his problem at the age of fifteen years and at the time of assessment, satisfied the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF-1 and had a nodular plexiform neurofibroma involving the left fifth dorsal nerve root and a diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving the left lower limb. The second patient, a 45 year old female recognised her problem at the age of 39 years, did not quite satisfy the NIH diagnostic criteria for NF 1 and had diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving both lower limbs and buttocks almost symmetrically, a finding which has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge. The scarcity of management options are briefly outlined.

1998

MCLIGEYO, SO.  1998.  Treatment options in lupus nephritis. Abstract

Like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) itself, manifestations of lupus nephritis are highly varied in their clinical presentation, ranging from mild proteinuria to rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis causing renal insufficiency within weeks. The clinical variability is in keeping with the broad spectrum of histological abnormalities present in renal biopsy specimens from these patients. The therapeutic modalities currently being used in lupus nephritis include oral steroids, pulse methylprednisolone and cytotoxic drugs such as cyclophosphamide and azathioprine either singly or in combinations, depending on the World Health Organisation morphologic classification of the disease. The use of plasmapheresis for proliferative lupus nephritis (WHO class III and IV) and cyclosporin for membranous lupus nephritis (WHO class V) is based on open trials, but not supported by randomised controlled trials. This review assesses the therapeutic modalities available for the treatment of lupus nephritis, giving the available evidence from the literature and acknowledging that none of them might be perfect.

O;, GG, O M’ligeyo.S.  1998.  T-Cell Subset Counts and Immunoglobin levels in Patients with Chronic Renal failure at K.N.H. East African Medical Journal.. 75(5):271-275. Abstract

This study was designed to determine whether there was any difference in the T-cell subset counts and serum immunoglobulin concentrations in patients with chronic renal failure as compared to normal controls. Ninety individuals participated in the study. These were divided into three groups as follows; (i) 30 subjects with normal renal function; (ii) 30 subjects with chronic renal failure (CRF)(creatinine clearance 10-50 mls/min), not requiring haemodialysis and; (iii) 30 subjects with end stage renal disease (creatinine clearance < 10 mls/min) on haemodialysis. The subjects in the three groups were matched for age and sex. In addition, it was ascertained that none of the subjects was on any medication or suffered from any ailment known to interfere with the immune system. The T-cell subset counts were carried out using flow cytometry while the serum concentration of immunoglobulins was measured using the radio-immunodiffusion method. Patients with CRF, whether on haemodialysis or not, had significantly lower lymphocyte counts as a proportion of total white cell count (19% and 19.2% respectively versus 39%) and low absolute CD4 cell counts per mm3 (337 +/- 94 and 449 +/- 116 respectively versus 891 +/- 360) and CD8 cell counts per mm3 (437 +/- 234 and 490 +/- 176 respectively versus 644 +/- 228) as compared to normals, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups with CRF. The CD4: CD8 ratios in the three groups studied were 1.487 +/- 0.233, 0.961 +/- 0.326 and 0.751 +/- 0.167 respectively, being significantly higher in normal controls than in any of the groups with CRF (p < 0.05) and in the group with CRF not requiring dialysis than in those requiring it (p < 0.05). The serum concentration of immunoglobulins in the two groups with CRF were similar to those in the group with normal renal function. It is concluded that CRF represents a state of immunodeficiency not significantly corrected by haemodialysis

SO, ML.  1998.  Smoking–an emerging risk factor for renal diseases. . East African Medical Journal. 75(7)377-378, 1998.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract

The health, economic and social costs of smoking are enormous and well known to physicians. Smoking results in a lot of morbidity and mortality mainly related to cardiovascular disease, cancer and pulmonary disease. The effect of smoking on the kidneys is little appreciated. It is the purpose of this review article to give evidence from available literature that smoking is indeed deleterious to the kidneys and may result in progression of chronic renal failure to end stage renal disease. It is concluded that nephrologists, and indeed all physicians, should make a concerted effort to save their patients from this vice.

SO, ML.  1998.  Herpes zoster in HIV/AIDS–a little recognised opportunistic infection with important clinical and cost implications. . East African Medical Journal. 75(7)377-378, 1998.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease [ADPKB] is one of the commonest genetic diseases. Apart from the involvement of the kidneys, several other organs, viz. the liver, the central nervous system, the pancreas, the spleen, the ovaries and the gut, amongst others, are also sometimes involved. This makes ADFKD more of a systemic rather than an isolated renal disorder. This becomes more so considering that the involvement of the other organs contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of ADPKD. This review looks at the pattern and prevalence of involvement of other organs, apart from the kidney in ADPKD.

SO., ML.  1998.  Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease - a systemic disorder. . East African Medical Journal. 75(7)377-378, 1998.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease [ADPKB] is one of the commonest genetic diseases. Apart from the involvement of the kidneys, several other organs, viz. the liver, the central nervous system, the pancreas, the spleen, the ovaries and the gut, amongst others, are also sometimes involved. This makes ADFKD more of a systemic rather than an isolated renal disorder. This becomes more so considering that the involvement of the other organs contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of ADPKD. This review looks at the pattern and prevalence of involvement of other organs, apart from the kidney in ADPKD.

MCLIGEYO, SO, N K, MN K.  1998.  Polycystic Kidney in Tuberous Sclorosis complex- A case report.. East African Medical Journal. . 75(10):616-618.: University of Nairobi. AbstractWebsite

This study was designed to determine whether there was any difference in the T-cell subset counts and serum immunoglobulin concentrations in patients with chronic renal failure as compared to normal controls. Ninety individuals participated in the study. These were divided into three groups as follows; (i) 30 subjects with normal renal function; (ii) 30 subjects with chronic renal failure (CRF)(creatinine clearance 10-50 mls/min), not requiring haemodialysis and; (iii) 30 subjects with end stage renal disease (creatinine clearance < 10 mls/min) on haemodialysis. The subjects in the three groups were matched for age and sex. In addition, it was ascertained that none of the subjects was on any medication or suffered from any ailment known to interfere with the immune system. The T-cell subset counts were carried out using flow cytometry while the serum concentration of immunoglobulins was measured using the radio-immunodiffusion method. Patients with CRF, whether on haemodialysis or not, had significantly lower lymphocyte counts as a proportion of total white cell count (19% and 19.2% respectively versus 39%) and low absolute CD4 cell counts per mm3 (337 +/- 94 and 449 +/- 116 respectively versus 891 +/- 360) and CD8 cell counts per mm3 (437 +/- 234 and 490 +/- 176 respectively versus 644 +/- 228) as compared to normals, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups with CRF. The CD4: CD8 ratios in the three groups studied were 1.487 +/- 0.233, 0.961 +/- 0.326 and 0.751 +/- 0.167 respectively, being significantly higher in normal controls than in any of the groups with CRF (p < 0.05) and in the group with CRF not requiring dialysis than in those requiring it (p < 0.05). The serum concentration of immunoglobulins in the two groups with CRF were similar to those in the group with normal renal function. It is concluded that CRF represents a state of immunodeficiency not significantly corrected by haemodialysis.

1997

O, PROFMCLIGEYOSETH.  1997.  McLigeyo SO.Prevention and treatment of acute renal failure using diuretics and/or low ("Renal") dose of dopamine: a critical review. Afr J Health Sci. 1997 Jan-Mar;4(1):2-8.. East African Medical Journal. 74(10):605-606, 1997.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
The currently available evidence suggest that diuretics and/or low dose dopamine increases renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and natriuresis in experimental animals, and limits ATP utilisation and oxygen needs in nephron segments at high risk of ischaemic injury, actions that could potentially limit renal injury and accelerate recovery in acute renal failure (ARF). These effects have indeed been confirmed in most experimental animals while using mannitol or low dose dopanime. Frusemide, however, for unknown reasons, has been effective in some animal models, but not others. In humans, it can be said that diurectics have a limited value to prevent, reverse or speed recovery from acute renal failure. Most clinical studies have failed to demonstrate convincingly that low dose dopamine either prevents ARF in high risk patients or improves renal function or outcome in patients with established ARF. This confusing scenario is further complicated by the fact that both diuretics and low dose dopamine can result in severe metabolic and cardiovascular complications in critically ill patients.

UoN Websites Search