Publications

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2022
Ng'etich DK, Bett RC, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Kibegwa FM. "Diversity of Gut Methanogens and Functional Enzymes Associated With Methane Metabolism in Smallholder Dairy Cattle." research square . 2022;2022.
Wango GM, Esadia, N. "Dog owners report fewer depression symptoms and a greater sense of social support during the pandemic." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(1):48-49.
Malenje EM, Missohou A, Tebug SF, König EZ, Jung’a JO, Bett RC, Marshall K. "Economic Analysis of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Enterprises In Senegal." research square . 2022.
Malenje EM, Ayao Missohou SFT, König EZ, Jung’a JO, Bett RC, Marshall K. "Economic Analysis of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Enterprises In Senegal.". 2022.
and Ndeke AN*1, 4 MHM1 KCK2 MJK1 BOAMZ3. "Effect of Acetaminophen on the Estrous Cycle and Reproductive Hormones of Female Mice." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2022;11(3):392-395.392-395.pdf
OMAYIO DUKEG, Abong' GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwang'ombe AW. "Effect of pulping methods on the physicochemical properties of the Kenyan red and white‐fleshed guava pulp." JSFA Reports. 2022;2(3):131-142.
Ochami AE, ONURA CN, Omari DS, 2 DAN. "Effects of strategic Managemnent practices on growth of poultry layers production Enteprises in Nyaribari Chache Sub-County Kisii County." International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Growth Evaluation . 2022;03(02):551-563.
Sherida WP, Vincent MO, O WS, Duke Gekonge Omayio, Okumu MO. "Estimation and human health risk assessment of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues in raw milk collected in Kenya." Research. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.74748.1 . 2022.
Ali H, Nguta J, Musila F, Ole-Mapenay I, Matara D, Mailu J. "Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity, Cytotoxicity, and Phytochemical Composition of Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2022;2022:11.
Al H, Nguta J, Musila F, Ole-Mapenay I, Matara D, Mailu J. "Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity, Cytotoxicity, and Phytochemical Composition of Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicin. 2022;2022:11.
Wafula, WM, Wasonga OV, Koech OK, Kibet S. "Factors influencing migration and settlement of pastoralists in Nairobi City, Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2022;12(2).
Wafula WM, Wasonga OV, Koech OK, Kibet S. "Factors influencing migration and settlement of pastoralists in Nairobi City, Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2022;12(1):1-14.
A. Jesang, A.N. Kipyegon MMHMEO. "FARM-LEVEL FACTORS AFFECTING DAIRY GOAT ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN KENYA." East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 2022;85(Special):250-261.goat_ai_publication_2022-_ascah_et._mutembei.pdf
A J, AN K, HM M, EO M. "Farm-level factors affecting dairy goat artificial insemination in Kenya ." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2022;85:250-261.
L. G, A W. "Financing the Future of the WHO ." Lancet. 2022;399(10334):1445-1447.
MW N, GO O, M M, W S. "Frequency of thyroid dysfunction among rheumatoid arthritis patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." afr j Rheumatal. 2022;10(1):34-44. Abstractfrequency_of_thyroid_dysfunction_among_ra_patients_at_knh.pdf

Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis
(RA) affects 0.5-1% of the adult
population. A higher prevalence of
thyroid dysfunction is observed in
patients with RA compared to the
general population.
Objectives: To establish the
frequency of thyroid dysfunction
among ambulatory RA patients and
to describe the association between
thyroid dysfunction and the patients’
socio-demographic characteristics,
clinical characteristics, level of disease
activity, and their functional status.
Design: This was a cross-sectional
descriptive study.
Methods: Adult patients on follow
up for RA at the outpatient clinic were
sampled. Sociodemographic data was
recorded. The Clinical Disease Activity
Index (CDAI) and Health Assessment
Questionnaire (HAQ) scores were
computed from examination findings
and questionnaires respectively. A
venous blood sample was analyzed for
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH),
free triidothyronine (fT3), and free
tetraiodothyronine (fT4). This data
was analyzed to determine frequencies
and associations.
Results: Seventy-six patients were
recruited into the study. Sixty-one
participants were female. The mean
TSH level was 5.8Miu/L. The frequency
of thyroid dysfunction was 47.4%.
Overt hypothyroidism was the most
common form of thyroid dysfunction at
39.5% while 6.6% had Sick Euthyroid.
Majority of the participants, 75%, had
low disease activity, mean CDAI was
11.6. Forty-one (53.9%) participants
had no disability, mean HAQ was
0.5. Correlations between thyroid
dysfunction and advancing age,
duration of disease, level of disease
activity, and functional disability did
not attain statistical significance.
Conclusion: Thyroid dysfunction
is common among patients with RA
with no significant association found
between thyroid dysfunction sociodemographic characteristics, clinical
characteristics, level of disease activity,
and functional status.
Key words: Thyroid dysfunction,
Rheumatoid arthritis, Disease activity,
Functional disability
Introduction
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a
symmetric polyarthritis with a variety
of systemic manifestations. In the
general population thyroid dysfunction
affects 1-10% of adults, with variations
in geographical areas, age and sex1
.
The causes of thyroid dysfunction
include; iodine deficiency, infections
and autoimmune associated thyroid
disease2
. Thyroid dysfunction is more
prevalent in patients with autoimmune
diseases such as RA. This is attributed
to overlap of autoimmune conditions
that are initiated by loss of tolerance to
self-antigens3
.
The burden of thyroid dysfunction
among RA patients has been found
to vary between 6-47% in various
studies. The entire spectrum of thyroid
dysfunction has been described,
however, hypothyroidism occurs
more frequently. Patients with thyroid
dysfunction have higher RA disease
activity scores and poorer functional
status measured using the

Miriti P, Otieno DJ, Chimoita E, Bikketi E, Njuguna E, Ojiewo CO. "Gender gaps in sorghum productivity: evidence from male- and female-managed plots in Uganda." Development in Practice. 2022;(https://www.tandfonline.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1080/09614524.2022.2069228).gender_gaps_in_sorghum_productivity_evidence_from_male_and_female_managed_plots_in_uganda.pdf
Miriti P, Otieno DJ, Chimoita E, Bikketi E, Njuguna E, Ojiewo C. "Gender gaps in sorghum productivity: Evidence from male- and female-managed plots in Uganda." Development in Practice. 2022.
Runtuwene LR, Sathirapongsasuti N, Srisawat R, Komalamisra N, Tuda JSB, EMongan A, Aboge GO. "Global research alliance in infectious disease: a collaborative effort to combat infectious diseases through dissemination of portable sequencing." BMC Research Notes . 2022;(2022) 15:44 .
Simon PB, Junga JO, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Machuka E, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Kabange D, M KM, Dieudinné RVK, Ochieng JW, Pelle R. "Haplotype analysis of the mitochondrial DNA d-loop region reveals the maternal origin and historical dynamics among the indigenous goat populations in east and west of the Democratic Republic of Congo." Ecology and evolution. 2022;13(2):e8713.
Heng YY, Asad I, Coleman B, Menard L, Benki-Nugent S, Faridah H Were, Karr CJ, McHenry MS. "Heavy metals and neurodevelopment of children in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review." PLOS ONE. 2022;17(3).
Wafula KM, Karanja NN, Karuku GN, Esilaba AO. "In-situ Water harvesting technologies and fertilizer rates increase maize and bean yield in the Semi-Arid Katumani, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems . 2022;25(3).
Misango, G.V, Nzuma, M.J., Irungu, L.W., Kassie, M. "Intensity of adoption of integrated pest management practices in Rwanda: A fractional logit approach." Heliyon. 2022;https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e08735.
Njuru SN, Njogu PM, Mugo HN, Thoithi GN. "Is tablet splitting a potential pitfall in drug therapy? A case study of amlodipine tablets." Pharmaceut. Jour. Kenya. 2022.
Wango GM, Ngerema D, Owang S. "Languishing and Assisting People Get on their Feet." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(1):7-9.languishing_and_assisting_people_get_on_their_feet.pdf
Upadhyaya R, Wamalwa H. Learning and capabilities development: Case studies of East African social enterprises. https://www.ikeasocialentrepreneurship.org/en/useful-reads/learning-capabilities-development; 2022.
J.G.N. K, J. NI. "Levels of Essential Elements in selected Persea Americana varieties as Potential Minerals." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS). 2022;Accepted on 14th August, 2022.
Njuguna CN, Odiemo LO. "Loaded but Applauded: The Relationship between Workload and Job Satisfaction among High School Teachers in Kiambu County, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2022;10(2):43-50.
Johnson L, Onjala J. "Logic of the Belt and Road Initiatives Early Eastern Africa Node: Economic, Demographic and Political Economy Rationales." Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies,. 2022;accepted January 28 2022.
Mbuge DO, Gumbe LO. "Mechanical Properties of Bamboo (Bambusa Vulgaris)." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment . 2022;8-no1.
J.K.M., A.K., M. DN, K JGN, S.O.W, A.G.W. "Microbial Fuel Cell Bio-Remediation of Lambda Cyhalothrin, Malathion and Chlorpyrifos on Loam Soil Inoculated with Bio-Slurry. ." American Journal of Environment and Climate. 2022;1(1):34-41.
Su R, Wu J, Hu J, Ma L, Ahmed S, Zhang Y, Abdulraheem MI, Birech Z, Li L, Li C, Wei W. "Minimalizing Non-Point Source Pollution Using a Cooperative Ion Selection Electrode System for Estimating Nitrate Nitrogen in Soil." Frontiers in Plant Science. 2022;12:810214.
Kariuki MI, Mwangi JM, Muturi PG. "Moderating effect of age in the relationship between debt literacy and indebtedness of formal sector employees in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP). 2022;12(7):532-44.
Obonyo FO, Maingi N, Samuel Maina Githigia, Kimeli P, Nyaboga EN. "Occurrence of serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors in donkeys from central Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2022;54(1):1-11.
Obonyo  FO, Maingi N, Githigia  SM, Kimeli P, Nyaboga EN. "Occurrence of serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors in donkeys from central Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2022;54(1):77.
N ONURAC, J JAMESG, W MUTHUMBIA, W WANG’ONDUV, A SIGANAD. "Performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus larvae fed on formulated diets containing Spirulina platensis and Eisenia fetida ." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2022;3(2).
OMAYIO DUKEG, Abong’ GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwangombe AW. "Physicochemical and Processing Qualities of Guava Varieties in Kenya." International Journal of Fruit Science. 2022;22(1):329-345.
Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Gikunju JK, Mbuthia PG, Madadi VO, Ochola FO, Maloba KN, Nderitu JG. "Preclinical efficacy testing of three antivenoms against Naja ashei venom-induced lethality." Toxicon: X 14 (2022) 100124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxcx.2022.100124 . 2022.
Barre A, Karanja DN, Bebora LC, Gitao CG. "Prevalence of Brucellosis in Camel Slaughter Population in Garissa County, Kenya. ." OSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2022;15(1):39-46.
Kamuti NM, Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Githigia SM, Keya EA. "Prevalence, Etiology and Risk Factors Associated with Occurrence of Canine Cutaneous Myiasis in Kitui County, Kenya." Hindawi Journal of Veterinary Medicine International. 2022.
Tangus CJ, Chege JN, Karanja DN, Gachuiri CK. "The prevalence,intensity and spectrum of gastrointestinal parasites in selected sheep farms in Kasarani sub-county, Nairobi County, Kenya." to Hindawi Journal of veterinary medicine international. 2022.
Kimani PK´ethe, Mbuge D, Gitau AN. "Properties of Nonwoven Fabrics Containing Immobilized Superabsorbent Polymer Particles for Air Conditioning in Grain Dryers, Applied Engineering in Agriculture." American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 2022;38(2)(ISSN 0883-8542).
Omweri LG, Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN. "Quality of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine-based oral care products in Nairobi, Kenya." F1000Research. 2022;11:343. Abstract

Background: The oral cavity harbors many microbes that may cause diseases, including dental caries and periodontal diseases. Progressive inflammation from periodontal diseases may lead to gum detachment from the teeth. Povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouth rinses and gargles are broad-spectrum antimicrobial products that effectively manage dental caries and periodontal diseases and eliminate plaques. This study was conducted in Nairobi County, Kenya to establish the quality of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine oral care products by determining the content of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and compliance with labeling requirements.
Methods: A total of 34 samples (from 15 brands) of povidone-iodine and 15 samples (from nine brands) of chlorhexidine were collected from retail pharmacies using convenience sampling. All samples were subjected to labeling analysis, identity, and assay tests. Potentiometric titration was used to assay povidone-iodine in the samples, while chlorhexidine was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) according to British Pharmacopeia 2017 specifications.
Results: All samples complied with identification tests. Moreover, 47.1% of povidone-iodine and 66.7% of chlorhexidine products complied with pharmacopoeial assay specifications. Five povidone-iodine (14.7%) and four chlorhexidine (26.7%) samples had missing label information on the storage conditions and the address of the manufacturer.
Conclusions: Strict adherence to current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) by manufacturers of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouthwashes/gargles is necessary to guarantee quality assured products in the market. Regular post-market surveillance and regulatory enforcement of standards are instrumental in minimizing the circulation of poor-quality products.

D O, J.N O, A.S O. "Quantification and Characterization of Tannins in Plectranthus barbatus Andrews Water Extracts in Nyamira County, Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. . 2022;Articles in Press.
Wango GM. "Rejection: What Happens and Why Rejection Hurts so Deeply - and What to do About it." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(1):25-30.
Watene G-A, Aboge G, Gitau G, Nthiwa D, Bett B. "Seroprevalence And Risk Factors Of Coxiella Burnetii Infecting Cattle Raised In Pastoral Areas Of Narok, Kenya." Research square. 2022.
Mbayaki CW, Karuku GN. "Soil hydraulic properties of a chromic Luvisol in Katumani, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems . 2022;25(3).
Ochieng’ P, Nyandega IA, Wambua B. "Spatial-temporal analysis of historical and projected drought events over Isiolo County. Kenya." Journal of Theor Appl Climatol, Austria, part of Springer Nature . 2022.
Ngwili N, Thomas L, Wahome RG, Githigia S, Johnson N, Roesel K. "Stakeholders' Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions on the Control of Taenia solium in Kamuli and Hoima Districts, Uganda." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022:363.
Ngwili N, Thomas L, Githigia S, Johnson N, Raphael Wahome KR. "Stakeholders' Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions on the Control of Taenia solium in Kamuli and Hoima Districts, Uganda." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022:363.
K G, T M, J N, MO O. "Studies on the ethnopharmacology, antimicrobial activity, and toxicity of Catha edulis (Vahl.) Endl., in Sprague Dawley rats.". 2022;([version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]. F1000 Research 2022, 11:286):https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.109243.1.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Synthesis and characterisation of ionomer-type cements from alkaline activated kaolinite." Non-crystalline solids: X. 2022;doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nocx.2021.100079.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D. "Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable cellulose-based polymer hydrogel.". In: Nanotechnology in Paper and Wood Engineering Fundamentals, Challenges and Applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, United Kingdom 50 Hampshire Street, 5th Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights res; 2022.
Osiro OO, Kariuki DK, Joyce K G. "Synthesis and Characterization of Ionomer-type Cements from Alkalin-Activated Kaolinite." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids-X. 2022;13(100079):2-10.
Owang S, Ngatia L. "Token, Taken or Toxin: Stop the ride, Taking a Break from Social Media." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(2):22-24 .
Degu A, Mekonnen A, Njogu P. "Treatment outcome among prostate cancer patients in Africa: A systematic review." Cancer Investigation. 2022.
Zhang Y, Li L, Zhang H, Shang J, Li C, Naqvi SMZA, Birech Z, Hu J. "Ultrasensitive detection of plant hormone abscisic acid-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy aptamer sensor." Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2022;414:2757-2766 .
Muasya JN. "University Students Perceptions and Experiences of Quid Pro Quo Transactions in Kenya." Journal of Studies in Education . 2022;12(2):49-64.
J O’o, BN B, V M, I C. "The Unusual High Origin Radial Artery in a Black Kenyan Population; a Cadaveric Study." Ethiop J Health SCI. 2022;32(2):445-452. Abstract223352-article_text-545874-1-10-20220328.pdfWebsite

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The anatomy of the radial artery draws great interests among anatomists for its frequent involvement in variations. Equally, these variations have gained significant attention from clinicians because of the preference to use the radial artery for catheterization. The commonest of radial artery variations involve its site of origin. In published literature, data on this variations exist, but the prevalence of such variations in a Kenyan population has hitherto been unknown.
METHODS: Sixty-two upper limbs from 50 formalin-fixed cadavers were studied during dissection in the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi.
RESULTS: Fifty-four (87.1%) radial arteries arose within the cubital fossa, while eight (12.9%) had a high origin. Out of the eight high arteries, two (3.2%) branched off from the axillary artery, another two (3.2%) were branches of the proximal third of the brachial artery and four (6.5%) arose from the middle third of the brachial artery. The high origin radial arteries were more common on the right upper limbs (5 out of the 8 cases). Both axillary and brachial origins were seen bilaterally.
CONCLUSION: The present study details important variations in the anatomy of the radial artery in a Kenyan population. With the radial artery being utilized during clinical, surgical and radiological interventions so frequently, an increased understanding and anticipation of such topographic variances is paramount.

A. K, Mbugua J. K., Mbui D.N., J. K, I. M, S.O. W. "Voltage Recovery from Pesticides Doped Tomatoes, Cabbages and Loam Soil Inoculated with Rumen Waste: Microbial Fuel Cells. ." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (IJSRSET).. 2022;9(2):172-180.
P S. "Women’s economic empowerment: From deprivation to sustenance." Kardan Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities . 2022;5(1):1-14.
Lee AC, Peng B, Du K, Kung H-H, Monserrat B, Cheong S-W, Won CJ, Blumberg G. "Chiral Electronic Excitations in a Quasi-2D Rashba System BiTeI." arXiv preprint arXiv:2202.03569. 2022. Abstract
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Lee AC, Peng B, Du K, Kung H-H, Monserrat B, Cheong SW, Won CJ, Blumberg G. "Chiral electronic excitations in the quasi-two-dimensional Rashba system BiTeI." Physical Review B. 2022;105:L161105. Abstract
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Deng Y, Liu L, Li MY, Jiang M, Peng B, Yang Y. "A data-driven wheel wear prediction model for rail train based on LM-OMP-NARXNN." Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering. 2022:1-11. Abstract
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Dimba EAO, Newa F, Macharia J, Nyanumba MD. "Determinants of acceptance of eHealth technology by Health Care Practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2022;99:4450-4460. Abstract
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Marufu C, Kisumbi BK, Osiro OA, Otieno FO. "Effect of finishing protocols and staining solutions on color stability of dental resin composites." Clinical and Experimental Dental Research. 2022;8:561-570. Abstract
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Niu Y-T, Qing F-Z, Li X-S, Peng B. "Inhomogeneous strain and doping of transferred CVD-grown graphene." Rare Metals. 2022;41:1727-1734. Abstract
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Zhang Q, Nam J-S, Han J, Datta S, Wei N, Ding E-X, Hussain A, Ahmad S, Skakalova V, Khan AT, others. "Large-Diameter Carbon Nanotube Transparent Conductor Overcoming Performance–Yield Tradeoff." Advanced Functional Materials. 2022;32:2103397. Abstract
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Meng T, Shi M, Guo Y, Wang H, Fu N, Liu Z, Huang B, Lei C, Su X, Peng B, others. "Multifunctional Ag-coated CuO microbowl arrays for highly efficient, ultrasensitive, and recyclable surface-enhanced Raman scattering." Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2022;354:131097. Abstract
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Peng B, Bouhon A, Slager R-J, Monserrat B. "Multigap topology and non-Abelian braiding of phonons from first principles." Physical Review B. 2022;105:085115. Abstract
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Peng B, Chen Z, Li Y, Liu Z, Liang D, Deng L. "Multiwavelength magnetic coding of helical luminescence in ferromagnetic 2D layered CrI3." Iscience. 2022;25:103623. Abstract
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Su G, Gao A, Peng B, Hu J, Zhang Y, Liu F, Zhang H, Zhan P, Wu W. "Observation of in-plane exciton–polaritons in monolayer WSe2 driven by plasmonic nanofingers." Nanophotonics. 2022. Abstract
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Liu Z, Guo Y, Chen Z, Gong T, Li Y, Niu Y, Cheng Y, Lu H, Deng L, Peng B. "Observation of intrinsic crystal phase in bare CrI3 ferromagnetism." arXiv preprint arXiv:2204.13312. 2022. Abstract
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Zhang J, Peng B, Kim S, Monifi F, Jiang X, Li Y, Yu P, Liu L, Liu Y-xi, Alu A, others. "Optomechanical dissipative solitons (vol 600, pg 75, 2021)." NATURE. 2022. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhou H, Liu Z, Li Y, Shang Q, Xie J, Deng L, Zhang Q, Liang D. "Pattern-Selective Molecular Epitaxial Growth of Single-Crystalline Perovskite Arrays toward Ultrasensitive and Ultrafast Photodetector." Nano Letters. 2022;22:2948-2955. Abstract
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Peng B, Bouhon A, Monserrat B, Slager R-J. "Phonons as a platform for non-Abelian braiding and its manifestation in layered silicates." Nature Communications. 2022;13:1-15. Abstract
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Mwakumanya M, Ng’ong’a FA, Mutinda C K, Maina EN. "Phytochemical analysis and safety evaluation of ethanol roots extract of Erythrina sacleuxii hua in Wistar albino rats." Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2022;16:126-140. Abstract
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Zhang J, Peng B, Kim S, Monifi F, Jiang X, Li Y, Yu P, Liu L, Liu Y-xi, Alù A, others. "Publisher Correction: Optomechanical dissipative solitons." Nature. 2022. Abstract
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Omweri LG, Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN. "Quality of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine-based oral care products in Nairobi, Kenya." F1000Research. 2022;11:343. Abstract
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2021
Faris AA, Akuon PO, Kalecha VO. "BER Performance of SSK Sequence Modulation.". In: IEEE AFRICON 2021. Arusha, Tanzania; 2021.
G N, A N. "MANAGERS’ LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE IN DE: A CRITICAL DETERMINANT OF TUTOR-LEARNER INTERACTION IN BLENDED LEARNING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI.". In: 4TH ANNUAL FORENSIC VICTIMOLOGY AND VICTIM SUPPORT CONFERENCE, KENYA. Nairobi, Kenya; 2021.
A N, NM G. "Transformational leadership for School Principals as victims of Covid 19 Pandemic.". In: 4TH ANNUAL FORENSIC VICTIMOLOGY AND VICTIM SUPPORT CONFERENCE, KENYA. Nairobi, Kenya; 2021.
Chikwana N, Maina EN, Gavamukulya Y, Bulimo W, Wamunyokoli F. "Antiproliferative Activity, c-Myc and {FGFR}1 Genes Expression Profiles and Safety of Annona muricata Fruit Extract on Rhabdomyosarcoma and {BALB}/c Mice." Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research. 2021:30-46. AbstractWebsite
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Rwigi S, Ouma G, Ouma C, Oloo F, Wekesa S, Olang L. "Effects of rainfall variability on water availability in the drylands of Northern Kenya under a changing climate.". In: AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.; 2021. Abstract

The availability of water in the dryland regions is a function of climatic and land conditions, which determine the amount and distribution of atmospheric water and subsequent partitioning of that water into different hydrological components. Rainfall variability in the drylands affects water, food and livelihood security in the sensitive landscapes. For effective water resource management, it is important to quantify the effect of rainfall variability on the available water resource components to support food security, given that a majority of livelihoods in the drylands are dependent on rainfall. This study assessed rainfall variability and its effects on stream flows in the dryland regions of Turkana County in Northern Kenya. The Coefficient of Variation (CV), Standardised Precipitation Anomaly (SPA) and Mann-Kendal test approaches were used to determine variability and trends of rainfall. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was employed to simulate hydrological components, including surface runoff, interflow, groundwater flow and the eventual water yield in the streams. The model simulations were driven by the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station CHIRPS and the Coordinated Regional Climate Downloading Experiment CORDEX projected rainfalls to establish the current and future water availability respectively. From the results, CV values ranging from 20 to 99% were obtained indicating that the region experiences moderate to high rainfall variability, often resulting in moderate to extreme floods and droughts in the area. The model simulations indicated that the stream-flows are increasing towards the 2020s decade compared to what was flowing in the 1980s decade, as observed between 1981 and 2020 using rainfall. This is probably a result of the increased rainfall observed in this region over the las four decades. Using Representative Concentration Pathways RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 projected rainfall scenarios, the model indicated that future stream flows will be higher than present. The findings show that, in the face of climate change scenarios, proper land management is required to promote water and food security in the drylands of sub-Saharan Africa in the future

Geno KPO, Ralwala AO. "Assessment of Heat Stress Exposure on Construction Workers in Hot and Humid Environments during the Covid-19 Pandemic Period.". In: (Re)Setting Built Environment Theory and Practice in a Post-pandemic World: Disrupted Buildings or Design for Disruption. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online (virtual) conference, JKUAT; 2021.
Koteng POG, Ralwala AO. "Assessment of Heat Stress Exposure on Construction Workers in Hot and Humid Environments during the Covid-19 Pandemic Period. .". In: (Re)Setting Built Environment Theory and Practice in a Post-pandemic World: Disrupted Buildings or Design for Disruption. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online (virtual) conference, JKUAT; 2021.
Akinyi J, Mwaniki A, Gichamba A, Kariuki D, Chand P, Munene S, Nyakinyua C, Nzangi B, Akinyi V, Betsy M, Cosmas K, Mwangi M. "NanoSatellite Platform for the University of Nairobi (NaSPUoN) Student Project.". In: 72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC). Dubai, United Arab Emirates (presented online); 2021.
• Matara SM, • Siriba DN, • Kiema JBK, • Musyoka SM. "Predicting Displacement Effects of Tectonic Movements on the Kenyan Geodetic Reference Frame Network (KENREF).". In: FIG e-Working Week 2021. Netherlands; 2021.
Ralwala AO. "Honouring National Heroes through Architecture: a case of the Presidential Mausoleum. .". In: Modern Heritage (in the Anthropocene) in collaboration with University of Cape Town; UNESCO; UNESCO World Heritage Centre; African World Heritage Fund; UCL Bartlett School of Architecture; PAMOA; ICCROM; ICOMOS & IUCN. the Cape Town Conference on ‘Modern Heritages of Africa’ 22-24 September ; 2021.
Mutembei PH. "Insights of Sustainable Livestock Production.". In: KCSAP 2021. Naivasha Resort; 2021.
Matara SM, Siriba DN, Kiema JB, Musyoka SM. "Predicting Displacement Effects of Tectonic Movements on the Kenyan Geodetic Reference Frame Network (KENREF) .". In: Working eWeek. Netherlands; 2021.
Umuhoza T, Bulimo WD, Julius Oyugi, Musabyimana JP, Kinengyere AA, Mancuso JD. "Prevalence of human respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and adenoviruses in East Africa Community partner states of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda: A systematic review and meta-analysis (2007–2020)." PLOS ONE. 2021;16(4):e0249992-. Abstractjournal.pone_.0249992.pdfjournal.pone_.0249992.pdfWebsite

Background Viruses are responsible for a large proportion of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). Human influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory-syncytial-virus, and adenoviruses are among the leading cause of ARTIs. Epidemiological evidence of those respiratory viruses is limited in the East Africa Community (EAC) region. This review sought to identify the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, and adenoviruses among cases of ARTI in the EAC from 2007 to 2020. Methods A literature search was conducted in Medline, Global Index Medicus, and the grey literature from public health institutions and programs in the EAC. Two independent reviewers performed data extraction. We used a random effects model to pool the prevalence estimate across studies. We assessed heterogeneity with the I2 statistic, and Cochran’s Q test, and further we did subgroup analysis. This review was registered with PROSPERO under registration number CRD42018110186. Results A total of 12 studies met the eligibility criteria for the studies documented from 2007 to 2020. The overall pooled prevalence of adenoviruses was 13% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6–21, N = 28829), respiratory syncytial virus 11% (95% CI: 7–15, N = 22627), and parainfluenza was 9% (95% CI: 7–11, N = 28363). Pooled prevalence of reported ARTIs, all ages, and locality varied in the included studies. Studies among participants with severe acute respiratory disease had a higher pooled prevalence of all the three viruses. Considerable heterogeneity was noted overall and in subgroup analysis. Conclusion Our findings indicate that human adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus are prevalent in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. These three respiratory viruses contribute substantially to ARTIs in the EAC, particularly among those with severe disease and those aged five and above.

Nyumba TO, Sang CC, Olago DO, Marchant R, Waruingi L, Githiora Y, Kago F, Mwangi M, Owira G, Barasa R, Omangi S. "Assessing the ecological impacts of transportation infrastructure development: A reconnaissance study of the Standard Gauge Railway in Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2021;16(1):e0246248-. AbstractWebsite

Transportation infrastructure, such as railways, roads and power lines, contribute to national and regional economic, social and cultural growth and integration. Kenya, with support from the Chinese government, is currently constructing a standard gauge railway (SGR) to support the country’s Vision 2030 development agenda. Although the actual land area affected by the SGR covers only a small proportion along the SGR corridor, a significant proportion of the area supports a wide range of ecologically fragile and important ecosystems in the country, with potential wider impacts. This study used a qualitative content analysis approach to gain an understanding and perceptions of stakeholders on the potential ecological impacts of the interactions between the SGR and the traversed ecological systems in Kenya. Three dominant themes emerged: 1) ecosystem degradation; 2) ecosystem fragmentation; and 3) ecosystem destruction. Ecosystem degradation was the most commonly cited impact at while ecosystem destruction was of the least concern and largely restricted to the physical SGR construction whereas the degradation and fragmentation have a much wider footprint. The construction and operation of the SGR degraded, fragmented and destroyed key ecosystems in the country including water towers, protected areas, community conservancies and wildlife dispersal areas. Therefore, we recommend that project proponents develop sustainable and ecologically sensitive measures to mitigate the key ecosystem impacts.

Ogana W, Juma VO, Bulimo WD. "A SIRD model applied to COVID-19 dynamics and intervention strategies during the first wave in Kenya." medRxiv. 2021:2021.03.17.21253626. AbstractWebsite

The first case of COVID-19 was reported in Kenya in March 2020 and soon after non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were established to control the spread of the disease. The NPIs consisted, and continue to consist, of mitigation measures followed by a period of relaxation of some of the measures. In this paper, we use a deterministic mathematical model to analyze the dynamics of the disease, during the first wave, and relate it to the intervention measures. In the process, we develop a new method for estimating the disease parameters. Our solutions yield a basic reproduction number, R0 = 2.76, which is consistent with other solutions. The results further show that the initial mitigation reduced disease transmission by 40% while the subsequent relaxation increased transmission by 25%. We also propose a mathematical model on how interventions of known magnitudes collectively affect disease transmission rates. The modelled positivity rate curve compares well with observations. If interventions of unknown magnitudes have occurred, and data is available on the positivity rate, we use the method of planar envelopes around a curve to deduce the modelled positivity rate and the magnitudes of the interventions. Our solutions deduce mitigation and relaxation effects of 42.5% and 26%, respectively; these percentages are close to values obtained by the solution of the SIRD system. Our methods so far apply to a single wave; there is a need to investigate the possibility of extending them to handle multiple waves.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Clinical TrialNot a clinical trialFunding StatementNo funding supportAuthor DeclarationsI confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.YesThe details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:KNH-UoN Ethics and Research Committee https://erc.uonbi.ac.keAll necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).YesI have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesData sources: All the data used is in the public domain [1, 44, 56, 57]

Scriven YA, Mulinge MM, Saleri N, Luvai EA, Nyachieo A, Maina EN, Mwau M. "Prevalence and factors associated with HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in treatment-experienced patients in Nairobi, Kenya: A cross-sectional study." Medicine (Baltimore). 2021;100(40):e27460. Abstract

An estimated 1.5 million Kenyans are HIV-seropositive, with 1.1 million on antiretroviral therapy (ART), with the majority of them unaware of their drug resistance status. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors, and the variables associated with drug resistance in patients failing treatment in Nairobi, Kenya.This cross-sectional study utilized 128 HIV-positive plasma samples obtained from patients enrolled for routine viral monitoring in Nairobi clinics between 2015 and 2017. The primary outcome was human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance mutation counts determined by Sanger sequencing of the polymerase (pol) gene followed by interpretation using Stanford's HIV Drug Resistance Database. Poisson regression was used to determine the effects of sex, viral load, age, HIV-subtype, treatment duration, and ART-regimen on the primary outcome.HIV-1 drug resistance mutations were found in 82.3% of the subjects, with 15.3% of subjects having triple-class ART resistance and 45.2% having dual-class resistance. NRTI primary mutations M184 V/I and K65R/E/N were found in 28.8% and 8.9% of subjects respectively, while NNRTI primary mutations K103N/S, G190A, and Y181C were found in 21.0%, 14.6%, and 10.9% of subjects. We found statistically significant evidence (P = .013) that the association between treatment duration and drug resistance mutations differed by sex. An increase of one natural-log transformed viral load unit was associated with 11% increase in drug resistance mutation counts (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.11; 95% CI 1.06-1.16; P < .001) after adjusting for age, HIV-1 subtype, and the sex-treatment duration interaction. Subjects who had been on treatment for 31 to 60 months had 63% higher resistance mutation counts (IRR 1.63; 95% CI 1.12-2.43; P = .013) compared to the reference group (<30 months). Similarly, patients on ART for 61 to 90 months were associated with 133% higher mutation counts than the reference group (IRR 2.33; 95% CI 1.59-3.49; P < .001). HIV-1 subtype, age, or ART-regimen were not associated with resistance mutation counts.Drug resistance mutations were found in alarmingly high numbers, and they were associated with viral load and treatment time. This finding emphasizes the importance of targeted resistance monitoring as a tool for addressing the problem.

Zheng Y, Yang X-W, Schols D, Mori M, Botta B, Chevigné A, Mulinge M, Steinmetz A, Schmit J-C, Seguin-Devaux C. "Active Components from Prevent HIV-1 Entry by Distinct Mechanisms of Action." Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(9). Abstract

is widely used in Sub-Saharan Africa for treating many diseases, including HIV-1 infection. We have recently described the chemical structures of 28 compounds isolated from an alcoholic crude extract of barks and roots of , and showed that six bioactive compounds inhibit HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we demonstrate that the six compounds block HIV-1 entry into cells: oleanolic acid, palmitic acid, taxifolin, piceatannol, guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin, and a novel compound named as cassiabrevone. We report, for the first time, that guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin and cassiabrevone inhibit HIV-1 entry (IC of 42.47 µM and 30.96 µM, respectively), as well as that piceatannol interacts with cellular membranes. Piceatannol inhibits HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber assay mimicking the female genital tract, as well as HSV infection, emphasizing its potential as a microbicide. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) showed that pharmacophoric groups of piceatannol are strictly required to inhibit HIV-1 entry. By a ligand-based in silico study, we speculated that piceatannol and norartocarpetin may have a very similar mechanism of action and efficacy because of the highly comparable pharmacophoric and 3D space, while guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin and cassiabrevone may display a different mechanism. We finally show that cassiabrevone plays a major role of the crude extract of by blocking the binding activity of HIV-1 gp120 and CD4.

Tanyi WN, Gachuno O, Odero T, Farquhar C, Kimosop D, Mayi A. "Factors affecting adherence to antiretroviral therapy among children and adolescents living with HIV in the Mbita Sub-County Hospital, Homa Bay- Kenya." Afr Health Sci. 2021;21(Suppl):18-24. AbstractWebsite

Adequate adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key to the successful treatment of children and adolescents living with HIV. Continuous ART Adherence is the key factor for virologic suppression and stability of the immune system and prevents the occurrence of opportunistic infections. Children and adolescents struggle with adherence to ART for various reasons, including a poor psychosocial support system and clinic attendance.

Theunissen F, Cleps I, Goudar S, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Owa OO, Mugerwa K, Piaggio G, Gülmezoglu MA, Nakalembe M, Byamugisha J, Osoti A, Mandeep S, Poriot T, Gwako G, Vernekar S, Widmer M. "Correction to: Cost of hospital care of women with postpartum haemorrhage in India, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda: a financial case for improved prevention." Reprod Health. 2021;18(1):57.
Lubembe DM, Odongo DO, Joubert F, Sibeko-Matjila KP. "Limited diversity in the CD8+ antigen-coding loci in Theileria parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa." Vet Parasitol. 2021;291:109371. Abstract

Theileria parva infections in cattle causes huge economic losses in the affected African countries, directly impacting the livelihood of the poor small-holder farmers. The current immunization protocol using live sporozoites in eastern Africa, is among the control measures designed to limit T. parva infections in cattle. However, the ability of the immune protection induced by this immunization to protect against field parasites has been compromised by the diversity of the parasite involving the schizont antigen genes. Previous studies have reported on the antigenic diversity of T. parva parasites from southern and eastern Africa, however, similar reports on T. parva parasites particularly from cattle from southern Africa remains scanty, due to the self-limiting nature of Corridor disease. Thus, we evaluated the diversity of CD8+ T-cell regions of ten schizont antigen genes in T. parva parasites associated with Corridor disease and East Coast fever (ECF) from southern and eastern Africa respectively. Regions of schizont antigen (TpAg) genes containing the CD8+ T-cell epitopes (CTL determinants) were amplified from genomic DNA extracted from blood of T. parva positive samples, cloned and sequenced. The results revealed limited diversity between the two parasite groups from cattle from southern and eastern Africa, defying the widely accepted notion that antigen-encoding loci in cattle-derived parasites are conserved, while in buffalo-derived parasites, they are extensively variable. This suggests that only a sub-population of parasites is successfully transmitted from buffalo to cattle, resulting in the limited antigenic diversity in Corridor disease parasites. Tp4, Tp5, Tp7 and Tp8 showed limited to absence of diversity in both parasite groups, suggesting the need to further investigate their immunogenic properties for consideration as candidates for a subunit vaccine. Distinct and common variants of Tp2 were detected among the ECF parasites from eastern Africa indicating evidence of parasite mixing following immunization. This study provides additional information on the comparative diversity of TpAg genes in buffalo- and cattle-derived T. parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa.

Dean WH, Buchan J, Gichuhi S, Philippin H, Arunga S, Mukome A, Admassu F, Lewis K, Makupa W, Otiti J, Kim MJ, Macleod D, Cook C, Burton MJ. "Simulation-based surgical education for glaucoma versus conventional training alone: the GLAucoma Simulated Surgery (GLASS) trial. A randomised controlled, educational intervention efficacy trial in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe." Br J Ophthalmol. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Background/aim: Glaucoma accounts for 8% of global blindness and surgery remains an important treatment. We aimed to determine the impact of adding simulation-based surgical education for glaucoma.

Methods: We designed a randomised controlled, parallel-group trial. Those assessing outcomes were masked to group assignment. Fifty-one trainee ophthalmologists from six university training institutions in sub-Saharan Africa were enrolled by inclusion criteria of having performed no surgical trabeculectomies and were randomised. Those randomised to the control group received no placebo intervention, but received the training intervention after the initial 12-month follow-up period. The intervention was an intense simulation-based surgical training course over 1 week. The primary outcome measure was overall simulation surgical competency at 3 months.

Results: Twenty-five were assigned to the intervention group and 26 to the control group, with 2 dropouts from the intervention group. Forty-nine were included in the final intention-to-treat analysis. Surgical competence at baseline was comparable between the arms. This increased to 30.4 (76.1%) and 9.8 (24.4%) for the intervention and the control group, respectively, 3 months after the training intervention for the intervention group, a difference of 20.6 points (95% CI 18.3 to 22.9, p<0.001). At 1 year, the mean surgical competency score of the intervention arm participants was 28.6 (71.5%), compared with 11.6 (29.0%) for the control (difference 17.0, 95% CI 14.8 to 19.4, p<0.001).

Conclusion: These results support the pursuit of financial, advocacy and research investments to establish simulation surgery training units and courses including instruction, feedback, deliberate practice and reflection with outcome measurement to enable trainee glaucoma surgeons to engage in intense simulation training for glaucoma surgery.

Trial registration number: PACTR201803002159198.

Theunissen F, Cleps I, Goudar S, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Owa OO, Mugerwa K, Piaggio G, Gülmezoglu MA, Nakalembe M, Byamugisha J, Osoti A, Mandeep S, Poriot T, Gwako G, Vernekar S, Widmer M. "Cost of hospital care of women with postpartum haemorrhage in India, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda: a financial case for improved prevention." Reprod Health. 2021;18(1):18. Abstract

Access to quality, effective lifesaving uterotonics in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains a major barrier to reducing maternal deaths from postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Our objective was to assess the costs of care for women who receive different preventative uterotonics, and with PPH and no-PPH so that the differences, if significant, can inform better resource allocation for maternal health care.

Mwangi KW, Macharia RW, Bargul JL. "Gene co-expression network analysis of Trypanosoma brucei in tsetse fly vector." Parasit Vectors. 2021;14(1):74. Abstract

Trypanosoma brucei species are motile protozoan parasites that are cyclically transmitted by tsetse fly (genus Glossina) causing human sleeping sickness and nagana in livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. African trypanosomes display digenetic life cycle stages in the tsetse fly vector and in their mammalian host. Experimental work on insect-stage trypanosomes is challenging because of the difficulty in setting up successful in vitro cultures. Therefore, there is limited knowledge on the trypanosome biology during its development in the tsetse fly. Consequently, this limits the development of new strategies for blocking parasite transmission in the tsetse fly.

Nyabongo L, Kanduma EG, Bishop RP, Machuka E, Njeri A, Bimenyimana AV, Nkundwanayo C, Odongo DO, Pelle R. "Prevalence of tick-transmitted pathogens in cattle reveals that Theileria parva, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale are endemic in Burundi." Parasit Vectors. 2021;14(1):6. Abstract

Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) constitute a major constraint for livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa, with East Coast fever (ECF) being the most devastating TBD of cattle. However, in Burundi, detailed information is lacking on the current prevalence of TBDs and on the associated economic losses from mortality and morbidity in cattle as well as the costs associated with TBD control and treatment. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in cattle across the major agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Burundi.

Gogri PY, Bore MC, Rips AGT, Reddy JC, Rostov AT, Vaddavalli PK. "Femtosecond laser-assisted big bubble for deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty." J Cataract Refract Surg. 2021;47(1):106-110. Abstract

To assess the utility of a femtosecond laser-assisted stromal channel to assist the creation of a big bubble (BB) for deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) surgery in cadaveric corneas.

Vogel JP, Vannevel V, Robbers G, Gwako G, Lavin T, Adanikin A, Hlongwane T, Pattinson RC, Qureshi ZP, Oladapo OT. "Prevalence of abnormal umbilical arterial flow on Doppler ultrasound in low-risk and unselected pregnant women: a systematic review." Reprod Health. 2021;18(1):38. Abstract

While Doppler ultrasound screening is beneficial for women with high-risk pregnancies, there is insufficient evidence on its benefits and harms in low- and unselected-risk pregnancies. This may be related to fewer events of abnormal Doppler flow, however the prevalence of absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AEDF or REDF) in such women is unknown. In this systematic review, we aimed to synthesise available data on the prevalence of AEDF or REDF.

Miruka SA, Aboge GO, Macharia RW, George O Obiero, Omwenga IM. "Beta hemolysin gene of Staphylococcus phage 3AJ_2017 genome is a suitable molecular marker for identification and characterization of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus." Vet Med Sci. 2021. Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus cause diseases both in humans and animals. These diseases range from mild to fatal infections thus necessitating development of a specific molecular method for detection of pathogenic S. aureus.

Gwako GN, Obimbo MM, Gichangi PB, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Gachuno OW, Were F. "Association between obstetric and medical risk factors and stillbirths in a low-income urban setting." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2021;154(2):331-336. Abstract

To evaluate the association between obstetric and medical risk factors and stillbirths in a Kenyan set-up.

Yang X, He Z, Zheng Y, Wang N, Mulinge M, Schmit J-C, Steinmetz A, Seguin-Devaux C. "Chemical Constituents of and Their Anti-HIV-1 Activity." Molecules. 2021;26(9). Abstract

Three new (-) and 25 known compounds were isolated from the crude extract of . The chemical structures of new compounds were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Cassiabrevone () is the first heterodimer of guibourtinidol and planchol A. Compound was a new chalcane, while was a new naphthalene. Cassiabrevone (), guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin (), taxifolin (), oleanolic acid (), piceatannol (), and palmitic acid (), exhibited potent anti-HIV-1 activity with IC values of 11.89 µM, 15.39 µM, 49.04 µM, 7.95 µM, 3.58 µM, and 15.97 µM, respectively.

Baguiya A, Bonet M, Cecatti JG, Brizuela V, Curteanu A, Minkauskiene M, Jayaratne K, Ribeiro-do-Valle CC, Budianu M-A, Souza JP, Kouanda S. "Perinatal outcomes among births to women with infection during pregnancy." Arch Dis Child. 2021;106(10):946-953. Abstract

This study is part of the Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS). It aimed to estimate neonatal near-miss (NNM) and perinatal death frequency and maternal risk factors among births to women with infection during pregnancy in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC).

Baguiya A, Bonet M, Cecatti JG, Brizuela V, Curteanu A, Minkauskiene M, Jayaratne K, Ribeiro-do-Valle CC, Budianu M-A, Souza JP, Kouanda S. "Perinatal outcomes among births to women with infection during pregnancy." Arch Dis Child. 2021;106(10):946-953. Abstract

This study is part of the Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS). It aimed to estimate neonatal near-miss (NNM) and perinatal death frequency and maternal risk factors among births to women with infection during pregnancy in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC).

Brizuela V, Cuesta C, Bartolelli G, Abdosh AA, Abou Malham S, Assarag B, Castro Banegas R, Díaz V, El-Kak F, El Sheikh M, Pérez AM, Souza JP, Bonet M, Abalos E. "Availability of facility resources and services and infection-related maternal outcomes in the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study: a cross-sectional study." Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9(9):e1252-e1261. Abstract

Infections are among the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. The Global Maternal Sepsis and Neonatal Initiative, launched in 2016 by WHO and partners, sought to reduce the burden of maternal infections and sepsis and was the basis upon which the Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) was implemented in 2017. In this Article, we aimed to describe the availability of facility resources and services and to analyse their association with maternal outcomes.

Oreskovic A, Panpradist N, Marangu D, Ngwane WM, Magcaba ZP, Ngcobo S, Ngcobo Z, Horne DJ, Wilson DPK, Shapiro AE, Drain PK, Lutz BR. "Diagnosing Pulmonary Tuberculosis by Using Sequence-Specific Purification of Urine Cell-Free DNA." J Clin Microbiol. 2021;59(8):e0007421. Abstract

Transrenal urine cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a promising tuberculosis (TB) biomarker, but is challenging to detect because of the short length (<100 bp) and low concentration of TB-specific fragments. We aimed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity of TB urine cfDNA by increasing recovery of short fragments during sample preparation. We developed a highly sensitive sequence-specific purification method that uses hybridization probes immobilized on magnetic beads to capture short TB cfDNA (50 bp) with 91.8% average efficiency. Combined with short-target PCR, the assay limit of detection was ≤5 copies of cfDNA in 10 ml urine. In a clinical cohort study in South Africa, our urine cfDNA assay had 83.7% sensitivity (95% CI: 71.0 to 91.5%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 86.2 to 100%) for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB when using sputum Xpert MTB/RIF as the reference standard. The detected cfDNA concentration was 0.14 to 2,804 copies/ml (median 14.6 copies/ml) and was inversely correlated with CD4 count and days to culture positivity. Sensitivity was nonsignificantly higher in HIV-positive (88.2%) compared to HIV-negative patients (73.3%), and was not dependent on CD4 count. Sensitivity remained high in sputum smear-negative (76.0%) and urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM)-negative (76.5%) patients. With improved sample preparation, urine cfDNA is a viable biomarker for TB diagnosis. Our assay has the highest reported accuracy of any TB urine cfDNA test to date and has the potential to enable rapid non-sputum-based TB diagnosis across key underserved patient populations.

Mitchell EJ, Pallotti P, Qureshi ZP, Daniels JP, Oliver M, Were F, Osoti A, Gwako G, Kimani V, Opira J, Ojha S. "Parents, healthcare professionals and other stakeholders' experiences of caring for babies born too soon in a low-resource setting: a qualitative study of essential newborn care for preterm infants in Kenya." BMJ Open. 2021;11(6):e043802. Abstract

Prematurity is the leading cause of global neonatal and infant mortality. Many babies could survive by the provision of essential newborn care. This qualitative study was conducted in order to understand, from a family and professional perspective, the barriers and facilitators to essential newborn care. The study will inform the development of an early warning score for preterm and low birthweight infants in low and middle income countries (LMICs).

Gwako GN, Were F, Obimbo MM, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Gachuno OW, Gichangi PB. "Association between utilization and quality of antenatal care with stillbirths in four tertiary hospitals in a low-income urban setting." Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2021;100(4):676-683. Abstract

About 2.6 million stillbirths per year occur globally with 98% occurring in low- and middle-income countries including Kenya, where an estimated 35 000 stillbirths occur annually. Most studies have focused on the direct causes of stillbirth. The aim of this study was to determine the association between antenatal care utilization and quality with stillbirth in a Kenyan set up. This information is key when planning strategies to reduce the stillbirth burden.

Burton MJ, Ramke J, Marques AP, Bourne RRA, Congdon N, Jones I, Ah Tong BAM, Arunga S, Bachani D, Bascaran C, Bastawrous A, Blanchet K, Braithwaite T, Buchan JC, Cairns J, Cama A, Chagunda M, Chuluunkhuu C, Cooper A, Crofts-Lawrence J, Dean WH, Denniston AK, Ehrlich JR, Emerson PM, Evans JR, Frick KD, Friedman DS, Furtado JM, Gichangi MM, Gichuhi S, Gilbert SS, Gurung R, Habtamu E, Holland P, Jonas JB, Keane PA, Keay L, Khanna RC, Khaw PT, Kuper H, Kyari F, Lansingh VC, Mactaggart I, Mafwiri MM, Mathenge W, McCormick I, Morjaria P, Mowatt L, Muirhead D, Murthy GVS, Mwangi N, Patel DB, Peto T, Qureshi BM, Salomão SR, Sarah V, Shilio BR, Solomon AW, Swenor BK, Taylor HR, Wang N, Webson A, West SK, Wong TY, Wormald R, Yasmin S, Yusufu M, Silva JC, Resnikoff S, Ravilla T, Gilbert CE, Foster A, Faal HB. "The Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health: vision beyond 2020." Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9(4):e489-e551.Website
Vogel JP, Comrie-Thomson L, Pingray V, Gadama L, Galadanci H, Goudar S, Rose Laisser, Lavender T, Lissauer D, Misra S, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Amole T, Berrueta M, Dankishiya F, Gwako G, Homer CSE, Jobanputra J, Meja S, Nigri C, Mohaptra V, Osoti A, Roberti J, Solomon D, Suleiman M, Robbers G, Sutherland S, Vernekar S, Althabe F, Bonet M, Oladapo OT. "Usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the World Health Organization Labour Care Guide: A mixed-methods, multicountry evaluation." Birth. 2021;48(1):66-75. Abstract

The World Health Organization's (WHO) Labour Care Guide (LCG) is a "next-generation" partograph based on WHO's latest intrapartum care recommendations. It aims to optimize clinical care provided to women and their experience of care. We evaluated the LCG's usability, feasibility, and acceptability among maternity care practitioners in clinical settings.

Golden L, Chaya S, Reichmuth K, Visagie A, Ayuk A, Kwarteng Owusu S, Marangu D, Affendi N, Lakhan A, Gray D, Vanker A, Zar H, Zampoli M. "Aetiology and presentation of childhood pleural infections in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era in South Africa." Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med. 2021;27(4). Abstract

Complications of respiratory infections including pleural effusion (PE) are associated with a high morbidity. Differentiating between PE caused by (Mtb) infection and other bacterial infections in endemic areas is difficult in children, thus, impacting treatment.

Garelick S, Russell JM, Dee S, Verschuren D, Olago DO. "Atmospheric controls on precipitation isotopes and hydroclimate in high-elevation regions in Eastern Africa since the Last Glacial Maximum.". 2021;567:116984. AbstractWebsite

Tropical Africa experienced large changes in hydroclimatic conditions since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), ∼26.5 to 19 thousand years (ka or kyr) ago. The hydrogen isotopic composition of fossil leaf waxes (δDwax), assumed to record past variations in the hydrogen isotopic composition of precipitation (δDprecip), is increasingly being used to study past hydroclimatic change in Africa, and are commonly interpreted to reflect variation in the amount of precipitation through time (i.e., the amount effect). Although there are now many such δDprecip records from tropical Africa, there are few robust δDprecip records from easternmost equatorial Africa of sufficient length and resolution to evaluate the mechanisms governing hydroclimate variation during and since the LGM. We produced a new δDprecip record based on analyses of δDwax in sediment cores collected from Lake Rutundu, situated at an elevation of 3,078 meters above sea level (m asl) on Mt. Kenya. This record displays large variations in δDprecip corresponding with known climate events over the past 25 kyr, including D-enrichment during the Heinrich 1 stadial (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD), and D-depletion during the Holocene portion of the African Humid Period (AHP). We also observe D-depletion during the LGM relative to the late Holocene, which, considering the amount effect, could be interpreted to imply that LGM climate conditions were wetter than today. However, because other hydroclimate proxies at this site indicate a drier LGM climate at Lake Rutundu, and since precipitation isotopes at this high-elevation site are likely influenced by different processes than at low elevations, we used a single-column Rayleigh distillation model to evaluate temperature and altitude-related effects on high-elevation δDprecip. This revealed that a change in the temperature lapse rate exerts strong control on δDprecip in this high-elevation setting, and that a steeper lapse rate could explain the observed D-depletion during the LGM at our site. Comparison of the Lake Rutundu δDprecip record with other leaf-wax based δDprecip records from East Africa indicates that changes in the meridional precipitation gradient associated with the mean annual position and intensity of the tropical rain belt, in turn driven by precessional insolation forcing, were likely a primary control on East African hydroclimate over the past 25 kyr, thereby contributing to overall regional drying during the LGM.

Garelick S, Russell JM, Dee S, Verschuren D, Olago DO. "Atmospheric controls on precipitation isotopes and hydroclimate in high-elevation regions in Eastern Africa since the Last Glacial Maximum.". 2021;567:116984. AbstractWebsite

Tropical Africa experienced large changes in hydroclimatic conditions since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), ∼26.5 to 19 thousand years (ka or kyr) ago. The hydrogen isotopic composition of fossil leaf waxes (δDwax), assumed to record past variations in the hydrogen isotopic composition of precipitation (δDprecip), is increasingly being used to study past hydroclimatic change in Africa, and are commonly interpreted to reflect variation in the amount of precipitation through time (i.e., the amount effect). Although there are now many such δDprecip records from tropical Africa, there are few robust δDprecip records from easternmost equatorial Africa of sufficient length and resolution to evaluate the mechanisms governing hydroclimate variation during and since the LGM. We produced a new δDprecip record based on analyses of δDwax in sediment cores collected from Lake Rutundu, situated at an elevation of 3,078 meters above sea level (m asl) on Mt. Kenya. This record displays large variations in δDprecip corresponding with known climate events over the past 25 kyr, including D-enrichment during the Heinrich 1 stadial (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD), and D-depletion during the Holocene portion of the African Humid Period (AHP). We also observe D-depletion during the LGM relative to the late Holocene, which, considering the amount effect, could be interpreted to imply that LGM climate conditions were wetter than today. However, because other hydroclimate proxies at this site indicate a drier LGM climate at Lake Rutundu, and since precipitation isotopes at this high-elevation site are likely influenced by different processes than at low elevations, we used a single-column Rayleigh distillation model to evaluate temperature and altitude-related effects on high-elevation δDprecip. This revealed that a change in the temperature lapse rate exerts strong control on δDprecip in this high-elevation setting, and that a steeper lapse rate could explain the observed D-depletion during the LGM at our site. Comparison of the Lake Rutundu δDprecip record with other leaf-wax based δDprecip records from East Africa indicates that changes in the meridional precipitation gradient associated with the mean annual position and intensity of the tropical rain belt, in turn driven by precessional insolation forcing, were likely a primary control on East African hydroclimate over the past 25 kyr, thereby contributing to overall regional drying during the LGM.

Baba MM, Bitew M, Fokam J, Lelo EA, Ahidjo A, Asmamaw K, Beloumou GA, Bulimo WD, Buratti E, Chenwi C, Dadi H, D'Agaro P, De Conti L, Fainguem N, Gadzama G, Maiuri P, Majanja J, Meshack W, Ndjolo A, Nkenfou C, Oderinde BS, Opanda SM, Segat L, Stuani C, Symekher SL, Takou D, Tesfaye K, Triolo G, Tuki K, Zacchigna S, Marcello A. "Diagnostic performance of a colorimetric RT -LAMP for the identification of SARS-CoV-2: A multicenter prospective clinical evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa.". 2021;40:101101. Abstract1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdf1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdfWebsite

BackgroundManagement and control of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is critically dependent on quick and reliable identification of the virus in clinical specimens. Detection of viral RNA by a colorimetric reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a simple, reliable and cost-effective assay, deployable in resource-limited settings (RLS). Our objective was to evaluate the intrinsic and extrinsic performances of RT-LAMP in RLS.
Methods
This is a multicenter prospective observational study of diagnostic accuracy, conducted from October 2020 to February 2021 in four African Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya and Nigeria; and in Italy. We enroled 1657 individuals who were either COVID-19 suspect cases, or asymptomatic and presented for screening. RNA extracted from pharyngeal swabs was tested in parallel by a colorimetric RT-LAMP and by a standard real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Findings
The sensitivity and specificity of index RT LAMP compared to standard RT-PCR on 1657 prospective specimens from infected individuals was determined. For a subset of 1292 specimens, which underwent exactly the same procedures in different countries, we obtained very high specificity (98%) and positive predictive value (PPV = 99%), while the sensitivity was 87%, with a negative predictive value NPV = 70%, Stratification of RT-PCR data showed superior sensitivity achieved with an RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) below 35 (97%), which decreased to 60% above 35.
Interpretation
In this field trial, RT-LAMP appears to be a reliable assay, comparable to RT-PCR, particularly with medium-high viral loads (Ct < 35). Hence, RT-LAMP can be deployed in RLS for timely management and prevention of COVID-19, without compromising the quality of output.

Sura M, Osoti A, Gachuno O, Musoke R, Kagema F, Gwako G, Ondieki D, Ndavi PM, Ogutu O. "Effect of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on preterm neonates in Kenya: A randomized controlled trial." PLoS One. 2021;16(1):e0246109. Abstract

Delayed cord clamping (DCC) is a placental to new-born transfusion strategy recommended by obstetric and gynaecological societies. Though not widely adopted, umbilical cord milking (UCM) may achieve faster transfusion when DCC cannot be performed such as when a neonate requires resuscitation.

Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "The evolving cultural values and their implications on the Maasai Pastoralists, Kajiado County, Kenya.". 2021;13:e00881. AbstractWebsite

The Maasai pastoralists inhabiting Kajiado County have been known for their rich cultural values which have sustained their livelihoods. However, these cultural practices are evolving under the swift development context with the private holding of land becoming more prevalent. Before these disturbances, customary land was available for the Maasai pastoralists to carry out traditional production systems. The disturbance in their social-cultural ways following land fragmentation has rendered their traditional governance system untenable. Moreover, the Maasai pastoralists have been dispossessed from their customary land and social institutions which have shaped their customs. Thus, concerns have been raised over the sustenance of pastoralism considering that the required resources are either unavailable or not enough. To address this gap, there was the need to understand cultural adjustments and their impacts on the Maasai pastoralists’ societal needs. The study employed a cross-sectional design which consisted of 195 Household survey questionnaires, 8 Focus Group Discussions and 18 Key Informant Interviews. The qualitative and quantitative data from the study were summarized and thematic perceptions generated. The results of this study revealed the uniqueness of the Maasai pastoralists’ traditional social structures. Also highlighted by the study was the erosion of the traditional social relations exposing the Maasai pastoralists to increasing vulnerability. These findings support the need for external support to supplement the traditional coping strategies to balance the ecological, social and economic systems of the Maasai pastoralists.

Kimani E, Muhula S, Kiptai T, Orwa J, Odero T, Gachuno O. "Factors influencing TB treatment interruption and treatment outcomes among patients in Kiambu County, 2016-2019." PLoS One. 2021;16(4):e0248820. AbstractWebsite

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality as a single infectious agent globally with increasing numbers of case notification in developing countries. This study seeks to investigate the clinical and socio-demographic factors of time to TB treatment interruption among Tuberculosis patients in Kiambu County, 2016-2019. We retrospectively analyzed data for all treatment outcomes patients obtained from TB tracing form linked with the Tuberculosis Information Basic Unit (TIBU) of patients in Kiambu County health facilities using time to treatment interruption as the main outcome. Categorical variables were presented using frequency and percentages. Kaplan-Meir curve was used to analyze probabilities of time to treatment interruptions between intensive and continuation phases. Log-rank test statistics was used to compare the equality of the curves. Cox proportion model was used to determine determinants of treatment interruption. A total of 292 participants were included in this study. Males were 68%, with majority (35%) of the participants were aged 24-35 years; 5.8% were aged 0-14 years and 5.1% aged above 55 years. The overall treatment success rate was 66.8% (cured, 34.6%; completed 32.2%), 60.3% were on intensive phase of treatment. Lack of knowledge and relocation were the major reasons of treatment interruptions. Patients on intensive phase were 1.58 times likely to interrupt treatment compared to those on continuation phase (aHR: 1.581; 95%CI: 1.232-2.031). There is need to develop TB interventions that target men and middle aged population in order to reduce treatment interruption and increase the treatment success rates in the County and Country.

Ngayo MO, Oluka M, Bulimo WD, Okalebo FA. Influence of Social Psychological Status On Efavirenz And Nevirapine Plasma Concentration Among HIV Patients In Kenya. Research Square; 2021. Abstract

HIV-related stigma, lack of disclosure and social support are still a hindrance to HIV testing, care, and prevention. We evaluated the influence of these socio-phycological status on nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz (EFV) plasma concentrations among HIV patients in Kenya. Blood samples were obtained from 254 and 312 consenting HIV patients on NVP and EFV based first-line Antiretroviral therapy (ART) respectively and a detailed structured questionnaire was administered. The NVP and EFV plasma level was measured by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The median duration of living with HIV infection was 5 years (IQR = 1–11years) and a median duration since ART initiation was 3 years (IQR = 1–8 years). There were 68.1% and 65.4% of the patients on NVP and EFV respectively who did not feel guilty for being HIV positive. The disclosure rate was about 96.1% and 94.6% of patients on NVP and EFV respectively. About 85% and 78.2% of patients on NVP and EFV respectively who got social support as much as needed. The non-adherence to ART in the past 30 days was 64.6% and 66.3% patients on NVP and EFV respectively. The median (IQR) plasma concentration were [6237.5 ng/mL, IQR 45188–8964 ng/mL] for NVP and [2739.5 ng/mL, IQR 1878 –4891.5 ng/mL] for EFV. There were 14.2% and 4.5% patients on NVP and EFV respectively with suboptimal plasma concertation associated with poor viral suppression. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed feeling guilty for being HIV positive (adjusted β = 954 , 95% CI = 192.7 to 2156.6 ; p =0.014) or feeling worthless for being HIV positive (adjusted β = 852 , 95% CI = 64.3 to 1639.7 ; p =0.034); being certain of telling the primary sexual partner about HIV positive status (adjusted β 363, 95% CI, 97.9 to 628.1; p = 0.007); disclosing HIV status to neighbors (adjusted β = 1731 , 95% CI = 376 to 3086 ; p =0.012) and getting transportation to hospital whenever needed (adjusted β = -1143.3, 95% CI = -1914.3 to -372.4 ; p =0.004) were associated with NVP/EFV plasma levels. The NVP and EFV plasma level was highly heterogenous with a significant proportion of patients reporting levels correlated with poor viral suppression. The patient’s stigma, lack of disclosure and social support contributes significantly on the overall ART treatment outcome. Taking these factors into consideration, HIV treatment may be personalized to achieve optimal treatment success

Nyabongo L, Odongo DO, Milton G, Machuka E, Vudriko P, Pelle R, Kanduma EG. "Molecular survey of cattle ticks in Burundi: First report on the presence of the invasive Rhipicephalus microplus tick." PLoS One. 2021;16(12):e0261218. Abstract

A recent research study on prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Burundi reported high prevalence and endemicity of Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina infections in cattle. Detailed information about tick species infesting animals, their distribution and genetic diversity in Burundi is outdated and limited. This study therefore assessed the prevalence and genetic diversity of tick species infesting cattle across agroecological zones (AEZs) in Burundi. A cross-sectional study on the occurrence of tick species was conducted in 24 districts of Burundi between October and December 2017. Differential identification and characterization of ticks collected was conducted using tick morphological keys and molecular tools (cox1 and 12S rRNA gene). Chi-square test was used to test for association between agroecological zones and the prevalence of tick species. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using bayesian and maximum likelihood algorithms. A total of 483 ticks were collected from the five AEZs sampled. Six tick species comprising of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. sanguineus, R. evertsi evertsi, R. microplus, R. decoloratus and Amblyomma variegatum were observed. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus were the most prevalent ticks (~45%). A total of 138 specimens (28%) were found to be Rhipicephalus microplus, suggesting an emerging threat for cattle farmers. Twelve R. appendiculatus cox1 haplotypes were obtained from 106 specimens that were sequenced. Two cox1 haplotypes of R. microplus which clustered into previously reported Clade A were observed. Rhipicephalus sanguineus and R. evertsi evertsi ticks, the vectors of numerous zoonotic pathogens, were collected from cattle, which constitute a high risk for public health. These findings reveal an overlapping distribution of tick vectors in Burundi. The design of ticks and tick-borne diseases control strategies should consider the distribution of different vectors across the AEZs particularly the presence of the highly invasive R. microplus tick in Burundi and the potential risk of introducing the pathogenic Babesia bovis.

Peter SG, Kariuki HW, Aboge GO, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM. "Prevalence of Ticks Infesting Dairy Cattle and the Pathogens They Harbour in Smallholder Farms in Peri-Urban Areas of Nairobi, Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;2021:9501648. AbstractWebsite

This study aimed at determining the tick species infesting dairy cattle in Nairobi, Kenya, and the pathogens they harbour. While ticks are well-known vectors of major bacterial pathogens of both veterinary importance and public health importance, few studies have investigated the range of the tick species and the associated pathogens, especially present in unique dairy production systems, which compromise animal welfare, such as those in peri-urban areas. A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving 314 randomly selected dairy cattle in 109 smallholder farms. Each animal was examined for attached ticks followed by morphological tick identification at the species level. Genomic DNA was extracted from each of the ticks, and 16S rDNA gene was amplified for pathogen identification. Sequencing of the amplicons and subsequent BLASTn analysis, multiple sequence alignment, and phylogenetic reconstruction were performed to confirm the species of the pathogens. Sixty-six (21.0%) of the cattle examined had ticks. A total of 94 adult ticks were found on the cattle, and of these, 63 (67.0%), 18 (19.1%), and 13 (13.8%) were in the genera Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, and Hyalomma, respectively. Twelve tick species in Rhipicephalus genus and two in Amblyomma and Hyalomma genera were identified. Although Rh. decoloratus was the most prevalent tick (24.5% (23/94)), the emerging Rh. microplus (6.4% (6/94)) was also identified. The DNA of Rickettsia was detected in the ticks, with Rickettsia conorii in H. rufipes and A. variegatum, and Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Rh. microplus and H. rufipes, while Ehrlichia ruminantium and E. canis were in A. variegatum. In conclusion, the study reported a wide range of tick species present in the study area including Rhipicephalus microplus, which is an emerging tick species in parts of Kenya. The ticks harboured DNA of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia, highlighting possible animal and human health concerns. Hence, effective tick control strategies remain paramount to prevent potential diseases associated with the harboured pathogens.

MM B, M B, J F, EA L, A A, K A, GA B, WD B, E B, C C, H D, P D'A, L DC, N F, A M. "Diagnostic performance of a colorimetric RT -LAMP for the identification of SARS-CoV-2: A multicenter prospective clinical evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa." EClinicalMedicine. 2021. Abstract
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Maingey Y, Opondo M, Olago D, Ouma G. "{The impacts of increasing water scarcity and the potential for water-related conflict in Lamu, Kenya}." Water Supply. 2021;22:1983-1994. AbstractWebsite

{In the age of climate change, the efficient allocation, distribution and use of water raises complex issues for water management, with far-reaching and often contentious consequences. As water becomes scarcer, water-related tensions are imminent on different scales. It is the interplay of these tensions with a number of socioeconomic, political, environmental and cultural factors that determine the probability of conflict. Lamu, found in the coastal part of Kenya, is a unique location in that access to water is already a major challenge. Combined with the negative impacts of climate change, and the ongoing large infrastructural development in the region, Lamu is on the verge of a water crisis. As such, there is a need for research into the context-specific factors that play a part in heightening the potential for water-related conflict amidst increasing water scarcity. The focus of this study was to identify and evaluate the context-specific factors that will amplify the potential for water-related conflict in Lamu. The findings suggest religion, migration, and poverty are factors that would heighten the potential for water-related conflict in the region amidst increasing water scarcity. The study recommends that these factors need to be addressed urgently and should be part of any water management mechanism in Lamu, in order to avoid water-related conflicts. Additionally, the findings imply that anticipating the stressors for water-related conflict in Lamu will play a significant role in managing conflict and facilitating negotiations over the region's water resources.}

Imonje RK. 100 Curriculum Theory, Principles and Processes in Education. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2021.
Araka E, Oboko R, Maina E, Gitonga RK. " A Conceptual Educational Data Mining Model for Supporting Self-Regulated Learning in Online Learning Environments." https://www.igi-global.com/. 2021:15. Abstract

Self-regulated learning is attracting tremendous researches from various communities such as information communication technology. Recent studies have greatly contributed to the domain knowledge that the use self-regulatory skills enhance academic performance. Despite these developments in SRL, our understanding on the tools and instruments to measure SRL in online learning environments is limited as the use of traditional tools developed for face-to-face classroom settings are still used to measure SRL on e-learning systems. Modern learning management systems (LMS) allow storage of datasets on student activities. Subsequently, it is now possible to use Educational Data Mining to extract learner patterns which can be used to support SRL. This chapter discusses the current tools for measuring and promoting SRL on e-learning platforms and a conceptual model grounded on educational data mining for implementation as a solution to promoting SRL strategies.

Derese S. " A coumestan and a coumaronochromone from Millettia lasiantha ." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2021;97:104277.
C BK, M.F O. " A Critical Review of Literature on Employment Selection Tests." Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies. 2021;2021(9):451-469.
Kamunya SM, Oboko RO, Maina EM, Miriti EK. " A Systematic Review of Gamification Within E-Learning." igi-global.com. 2021:18. AbstractWebsite

The focus of this study was to review and evaluate the effectiveness of gamification within e-learning platforms. The study deployed systematic literature review methodology to evaluate how effective gamification has been used within e-learning platforms. The study used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Approach (PRISMA), starting with 366 articles, shifting to a final 34 articles for consideration. It was established that gamification positively influences and enhances learning within the e-learning platform. Therefore, the study recommends policy makers, designers, and implementers of e-learning platforms to consider incorporating gamification elements in order to increase user motivation and engagement for enhanced learning.

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