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Mureithi MW, Finn A, Ota MO, Zhang Q, Davenport V, Mitchell TJ, Williams NA, Adegbola RA, Heyderman RS. "T Cell memory response to pneumococcal protein antigens in an area of high pneumococcal carriage and disease.". 2008. Abstract

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable disease worldwide. Pneumococcal protein antigens are currently under study as components of potential vaccines that offer protection against multiple serotypes. We have therefore characterized T cell pneumococcal immunity acquired through asymptomatic carriage. Methods. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 40 healthy Gambian adults were stimulated with supernatants derived from S. pneumoniae strain (D39), 2 isogenic mutant strains lacking either pneumolysin or choline binding protein A, and recombinant pneumolysin. Immune responses were measured by cellular proliferation and by interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon-g (IFN-g) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot and bioplex cytokine assays. Nasopharyngeal swabs were cultured to determine carriage rates. Results. S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage was detected in 60% of individuals. Both effector and resting (or central) CD4+ T cell memory were frequently present to a range of pneumococcal antigens. However, the level of the effector memory response did not relate to current nasopharyngeal carriage. Pneumolysin was not immunodominant in these T cell responses but induced a distinct proinflammatory profile (high IFN-g, IL-12[p40], and L-17 levels and low IL-10 and IL-13 levels). Conclusions. In this population, T cell–mediated immunological memory potentially capable of pathogen clearance and immune surveillance is common but is not associated with the absolute interruption of pneumococcal carriage. How this naturally acquired immune memory influences pneumococcal vaccine efficacy remains to be determined.

Manda DK, Wanjala B, Kosimbei G. "T he impact of minimum wage on employment in Kenya.". 2011.
O; GG, O M’ligeyo.S. "T-Cell Subset Counts and Immunoglobin levels in Patients with Chronic Renal failure at K.N.H." East African Medical Journal.. 1998;75(5):271-275. Abstract

This study was designed to determine whether there was any difference in the T-cell subset counts and serum immunoglobulin concentrations in patients with chronic renal failure as compared to normal controls. Ninety individuals participated in the study. These were divided into three groups as follows; (i) 30 subjects with normal renal function; (ii) 30 subjects with chronic renal failure (CRF)(creatinine clearance 10-50 mls/min), not requiring haemodialysis and; (iii) 30 subjects with end stage renal disease (creatinine clearance < 10 mls/min) on haemodialysis. The subjects in the three groups were matched for age and sex. In addition, it was ascertained that none of the subjects was on any medication or suffered from any ailment known to interfere with the immune system. The T-cell subset counts were carried out using flow cytometry while the serum concentration of immunoglobulins was measured using the radio-immunodiffusion method. Patients with CRF, whether on haemodialysis or not, had significantly lower lymphocyte counts as a proportion of total white cell count (19% and 19.2% respectively versus 39%) and low absolute CD4 cell counts per mm3 (337 +/- 94 and 449 +/- 116 respectively versus 891 +/- 360) and CD8 cell counts per mm3 (437 +/- 234 and 490 +/- 176 respectively versus 644 +/- 228) as compared to normals, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups with CRF. The CD4: CD8 ratios in the three groups studied were 1.487 +/- 0.233, 0.961 +/- 0.326 and 0.751 +/- 0.167 respectively, being significantly higher in normal controls than in any of the groups with CRF (p < 0.05) and in the group with CRF not requiring dialysis than in those requiring it (p < 0.05). The serum concentration of immunoglobulins in the two groups with CRF were similar to those in the group with normal renal function. It is concluded that CRF represents a state of immunodeficiency not significantly corrected by haemodialysis

JOHN PROFNJENGAMUNENE. "T. A. Ngatia; M. J. Njenga, PG Mbuthia, and HCW Mbugua (2005). Occurrence and pathology of caprine arthritis-encephalitis in young goats in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production In Africa 53:77-83.". In: Africa-Caribbean Institute. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
"T. Cachet, I.O. Kibwage , E. Roets, J. Hoogmartens and H. Vanderhaeghe (1987). Optimisation of the separation of Erythromycin and related substances by high liquid chromatography . J. Chromatogr. 409 : 91 – 100. .". 1987. Abstract

An improved high-performance liquid chromatographic method for analysis
of erythromycin is described. The separation can be performed under mild conditions
of pH (6.5) and temperature (3SOC) on C, and CJ a silica-based reversed-phase materials
of different origins. The mobile phase, with a flow-rate of 1.5 ml/rnin, contained
various amounts of acetonitrile (25-40%, v/v), 5% (vi v) 0.2 M ammonium
phosphate buffer pH 6.5, 20% (v/v) 0.2 M tetramethylammonium phosphate and
water. UV detection at 215 nm allows quantitation of erythromycins A, Band C,
N-demethylerythromycin A, erythromycin A enol ether and anhydroerythromycin
A. The column history plays a major role, older columns often giving better separations

DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "T. Darnhofer, D. Gatama, P. A. Huxley and E. M. W. Akunda. The rainfall distribution at a tree/crop interface.". In: In: Meteorology and Agroforestry. (1987). p. 371 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
n/a
P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER. "T. Gotohda, K. Ogasawara, P. P. Wambua and K. Onoe. Analysis of functional sites on a peptide antigen, in I.A. or I.E. - restricted T cell responses. International Immunology Vol. 3, No.6, 503, 1991.". In: J Immunol. 1991 Jan 1;146(1):26-34. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1991. Abstract
It has been shown that two different sites (an agretope and an epitope) on a peptide antigen function independently in T cell responses to the antigen. By virtue of these sites, antigens, MHC molecules, and TCRs constitute trimolecule complexes which eventually result in T cell activation. In our previous reports, we have defined that residues 46 and 54 on synthetic peptide composed of residues 43-58 of pigeon cytochrome c (p43-58, AEGFSYTDANKNKGIT) and its analogs function as an agretope and residue 50 as an epitope in both I-Ab and I-Ak-carrying mice. In the present study, to extend our method to the other MHC class II molecules (I-E), we used two peptide antigens, 46D50V54R and 50V54R, which had been prepared by substitution of amino acids at positions, 46, 50 and 54 or 50 and 54 of p43-58 D, V, R or V, R, respectively, and compared the immunogenicity with those of other peptide analogs. The 46D50V54R was shown to be non-immunogenic in I-Ab-carrying mice and the 50V54R was non-immunogenic in I-Ak-carrying mice. In contrast, the 46D50V54R or 50V54R could induce I-E-restricted proliferative responses of T lymphocytes in I-Eb/k- or I-Ek/k-carrying mice, respectively. Furthermore, residues 46 and 54 were shown to function as agretopes and residue 50 as an epitope in the I-E-restricted responses as they did in the I-A-restricted responses, even though some differences were seen between peptide-I-E interaction and peptide-I-A interaction. These agretopes and epitope functioned independently.
OCHUKU MRMBUYATHOMAS. "T. O. Mbuya .". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 2003.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "T.A. Ngatia, C.M. Mulei, P.K. Gathumbi and J.K. Wabacha (2001). Oedema disease of swine: A toxaemia or an infectious disease? Bull. Anim. Hlth and Prod. Afr. 49: 292-298.". In: Biennial scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 7th-9th August 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2001. Abstract
The short-term farm level economic impact of Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak in a large-scale dairy scale dairy farm was assessed during the quarantine period (35 days) and 60 days after lifting of the quarantine. Direct and indirect areas that contributed to the financial losses were identified for the period of observation (85 days). The greatest direct financial impact was due to milk losses (42.0%) followed by purchase pf additional feeds (13.65) and culling of milking cows that developed chronic mastitis (12.5%). The other direct costs were; extra labout inputs (8.9%), veterinary fees (3.350, transport (3.05), death (3.0%), drugs (2.9%), abortions (1.4%) and chemicals (0.5%). The indirect costs (9.4%) were associated with the effects of the quarantine period on other farm enterprises. During the quarantine period there were no sales of pigs and hay, and the retained additional feeds. The overall short-term farm level direct and indirect costs associated to US$16,026 (1US$=75ksh). This colossal economic loss within such a short period of time indicates that the control of FMD is of paramount economic importance in the diary farming sector in Kenya. The factors that would determine the magnitude of the financial losses due to an outbreak of FMD are discussed
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "T.A. Ngatia, C.M. Mulei, P.K.Gathumbi and J.K. Wabacha (2001) Oedema disease of swine: toxaemia or an infectious disease. Bull. Anim. Hlth Prod. Afr. 49: 292-298.". In: Proceedings of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association (IVRA) Congress 18th . Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2001. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
JOHN PROFNJENGAMUNENE. "T.A. NGATIA, NJENGA .M.J., P.G. MBUTHIA, AND H.C.W. MBUGUA.OCCURRENCE AND PATHOLOGY OF CAPRINE ARTHRITIS .". In: Africa-Caribbean Institute. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2005.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.G. MBUTHIA, R.M. WARUIRU, S.M. NJIRO, P.W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA and J. NGOTHO ( 1996). "Gross lesions encountered in slaughtered wild animals in a game ranching farm in Kenya.". Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 43: 253.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.G. MBUTHIA, R.M. WARUIRU, S.M. NJIRO, P.W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, E. H. WEDA and J. NGOTHO (1997). "Parasites and microscopic lesions in the livers of slaughtered wild animals in Kenya". Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa,.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. August 5th - 7th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.G. MBUTHIA, R.M. WARUIRU, S.M. NJIRO, P.W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, EH. WEDA and J. NGOTHO (1998). Sarcocystis in slaughtered wild animals in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 46: 1 - 4.". In: WAAVP Conference, August 15th - 19th. Copenhagen, Denmark. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.G. MBUTHIA, R.M. WARUIRU, S.M. NJIRO, P.W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, EH. WEDA and J. NGOTHO (1999). "Verminous pneumonia and other microscopic lung lesions in wild animals in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 46: 15.". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.W.N. KANYARI, M. MATHIU and A. OYEJIDE. (2004). Some post-mortem observations on unhatched ostrich embryos in a selected locality in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian, 26: 55-58.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.W.N. KANYARI, P.M. MATHIU, K.K. SRIVASTAVA, S.T. WILSON and A. OYEJIDE. (2004). Post-mortem Observations on Ostrich Chicks in a Commercial Farm in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 52:59-62.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "T.A. Woyengo, C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and P.N. Mbugua. 2004. Economic evaluation of increasing the energy value of Zea mays stover by urea treatment..". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "T.A. Woyengo, C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and P.N. Mbugua. 2004. Economic evaluation of increasing the energy value of Zea mays stover by urea treatment..". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
JOSEPH DRDIENYATOM. "T.J. Deinya, R. Otieno : Halitusis : Analysis of the various contribution sites. Journal of Dental Research, 2002.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Journal of Applied Biosciences; 2002. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE. "T.J. Njoka, G.W. Muriuki, R.S. Reid and D.M. Nyariki: 2003: The Use of Sociological Methods to Assess Land-use Change: A Case Study of Lambwe Valley, Kenya. J. Soc. Sc., 7(3): 181-185 (2003). Kemla-Raj , India.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2003. Abstract
This paper deals with the derivation of logistic model for cattle, sheep and goats in a commercial ranching system in Machakos District, Kenya, a savannah ecosystem with average annual rainfall of 589.3  159.3mm and an area of 10,117ha. It involves modeling livestock population dynamics as discrete-time logistic equations wiyh fixed carrying capacities. The fixed carrying capacities are generated endogenously using time-series ranch data, covering a period of 15 years, from 1987 to 2001, in a commercial ranching enterprise. The model incorporates interaction parameters, generated endogenously. The estimation of the logistic models involves estimation of econometric models for each livestock species, followed by the recovery of the logistic model mathematically. Optimisation procedures are employed to determine the optimal stocking levels and the optimal off-take levels. The model-generated carrying capacities are 2,985, 791 and 201 animal units (AU) for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Optimal stocking levels are 1,369, 154 and 69 Aus for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively, while the optimal off-take levels are 857, 88 and 63 for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. This shows that the logistic model-based system analysis is applicable to the management of mixed-species commercial ranching enterprises.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "T.J.: Acute Renal Failure of Obstetric origin as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa 6(2): 102-104,1987. University of Nairobi.; 1987. Abstract
Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "T.O. Abuom, J.K. Wabacha, D.N. Karanja. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy secondary to Klebsiella mastitis in a Bovine.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2004. Abstract
A longitudinal study was carried out in Kikuyu Division (a peri-urban area in central Kenyan highlands) between January 1999 and December 1999 to estimate the baseline parameters on reproductive performance of the sow, as well as health and productivity of grower and preweaning pigs of smallholder herds. Data were collected on 155 breeding pigs, 795 grower pigs and 801 preweaning piglets in 74, 50 and 40 smallholder herds, respectively, using record cards that were updated during monthly visits. The sow-level medians were: weaning-to-service interval 3 months; interfarrowing interval 6.4 months; number of live-born piglets 9.0; and number of piglets weaned per litter 7.5. The piglet crude morbidity incidence risk was 29%. The cause-specific incidence risks for the important health problems encountered in preweaned piglets were diarrhea (4.3%), pruritus (17.1%), and skin necrosis (4.2%). The estimated crude mortality incidence risk to 8 weeks of age was 18.7%. The cause-specific mortality incidence risks to 8 weeks of age for the important causes of mortality were overlying (9.9%), savaging (2.4%), unviable piglets (2.0%) and unknown (1.9%). Overall, 78.8% of the total live-born piglet mortality occurred during the first week postpartum with 69% of these deaths being caused by overlying. The grower-pig crude morbidity incidence risk was 20% and the cause-specific incidence risks of the important health problems encountered were gut edema (1.3%), pruritus (21.1%), and unknown (2.3%). The crude mortality incidence risk was 3.8% and the important causes were gut edema and unknown causes (cause-specific mortality incidence risks of 1.3 and 1.6%, respectively). The median weight:age ratio and average daily weight gain for the grower pigs were 5.1 kg/month of age and 0.13 kg/day, respectively. For preweaning pigs, the median average daily weight gain was 0.13 g/day.
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES, OCHUKU MRMBUYATHOMAS. "T.O. Mbuya, .". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 2006.
OCHUKU MRMBUYATHOMAS. "T.O. Mbuya, B.O. Odera and S.P. Ng.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 2003.
OCHUKU MRMBUYATHOMAS. "T.O. Mbuya, B.O. Odera, S.P. Ng.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 2006.
OCHUKU MRMBUYATHOMAS. "T.O. Mbuya, B.O. Odera, S.P. Ng.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 2006.
OCHUKU MRMBUYATHOMAS. "T.O. Mbuya, G. O. Rading, M. F. Oduori, and M. S. Wekesa .". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 2006.
Wanjala C. "The Tabanic Genre.". In: Standpoints on African Literature. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau; 1973.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Tabifor. H.N., Muchiri L., Makawiti D.W., Wango E.O., Kigondu C.and Odongo H. (1996). Progesterone, oestradiol and their respective receptors in leiomyomata and the adjacent normal myometria of Black women.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. B-28. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

Gallagher MM, Obel OA, Camm JA. "Tachycardia-induced atrial myopathy: an important mechanism in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation?". 1997. Abstract

The atrial myocardium of patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) is often abnormal in its histologic features and in its electrophysiologic properties. These abnormalities have been interpreted in some cases as the cause of AF and in others as a consequence of AF. We believe that both are the case. We will review the features of this atrial myopathy and discuss the likely mechanisms and consequences of the process.

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "TACIT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER - THE IMPERATIVES AND PRACTICES.". In: Journal. Journal of the Association of Professional Societies in East Africa; Submitted. Abstract
Wycliffe Omanya, Development Communication Consultant womanya@gmail.com & Dr. William O. Ogara, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi wogara@uonbi.ac.ke Abstract:   This paper seeks to explore tacit knowledge in the light of knowledge transfer. Specifically it looks at the technique of mentoring as a process through which this highly personalized knowledge can be replicated in any organisation. It also introduces knowledge acquisition process as innate and broadly presents various existing models of tacit knowledge transfer. In addition, it explores the significance of mentoring to all key actors in the process of knowledge transfer while also providing some case scenarios in which this strategy has been successfully used to ensure competitive advantage based on developed long standing knowledge.   Key words: Knowledge management, Tacit Knowledge, explicit knowledge, knowledge transfer, mentoring, transfer models.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "TACIT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER - THE IMPERATIVES AND PRACTICES.". In: Journal. Journal of the Association of Professional Societies in East Africa; Submitted. Abstract
Wycliffe Omanya, Development Communication Consultant womanya@gmail.com & Dr. William O. Ogara, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi wogara@uonbi.ac.ke Abstract:   This paper seeks to explore tacit knowledge in the light of knowledge transfer. Specifically it looks at the technique of mentoring as a process through which this highly personalized knowledge can be replicated in any organisation. It also introduces knowledge acquisition process as innate and broadly presents various existing models of tacit knowledge transfer. In addition, it explores the significance of mentoring to all key actors in the process of knowledge transfer while also providing some case scenarios in which this strategy has been successfully used to ensure competitive advantage based on developed long standing knowledge.   Key words: Knowledge management, Tacit Knowledge, explicit knowledge, knowledge transfer, mentoring, transfer models.
Maingi N. "Taenia solium cysticercosis in Kenya.". In: Cysticercosis Working Group in Eastern and Southern Africa (CWGESA) meeting.; 2008.
Rogo L, Oguge N. "The Taita Hills forest remnants: a disappearing world heritage." AMBIO: 8, 522-523; 2000. Abstract
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(Phd) DRNAOMIGIKONYOWM. "A Take and Give to Develop Communities." The FIGTree . 2013;1(1):16.
Were FH. "Take the Lead on Lead." UN Environment; OurPlanet (2017):44-45.Website
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Taking Stock of Political Liberalization: The Youth and Opposition Politics in Kenya, a paper presented in conference on Youth in Africa, organized by Amherst College 9-11 November 2001.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001.
Chen B, Restaino J, Norris L, Xirasagar S, Qureshi ZP, McKoy JM, Lopez IS, Trenery A, Murday A, Kahn A, Mattison DR, Ray P, Sartor O, Bennett CL. "A tale of two citizens: a State Attorney General and a hematologist facilitate translation of research into US Food and Drug Administration actions--a SONAR report.". 2012. Abstract

Pharmaceutical safety is a public health issue. In 2005, the Connecticut Attorney General (AG) raised concerns over adverse drug reactions in off-label settings, noting that thalidomide was approved to treat a rare illness, but more than 90% of its use was off label. A hematologist had reported thalidomide with doxorubicin or dexamethasone was associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) rates of 25%. We review US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufacturer responses to a citizen petition filed to address these thalidomide safety issues. Case study. The AG petitioned the FDA requesting thalidomide-related safety actions. Coincidentally, the manufacturer submitted a supplemental New Drug Approval (sNDA), requesting approval to treat multiple myeloma with thalidomide-dexamethasone. FDA safety officers reviewed the petition and the literature and noted that VTE risks with thalidomide were not appropriately addressed in the existing package insert. In the sNDA application, the manufacturer reported thalidomide-associated toxicities for multiple myeloma were primarily somnolence and neurotoxicity, and a proposed package insert did not focus on VTE risks. In October, the FDA informed the Oncology Drug Division that VTE risks with thalidomide were poorly addressed in the existing label. After reviewing this memorandum, an Oncology Drug Division reviewer informed the manufacturer that approval of the sNDA would be delayed until several thalidomide-associated VTE safety actions, including revisions of the package insert, were implemented. The manufacturer and FDA agreed on these actions, and the sNDA was approved. New approaches addressing off-label safety are needed. The conditions that facilitated the successful response to this citizen petition are uncommon.

Wasamba P, Mugambi H, Bwonya J. Tales from my Motherland. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2010.
Kanyinga K. "Tame graft if we are to win war on terror." Daily Nation, April 11, 2015.
Wamitila KW. Tamthilia ya maisha.; 2005.Website
Kitheka JU, Mavuti KM. "Tana Delta and Sabaki Estuaries of Kenya: Freshwater and Sediment Input, Upstream Threats and Management Challenges." Estuaries: A Lifeline of Ecosystem Services in the Western Indian Ocean. 2016:89-109.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. ""Tana River Delta and other deltaic rivers in Kenya. A contribution in fluvial and environmental geomorphology". In Geomorphology and enviromental changes in Tropical Africa, Case Studies in Cameroun and Kenya, pp. 165-178. (Eds.) Hiroshi Kadomura. Hokkai.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Tanaka Y, Hasegawa I, Kato T, Orito E, Hirashima N, Acharya SK, Gish RG, Kramvis A, Kew MC, Yoshihara N, Shrestha SM, Khan M, Miyakawa Y, Mizokami M.A case-control study for differences among hepatitis B virus infections of genotypes A (subtypes Aa and Ae.". In: Hepatology. 2004 Sep;40(3):747-55. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
There are two subtypes of hepatitis B virus genotype A (HBV/A) and they are provisionally designated Aa ("a" standing for Africa/Asia) and Ae ("e" for Europe). In a case-control study, 78 HBV/Aa, 78HBV/Ae, and 78HBV/D carriers from several countries were compared. The prevalence of HBe antigen (HBeAg) in serum was significantly lower in carriers of HBV/Aa than in carriers of HBV/Ae (31% vs. 49%; P = .033), with a difference more obvious in the carriers aged 30 years or younger (34% vs. 67%; P = .029). HBV DNA levels in the carriers of HBV/Aa (median, 3.46 log copies/mL; 95% CI, 2.93-3.95) were significantly lower than those of carriers of HBV/Ae (6.09 log copies/mL; 95% CI, 4.24-7.64) or of carriers of HBV/D (5.48 log copies/mL; 95% CI, 4.06-7.02), regardless of the HBeAg status (P < .001). The most specific and frequent substitutions in 54 HBV/Aa isolates were double substitutions for T1809 (100%) and T1812 (96%) immediately upstream of the precore initiation codon, which would interfere with the translation of HBeAg in HBV/Aa infections. They were not detected in 57 HBV/Ae or 61 HBV/D isolates examined. The double mutation in the core promoter (T1762/A1764) was more frequent in both HBV/Aa (50%) and HBV/Ae (44%) than in HBV/D isolates (25%; P < .01), whereas the precore mutation (A1896) occurred in HBV/D isolates only (48%; P < .0001). In conclusion, the clearance of HBeAg from serum may occur by different mechanisms in HBV/Aa, HBV/Ae, and HBV/D infections, which may influence clinical manifestations in the Western countries where both genotypes A and D are prevalent. Copyright 2004 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Tandon BN, Acharya SK, Tandon A.Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in India.Gut. 1996;38 Suppl 2:S56-9.". In: Gut. 1996;38 Suppl 2:S56-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1996. Abstract

The average estimated carrier rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in India is 4%, with a total pool of approximately 36 million carriers. Wide variations in social, economic, and health factors in different regions may explain variations in carrier rates from one part of the country to another. Professional blood donors constitute the major high risk group for HBV infection in India, with a hepatitis B surface antigen positivity rate of 14%. Blood transfusions represent the most important route of HBV transmission among adults. However, most of India's carrier pool is established in early childhood, predominantly by horizontal spread due to crowded living conditions and poor hygiene. Acute and subacute liver failure are common complications of viral hepatitis in India and HBV is reckoned to be the aetiological agent in 42% and 45% of adult cases, respectively. HBV is reported to be responsible for 70% of cases of chronic hepatitis and 80% of cases of cirrhosis of the liver. About 60% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma are HBV marker positive. Small numbers of patients have been reported to be infected with the pre-core mutant virus but none with the S mutant. Coinfection with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis delta virus is comparatively uncommon. In conclusion, hepatitis B is a major public health problem in India and will continue to be until appropriate nationwide vaccination programmes and other control measures are established.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Tandon BN, Acharya SK.Viral diseases involving the liver.Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol. 1987 Apr;1(2):211-30.". In: Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol. 1987 Apr;1(2):211-30. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1987. Abstract
Even though HAV, HBV and HNANB viruses are responsible for most of the viral hepatitis cases, many other viruses have been reported to cause hepatic injury. These viruses may involve the liver, either as part of a systemic illness (e.g. EBV, CMV, HSV) or as the primary target organ (e.g. yellow fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Ebola virus). Clinically overt hepatocellular dysfunction is rare in such viral infections. Biochemical disturbance of hepatic functions shown, for example, by rises in AST and ALT, is a frequent event and indicates hepatic damage. Morphological changes of the liver include varying degrees of hepatic necrosis with a paucity of inflammatory activities. Intranuclear or cytoplasmic inclusion bodies may be characteristic findings in these diseases. Laboratory diagnosis depends upon serology and liver histology. Treatment is still largely supportive in most of these diseases, although recent trials of antiviral agents show promise against some viruses. Chronic sequelae, such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular cancer, are not encountered. More work is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of hepatic injury in these illnesses.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Tandon BN, Gandhi BM, Irshad M, Acharya SK, Joshi YK.Prevalence of amoebic antibody in population affected by epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis.Lancet. 1987 Feb 21;1(8530):455-6.". In: Lancet. 1987 Feb 21;1(8530):455-6. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1987. Abstract
Even though HAV, HBV and HNANB viruses are responsible for most of the viral hepatitis cases, many other viruses have been reported to cause hepatic injury. These viruses may involve the liver, either as part of a systemic illness (e.g. EBV, CMV, HSV) or as the primary target organ (e.g. yellow fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Ebola virus). Clinically overt hepatocellular dysfunction is rare in such viral infections. Biochemical disturbance of hepatic functions shown, for example, by rises in AST and ALT, is a frequent event and indicates hepatic damage. Morphological changes of the liver include varying degrees of hepatic necrosis with a paucity of inflammatory activities. Intranuclear or cytoplasmic inclusion bodies may be characteristic findings in these diseases. Laboratory diagnosis depends upon serology and liver histology. Treatment is still largely supportive in most of these diseases, although recent trials of antiviral agents show promise against some viruses. Chronic sequelae, such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular cancer, are not encountered. More work is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of hepatic injury in these illnesses.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Tandon BN, Irshad M, Acharya SK, Joshi YK.Hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of severe liver disease in India.Gastroenterol Jpn. 1991 Jul;26 Suppl 3:192-5.". In: Gastroenterol Jpn. 1991 Jul;26 Suppl 3:192-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
The present study describes the status of hepatitis C virus infection in 167 patients with severe forms of liver diseases in India. The anti-HCV positivity rate was recorded as 43%, 47%, and 42% in patients with FHF, SAHF, and CAH respectively. HBV and HCV coinfection was recorded in 28% of FHF, 43% of SAHF and 75% of the CAH cases. Superinfection of HCV in HBsAg carriers was recorded in the 54% cases of FHF, 60% of SAHF and 42% of the CAH. None of these 167 patients was positive of HAV-IgM. Further, 27.7% of FHF, 26.4% of SAHF and 15.2% of CAH cases were neither HBV nor HCV markers positive. These can be labelled as non-A, non-B and non-C infections.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Tandon BN, Rana S, Acharya SK.Bedside ultrasonography. A low-cost definitive diagnostic procedure in obstructive jaundice.J Clin Gastroenterol. 1987 Jun;9(3):353-6.". In: J Clin Gastroenterol. 1987 Jun;9(3):353-6. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1987. Abstract
We evaluated real-time ultrasonography carried out by gastroenterologists for its diagnostic accuracy in 89 patients with obstructive jaundice. The positive predictive values for the site and nature of the obstruction were 94.3 and 89.9%, respectively. The advanced stage of disease in our patients and the clinical background of the investigators may have contributed to the high diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in this study. Nevertheless, we recommend that gastroenterologists themselves perform bedside ultrasonography for a definitive diagnosis in patients with obstructive jaundice. The high degree of precision achieved by ultrasound in our setting makes more expensive investigations unnecessary as routine procedures.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Tandon RK, Mehrotra R, Arora A, Acharya SK, Vashisht S.Biliary strictures on ERCP: a study in northern India.J Assoc Physicians India. 1994 Nov;42(11):865-6, 869-70.". In: J Assoc Physicians India. 1994 Nov;42(11):865-6, 869-70. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract
Case records of 82 patients with biliary stricture diagnosed on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) during a 7-years period (1983-89) were analysed for its aetiology, clinical presentation, laboratory abnormalities and radiological characteristics. The aetiology was found to be benign in 59 and malignant in 23 patients. Forty seven percent of all strictures were post cholecystectomy strictures (PCS). Presence of mucosal irregularity and incomplete stricture were commoner with malignancy. Malignant biliary strictures (MBS) were commonly seen in males, occurred at older age, had short history, had higher alkaline phosphtase and serum bilirubin values when compared to patients with benign biliary strictures (BBS).
and Kuria Alex OJNOA. "Tannin analysis of selected plants from Laikipia County, Kenya." Journal of the Society for Leather Technologists and Chemists, . 2016;100:73-76.
Mitaru BN, Blair R, Bell JM, Reichert RD. "Tannin and fiber contents of rapeseed and canola hulls.". 1982. Abstract

Hulls from rapeseed and canola seed were analyzed for tannins, and the ability of these tannins to inhibit a-amylase in vitro was determined. Extractable tannin content ranged from 0.02 to O.22Vc. The a-amylase inhibition test showed zero values for rapeseed and canola hulls indicating the absence of tannins capable of inhibiting this enzyme.

Kogi-Makau, Wambui; Tibaijuka MG; MRGM;. The Tanzania Family Planning Training Program:The Impact of an Innovative Training Strategy on Reproductive and Child Health Service Performance of Health Attendants in Tanzania.; 2001. Abstract

This report is based on a study, implemented in Kasulu and Kibondo districts in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, to assess the impact of a health attendants’ pilot training strategy on reproductive and child health (RCH) services. The strategy was developed and implemented by the RCH-Unit of Ministry of Health (MOH) with technical assistance from Intrah/PRIME and was implemented with financial support from USAID. The training strategy, covering a period of four months (July to October, 1998), used a combination of on-the-job-training (OJT) and traditional central and distance-based learning (DBL). The training was divided into four modules. Modules 1 and 3 were centrally based while Modules 2 and 4 used OJT and DBL in which the HAs remained at the facilities where they worked. The DBL was backed by supportive supervision from facility in-change staff as onsite supervisors, district-based supervisors and trainers and regional trainers. It also utilized two key leaning aids (developed as part of this strategy): a handbook and solar-powered cassette player with audiotapes. Each trainee was given a solar/battery-powered cassette player and six audiotapes containing course content. The study utilized three different intervention designs to assess three different levels of impact. The study used pre-and post-test assessments of knowledge and skills to determine whether learning occurred among trainees as a result of the training. A non-equivalent control group design was used to compare whether the training significantly influenced provision of reproductive and child health services in trainee facilities over facilities whether providers had not been trained. The study requested feedback from various players on the HA training strategy. This assessment addressed attributes such as appropriateness, acceptance, achievement of the project’s objectives, how the project was comprehended/perceived and the reliability of this training approach. The HA training led to acquisition of knowledge as indicated by a significant change in the mean score of Module 1 pre-test (32.8) compared to post-test mean score (71.4)(P<.05). A similar trend was found in module 3 in which the mean pre-test score (70.5) was significantly lower than the post-test mean score (87.1)(P<.05). The skills assessment demonstrated a substantial gain in two skills: antenatal clinic client assessment and conducting growth monitoring. However, counseling services, care for mothers and neonates during the postpartum period and care during and monitoring progress in labor did not improve. As a result, the investigators conducted that HAs gained adequate skills in some areas while continued learning is essential in others, possibly through further OJT by the RCH trained CO/ACO at the HA work site. Comparison sites are also in need of improved training to improve their RH/FP skills. The data collection period for the service statistics assessment was divided into three blocks: prior to training (March-June 1998), during training (July-October 1998). The intervention group comprised 29 health facilities while the comparison group contained 25 facilities. For the comparison group, data were collected only for the periods before and after training. Six study instruments (five questionnaire and one data collection sheet) were used as data collection tools. From the RCH-Unit through the regional, district and facility levels, the training approach was considered to be suitable, especially for the targeted (HA) cadre. It was agreed that this target group required a training approach that emphasized practice oriented learning methods instead of a traditional didactic approach. To meet these needs, the project provided two key learning aids: the handbook and cassette tapes. The handbook was considered to be appropriate for three reasons: the handbook satisfactorily covered the training content, it was well illustrated, and it utilized language appropriate to the target audience. The cassette tapes were considered to be suitable learning aids because they were audible and contained appropriate and adequate content. However, audibility reportedly decreased sharply as battery power diminished. Nevertheless, feedback also highlighted area for improvement. Respondents pointed out that the approach was expensive. District planning boards that are responsible for financing training in the post health sector reform (HSR) era may not be able to afford to replicate the training. As a result, they may revert to the traditional central training approach. Respondents also reported that the use of solar powered cassette players were found to be vulnerable to frequent breakdown and other minor mishaps, As a result of these failings, a recommendation was made that ordinary battery-powered cassette players be adopted for future training. A recommendation was also made to review and edit the handbook was easy to understand and the illustrations were clear, they reported that there was room for improvement in these areas as well. The sustainability of this training strategy depends on the availability of sufficient funding to carry out all of the project’s elements, especially learning at the work site. The feasibility of replicating this successful intervention remains to be demonstrated.The HA training strategy set out to achieve certain objectives: develop a curriculum and two complimentary learning aids; select and prepare trainers, and both on and offsite supervisors; update facility in charge staff on RCH; and train a selected number of HAs. It was also planned as a pilot study for testing all of the components and documenting the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. In addition, the training was geared at empowered both the DHMT members and staff at the intervention facilities. This evaluation conducted that the HA training strategy achieved these objective.

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ,(Ed.) WWH. "Tanzania National Language Policy and the Rise of Political Culture." Language Use and Language Change. 1971.
Bosire RM, and(eds) KANACG. "Tanzania: Multilateralism and National Interests in the Nile River Basin Question.". In: Cooperative Diplomacy, Regional Stability and National Interests: The Nile River and the Riparian States. Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa; 2011.
Njeri KM. "Tapping opportunities in Jua Kali enterprise clusters: the case of Ziwani and Kigandaini." IDC working Paper No. 525, IDS University of Nairobi. 2000.
Maany I. "Tardive dyskinesia." Dis Nerv Syst. 1976;37(10):587.
M PROFIRANDUEVARISTUS. "Target Secondary Geography, Form 1 Students' Book.". In: Longhorn Publishers, Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999.
M PROFIRANDUEVARISTUS. "Target Secondary Geography, Form 2 Students' Book.". In: Longhorn Publishers, Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000.
Stenmark KR, Frid MG, Yeager M, Li M, Riddle S, McKinsey T, El Kasmi KC. "Targeting the adventitial microenvironment in pulmonary hypertension: {A} potential approach to therapy that considers epigenetic change." Pulmonary circulation. 2012;2:3-14. Abstract

Experimental data indicate that the adventitial compartment of blood vessels, in both the pulmonary and systemic circulations, like the connective tissue stroma in tissues throughout the body, is a critical regulator of vessel wall function in health and disease. It is clear that adventitial cells, and in particular the adventitial fibroblast, are activated early following vascular injury, and play essential roles in regulating vascular wall structure and function through production of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The recognition of the ability of these cells to generate and maintain inflammatory responses within the vessel wall provides insight into why vascular inflammatory responses, in certain situations, fail to resolve. It is also clear that the activated adventitial fibroblast plays an important role in regulating vasa vasorum growth, which can contribute to ongoing vascular remodeling by acting as a conduit for delivery of inflammatory and progenitor cells. These functions of the fibroblast clearly support the idea that targeting chemokine, cytokine, adhesion molecule, and growth factor production in activated fibroblasts could be helpful in abrogating vascular inflammatory responses and thus in ameliorating vascular disease. Further, the recent observations that fibroblasts in vascular and fibrotic diseases may maintain their activated state through epigenetic alterations in key inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes suggests that current therapies used to treat pulmonary hypertension may not be sufficient to induce apoptosis or to inhibit key inflammatory signaling pathways in these fibroblasts. New therapies targeted at reversing changes in the acetylation or methylation status of key transcriptional networks may be needed. At present, therapies specifically targeting abnormalities of histone deacytelase (HDAC) activity in fibroblast-like cells appear to hold promise.

Stenmark KR, Yeager M, Riddle S, El Kasmi KC, Frid MG, Li M, McKinsey T. "Targeting the adventitial microenvironment in pulmonary hypertension: {A} potential approach to therapy that considers epigenetic change." Pulmonary Circulation. 2012;2:3. AbstractWebsite
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Anthon S, Lund JF, Helles F. "Targeting the poor: taxation of marketed forest products in developing countries.". 1982. Abstract

In this article, we investigate whether taxation of households’ production of marketed forest products in developing countries is likely to assist in achieving the general development objectives of resources conservation and poverty alleviation. Based on an empirical study on such taxation in a village in Tanzania, we develop and solve a theoretical analytical model to analyse taxation, when households’ access to alternative income generating opportunities is heterogeneous. Findings are that taxation adversely affects income equality and has an ambiguous effect on the level of resource utilisation.

Odero AN. Tariff Development for Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1990. Abstract

For my final year undergraduate project, I developed tariffs for various classes of consumers of KPLC electrical energy using the marginal costing technique. This is a forward looking accounting method that takes into account expansion plans and how the power system is to be operated as demand increases. Expansion plans, which would entail capacity/inestment costs, operation and maintenance costs forecasts, administration and general costs forecasts, total kilowatt costs, and peak and off-peak energy and fuel costs, spring from load forecasts. This resulted in an efficient resource allocation scheme in which power prices to consumers are related to the resource costs of changes in consumption, i.e, the addition of a new consumer or an increase in consumption of an existing consumer will impose additional costs on the enterprise, while a reduction in consumption will save costs. These alteration in costs are the ones that need to be reflected in tariffs. The change in the cost to a consumer of altering his electrical behavior will then mirror the change in the cost to the enterprise. This not only results in fair and equitable tariffs, but also ones that inherently have incentives to better consumption patterns by consumers.

This marginal costing technique contrasts sharply with the accounting (traditional) one which is based on examining the records of past expenditure thus becoming backward looking. Such prorated accounting costs are quite different from the costs relevant to resource allocation and creates the illusion that resources which can be used or saved are as cheap or as expensive as in the past, i.e, resources are as abundant or as restricted as in the past. On the one hand this may cause over investment and waste; on the other, it may lead to under investment and unnecessary scarcity. In addition, if the past holds a number of poor projects, the sunk costs of mistakes, if reflected in prices, will overstate the costs to the consumer of extra consumption, which is not efficient. Tariff schedules and the various simplifications thereof are derived by spreading total accounting costs among consumers. This generates tariffs which relate to average rather than to marginal costs.

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Kosgei RJ, Wools-kaloustian KK, Braitstein P, Sidle JE, Sang E, Gitau JN, Sitienei JJ, Owino R, Mamlin JJ, Kimaiyo SN, Siika AM. "Task Shifting in HIV Clinics, Western Kenya." East African Medical Journal . 2010;87(7):299-303.eamj_task_shifting.pdftask_shifting_in_hiv_clinics_western_kenya.pdf
CHAIRMAN PROFJOHNHURIANDERITU, MEMBER DRRONALDMAATHAI, MEMBER DRJOHNSHIUNDU, MEMBER MADAMBIBIANNEWANJA, MEMBER DRKIMAMOGITHUI, MEMBER DRPAMELAOCHIENG, MEMBER DRFRANCISMUREGI, PERSON MRMULATINYUKURIRESOURCE, PERSON PROFPAULOKEMORESOURCE, PERSON PRORAPHAELWAHOMERESOURCE, SECRETARY MRAFUBWAMUSUMI. TASKFORCE REPORT ON MKU POSTGRADUATE TRAINING . Nairobi: MKU; 2012.report_on_postgraduate_training_at_mku_updated.pdf
L Chacha, Onyancha J. "TATHMINI YA LUGHA YA KUFUNDISHIA KUANZIA SHULE ZA CHEKECHEA HADI DARASA LA TATU NCHINI KENYA." Chemchemi International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2016;12(2).
Nielsen L, Sang-oum W, Cheevadhanarak S, Flegel TW. "Taura syndrome virus (TSV) in Thailand and its relationship to TSV in China and the Americas.". 2005. Abstract

The cultivation of exotic Penaeus vannamei in Thailand began on a very limited scale in the late 1990s, but a Thai government ban on the cultivation of P. monodon in freshwater areas in 2000 led many Thai shrimp farmers to shift to cultivation of P. vannamei. Alarmed by the possibility of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) introduction, the Thai Department of Fisheries required that imported stocks of P. vannamei be certified free of TSV by RT-PCR (Reverse Trasciption Polymerase Chain Reaction) testing. During the interval of allowed importation, over 150 000 broodstock shrimp were imported, 67% of these from China and Taiwan. Despite the safeguards, TSV outbreaks occurred and we confirmed the first outbreak by RT-PCR in early 2003. This resulted in a governmental ban on all shrimp broodstock imports from February 2003, but TSV outbreaks have continued, possibly due to original introductions or to the continued illegal importation of stocks. To determine the origin of the TSV in Thailand, the viral coat protein gene VP1 was amplified by RT-PCR from several shrimp specimens found positive for TSV by RT-PCR from January to November 2003. These included 7 samples from P. vannamei disease outbreaks in Thailand, 3 other non-diseased shrimp samples from Thailand and Burma and 6 samples including P. vannamei and P. japonicus from China. Comparison revealed that the Thai, Burmese and Chinese TSV types formed a clade distinct from a clade of TSV types from the Americas.

"Tax and State Building.". In: The International Political Economy of Taxation 1945-Present. Berlin: Bregnan; 2013.
KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "Tax Reforms and Tax Mobilization in Kenya. Refined final report to AERC ( African Economics Research Consortium).". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1997. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
Waris A. "Taxation and a Clean and Healthy Environment: A Case Study of the Mining of Titanium in Kenya.". In: Contemporary Issues in Environmental Taxation . London: Oxford University Press; 2008.
Waris A, Kohonen M, Ranguma J, Mosioma A. Taxation and State Building in Kenya: Using Human Rights to Advance Revenue Capacity. Nairobi: Tax Justice Network; 2010.
A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "Taxation for Environmental Conservation: A Nomadic Survey of Determinative Factors fr Kenya: The African Centre for Technology Studies.". In: The Scottish Law Gazette Vol. 52, No. 4: 119. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1984. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
Lund JF;, Helles F. "Taxation issues in Tanzanian forest decentralisation."; 2006. Abstract

The paper deals with issues of taxation in relation to decentralisation of forest resources. It presents preliminary empirical data from Tanzania in the form of forest taxation records from 12 villages that have gained jurisdiction over forest products taxation through a decentralisation reform. The analysis shows that (i) decentralisation of forest resources can lead to vast improvements of taxation effectiveness and (ii) taxation of forest products may be regressive or progressive in relation to income distribution. Thus, the effects of increased forest taxation effectiveness on poverty alleviation are ambiguous and highly dependent upon the local pattern of forest utilisation. The indication that forest decentralisation can lead to higher effectiveness in the taxation of forest products contradicts some of the general debate on the effects and potentials of decentralisation on taxation, and, hence, provides an argument for continued decentralisation of natural resources.

Lorenz LM, Keane A, Moore JD, Munk CJ, Seeholzer L, Mseka A, Simfukwe E, Ligamba J, Turner EL, Biswaro LR, Okumu FO, GF K, WR M, SJ. M. "Taxis assays measure directional movement of mosquitoes to olfactory cues. Parasites & Vectors." Parasites & Vectors. 2013;3(6):131.
PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "Taxonomy of the Fungus causing speckling disease of Bananas in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Mycology and Biotechnology, Vol. 2(1): 1-6. Taylor & Francis; 1994. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Magutu PO. "TAXPAYERS.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2009.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Taylor L.G., Okelo G.B.A.and Pamba H.O.:Comparison of Mebendazole (Vermox). Combatrin and Alcopar iln the Treatment of Intestinal Nematodes. Afr. Med. J. 59: 1982.". In: Afr. Med. J. 59: 1982. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1982. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Taylor MM, Chohan B, Lavreys L, Hassan W, Huang ML, Corey L, Ashley Morrow R, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kreiss J.Shedding of human herpesvirus 8 in oral and genital secretions from HIV-1-seropositive and -seronegative Kenyan wo.". In: J Infect Dis. 2004 Aug 1;190(3):484-8. Epub 2004 Jul 7. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
Polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the prevalence and correlates of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) in saliva, mouth, cervical, vaginal, plasma, and peripheral-blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from 174 HHV8-seropositive female prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. The prevalence of detection of HHV8 was 32% in saliva samples, 28% in mouth swabs, 4% in cervical swabs, 2.3% in vaginal swabs, 9% in plasma samples, and 18% in PBMC samples. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositivity was associated with detection of HHV8 from any mucosal surface (odds ratio, 2.1 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.0]). In HIV-1-seropositive women, there was no association between detection of HHV8 and either CD4 count or HIV-1 viral load.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "TAYLOR, C.R. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1970) The effect of heat stress and dehydration on intake and digestion of food in some East African bovids. Proceedings of International Congress of Game Biologists, Helsinski, Finland, August 1967, p. 385.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1970. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "TAYLOR, C.R., HEGLUND, N.C. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1982) Energetics and mechanisms of terrestrial locomotion I. Metabolic energy consumption as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals. Journal of Experimental Biology 97, 1-21.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1982. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "TAYLOR, C.R., MALOIY, G.M.O., HEGLUND, N.C. and CAVAGNA, G.A.(1983) Energetic cost of carrying heavy loads: have African women discovered an economic mechanism? Proceedings of International Union of Physiological Sciences 15, 139.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "TAYLOR, C.R., MALOIY, G.M.O., WEIBEL, E.R., LANGMAN, V.A.,KAMAU, J.M.Z., SEEHERMAN, H. J. and HEGLUND, N.C. (1981).(1981) Design of the mammalian respiratory system III. Scaling maximum aerobic capacity to body mass: wild and domestic mammals. Respiration.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1981. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "TAYLOR, C.R., SEEHERMAN, H.J., MALOIY, G.M.O., HEGLUND, N.C. and KAMAU, J.M.Z.(1978) Scaling maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) to body size in mammals. Federation Proceedings 37, 473.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1978. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Taylor, J.F., Davis, S.K., Ruvuna, F., Rurangirwa, F., Bhebhe, E., Kogi, J.K., McGuire, T.C., Jasmer, D.P. & Waruiru, R.M., 1993. Quantitative and mollecular approaches to genetic improvement of the Kenya dual purpose goat.". In: In: Proc. Small Ruminant Workshop, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 7-9 September, 169-81 pp. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
Marianne W. Mureithi, Adam Finn MOQZVDTMOJ, Neil A. Williams, Richard A. Adegbola RHS. "TCellMemoryResponsetoPneumococcalProtein Antigens in an Area of High Pneumococcal Carriage and Disease." The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009;(200):783-93.marianne_mureithi_jid_paper.pdf
Ndung'u I. "Teach English Not About English." Paper published in the Standard Newspaper of 25th November 2002; 2002. Abstract
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"Teacher attitudes towards teaching following in-service program in Kenya." International Journal of Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5(4).
"Teacher Demand and Supply in Secondary Schools in Kenya: Equity, Quality and Policy Performance." African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research . 2013;1(ISSN 2304 – 2885):92-97.kimani_8.pdf
Kimani G.N., A.M. K, L.W. N. "Teacher Factors Influencing Students Academic Achievement in Secondary Schools in Nyandarua County, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research . 2013;3(ISSN 2201 – 6333):145-158 .kimani_11.pdf
Wanjala G, L.P O. "Teacher Perception of Performance Appraisal and Development Tool in Public Primary Schools in Mumias East Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge . 2019;4(6):69-78.abstract_.pdf
Musau LM, Migosi JA. "Teacher Qualification and Students’ Academic Performance in Science Mathematics and Technology Subjects in Kenya." International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies. 2015;7(3):83-89.
Ganira K, Odundo P, Kahiga R, Muriithi EM, Mwangi J. "Teacher Sustenance of Emotional Balance among Children aged 4-6 with Disability in Kenya: Addressing Safety, Actualization and Independence. ." International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education (IJTIE), Special Issue . 2016;3(1):948-955.
and Ganira, K.L. OKMMK’ura.PARW. "Teacher sustenance of emotional balance among children aged 4-6 with disability in Kenya: Addressing safety, actualization and independence." International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education (IJTIE).. 2016;3(1).
Ngesu L. "Teacher training and management of schools: An overview of practice in Kenyan institutions." Journal of African Studies in Educational Management and Leadership. 2010;1(1).
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Teacher training through distance education: The Kenya Experience. Published in Journal of the Kenya Adult Education Association Vol 1 No. 2.". In: Paper presented at Satelite Education Demonstration at Kikuyu Campus, University of Nairobi. Thought and Practice; 1994. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
Bailasha NK, Rintaugu EG, Wanderi PM. "Teacher- Trainee attitudes towards Physical Education in Kenya." Education Research and Review,. 2012;7(27):585-588.
Gitonga ER, Andanje M, Wanderi PW, Bailasha N. "Teacher-trainees attitudes towards Physical Education in Kenya." Educational Reviews and Research. 2012;7(27):585-588.
Kimani G.N., A.M. K, B OT. "Teachers and Pupils views on Persistent use of Corporal Punishment in Managing Discipline in Primary Schools in Starehe Division, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2. 2012;19(ISSN 2220 – 8488):268-274.kimani_16.pdf
Gatumu JC. Teachers and students attitudes towards Christian Religious Education.. Saarbrucken: Scholars press. ISBN 9783639710205; 2014. Abstract

The research discussed in this book sought to penetrate the functional role fo teachers and students’ attitudes towards Christian Religious Education in Kenya. A mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) approach was employed with the investigations being ‘ex post facto’ in design. A random stratified procedure was employed to select the constituents of the sample. The sample consisted of 49 teachers and 909 students. The methodology, findings, discussion, conclusions and recommendations of the research are presented in the book.

LAVERA DRLEVI. "Teachers Guide for Bk I.". In: Teachers Guide. ISCTRC; 2002. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
LAVERA DRLEVI. "Teachers Guide for Bk II.". In: Teachers Guide. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
WAMBUA MRMUASYAISAAC, OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Teachers Manual for "MSINGI BORA" Careers Guidance and Counseling a Gender Component. A project of Plan International.". In: CHAKITA. EAEP; 1998. Abstract
The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.
WAMBUA MRMUASYAISAAC, OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Teachers Manual for "MSINGI BORA" Careers Guidance and Counseling a Gender Component. A project of Plan International.". In: University of Nairobi. 2003; 1998. Abstract

This paper argues that problems in education are caused by non-professional teachers who are employed when trained teachers move in search of promotion friendly activities or financially rewarding duties. This shift of focus means that policy makers in education act without adequate professional guidance. The problems in education, therefore, result from demands made on mainstream education based on misconceptions about what education can offer. It is argued that the implementation of e-learning in education faces the risk of developing on the basis of unproven theories. This scenario increasingly sees the replacement of formal education activities in institutions of learning with non-formal and informal education practices. Given that the contents and influences of non-formal and informal education are not under the control of the teacher, the experiences that learners bring to education settings are increasingly difficult to manage. The paper proposes that by integrating e-learning in teacher education and rewarding 'good teaching', there is a potential for a successful e-learning revolution in education.

Oredo J. "Teachers Need Appropriate ICT Skills." The Standard, November 15, 2020.
Iraki XN. "Teachers Pay vs. Economic Reality." The Standard, August 29, 2015.
Kimani GN, Lucy W Njagi. "Teachers' and students' perception of challenges of implementing HIV/AIDS education programme in secondary schools: A case study of Othaya Division, Nyeri District, Kenya." The Fountain, Journal of Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi . 2002;3(ISSN 2079-3383):96-102.kimani_17.pdf
Ndungu CW, Kibui AW. "Teachers' Characteristics on Motivation of Pre-School children in learning the English language in Starehe District in Nairobi County, Kenya. BEST." International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences. 2016;4(1): 61-66.
Kyule MD. "Teachers' experiences in teaching evolution.". In: Building Bridges between Evolution and Religion. The Prehistory Clubs of Kenya/National Museums of Kenya ; 2011. Abstract

Although prehistory and evolutionary studies are included in the Kenyan secondary school biology and history subjects, lack of consistent up-dating of the syllabi and sheer ignorance by a very large cross-section of teachers has led to paucity of enthusiasm among students towards these subjects. Further, the educators do not have access to up-to-date information emanating from the recent prehistory research. The net effect of this is lack of knowledge and appreciation of prehistory particularly among the youth.

Inyega JO. Teachers' practices and experiences following professional development: A Kenya multi-site analysis. Saarbrucken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller (ISBN: 978-3-639-32625-3). Online available: www.amazon.com. SAARBRUCKEN: VDM- Verlag Dr. Muller; 2011. AbstractWebsite

In this qualitative research case study, multi-site cases of teachers' practices and experiences about chemistry unit lesson planning and implementation following an in-service teacher education program in Kenya are examined. Specifically, a descriptive comparison of chemistry educators in the Strengthening of Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education (SMASSE) In-service Program in four different school settings (boys' boarding, girls' boarding, mixed boarding, and mixed day) was made. The intent of this study was to determine what changes, if any, teachers made in the design and implementation of their lessons, how these changes were implemented, and why the teachers made such changes. Among other findings, the study established that participants planned, prepared and implemented student-centered activity lessons using a new lesson plan format during chemistry unit lessons on the Periodic Table, "Mole Concept", Electrochemistry, and Organic Chemistry. They improvised teaching/learning materials, where conventional equipment were not available in school.

Inyega JO, Inyega HN. "Teachers’ attitude towards teaching following in-service teacher education program in Kenya." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5(4):93-102.
"Teachers’ Involvement in Children’s Transition from pre-primary school to class one in Soy Division." African Journal of Education Science and Technology (AJEST). 2015.
Kingi, P. M. AKOGA &. "Teachers’ Level of Participation in Management of Change in Relation to Curriculum and Instruction and its Effects on Teachers Motivation in Selected Counties, Kenya." International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Research. 2017;4(12):3316-3322.
Kingi PM. "Teachers’ Participation in Management of Financial resources and Motivation." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2018;7(4):1331-1338.
Kingi PM. "Teachers’ Participation in Management of Financial resources and Motivation." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2018;7(4):1331-1338.
Inyega JO, Inyega HN. "Teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge following in -service training in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies.. 2017;5(5):8-13.
"Teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge following in-service program in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2017;5(5).
Mbatia J, Okoth UA. "Teachers’ Perceptions on headteachers’ supervisory practices on performance of duty in primary schools in Nakuru North Sub County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS). 2017;ISSN: 2394-4404.
Masika M. "A Teachers’ Perspective of School-based Human Papillomavirus Vaccination of Girls in Kitui County: Knowledge, Acceptability, Facilitators, Barriers & Opportunities.". 2014. Abstractabstract_msc_thesis_-_teachers_perspective_on_hpv_vaccination_in_kitui_county.pdf

A Teachers’ Perspective of School-based Human Papillomavirus Vaccination of Girls in Kitui County: Knowledge, Acceptability, Facilitators, Barriers & Opportunities

Masika MM

Background: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Two effective Human papillomavirus vaccines are available as means of preventing the disease. School-based vaccination has been identified as a viable delivery method but there is need understand the local environment for optimal vaccine delivery and uptake among adolescent girls in schools.

Objective: To assess knowledge and acceptability of HPV vaccine in primary school teachers in Kitui County and explore the facilitators, barriers and opportunities presented by the HPV vaccination of class four girls.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional, mixed methods study conducted in Kitui Central Division of Kitui County where the Ministry of Health is administering the quadrivalent HPV vaccine to all class four girls. Self-administered questionnaires were filled by 339 primary school teachers and two focus group discussions with a total of 13 participants were held. We collected data on awareness, knowledge and acceptability of HPV vaccine as well as facilitators, barriers and opportunities presented by the project. Analysis was done using SPSS® (quantitative data) and ATLAS.ti® (qualitative data) testing associations using chi-square for categorical variables and t-test for numerical variables.

Results: Sixty percent of the respondents were female. The mean age was 40 years (standard deviation (SD) = 10.7). Nearly all were Christians (99%), 1% were Muslims. Most respondents (90%) were aware of the vaccination exercise. The average score on knowledge was 48% with women scoring significantly higher than men (50% vs 46%, p=0.002). The level of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer among teachers was moderate (48%, SD = 10.9). Most teachers would recommend the vaccine to their daughter or close relative (89%). Teachers who would recommend the vaccine had more knowledge than those who would not (49% vs 40% p=<0.001). Nearly all teachers wanted to know more about HPV vaccine (98%). Most felt that the vaccine was safe (79%) and should be continued (93%). The main barriers reported by the teachers were insufficient information about the vaccine, poor accessibility of schools, absenteeism of school girls on vaccine days and fear of side effects.

Conclusion and Recommendations: Despite low to moderate levels of knowledge about HPV vaccine in the study population, vaccine acceptability is high. Nevertheless, knowledge and awareness had a significant effect on whether teachers would recommend the vaccine to their daughter or close relative or not. There is need to come up with cost-effective means of disseminating information on HPV vaccine among teachers, parents and pupils in our settings.

Thesis submitted as part of the requirements for a Master of Science degree in Tropical and Infectious Diseases at the University of Nairobi Institute of Tropical & Infectious Diseases

Sakwa JM, Okunya LO. "Teachers’ Understanding of Menstrual Cycle in Navakholo Sub-County, Kakamega County, Kenya ." International Journal of Learning and Development . 2018;8(4):1-18.sakwa__ijld_08201.pdf
ASIAGO DORCAH, GATHII ALICE, Ngesu LM, Gunga SO, Gakuru A, Kahigi C, Nyaga VK, Oundo MB, Kamoyo JM, ADEGBORO JS, others. "TEACHERS’PERCEPTIONS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PRACTICES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LIMURU DISTRICT.". Submitted. Abstract
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M. MS. "A Teacher’s View of Drug and Substance Abuse.". In: Recognition and Management of people suffering from problems of drug and substance abuse. Juja; 2003.
Jastrow H, Vollrath L. "Teaching and learning gross anatomy using modern electronic media based on the visible human project." Clinical Anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2003;16:44-54. Abstract

This article reviews online (Internet) anatomy projects and multimedia productions (books and CD-ROMs) based on the Visible Human Project (VHP) of the United States National Library of Medicine. The focus of these projects and productions is on the teaching of 3D anatomy using the digitized sections of the visible human male and female. The article also provides information about the VHP, its goals and what it has achieved thus far.

Dinsmore CE, Daugherty S, Zeitz HJ. "Teaching and learning gross anatomy: {Dissection}, prosection, or “both of the above?”." Clinical Anatomy. 1999;12:110-114. AbstractWebsite
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B N, Kibui A, Mwanda S. "Teaching as Communication.". In: TRAINING N IN PEDAGOGY VOL 1. NAIROBI: CODL; 2014.
P. R, Schagen VB, Chakeredza S, Njoroge K, Kamau H, Baena M. "Teaching Biodiversity: A curriculum Guide for Higher Education.". In: Biodiversity International, Rome Italy.; 2011.
"Teaching Canadian Literature in the University of Nairobi." Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies. 2020:1-17.
OTIENO DRJOWI. "Teaching in Communication.". In: Seminar paper presented at staff Development seminars at the Kenya Institute for Monetary Studies, Nairobi and organized by the University of Nairobi. The Kenya Medical Association; Submitted. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
Oduor JAN. "Teaching Kiswahili Pronunciation in Secondary Schools in Kenya: The Necessity to use the Right Information and Descriptive Tools." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2012;2(2224-1655):1-41.
SAMUEL PROFKIBICHO. ""Teaching of Afrian Religion in our schools and colleges and the christian attitude towards this religion," African Theological Journal.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1981. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Teaching of Africa Literature in the 21st Century (In Press: University of Nairobi Press).". In: In 'Wajibu, Journal of Social and Religious Concern', Vol. 19, No. 3 (Sept.- Oct.). uon press; 1996. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Teaching of African literature in schools vol.1 Edited by Eddah Gachukia and Kichamu Akivaga, K (Kenya Literature).". In: Paper read at the conferenceon Human Development. Models in Action praxis and History in Mogadishu (Somalia) June 17 th . Elsevier; 1978. Abstract
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"The Teaching of Architectural History; Paper presented in seminar on Architectural Education .". In: seminar on Architectural Education . University of Nairobi ; 1990.
NGINYE MICHAEL. "The Teaching of French in Kenyan Universities: The Relevance of French." Annual Journal of the United States International University; 2008. Abstract
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Mweseli M. "Teaching of Poetry.". In: Teaching of Poetry. Lodwar High School; 2005.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "The Teaching of Political Economy in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the Conference on the Teaching of Political Science in east Africa, Arusha, Tanzania January.; 1990. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

INYEGA DRHELLENNASIMIYUH. "Teaching online courses: Lessons learned.". In: The Fountain Journal Vol 4 No. 2. College Reading Association Year Book; 2007. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This paper introduces teacher educators to online literacy instruction and shares insights on course development by describing the process of developing on-line literacy courses using WebCT. Lessons learned are shared including how to develop an online community, how to decide what content can be in online courses, lessons learned related to logistics, and how to manage the time needed for online instruction. This paper is designed for those new to online instruction or who are just considering this format.
Inyega J. Teaching online courses: Lessons learned. College Reading Association Yearbook; 2007.
NASIMIYUH INYEGAHELLEN. "Teaching online courses: Lessons learned.". 2013.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Teaching Oral Literature in Conditions of Theoretical Pluralism."In Reflections on Theories and Methods in Oral Literature. Eds. Okoth Okombo and Jane Nandwa. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1992. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
"Gunga SO", "Nzuki PK". "Teaching Practice Benchmarking Methodology: The Way to Teacher Education Professionalism in Kenya.". In: Teaching Practice Symposium. Tangaza College, Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Benchmarking in Teaching Practice (TP) is the process of identification of "best practice" in relation to quality of teachers produced. It involves assessment of the processes by which teachers are trained and posted to various institutions for Internship. The objective of benchmarking in TP is to understand and evaluate the current position of the organization of teacher education process in relation to "best practice", and to identify areas and possible means of performance improvement.
The purpose of this paper was to assess how Kenyan teacher education institutions in general and university of Nairobi in particular could position themselves compared to teacher education institutions globally, in the professional management of TP. The paper proposes a benchmarking methodology which the authors believe will be appropriate for professional teaching attachment and to which the various teacher education institutions in Kenya could adhere.
Key words:
Benchmarking, professionalism, Cooperating Teachers, supervision, placement

and Gatumu J.C., Inyega J.O. IHN. "Teaching Practice Experience: Invaluable insights from video cases in Kenya." the Fountain Journal of Educational Research. 2013;(ISSN 2079-3383).
Gatumu JC, Inyega JO, Inyega HN. "Teaching practice experiences: Invaluable insights from video cases in Kenya." The Fountain Journal of Educational Research. 2011;V(1):11-30. Abstract

Decline in quality education has become one of the major challenges facing the education sector as the Government tries to widen access to basic education. To address these challenges, the major thrust has been to develop feasible policies, objectives, strategies, programs and activities to guide the development of the sector. For instance, the strategies proposed by MPET for primary education included increasing access and participation as well as raising relevance and quality. However, the quality of education can not be improved without improving the teacher. Consequently, many primary school teachers went back to school and enrolled in degree courses at universities. This paper discusses the attempt to assess the extent to which the teacher who enrolled in the B.Ed. program of the University of Nairobi have been able to expand their knowledge and pedagogical skills in different subjects. Can these teachers contribute to improved efficiency and effectiveness with respect to the provision and delivery of education? In what ways have they contributed to increased in education at the primary level?

N. IH. "Teaching Practice experiences: Invaluable insights from video-cases in Kenya." The Fountain: Journal of Educational Research. 2011;V(1):11-30.
MINYAFU DRAYOTROBERT. "Teaching Practice in Kenya, Educational Research and Publications, 2002.". In: Educational Research and Publications, 2002. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
This analysis attempted to capture the key economic and financial trends in the budget in the 1995/6 year and to provide the rationale for them. These trends were linked to fundamental requisites for development and sustainable growth.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Teaching Practice: Students Handbook. University of Nairobi Press: Nairobi ,1990 pp. 139.". In: University of Nairobi Press: Nairobi ,1990 pp. 139. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1990. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Teaching Practice: Theoretical Basis Models and Issues. Proceedings of University of Nairobi Staff Development Workshop held at Diani Beach Hotel, Mombasa .". In: Proceedings of University of Nairobi Staff Development Workshop held at Diani Beach Hotel, Mombasa . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Teaching Practice: Theoretical Basis Models and Issues. Proceedings of University of Nairobi Staff Development Workshop held at Diani Beach Hotel, Mombasa .". In: Proceedings of University of Nairobi Staff Development Workshop held at Diani Beach Hotel, Mombasa . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
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O.O. DIGOLO. TEACHING PRACTICE: THEORY AND PRACTICE. NAIROBI: AFROVISION PUBLISHER; 2013.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Teaching the Law of Immovable Property: a personal assessment"; paper for the Faculty of Law, Staff Seminar Service University of Nairobi, Main Campus.". In: Academics Press, New york. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1978. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.

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