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Onyango CM, Kunyanga CN, Karanja DN, Wahome RG. " EMPLOYER PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY TRAINING IN KENYA ." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research . 2018;6(1):175-185.
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Opanga SA, Mulaku MN, Okalebo FA, Mwang’ombe NJ, Kuria KAM. " Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis and Grading of Evidence on the Effectiveness of Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Neurosurgical Site Infections." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2017;Vol. 6(No. 1 , February 2017 ):Pages 1-13.
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Kamunya SM, Oboko RO, Maina EM, Miriti EK. " A Systematic Review of Gamification Within E-Learning." igi-global.com. 2021:18. AbstractWebsite

The focus of this study was to review and evaluate the effectiveness of gamification within e-learning platforms. The study deployed systematic literature review methodology to evaluate how effective gamification has been used within e-learning platforms. The study used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Approach (PRISMA), starting with 366 articles, shifting to a final 34 articles for consideration. It was established that gamification positively influences and enhances learning within the e-learning platform. Therefore, the study recommends policy makers, designers, and implementers of e-learning platforms to consider incorporating gamification elements in order to increase user motivation and engagement for enhanced learning.

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Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. " Arimi, S.M; Koroti, E; Kang'ethe, E.K; Omore, A.O; McDermott, J.J; Macharia, J.K; Nduhiu, J.G; Githua, A.M ."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common

Uwizeyimana, D., Karuku NG, Mureithi MS, Kironchi, G. " Assessing the potential of surface runoff generated from a conserved catchment under drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda." Journal of Hydrologeology & Hydrologic Engineering. 2018;7 (1):1-9.
Gathumbi JK, Kanja LW, Maitho TE, Mbaria JM, Nduhiu JG, Gitau FK, Ndiritu JG, Lucy MM, Maloba K. " Assessment of lead and copper in fish and soil sediments in Kirinyaga South District, Kenya." Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation . 2013;8(3):145-150.
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Kibaru EG, Nduati R, Wamalwa D, Kariuki. N. " Baseline Haematological Indices among HIV-1 Infected Children at Kenyatta National Hospital ." International Journal of Novel Research in Healthcare. 2014;1(1):21-26.
E KJ, Frederick OCF, M KE, Violet O-H, Kenn M. "The Burden of Co-morbid Depression in Ambulatory Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research. 2016;3(1). AbstractThe Burden of Co-morbid Depression in Ambulatory Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

Background:
Co-morbid depression is a serious condition in patients with diabetes that negatively affects their self-management, including drug adherence, consequently, the treatment outcomes and quality of life are also affected.
Objective:
To determine the burden of co-morbid depression in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and to document their socio-demographic and
clinical characteristics and any associated risk factors.
Methods:
This was a cross-sectional study done on patients living with type-2 diabetes on follow-up at the diabetes out-patient clinic (DOPC) at the KNH. Systematic sampling method was used to recruit 220 study subjects. The PHQ-9 questionnaire was used to assess for co-morbid depression. Socio-demographic and clinical details were obtained both from the subjects and their medical records. Physical examination was done, including blood pressure and BMI determined. Blood samples were collected from the cubital fossa to measure HbA1C in COBAS INTEGRA system with its reagent in the pre-dilution cuvette for automated analysis of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Statistical associations of patients’ characteristics and co-morbid depression were determined using Chi-square test and Odds Ratios.
Results:
The prevalence of co-morbid depression in patients with type 2 diabetes at the DOPC of KNH using the PHQ-9 was
32.3% (95% CI 26.4-38.6%). Of these, depression was mild in 42.3%,moderate in 40.8% and severe in 16%. Subjects with co- morbid depression were: aged 65years and above (p = 0.006), over-weight/obese (p = 0.035), and had longer duration of diabetes of 5years and above. The presence of co-morbid depression was significantly associated with poor glycaemic control, (OR = 3.3,
95% CI, 1.6 - 6.8, p = 0.001).
Conclusion:
About one-third (32.3%) of the study subjects with type 2 diabetes had co-morbid depression. Patients with type 2 diabetes who are at higher risk (older age of 65 years and above, long duration of diabetes, poor glycaemic control and presence of diabetes-related complications,) should be screened for co-morbid

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Osiro OA, Simila HO, Kisumbi BK. " Dental Biomaterials Science (Module IV): Indirect Restorative and Prosthetic Materials.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module IV): Indirect Restorative and Prosthetic Materials. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Abade OE, Kawaguchi N. " Design and Implementation of an XCAST6 Routing Engine.". In: at the 79th Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) meeting. Beijing, China; 2010.
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Mercy B, Mbaria J, Muchemi G, Gakuya F, Kariuki E, Wamiti W. " Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals and Water Bird Distribution in Rift Valley Lakes, Kenya." Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment9(3): 30-44. 2017;9(3):30-44.
Uwizeyimana, D., SM M, Karuku G, G K. " Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda ." International Soil and Water Conservation Research.. 2018;6(3):21.
KIPKEMOI TOWETTPHILEMON, Kanui TI. " Effects of Pethidine, Acetylsalicylic acid and Indomethacin on pain and behaviour in the naked mole-rat." Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behaviour . 1993;45:153-159. AbstractScienceDirect

The antinociceptive and behavioral effects of pethidine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg), acetylsalicylic acid (200, 400, or 600 mg/kg) and indomethacin (20, 40, or 50 mg/kg) in the naked mole-rat was studied in the hot-plate test. Instead of inducing analgesia, pethidine caused a dose-dependent reduction in response latency. Sensorimotor impairment and aggressive behavior were also observed following administration of pethidine (20 or 30 mg/kg). All animals recieving pethidine (30 mg/kg) died following fighting when kept in colony cages. Aggressive behavior and death was prevented by naloxone or by keeping animals in single cages. Acetylsalicylic acid (600 mg/kg) and indomethacin (40 or 50 mg/kg) caused a significant increase in response latency. It is concluded that in the mole-rat pethidine elicits aggression, sensorimotor impairment, and apparent hypergesia.

Kipyegon AN, Mutembei HM TVTT. " Effects of Ripe Carica Papaya Seed Powder on Testicular Histology of Boars." international journal of veterinary science. 2012;1(1):1-4.
K. MJ, G. KS, M. M, M. NJ, M. MJ. " Evaluation of genotoxicity potential of plants traditionally used for mosquito control in Kenya’s South coast. ." Merit Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2016;4 (4) (ISSN: 2354-323X):178-182.
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Kunyanga CN, Imungi JK, Biesalski HK. " http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0023643811002659 http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/17023 .". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Certain indigenous foods commonly consumed by Kenyan vulnerable groups (the malnourished; children under 5 years of age; pregnant and lactating women; malnourished adults in cases of vitamin or mineral deficiencies, TB, diabetes, cancer, AIDS; refugees; orphans the elderly and the disabled) are not yet evaluated for phenolic content and health relevant functionality. The present study was therefore designed to analyze the phenolic content, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed food ingredients. The total phenolic contents of the cereals, legumes, oil seeds and vegetables were ranged from 0.41 to 3.00 g/100 g DM. Amaranth grain (Amaranthus cruentus) and drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera) exhibited significantly higher phenolic content than the other samples. The methanolic extract of the investigated samples showed promising levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity (81–89%); ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP, 44–744 mmolL−1 Fe[II]/g extract DM); α-amylase (10–45%) and α-glucosidase (13–80%) inhibition activities. The food ingredients with high phenolic content exhibited relatively higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The results indicate that soaking + cooking is the mild processing method to preserve the phenolic compounds and their health relevant functionality in the presently investigated cereal, legume and oil grains, while cooking is suitable treatment for vegetables.

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Kibaru EG, Nduati R, D Wamalwa KN, Kariuki N. " Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on hematological indices among HIV-1 infected children at Kenyatta National Hospital-Kenya." AIDS Research and Therapy. 2015;(12:26). Abstract

BACKGROUND:
HIV infected children experience a range of hematological complications which show marked improvement within 6 months of initiating anti-retroviral therapy. The Objectives of the study was to describe the changes in hematological indices of HIV-1 infected children following 6 months of treatment with first line antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) regimen.

METHODS:
A retrospective study was conducted between September and November 2008. During this period medical records of children attending Comprehensive Care Clinic at Kenyatta National hospital were reviewed daily. HIV infected children aged 5-144 months were enrolled if they had received antiretroviral drugs for at least 6 months with available and complete laboratory results.

RESULTS:
Medical records of 337 children meeting enrollment criteria were included in the study. The median age was 63 months with equal male to female ratio. Following 6 months of HAART, prevalence of anemia (Hemoglobin (Hb) <10 g/dl) declined significantly from 35.9 to 16.6 % a nearly 50 % reduction in the risk of anemia RR = 0.56 [(95 % CI 0.44, 0.70) p < 0.001]. There was significant increase in Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and platelets above the baseline measurements (p < 0.0001) and a significant decline in total white blood cell counts >11,000 cell/mm(3) but a none significant decrease in red blood cells (RBC). Pre-HAART, World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3 and 4 was associated with a ten-fold increased likelihood of anemia. Chronic malnutrition was associated with anemia but not wasting and immunologic staging of disease.

CONCLUSION:
Hematological abnormalities changed significantly within 6 months of antiretroviral therapy with significant increase in hemoglobin level, MCV, MCH and platelet and decrease in WBC and RBC.

KEYWORDS:
Changes of hematological parameters; Hematological abnormalities; Paediatric HIV infection

Dorothy MC, Kuzilwa J,(eds) TG-E. " Industrialising Africa in the Era of Globalisation.". In: Challenges to Clothing and Footwear. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.; 2009. Abstract

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DK M, Mutegi R, Kipruto S, Muriithi M, Oleche OM, Mwabu G, YOUNGER SD. " Inequality trends and diagnostics in Kenya," Working Paper, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics."; 2020.
Branthomme A, Bunning C, Kamerlaczyk S, Rodas R., Anyango SO, Situma C. Integrated Natural Resources Assessment Kenya: field manual . Rome: FAO; 2009.
G Nduhiu, Gicheru MM, Gathura PB, Karanja NK, Githinji WT, Nordin A. " Internalization of enteropathogenic human bacteria in lettuce and coriander plant tissue." ISABB Journal of Health and Environmental Sciences . 2018;5(3):28-32.
KONGERE TO. "" Introduction to Business: A Kenyan Perspective",.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1996. Abstract

This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

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Mbithi LM, Okelo JA, Kiriti-Nganga TW. " Jounce of the African Women Studies Centre, Vol. 2.". In: WTO chair vol 2: Trade discourse in Kenya: Some topical issues V ol. 2.; 2012.
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Mwaniki SW;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo F;, Kimenju JW. " Major insects of crops in Kenya.". In: 9th Triennial Symposium for International Society for Tropical Root and Tuber crops- Africa Branch, 31st October .; 2004.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Mureithi SM, Mvuyekure SM, Karuku G, Karuku G. " Modelling surface runoff using the soil conservation service-curve number method in a drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda. International Soil and Water Conservat." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2019;7 (1):9-17.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi, S.M., Mvuyekure SM, Karuku G, Kironchi G. " Modelling surface runoff using the soil conservation service-curve number method in a drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda. International Soil and Water Conservat." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2019;7 (1):9-17.
HEDIMBI M, KAAYA GP, CHINSEMBU KC. " Mortalities induced by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to different ticks of economic importance using two formulations." International Research Journal of Microbiology. 2011;2:141-145.
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 Mbau JS, Nyangito MM, Gachene CKK, Kathumo VM, Worden J. " Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) for Sustainable Natural Resource Management: The Case Study of Taita Taveta County, Southern Kenya. .". In: Sustainable Land Management in Dry Lands of Kenya. Nairobi: UNDP, ISBN No. 978-9966-1805-51. Chapter 3, pp. 35-53.; 2015.
Mutiso SK, Kibett K, Obara J. " Perceptions of Agriculture Teachers toward the Integration of Adaptation Strategy Topics on Climate Change in Secondary School Agriculture Syllabus in Machakos County, Kenya." International Organization of Scientific Research- Journal of Research Method in Education (IOSR-JRME) . 2014;4(5):1-15.Website
H. MWIZERWA, GO A, K. MS, MW O, P. GACHERU, M. MUIRU, B. OBURA, B VILJOEN. " Profiling of microbial content and growth in fermented maize-based products from western Kenya." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science . 2018;6(2):509-519.
with Kanji N, Braga C. Promoting Rights in Africa: How do NGOs make a difference? . London: iied.; 2002.
Kathurima I. " Putnam’s inequality for n-Power normal, n-Power quasinormal and w-hyponormal operators, ." Pioneer jnl of mathematics and mathematical sciences. 2014. Abstract

Every reducible operator can be decomposed into normal and completely non-normal operators.
Unfortunately, there are several non normal operators which are irreducible. However, every
operator whose self-commutator is bounded, is reducible. Putnam’s inequality implies boundedness
of the self-commutator for hyponormal operators. In this paper, the Putnam’s inequality is
studied for n-Power normal, n-power quasinormal and w-hyponormal operators.

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Kotikot T, Ndalamia J, OGUTU H, B Nyaoke, MW MUREITHI, Farah B, C Perciani, Mac Donald K, Anzala O, Jaoko W. " Reproductive Tract Infections Among Low Risk Women Attending KAVI-VZV 001 Study in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES ."; 2016.
Were S,; Olubayo, F.; Nderitu KKJH; D;, Nderitu JH;, Kilalo D;, Koech A;. " Resistance of potato varieties to potato tubermoth (phthorimaea opercullela (Zeller). ). .". In: UON Agro 2011. C.A.V.S; 2011.
Mugo, N, Nancy N. Karanja, Gachene CN, Klaus Dittert, Harun I. Gitari, E. S-G. " Response of potato crop to selected nutrients in central and eastern highlands of Kenya. ." Cogent Food & Agriculture. . 2021;7(1):1898762..
Aloyo A, Kinuthia DA, sine KA, Mulaku M, A G. " Risk factors for Insulin Prescription Errors in a Public Tertiary Care Hospital in Sub-Saharan Africa. Drug Safety ." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018;41(14):14.
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Bigsten A, Kimoyo P. " Technical Efficiency and Productivity.". In: Structure and Performance of Manufacturing in Kenya.; 1998.
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and with Kibwana ECK, Wanjala S, Mute: L. " The Case for an Ombudsman in Kenya. ." Nairobi. CLARIPRESS; 1998.
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Kariuki MI, Muturi WM, Mwangi CI. " The relationship between borrowing behaviours and indebtedness of employees in the formal sector in Kenya ." Journal of Economics and Finance . 2016;7(6):16-22.
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Munysa; A, Kabutbei JL,.; Chemingwa GN;, Kimani PM;, and Mburu MW, Nderitu JH. " Thumbnail Evaluation of drought tolerance mechanisms in Mesoamerican dry bean genotypes .". In: agro 2011. Vol. 1.; 2011.
Muema E, Kinyanjui P, Mbaria J, Nguta J, Chepkwony S, Kamau J, Onkoba N, Nyachieo A. " Toxicity and safety of Khat (Cantha edulis) consumption during pregnancy using olive Baboons (Papio Anubis as Experimental Models: A prospective Randomized study." Greener Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health. 2016;4(3): 061-070.
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musimbi kavai M, Chepchirchir A,. RK. " Women’s Knowledge of vesicovaginal fistula. ." African journal of midwifery and womens Health. 2010;Vol. 4 number 4 (Oct-Dec ).
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Kibera FN. " “An Input-Output Model for Analyzing Retailing Systems in Kenya." SOKONI Journal of Marketing Society of Kenya. 1987.
and KLW, Kibera F. " “Guidelines for Writing Academic Research Projects”. ." Fountain. Journal of Faculty of Education. 2011:117-129.
Kibera FN. " “How Rural Buyers View Different Sources of Agricultural Information”." Management, Journal of Kenya Institute of Management. 1982.
Kibera FN. " “On Measuring Literacy”." Management Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management. 1984:13-14.
Kibera FN. " “The Effect of Message Content and Source Credibility of Information Gain by Coffee Smallholders in Central Kenya." , Journal of Management Business and Economics, Institute of Business Administration, University of Dakar, Dhaka, . 1985;11(3).
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Esho T, Kimani S, Nyamongo I, Kimani V, Muniu S, Kigondu C, Ndavi P, Jaldesa G. "The "heat" goes away: sexual disorders of married women with female genital mutilation/cutting in Kenya.". 2018.
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Bichang’a G, Lage J-LD, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Zivy M, Balliau T, Sambai K, Ru BL, Kaiser L, Juma G, Maina ENM, others. "$\alpha$-Amylase mediates host acceptance in the braconid parasitoid Cotesia flavipes." Journal of chemical ecology. 2018;44:1030-1039. Abstract
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K.W. E-PW. "''Jiji Juani'' in Tamthilia ya maisha a poetry anthology." Nairobi: Vide Muwa Publishers; 2005.
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KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "(1992). Syllabus and regulations for diploma in Civil Engineering, Technical Education Programme Kenya Institute of Education, Nairobi.". In: Discovery and Innovation Vol.8 Number 2 PP 11-131, African Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. Longhorn; 1992. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "(1996). Suitability of the Kipwen River dam basin soils with respect to earth dam construction. Discovery and Innovation Vol.8 Number 2 PP 11-131, African Academy of Sciences, Nairobi.". In: Discovery and Innovation Vol.8 Number 2 PP 11-131, African Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. Longhorn; 1996. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Kirori GN, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Kiriti-Nganga TW. "(2011). Rural Livelihoods in Kenya: The Role of Social Capital." Journal of International Business & Finance. 2011;3(1):1-27.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "(992) Final Design report on the Kipwen River Dam Ministry of Water Development, Nairobi.". In: Discovery and Innovation Vol.8 Number 2 PP 11-131, African Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. Longhorn; 1992. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "(co-author Michael Cowen) .". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002.
Kasina, M.J., Waturu C;, Nderitu J;, and Nyamasyo G, Olubayo F. "(Companion cropping as an Integrated Pest Management(IPM) component for management of thrips in French beans(Phaseolus vulgaris L.).". In: KARI Scientific Conference, Nairobi,. Nairobi; 2002.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "(eds/contributor). Soil fertility and land productivity. A guide for extension workers in the eastern Africa region. RELMA Technical Handbook Series 30. Nairobi, Kenya RELMA/Sida, ISBN 9966-896-66-X, 146 + xiv pp.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
and Keiyoro P.N. GKCMHJ. "(iv) Use of Mobile Telephone in reporting notifiable diseases in Kenya,:The case of Nairobi metropolitan. Co authoredKeiyoro,Kinuthia and Ngunjiri ." Elearning Africa Book of abstracts 2012. Elearning Africa publications.. 2012.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "(July 1991). A review of lectures conducted by Prof. Shamsher Prakash in the Department of Civil Engineering, Kenya Engineer, Nairobi.". In: Accepted for presentation in the 8th Conference on asphalt pavements for Southern Africa Sun City South Africa, 12th to 16th September 2004. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "(with B.O K'Oyugi)Re-estimation of the Natural Fertility (M) and the Fertility Control (m) Parameters in the Coale-Fertility Model.". In: (Under review Demographic Research Journal). James Murimi; 2005.
KITHURE DRKINDIKI. "(With Kivutha Kibwana) "Kenya" in Christof Heyns (ed) in Volume 2 Human Rights Law in Africa Kluwer: The Hague 1178-1202.". In: In Volume 14 Lesotho Law Journal pp. 51-75. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

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Njoroge(5) KD, Rading GO, Kihiu JM, Witcomb MJ, Cornish LA. ") The Impact of Interstitial Carbon on Dislocation Motion in the Alpha-Fe Lattice." , Int J Computational Engineering Research, 4 (12), . 2014:5-9.
Onsomu Z, Kaijage E, Aduda J, Iraya C. "), Demographics and Investor Biases at the Nairobi Securities Exchange, Kenya." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2017;6(15):51-60.
Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "). Appraisal of Land Use Transformation using Remote Sensing in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020;46(2):177-186 .
Kaingu; 9.24 CK, Kiama SG, Mbaria; J, Jemimah A. Oduma. "). Effects of Croton menyharthii and Uvariodendron kirkii Extracts on Ovarian Corpora Lutea and Reproductive Hormone." Discovery Phytomedicine . 2017;4(1): 21-25: 21-25.
Rukenya MZ, Mbaria JM, Mbaabu PM, Kiama SG, Ozango. "). In Vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic Activity and Phytochemistry of Aloe turkanensis an Ethnomedicine Used in Turkana, Kenya.". In: The Kenya Veterinary Association annual 48th scientific conference . Boma Inn Hotel, Eldoret. Kenya; 2014.
Mwangi JM, Kariuki MI, Muturi PG. "). Influence of strategic planning on performance of state corporations in Kenya. ." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications.. 2020;10(5).
R NYONJE, KYALO DN, MULWA ANELINE. ). Monitoring and Evaluation of Projects and Programmes: A Hand Book for Students and Practioners. Nairobi: Aura Books-ISBN 9966-123-456-7 ; 2012.
Nyonje, KYALO DN, Itegi FM. ). Project Planning and Management: Notes for Beginners. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller Aktierge Sellschaft & CO.KG, ISBN:978-3-639-337822; 2011.
Cherotich, M.G., Kalai, J.M., Kebenei PJ, Rose A. "). Prospects of Deputy Principals’ professional preparation on administrative tasks in boarding public secondary schools inBomet County, Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2017;5(2):109-117.
KM M, K S, N T-T, M Z, S K, Y S, N I. "). Recombinant Protein from Trypanosoma Congolense a Good Diagnostic Antigen in Immunochromatographic Test." Egerton Journal of Science and Technology. 2018;16:1-21.
Kithure JGN. ). Statistics for Chemists (Questions and Answers). Moldova Europe: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, trade mark of Dodo Books Indian Ocean Ltd., member of the OmniScriptum S.R.L Publishing group. Str. A. Russo 15, of 61, Chisinau-2068, Republic of Moldova Europe. Printed by Printforce, United Kingdom. ISBN: 978-620-0-5490; 2022.preface.pdf
Cook J, Kimuyu P. "). The costs of coping with poor water supply in rural Kenya." . Water Resources Research. 2016;52(2):841-859.
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KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. ", 2002. Engineering properties of common sub grade soils below pavement structures in Kenya. Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP 1- 8, March 2002.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP 1- 8,. Longhorn; 2002. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Kalele DN, Ogara WO, Oludhe C, Onono JO. ", Climate change impacts and relevance of smallholder farmers’ response in arid and semi-arid lands in Kenya." Scientific African. 2021;12:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2021.e00814.
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Kariuki HN, Kanui TI, Yenesew A, Patel N, PM MPM. ". Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) root extract in Swiss albino mice." Pan African Medical journal. 2013;14:133.
Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Gathumbi PK, Kabasa JD, Kiama SG. ". Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of Crude Plant Extracts from Kenyan Biodiversity using Brine Shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae)." The Open Conference Proceedings Journal. 2012;3:30-34.
Pulei A, Inyimili M, Ogeng’o J, Kitunguu P, ONGETI K, Obimbo M. ". Surgical significance of brachial arterial variants in a Kenyan population." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9. Abstract

Surgical significance of brachial arterial variants in a Kenyan population
A Pulei, M Obimbo, K Ongeti, P Kitunguu, M Inyimili, J Ogeng’o

Abstract

Background: Knowledge of the variant anatomy of the brachial artery is important in radial arterial grafts for coronary bypass, percutaneous trans-radial approach to coronary angiography, angioplasty and flap surgery. These variations show ethnic differences but data from black populations are scarce. This study therefore describes the course in relation with median nerve, level and pattern of termination of brachial artery in a black Kenyan population.
Methods: This was a cadaveric dissection study of 162 upper limbs at the Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya. The brachial artery was exposed entirely from the lower border of teres major to its point of termination. The course in relation to the median nerve and the level of termination were recorded. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 for Windows.
Results: 72.2% of the brachial arteries followed the classical pattern described in Gray’s Anatomy. Superfi cial brachioradial and superficial brachial arteries were present in 12.3% and 6.1% of the cases respectively. Brachial artery terminated at the radial neck in 79% of the cases, radial tuberosity (8.6%), and proximal arm (11.1%), mid arm (1.2%). Pattern of termination was either a bifurcation into the radial and ulnar arteries (90.1%) or trifurcation into radial, ulnar and common interosseous arteries (9.3%). We also report a case of trifurcation of the brachial artery into the profunda brachii, radial and ulnar arteries (0.6%).
Conclusion: Variations of the brachial artery in its relationship with the median nerve, level and pattern of termination are common. These may complicate arm surgical exposures, fl ap and vascular surgery. Pre-operative angiographic evaluation is recommended.

Keywords: brachial artery, bifurcation, trifurcation, superficial brachioradial artery

KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. ". (1990) Structural strength condition for some flexible road and aircraft pavements under tropical conditions. Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1990. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Ibisomi L, Odimwegu C, Otieno A, KIMANI M. ". Degree of Preference Implementation and Fertility Changes in Developing Countries.". In: The XXVth IUSSP Conference. Tours, France; 2005.
Maina PK, Wachira PM, Okoth SA, Kimenju JW, Otipa M, Kiarie JW. ". Effects of Land-Use Intensification on Distribution and Diversity of Fusarium Species in Machakos County, Kenya. ." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2015;7(4):48-60.
Gitao CG, Maina SM, Kihu SM. . Enhanced Diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) using experimental infection models. Nairobi Jacaranda Hotel, Westlands Nairobi-Kenya 9th – 10th June: FAO-EU; 2015.
KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. ". Gikunju J.K. 1999, Kenya and the perils of fluoride. A journal for Medical and Health Workers, AFYA, African Medical and Research foundation (AMREF) Vol. 31, No.3, pp 15-18.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1999. Abstract

            Fluoride determinations were made with a fluoride ion selective electrode on 60 river water samples collected at readily accessible sites in Central and Nairobi provinces of Kenya. The highest fluoride concentration was 0.85 ppm in Laikipia District and the lowest was 0.08 ppm in Murang'a District. By region and district, the mean fluoride concentration ranged from 0.12 ppm for rivers in Laikipia to 0.24 ppm for rivers in Nairobi, with 0.32 ppm in the Upper Basin of the Athi River. The results indicate that the rivers are relatively low in fluoride and are therefore safe in this respect for domestic and industrial use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

Kuria ZN, Woldai, T., Opiyo Akech N. ". Imaging saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers with electrical resistivity tomography at Lamu Island, South Coast Kenya. ." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2010;11(2):57-72.
Opanga SA, Mwang’ombe NJ, Okalebo FA, Kuria KAM. ". Impact of neurosurgical site infections on patient expenditure at a national referral hospital in Kenya: a cost of illness study. ." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(2):72-76.
Kemoli AM, van Amerongen WE, Opinya GN. ". Influence of different isolation methods on the survival of proximal ART restorations in primary molars after two years." Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2008;11(3):132-135. Abstract

Aim: This was to evaluate the influence of two methods of tooth-isolation on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in the primary molars.
Methods: The study was conducted in two rural divisions in Kenya, with 7 operators
randomly paired to a group of 8 assistants. A total of 804 children had each one proximal cavity in a primary molar restored using the ART approach. During the restoration 2 isolation methods, rubber dam or cotton wool rolls, and 3 brands of glass ionomer cements were randomly used by the operators. The restorations were then followed for a period of 2 years.
Statistics: SPSS 14.0 was used to analyze and relate the data obtained to the method of
isolation used.
Results: After 2 years 30.8% of the ART restorations had survived. Higher survival rates of the restorations were obtained when using rubber dam irrespective of the GIC material or the operator.
Conclusions: Generally the survival rate of the proximal restorations in the present
study was very low, but the use of rubber dam resulted in a higher survival rate of the
restorations.

Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. ". Liquid chromatographic separation of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 2006;58(10) (supp/1 ):105.
Kamau FN, Njogui PM, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO, Kariuki ST, Yenesew A, Mugoi HN, Mwalukumb JM. ". Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae).". 2011. Abstract

Root and stem extracts of Girardinia diversifolia exhibited varying degrees of activity against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three compounds namely ~-sitosterol, 7bydroxysitosterol and 3-bydroxystigmast-5-en-7-one, were isolated from the petroleum ether root extract. The present study gives scientific credence to the traditional use of Girardinia diversifolia in the management of microbial infections.

Gloria S. Omosa-Manyonyi, Walter Jaoko OAHOSW, Roselyn Malogo, Jacqueline Nyange PNJN-A, Kirana Bhatt, Bashir Farah MOCSFPPF. ". Reasons for Ineligibility in Phase 1 and 2A HIV Vaccine Clinical Trials at Kenya Aids Vaccine Initiative (KAVI), Kenya." PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e14580.
Kanyinga K, Sebastian. N. ". The Non-Profit Sector in Kenya: Size. Scope and Financing. – ISBN: 978 – 9966-786-01-5." University of Nairobi, IDS ; 2007.
S. RF, P. HM, C. M, M. BS, K. AF. ". “Clinical presentation and post-mortem findings of patients with AIDS at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of AIDS. 2000;Supplement 24:23-29.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "., 2004, Deflection characteristics for flexible road and airport pavements in Kenya.". In: Accepted for presentation in the 8th Conference on asphalt pavements for Southern Africa Sun City South Africa, 12th to 16th September 2004. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
CR N, T C, JA S, PA W, D F, N P, FJ K, K M. ".Coma scales for children with severe falciparum malaria.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Mar-Apr;91(2):161-5. uon press; 1997. Abstract

{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55

Kithungu Rose Mwikali DKGGMK&. ".Influence of students’ aspirations on choice of computer studies in public and private secondary schools in Machakos Sub-County. ." International Journal of Education and Research. 2016;4(8).
KHALFAN DRABDALLAHFATMAH. ".Single dose filgastrim in cytotoxic-induced neutropaenia in children.ast Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):30-5.". In: ast Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):30-5. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To document the impact of fixed dose weight adjusted filgastrim (G-CSF) in cytotoxic-induced neutropaenia. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Paediatric Oncology Unit at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All paediatric oncology patients who had developed cytotoxic-induced neutropaenia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The following were documented for every tissue proven case of malignancy; age, sex, type of malignancy, treatment regimen and schedule, initial blood count at the time of neutropaenia; subsequent blood counts daily for five days from day one of single dose filgastrim, and the calculated neutrophil incremental count. RESULTS: Initially eight patients with solid tumours previously treated with filgastrim revealed that cytotoxic induced neutropaenia could be ameliorated by a single dose of filgastrim. Subsequently, the study listed thirty patients. This cohort consisted of; 37% rhabdomyosarcoma, 30% Burkitts, 27% acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 6% Hodgkin's lymphoma. Increased neutrophil count after 48 hours was documented in 26 (87%) patients, with absolute neutrophil counts range of 0.5 to 31.5 x 10(9)/L. This response was significantly influenced by gender (p>0.0001), malignancy type and chemotherapy regimen (p>0.001). CONCLUSION: The study shows that chemotherapy induced neutropaenia can be alleviated by a single dose of filgastrim without adverse effects on lymphoblastic leukaemia. This study suggests that a single dose of filgastrim should be first tried in cytotoxic induced neutropaenia in the paediatric age group. PMID: 18543524 [PubMed - in process]

1
Kimani G.N. "1) A module for Adult Education Teachers, Department of Adult Education and School of Distance Studies.". In: Factors Influencing Curriculum Development. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1989.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE, KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "1. Gitau G.K. et al. Dryland Livestock Wildlife Environment Interface Project: Experiences and lessons learnt from Livestock-Wildlife Environment Interface Management in Kenya and Burkina Faso. www.gefweb.org/uploadedFiles/Focal_Areas/Land.../livestock-wi.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. /Land.../livestock-wildlife; 2009. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Muriithi EM, Gunga SO, Ngesu LM, K’Odhiambo AK, Wachira LN. "1. School Characteristics, Use of Project Method and Learner Achievement in Physics." Journal of Education and Practice. 2013;4(8):196-203. Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate how school characteristics affect the usage of the PM and the consequent impact on learner achievement in physics (LAP). Data was collected using Students Achievement Tests (SAT) and questionnaire for physics teachers. Stratified Sampling was applied to select 84 schools comprising boys, girls and mixed schools from seven provinces of Kenya. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. ANOVA, chi-square and multiple-regression were used to test the hypothesis. The key findings of the study were that PM enhances the learning of physics; Single sex schools performed better than mixed schools; the type of schools in terms of gender, whether day or boarding were not factors in the usage of project method. In view of these research findings, the researchers recommend that the government come up with a policy that enhances the establishment of more single sex schools, enhance resource mobilization for the teaching of physics, review the teacher training component so as to encompass the PM as an alternative teaching strategy, and in-service physics teachers on the role of school characteristics in the study of physics.

Kihu SM, Gachohi JM, Ndungu EK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Ireri R. "1. Sero-epidemiology of Peste Des Petits ruminants virus infection in Turkana County, Kenya ." BMC Veterinary Research. 2015;11(87):1-13.
Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho C, Mukwana S. "1. STRs analysis of human DNA from Maggots Fed on Decomposing Bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis ." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Science . 2019;6(3):261-269. AbstractFull Text Link

Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR) has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae) obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different) food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho C, Mukwana S. "1. STRs analysis of human DNA from Maggots Fed on Decomposing Bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis ." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Science . 2019;6(3):261-269. AbstractFull Text Link

Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR) has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae) obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different) food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

Kimani Zipporah Muthoni, Ogutu O, Anthony K. "1. The Prevalence and Impact of Obstetric Fistula on Women of Kaptembwa – Nakuru, Kenya." International Journal of Applied Science and Technology . 2014;4(3):273-287.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "1. Naruse Kazuko, Tashiro Junko, Sankyo Yumi, Ichikawa Wakako, Karani Anna Stakeholders.". In: Annual Scientific Conference of National Nurses Association of Kenya on 5th - 7th October, 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College in Nyeri, Kenya. Blackwell Publishing Co.; Submitted. Abstract

After the World Health Assembly approved WHA 45.5 in 1992 addressing the nursing shortage by refocusing nurses and midwifes to meet community health needs, community demands for educated nurses and the needs of higher nursing education in developing countries increased.  Therefore in Kenyan a major university school of nursing initiated a collaborative study with a well established Japanese nursing college to determine the service-providers

Akech M, Kameri-Mbote P. 10) The Justice Sector and the Rule of Law in Kenya. African Governance Monitoring and Advocacy ; 2009.
Kibugi R. "10. Enhanced access to environmental justice in Kenya." Environmental Law and Sustainability after Rio. 2011:158. Abstract
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KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "101 Global Leadershjp Lessons For Nurses (Chapter 92"Synergy and Win-Win: The Goals of Effective Leadership") By Prof. Anna K. Karani and Patrick K. Wairiri.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Sgma Theta Tau International : Honor Society For Nursing; 2009. Abstract

The Goals of the book are to:1,  Illustrate the process and rewards of mentoring for the organization, mentee,      and mentor.2.  Offer salient , tangible, subject-based lessons for new and experienced       leaders alike.3.  demonstrate that mentee-mentor competences are more readily gained      through personal example, channeled practice, or experience than      through pure education and training.At the end of every chapter there are reflective questions.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "101 Global Leadershjp Lessons For Nurses (Chapter 92- Synegy and Win-Win: The goals of Effective Leadership) By Prof. Anna K. Karani and Patrick Kimani Wairiri.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Sigma Theta Tau International : Honor Society of Nursing; 2009. Abstract

  The goals of the book are to:1. Illustrate the process and rewards of mentoring for the organization, mentee,and     mentor.2. Offer salient,tangible,subject-based lessons for new and experienced leaders    alike.3. Demonstrate that mentee-mentor competencies are more readily gained through     personal example, channeled practice, or experience than through pure     education and training. At the end of each chapter, there are reflective question. 

Okidi CO, Kameri-Mbote P, Akech M. "11) ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE IN KENYA: IMPLEMENTING THE FRAMEWORK LAW ." East African Educational Publishers. 2008.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE, KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "11. G. K. Gitau, M. Waridi, H. A. Makame, M. M. Saleh, R. A. Muhamed, A.P. Mkola and M. A. Haji. Occurrence of high udder infection rates in dairy cows in Ungunja Island of Zanzibar, Tanzania. The Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine (2003) .". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. The Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine; 2003. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "12. G.K Gitau, J.J. McDermott and B.D. Perry. Factors associated with Theileria parva infections in smallholder dairy farms in Murang.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Bulletin for Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2002. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Okidi CO, Kameri-Mbote P, Akech M. "13) Governing Water and Sanitation in Kenya, in ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE IN KENYA: IMPLEMENTING THE FRAMEWORK LAW 305 ." East African Educational Publishers. 2008;305 .
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "13. G.K Gitau, J.J. McDermott and B.D. Perry. Constraints to dairy heifer calf rearing in smallholder dairy farms in Murang.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "14. J. N. Kariuki, S. Tamminga, C.K. Gachuiri, G. K. Gitau, and J. M. K. Muia. Intake, DM degradation and rumen fermentation as affected by varying levels of desmodium and sweet potato vines in napier grass fed to cattle. South African Journal of Animal S.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. South African Journal of Animal Science; 2001. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Kibugi R. "14. Implementing stewardship in Kenyan land use law: the case for a sustainability extension." Environmental Governance and Sustainability. 2012:288. Abstract
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Ngowi BV, Tonnang HEZ, Khamis F, Mwangi EM, Nyambo B, Ndegwa PN, Subramanian S. "14.5 Population dynamics of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Its Parasitoids Along Altitudinal Gradients of the Eastern Afromontane." Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods. 2017:231.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "15. A.G. Thaiyah, G.K. Gitau and Mugambi. Outbreaks of bovine rabies in Kiambu District, Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian (2001) 24: 1-2.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "16. G.K Gitau, J.J. McDermott, B. McDermott and B.D. Perry. The impact of Theileria parva infections and other factors on calf mean daily weight gains in smallholder dairy farms in Murang.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Preventive Veterinary Medicine; 2001. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KIRITI DRNG'ANG'ATABITHAWAGITHI. "16. Kabubo, F. M. and Kiriti-Nganga, T. (2008), .". In: International Journal of Afro-Asian Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp.40-56. Serials Publications; 2008.
Akech M, Kameri-Mbote P. "17) Ownership and Regulation of Land Rights in Kenya: Balancing Entitlements with the Public Trust.". In: Beyond the National Land Policy. Kenyatta International Conference Centre, Nairobi, ; 2008.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "17. G.K Gitau, J.J. McDermott, J.M. Katende, C.J. O.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Epidemiology and Infection; 2000. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "18. G.K Gitau, J.J., McDermott, B.D., Perry and J.M. Katende. The Epidemiology of Theileria parva infections on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya. Tropical Veterinary Diseases, control and prevention in the context of the new world order. Annals of the New.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences; 2000. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "19. J.N. Kariuki, S. Tamminga, G.K. Gitau, C.K. Gachuiri and J.M.K. Muia. Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian heifers fed on Napier grass supplemented with graded levels of Lucerne. South African Journal of Animal Science, (1999) 29: 1-11.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. South African Journal of Animal Science; 1999. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Konyimbi T. "1Property Taxation In Western And South-Eastern African Countries: Principles And Applications In Zimbabwe, Tanzania And Ghana,."; 2005. Abstract

Land is a vital resource for rural livelihoods. Establishing and clarifying land rights through formalisation has become a key issue in development policies that aim to promote more productive uses of land. This re port looks at some land reform initiatives from a gendered human rights perspective. The human rights-based approach (HRBA) has a direct bearing on international and national land reform policies, facilitating gender equality through elimination of discrimination against women. The overall aim of this report is to make a contribution to the operationalisation of the HRBA. Chapter 2 focuses on different approaches to formalisation in different historical periods to date, starting with a discussion of the concept itself. In Chapter 3 the hum an rights- based approach to development is developed in relation to women’s land rights, while Chapter 4 is an analysis of the approach to land policy found in the 2003 World Bank report. The country studies presented in Chapters 5–8 explore to what extent international and national formalisation initiatives are consonant with international human rights standards

KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "1Property Taxation in Western and South-Eastern African Countries: Principles and applications in Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Ghana, Paper presented for the pilot core course in Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations and Municipal Financial Management in Harare Zi.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1998. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
2
Rabe M, Price G, Krhoda G, Goodwin R. 2. Climate Change Vulnerability and Infrastructure Investment Assessment and Analysis for Small Scale Water Utilities in the Lake Victoria Basin. Guide Book for water and wastewater utilities. .; 2011. Abstract

The effect of global climate change on the built urban environment, especially installed infrastructure for the
delivery of essential services, will be particularly severe and even more so for developing countries where
resources to deal with anticipated impacts are lacking. Because the delivery of wet services is dependent on
water resources and tends to be an energy intensive operation, water and wastewater utilities will be most
vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. It is therefore imperative that the providers of these services embark on a programme of proactively adapting to the impacts of climate change and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions through improved pumping efficiencies. Because adaptation can take on many forms, utilities must apply logic and rational thinking to this process and prioritize interventions that are most likely to cost effectively address identified
impacts.

Ireri C, KRHODA GO, Mukhovi MS. "2. Social-Economic Threshold Factors for Gully Erosion Stabilization in Semi-Arid Environment of Wanjoga River Catchment, Upper Tana Basin, Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2021;6(5):172-187.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "2. Strengthening Masters of community Health Nursing in Kenya.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal KNJ 37(2) 58-64. Decemer, 2008. Prof. Karani Anna, Kazuko Nasire,Prof. Junko Tashiro,Waithaka Peter, Yumi Sakyo,Wakako Ichikawa; 2008. Abstract

Development / Strengthening Masters on Community Health Nursing Curriculum in Kenya. In the East African region no nurse had done a master programme in Community Health Nursing. Therefore, a needs assessment was done followed by a study on developing / strengthening community health nursing in Kenya as a model for the region. This was done in collaboration with a nursing institution in Kenya and another in Japan.Aim was to develop/strengthen Masters in Community Health Nursing programme in Kenya and the region.The study was conducted between 2005 and 2006 in Kenya. Two provinces were selected due to proximity and accessibility. The national hospital, one provincial hospital, five district hospitals and five health centres were randomly selected as study areas. The 22 subjects (Registered Community Health Nurses) purposely selected were lecturers, administrators and service providers. The tool used was recorded interview, checklist and focus group discussions at the subjects working area followed by transcription of interview. Five data collectors were trained for 2 days and tools pre-tested. The study revealed that majority of the subjects (50%) wanted lifelong learning at the place of work with progress onto masters to PhD by distance learning. Masters graduates should be responsible for teaching, administration and policy. A core curriculum, distance learning, learning manuals, clear job descriptions and exchange programme were declared most important.Conclusion: Core curriculum developed for implementation, clear job descriptions recommended, distance learning to be started using modules and support for exchange program needed.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "20. J.N. Kariuki, G.K. Gitau, C.K. Gachuiri, S. Tamminga, and J.M.K. Muia. Effect of supplementing Napier grass with desmodium and lucerne on DM, CP and NDF intake and weight gains in dairy heifers. Livestock Production Science (1999) 60: 81-88.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Livestock Production Science; 1999. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "2003 Grain Maize Yield Improvement using Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia Biomass at Maseno, Kenya. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, Vol. 2: 1-11.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2003. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "2004 An Elasto plastic constitutive model for soil tillage Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.". In: Accepted for presentation in the 8th Conference on asphalt pavements for Southern Africa Sun City South Africa, 12th to 16th September 2004. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "2004 Triaxial testing of a cemented agricultural soil . Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.". In: Accepted for presentation in the 8th Conference on asphalt pavements for Southern Africa Sun City South Africa, 12th to 16th September 2004. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
Kudra, A1, and 1 C’wa SGN2 KP, 1 SKP. "2014-Striga asiatica growth and seed production in response to organic and inorganic P - fertilizers(3)." ACCESS INTERNATIONAL JUORNAL OF AGRIC SCIE. 2014;Vol. 2(1), pp.6-12, March 2014(Vol. 2(1), pp.6-12, March 2014):Vol. 2(1), pp.6-12, March 2014.2014-striga_asiatica_growth_and_seed_production_in_response_to_organic_and_inorganic_p_-_fertilizers3.pdf
Kaviti L. "2015: Kaviti, L: “From Stigma to Status: Sheng and Engsh in Kenya’s Linguistic and Literary Space”; ." In Diegner, Lutz & Frank Schulze-Engler (Eds.) 2015. Habari ya English? What about Kiswahili? East Africa as a Literary and Linguistic Contact Zone. (Matatu Journal for African Culture and Society 46), . 2015.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "21. J.N. Kariuki, G.K. Gitau, C.K. Gachuiri, S. Tamminga and K.R.G. Irungu. Effect of maturity on the mineral composition of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). Tropical Science, (1999) 39: 1-6.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Tropical Science; 1999. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Kinyanjui Sarah. "21st Century Slavery? Interrogating the Treatment of Kenyan Female Domestic Workers in Saudi Arabia.". In: Canadian Law and Society Association Annual Confrence.; 2015.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "22. G.K Gitau, B.D. Perry, J.J. and McDermott. The incidence, calf morbidity and mortality due to Theileria parva infections in smallholder dairy farms in Murang.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Preventive Veterinary Medicine; 1999. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "23. J.K.Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, L.C. Bebora, C.O. Bwanga, Z.M. Wamuri and P.M.F. Mbithi. Occurrence of dermatomycosis (ringworm) due to Trichophyton verrucosum in dairy calves and its spread to animal attendants. Journal of the South African Veterinary Assoc.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. ournal of the South African Veterinary Association; 1998. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "24. J.N. Kariuki, C.K..Gachuiri, G.K. Gitau, S. Tamminga, J. Van Bruchem, J.M. K. Muia and K.R.G.Irungu. Effect of feeding Napier grass, lucerne and sweet potato vines as sole diets to dairy heifers on nutrient intake, average weight gain and rumen degrad.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Livestock Production Science,; 1998. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "25. J.K. Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, J.M. Nduhiu, A.G. Thaiya, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.J.M. Munyua. An outbreak of urticarial form of Swine Erysipelas in a medium scale piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. (1998) 69.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association.; 1998. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "26. G.K. Gitau. A study of factors influencing endemic stability and instability to theileriosis and babesiosis on dairy production in Murang.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, University of Nairob; 1997. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE, KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE, KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "29. D.I. Kariuki, G.K. Gitau and S.J.M. Munyua. The use of preserved colostrum in rearing of replacement dairy calves: calf performance, economics and on-farm practicability in Kenya. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. (1995) 62 (3): 167-170.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research; 1995. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Akunga ND, Keraka M, Anyango SO. 2Burden of Childhood Diarrhea from Water sanitation and hygiene: The case of Nairobi City, Kenya. . Bonn: Verlag Dr. Muller (VDM). ISBN978-3-639-27847-7 .; 2010.
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Atilaw Y, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Akala HM, Kamau E, Yenesew A. "3-Oxo-14α,15α-epoxyschizozygine: A new schizozygane indoline alkaloid from Schizozygia coffaeoides." Phytochemistry Letters. 2014;10:28-31.
O AI, KRHODA GO, Mukhovi SM. "3. Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Mara River Basin: A Geospatial Approach. ." International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2020;5(5):68-85.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "3. Maichomo, M. W., Gitau, G. K., Gathuma, J. M., Ndung.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2009. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

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Yenesew A, Derese, S., Barasa, L., Akala HM, Yusuf, A.O., Kamau E, Heydenreich. "4'-Prenyloxyderrone from the stem bark of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis and the antiplasmodial activities of isoflavones from some Millettia species." Phytochemistry Letters ,. 2014;8:69-72. Abstractpaper_68_derese_et_al_phyto_2014.pdf

The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis showed antiplasmodial activity (IC50 = 10–12 μg/mL) against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Chromatographic separation of the extract led to the isolation of a new isoflavone, 4′-prenyloxyderrone (1), together with known isoflavones (8-O-methylretusin, durmillone, maximaisoflavone B, maximaisoflavone H and maximaisoflavone J), a rotenoid (tephrosin) and a triterpene (lupeol). Similar investigation of Millettia leucantha resulted in the identification of the isoflavones afrormosin and wistin, and the flavone chrysin. The identification of these compounds was based on their spectroscopic data. Five of the isoflavones isolated from these plants as well as 11 previously reported compounds from Millettia dura were tested and showed good to moderate antiplasmodial activities (IC50 = 13–53 μM), with the new compound, 4′-prenyloxyderrone, being the most active (IC50 = 13–15 μM).

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