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KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1986). Technical and Socio-Economic considerations in rehabilitating and conserving an eroded/denuded catchment area: A case study of the Chemeron Catchment Area, Central Baringo, Kenya. In: Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya . Proceedings.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1987). Lessons learnt from Arid and Semi Arid Lands Development Projects in Kenya. Proceedings of a Conference on Project Identification in Developing Countries, held at the University of Manchester, U.K. September, 1987.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1988a). Environmental Degradation and Rehabilitation in Central Baringo, Kenya. In: Land Conservation for Future Generations .S. Rimwanich (Ed.). Proceedings of the 5th International Soil Conservation Conference (ISCO), Bangkok, Thailand. Ja.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1988b). Evaluation of Feasible Conservation Strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa: A case study on Kenya and Malawi. In: Challenges in Dryland Agriculture ; A Global Perspective. P.W. Unger, T.V. Sneed W.R. Jordan and R. Jensen (Eds.). Proceeding.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1992b). Production Oriented Conservation Strategy for developing sustainable projects in Arid and Semi Arid Areas of Kenya. In: People Protecting their Land. Proceedings of the 7th International Soil Conservation Conference (ISCO), Sydney, A.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.; F.N. Gichuki and P. G. Kaumbutho (1993). Tillage methods and soil and water conservation in Eastern Africa. Soil Tillage Research, 27 (1993) 105-123. Elsevier Science Publishers, The Netherlands.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.; Nyagah, C.R.J.,(1985). Proposed Integrated Rehabilitation Programme for the Chemeron Watershed Area, Central Baringo, Kenya. Project Proposal Document, Ministry of Agriculture,Nairobi,Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K; A.N. Gitau; and R.K. Cherogony(1998a). Temporal hydrologic response of unstable crusting soils in Semi Arid Kenya, Proceedings of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineering(KSAE). Nairobi, Kenya. Gicheru, P.T.; C.K.K. Gachene and E.K.Biama.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K; L. Stroosnijder and R.K. Cherogony. Effect of tillage on infiltration, runoff and erosion of crusting soils in Semi Arid Kenya. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Agricultural Engineering (CIGR). Rabat. Morocco.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K; L. Stroosnijder; T.C. Sharma; and R.K. Cherogony. Temporal and spatial features of Agricultural drought in Semi Arid Kenya: An analysis of seasonal dry and wet spells as requirements for conservation tillage. Proceedings of the 13th Internati.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K; R.K. Cherogony and G.A. Mukolwe. Runoff water harvesting and conservation technologies for dryland crop production and rural water supply in arid and semi arid lands. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Agricultural Engineering .". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah,E.K.,(1989a). Training Requirements in Soil Conservation for African Countries. Paper presented at the African Network of Scientific and Technological Institutions (ANSTI) annual meeting, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. August, 1989.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1989. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah,E.K.,(1989b). Editor of proceedings of a UNEP/FAO seminar on Soil Conservation Strategy for Africa. Accra, Ghana. August, 1989.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1989. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah,E.K.,(1989c). Waterharvesting and Conservation techniques for increased crop and fodder production in Arid and Semi Arid Areas of Kenya. Paper presented at a workshop on ASAL s soil and water conservation, Ministry of Agriculture, Nairobi, Kenya. S.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1989. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah. E.K. C.K.K. Gachene, P.T. Gicheru and R.K.K. Cherogony (1994g). Crop response to tillage and residue mulching practices in a clay soil. In Soil Tillage for Crop Production and Protection of the Environment Proceedings of 13th International Soil Ti.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah. E.K; L. Stroosnijder; T.C. Sharma; and R.K. Cherogony, Effect of conservation tillage on watershed hydrology in Semi Arid Kenya: An application of AGNPS, SCS-CN and Rational Formula runoff models. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of .". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

Morris LR, Murphy MB, Kitabchi AE. "Bicarbonate therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis." Annals of Internal Medicine. 1986;105:836-840. Abstract

Twenty-one adult patients with severe diabetic ketoacidosis entered a randomized prospective protocol in which variable doses of sodium bicarbonate, based on initial arterial pH (6.9 to 7.14), were administered to 10 patients (treatment group) and were withheld from 11 patients (control group). During treatment, there were no significant differences in the rate of decline of glucose or ketone levels or in the rate of increase in pH or bicarbonate levels in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid in either group. Similarly, there were no significant differences in the time required for the plasma glucose level to reach 250 mg/dL, blood pH to reach 7.3, or bicarbonate level to reach 15 meq/L. We conclude that in severe diabetic ketoacidosis (arterial pH 6.9 to 7.14), the administration of bicarbonate does not affect recovery outcome variables as compared with those in a control group.

Kanaya S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Kiboi SK, Afendi FM. "Big data and network biology." BioMed research international. 2014;2014.
Kanaya S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Kiboi SK, Afendi FM. "Big data and network biology 2015." BioMed research international. 2015;2015.
Kanaya S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Kiboi SK, Afendi FM. "Big Data and Network Biology 2016." BioMed Research International. 2017;2017.
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Bigsten A and P.K. Kimuyu (eds), 2002 The Structure and Performance of theManufacturing in Kenya Palgrave Publishers, United Kingdom.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
research theories for high school students
Aydın ME, Kaya AH, Kopuz C, Demir MT, Çorumlu U, Dagcinar A. "Bilateral origin of superior cerebellar arteries from the posterior cerebral arteries, and clues to its embryologic basis." Anatomy & Cell Biology. 2011;44:164-167. AbstractWebsite

The superior cerebellar artery is the most consistent branch of the basilar artery and arises near the bifurcation of the basilar artery. A bilateral origin of the superior cerebellar arteries from the posterior cerebral arteries has been rarely reported in the literature. Reporting variations in brain vessels is important for neurosurgeons to safely and confidently treat pathologies in this region. We report on a specimen with a bilateral origin to the superior cerebellar artery from the posterior cerebral artery and discuss the embryogenesis of this rare variation.

Hunter AL, Klaassen CD. "Biliary excretion of colchicine in newborn rats." Drug Metab. Dispos.. 1975;3(6):530-5. Abstract

The 24-hr LD50 of colchicine in newborn rats is 0.24 mg/kg, which is about 1/10 that observed in the adult. The 24-hr LD50 of colchicine was relatively constant in rats over 25 days of age. In an attempt to determine the mechanism of the increased sensitivity of the newborn rat to the toxic action of colchicine, the distribution of 3H after the administration of 3H-colchicine (0.1 mg/kg) was measured in 10- and 35-day-old rats. The concentration of 3H was higher in all tissues of the newborn than the adult after ip administration, suggesting an immaturity in the pathway for colchicine elimination. After iv administration, radioactivity disappeared much more slowly from the plasma of the newborn rat than from the adult. This was due to a lower capacity of the liver of the newborn to concentrate colchicine and to excrete it into the bile. Development of the hepatic excretory mechanism responsible for excretion of colchicine occurred at the same age as did the increase in LD50. These results suggest that colchicine is more toxic in the newborn because the drug remains in the body for a longer time due to immaturity of the liver excretory process.

Mbwambo Z, Lukhoba W, Kisangau D, Odhiambo J, Dossaji S, Joseph C, Lyaruu H, Siboe G, Hosea K. "Bioactivity screening and value-added processing of medicinal plant products for the management of HIV and AIDS fungal infections in Lake Victoria." Ethnobotany and Health. Proceedings of the Cluster Workshop, Entebbe, Uganda, 4-7 September 2010. 2012:103-108.
KAAYA, G.P. ANDMWANGIEN. "Biocontrol potentials of Entomogenous fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for livestock ticks Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyomma variegatum.". In: Proceedings of 9th International Congress of Acarology. Columbus, Ohio, USA; 1994.
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable Water Hyacinth Cellulose-Graft- Poly(Ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) Polymer hydrogel for potential Agricultura Application." Heliyon. 2019;(Article No. e01416).
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. Abstract

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Osano A, Siboe G, Ochanda J, Kokwaro J. "Biodegradation properties of white rot fungi in Karura forest Kenya." Discovery & Innovation. 2004;16(1):78-84.
Thuo DN, Junga JO, Kamau JM, Amimo JO, Kibegwa FM, Githui KE. "Biodiversity & Endangered Species Population Viability Analysis of Black Rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis michaeli ) in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya." J Biodivers Endanger Species. 2015;3:1-5. Abstract

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Bosshard A, Reinhard BR, Taylor S, Gichuki NN, Kinuthia WW. "Biodiversity in tropical small scale farms in central Kenya.". In: IFOAM Guide to Biodiversity and Lanscape Quality in Organic Agriculturend. Bonn: International Federation of Organic Farming Movements (IFOAM) ; 2009.
I.O JUMBA, S.O W, KITUYI E, MARUFU L, ANDREAE MO, HELAS G. "Biofuel availability and domestic use patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 71-82. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract

The annual domestic consumption levels and patterns of various common biofuels in Kenya were surveyed. The main fuelwood sources were farmland trees, indigenous forests, woodlands and timber off-cuts from plantations. In 1997, about 15.4 million tonnes of firewood (air-dried) were consumed and an equivalent of 17.1 million tonnes round wood wet weight (w/w) was converted to charcoal. In the same year, 1.4 million tonnes of a variety of crop residues were also consumed as domestic fuel. Biofuel availability was the major factor influencing the reported annual spatial species use and consumption patterns. Competing demand for the commonly-used tree species (mainly eucalyptus trees) for commercial and other purposes accounts, to a large extent, for the reported dwindling amounts. Communities in various regions have responded by gradually shifting to other available types including those in gazetted forests. Such a response strategy has implications on the long-term spatial and temporal biofuel use patterns. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jumba IO, Wandiga SO, KITUYI E, MARUFU L, HUBER B, ANDREAE MO, HELAS G. "Biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 83-99. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract

Abstract
A questionnaire survey was conducted in rural and urban Kenya to establish biofuel consumption rates and patterns. The survey targeted households, commercial catering enterprises and public institutions such as schools and colleges. Firewood was the main biofuel used, mostly by rural households, who consumed the commodity at average consumption rates in the range 0.8-2.7 kg cap"1 day~'. Charcoal was mostly consumed by the urban households at weighted average rates in the range 0.18-0.69kgcap~' day"1. The consumption rates and patterns for these fuels by restaurants and academic institutions, and those for crop residues are also reported. The rates largely depended on the fuel availability but differed significantly among the three consumer groups and between rural and urban households. Other factors which may have influenced consumption rates are discussed. Although good fuelwood sufficiency was reported in the country in 1997, there were increasing difficulties in accessing these resources by most households, a situation having both short- and long-term implications for biofuel consumption rates and patterns. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Biofuels; Per capita consumption; Kenya

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM. Biogas Digester Automation.; 2020.
Simila HO, Karpukhina N, Hill RG, Bushby A. "Bioglass Incorporation into Biodentine: Impact on Biological and Physical Properties.". In: Internationa Association of Dental Research. Capetown, South Africa; 2014.
Simila HO, Karpukhina N, Hill RG, Andy B. "Bioglass Incorporation into Biodentine: Impact on Biological and Physical Properties." Journal of Dental Research. 2014;93(Special Issure B):315.iadr_poster_-_colour_copy.ppt
Kumar S, Mehta D, Singh S, Garg ML, Mangal PC, Trehan PN. "Biokinetics of lead in various mouse organs/tissues using radiotracer technique." Indian J. Exp. Biol.. 1988;26(11):860-5.
KAAYA GP. "Biological control agents and other natural factors as regulators of tick populations.". In: Proceedings of 9th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference. Arusha, Tanzania; 1991.
Machangi JM;, Gitonga LM;, Nderitu JH;, Maniania NK;, Kabira JN. "Biological Control Agents Of Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) On Potatoes(Solanum Tuberosum L.) In Kenya.".; 2010.
KAAYA GP. "Biological Control: An environmentally safe alternative to chemical Pesticides.". In: In "community-based environmentally-safe Pest Management". Eds. R.K. Saini and P.T. Haskell.; 1993.
KUBASU, S.S., MAKOKKHA GL, KAAYA G. "Biological differences within Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann (AKARI: IXODIDAE) Populations in Kenya." Journal of the Eqyptian Society of Parasitology . 2007;37 (2):411-418.
Kaul R, Cohen CR CYTJTMKLRRAKDWR. "Biological factors that may contribute to regional and racial disparities in HIV prevalence." Am J Reprod Immunol. . 2011;65(3):317-24.
Ssali H;, Keya SO. "Biological nitrogen fixation in Africa."; 1984.
Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
KIMANI DRJOHNMUTURI. "Biology of Acomys percivali and Acomys Kempi (African spiny mice) of Eastern Africa.". Rodentia; 2012. Abstract

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

Egonyu JP, Ekesi S, Kabaru J, IRUNGU LUCYW. "Biology of the coconut bug Pseudotheraptus wayi on French Beans.". 1999.Website
Mose F, Newman LP, Njunguna R, Tamooh H, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C, Kiarie J. "Biomarker evaluation of self-reported condom use among women in HIV-discordant couples." Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24(7):537-40. Abstract

Self-reported condom use is a commonly collected statistic, yet its use in research studies may be inaccurate. We evaluated this statistic among women in HIV-discordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial in Nairobi, Kenya. Vaginal swabs were acquired from 125 women and tested for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for semen exposure, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ten (10%) of 98 women who reported 100% use of condoms in the previous month tested PSA positive. In a bivariate logistic regression analysis, among women who reported 100% condom use in the previous month, those with ≤8 years of school had significantly higher odds of testing PSA-positive (odds ratio [OR] = 8.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-69.13) than women with more schooling. Our estimate may be conservative, as the ability to detect PSA may be limited to 24-48 hours after exposure. Less educated women may be a target group for counselling regarding reporting sexual behaviour in clinical trials.

wandiga Kitui S, et al. "Biomass burning in Africa: role in atmospheric change and opportunities in emission mitigation." University of Nairobi, Macx-Planck Institute of Chemistry, Germany : Cambridge University Press; 2005.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Biomass production and nutrient accumulation by Tephrosia vogelii (Hemsley) A. Gray and Tithonia diversifolia Hook F. fallows during the six-month growth period at Maseno, Western Kenya. Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ. 3(4), 237-246.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Ndhine EO, Slotved H-C, Osoro EM, Olsen KN, Rugutt M, Wanjohi CW, Mwanda W, Kinyagia BM, Steenhard NR, Hansen J-ES. "A Biosecurity Survey in Kenya, November 2014 to February 2015." Health Secur. 2016;14(4):205-13. Abstract

A biosecurity survey was performed to gather information on the biosecurity level and laboratory capacity in Kenya for the purpose of providing information outlining relevant components for biosecurity legislation, biosecurity implementation, and enforcement of biosecurity measures in Kenya. This survey is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to be published from an African country. A total of 86 facilities with laboratories covering relevant categories, such as training laboratories, human diagnostic laboratories, veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and research laboratories, were selected to participate in the survey. Each facility was visited by a survey team and staff were asked to answer 29 groups of questions from a questionnaire. The survey showed that Kenyan laboratory facilities contain biological agents of biosecurity concern. The restrictions for these agents were found to be limited for several of the facilities, in that many laboratory facilities and storage units were open for access by either students or staff who had no need of access to the laboratory. The survey showed a great deal of confusion in the terms biosecurity and biosafety and a generally limited biosecurity awareness among laboratory personnel. The survey showed that the security of biological agents of biosecurity concern in many facilities does not meet the international requirements. The authors recommend developing a legal framework in Kenya for effective controls, including national biosecurity regulations, guidelines, and procedures, thereby reducing the risk that a Kenyan laboratory would be the source of a future biological attack.

Krämer PM. Biosensors.; 2011.Website
Imwene K.O., Mbui D.N., Kinyua, Gladys Wanjiru, J.K M, Ahenda S, Onyatta JO. "Biotransformation of Biodegraded Organic Waste from a Batch Mode Microbial Fuel Cell to Organic Fertilizer." J. Bioremediat Biodegrad. . 2021;12(8):1-5.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "BIP-Based Alarm Declaration and Clearing in SONET Networks Employing Automatic Protection Switching, Vitalice K. Oduol, Cemal Ardil, International Journal of Computer, Information, and Systems Science, and Engineering, Vol.3, No.1, pp.30-35, 2009.". In: International Journal of Computer, Information, and Systems Science, and Engineering, Vol.3, No.1, pp.30-35, 2009. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 2009. Abstract
The paper examines the performance of bit-interleaved parity (BIP) methods in error rate monitoring, and in declaration and clearing of alarms in those transport networks that employ automatic protection switching (APS). The BIP-based error rate monitoring is attractive for its simplicity and ease of implementation. The BIP-based results are compared with exact results and are found to declare the alarms too late, and to clear the alarms too early. It is concluded that the standards development and systems implementation should take into account the fact of early clearing and late declaration of alarms. The window parameters defining the detection and clearing thresholds should be set so as to build sufficient hysteresis into the system to ensure that BIP-based implementations yield acceptable performance results.
KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Bishop, R.P., Baylis, H., Allsopp, B., Toye, P., Nene, V., Dolan, T., Spooner, P., Kibe, M.K. and Morzaria, S.P. (1992). Genomic polymorphisms in Theileria parva. In: Genome analysis of protozoan parasites (Morzaria, S .P., Ed), pp 6 1 -66, ILRAD, Nairobi.". In: parasites (Morzaria, S .P., Ed), pp 6 1 -66, ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
Bacteriophage clones containing ribosomal RNA genes of Theileria parva were isolated from genomic DNA libraries. Physical mapping studies revealed 2 ribosomal DNA units, which were distinguishable by restriction enzyme site polymorphisms in flanking sequences. The cloned ribosomal DNA units were mapped to 2 separate T. parva chromosomes. Analysis of sequences contained in lambda EMBL3 recombinants, together with Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA and data on the copy number of the rRNA genes, suggested that the rDNA units were not tandemly repeated. This organisation of ribosomal transcription units is similar to that described for other genera of apicomplexan protozoa, but 2 rDNA units, each containing single copies of the rRNA coding genes, would be the lowest copy number described for any eukaryote in which amplification of rRNA genes is not known to occur. EcoRI restriction fragment length polymorphisms, which were revealed using rRNA gene probes, separated T. parva stocks into 2 categories. Nucleotide sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified internal transcribed spacer DNA revealed 2 different ITS sequences derived from rDNA transcription units within the genome of a cloned T. parva parasite. Polymorphism was also observed between ITS sequences amplified from the DNA of different T. parva stocks. A synthetic oligonucleotide derived from T. parva Uganda ribosomal ITS DNA sequences hybridised to DNA from the T. parva Uganda stock, but not to the DNA of the T. parva Muguga stock. This oligonucleotide is potentially useful as a marker for the T. parva Uganda stock.
CM M, K K, C K. "Blind naso-endotracheal intubation." Annals of African Surgery . 2013;10(1):43-46.
Kigera JWM, Kimpiatu P. "Blood Loss and Influencing Factors in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasties." Annals of African Surgery. 2014;11(1):16-18.blood_loss_in_thra.pdf
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "BLOOD MEAL SOURCES OF GLOSSINA PALLIDIPES AND G. LONGIPENNIS (DIPTERA: GLOSSINIDAE) IN NGURUMAN, SOUTHWEST KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
In total, 1,952 Glossina pallidipes Austen and 1,098 G. longipennis Corti adults were collected in forest and savanna habitat in Nguruman, southwestern G. pallidipes and many indicate that ostriches are an important host. More detailed work on the role of ostriches in the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis is required. Keywords; tsetse, blood source, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay  
Katzarski M, Gopal Rao UK, Brady K. "Blood supply and position of the vermiform appendix in {Zambians}." Medical journal of Zambia. 1979;13:32-34. Abstract

The arterial blood supply, position, and length of the appendix were studied 103 Zambian cadavers. In 39.8%, more than one appendicular artery was found. In position, 43.6% were pelvic, and 20.3% retro-cecal. The average length of the appendix was 12.0 cm in males, and 11.4 cm in females. The prevalence of the dual blood supply and pelvic position, may partly explain the recorded rarity of appendicitis among Africans.

Mandala N, Kaijage, Aduda J, Iraya C. "Board Structure, CEO Tenure, Firm’s Characteristics and Performance of Financial Institutions in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(31):39-63.
Ndetei, D.M., Mareko GM, Othieno CJ, Kuria MW, Kiarie JN. "Body dysmorphic disorder - case report.". 2007.
Mareko GM, Othieno CJ, Kuria MW, Kiarie JN, Ndetei DM. "Body dysmorphic disorder: case report." East Afr Med J. 2007;84(9):450-2. Abstract

The desire for self-mutilation in the absence of any discernible psychopathology is relatively rare. Self-mutilation is most commonly a manifestation of an underlying psychopathology such as depression, schizophrenia, personality disorder, transexuality, body dysmorphic disorder and factitious disorder. In this article, a case in which a 29-year-old single Kenyan lady of African origin demanded a surgical operation to modify and reduce the size of her external genitalia is presented. Although female genital mutilation is still widespread in the country, this case is of interest in that the woman did not seek the usual circumcision but sought to specifically reduce the size of her labia minora so that she could feel like a normal woman. The unique challenges in her management are discussed. Possible aetiological factors in patients who demand surgical removal or modification of parts of their bodies without an obvious cause is discussed.

Kihiu J, Rading G, Mutuli S. Boiler, Piping and Pressure Vessel Cross-Bore Design Stresses. Saarbrucken: VDM Publishing; 2011.
Kwasa JK, Amayo A NPMKTO. "Bone metabolism in healthy ambulatory control premenopausal women and in epileptics on anti-convulsant drugs." East Afr Med Journal. 2010;87(4):151-155. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Long term anti-epileptic drug use causes multiple abnormalities in calcium and bone metabolism that have been documented in both institutionalised and ambulatory patients.
OBJECTIVE:
To assess bone metabolism in ambulatory females of reproductive age, on antiepileptic drugs.
DESIGN:
Cross sectional comparative study.
SUBJECTS:
Ambulatory females in reproductive age group with epilepsy and on regular follow up were compared to healthy females of similar ages not on any treatment.
RESULTS:
The mean duration of treatment for epilepsy was eight years (+/- 6.3). Majority of the patients were on enzyme inducing drugs like phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate, either alone or in combination with non-enzyme inducers like lamotrigine (98.2%). There was a significantly lower mean serum calcium and a higher alkaline phosphatase level among the patients (P = 0.002 and 0.0001 respectively) than among the comparators. The urinary marker of bone loss (mean urine calcium excretion) was also significantly raised among the patients (P=0.003). The mean lumbar BMDT-score results were not significantly different in the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS:
Long-term anti-epileptic drug use significantly affects biochemical parameters of bone metabolism. These effects on bone biochemistry markers were not reflected in lumbar spine BMD in this study.

Kwasa JK, Amayo A, Ndavi PM, Kwasa TOO. "Bone metabolism in healthy ambulatory control premenopausal women and in epileptics on anti-convulsant drugs." East Afr Med J. 2010;87(4):151-5. Abstract

Long term anti-epileptic drug use causes multiple abnormalities in calcium and bone metabolism that have been documented in both institutionalised and ambulatory patients.

K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Book Review: Estimating costs for cost effectiveness analysis: guidelines for managers of diarrhoeal diseases, CDD-WHO, Geneva, 1988, appearing on Health Policy and Planning: A Journal In Health in Development, Vol. 6 #1, March 1991.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1991. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

WAMUYU MSNGECHUMARYELLEN, K. DRDALIZUEGAMBIF. "A booklet of Public Speaking: Using Communication Strategies and Good Human Relations. Synergy Services International (1992).". In: Synergy Services International (1992). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1992. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

Pauw GD, Waiganjo Wagacha P, de Schryver G-M. "Bootstrapping Machine Translation for the Language Pair English - Kiswahili." In: J. Aisbett, G. Gibbon, A.J. Rodrigues, K.K. Migga, R. Nath, G.R. Renardel, eds. Special Topics in Computing and ICT Research - Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. Kampala, Uganda: Fountain Publishers; 2008:. Abstract
n/a
Odhiambo SA, ZP Q, PM N, Kosgei RJ, AB K, Ayieko P, PK K, A O, Odawa FX, GN G, MK K, O K, O O. "Born Too Soon: Provide Corticosteriods at the earliest opportunity even if dose is not completed." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):62-63.Website
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bose B, Chugh DA, Kala M, Acharya SK, Khanna N, Sinha S.Characterization and molecular modeling of a highly stable anti-Hepatitis B surface antigen scFv.Mol Immunol. 2003 Dec;40(9):617-31.". In: Mol Immunol. 2003 Dec;40(9):617-31. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract

We raised a mouse monoclonal antibody (5S) against the 'a' epitope of the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by selecting for binding of the hybridoma supernatant in conditions that usually destabilize protein-protein interactions. This antibody, which was protective in an in vitro assay, had a high affinity with a relative dissociation constant in the nanomolar range. It also displayed stable binding to antigen in conditions that usually destabilize antigen-antibody interactions, like 30% DMSO, 8 M urea, 4 M NaCl, 1 M guanidium HCl and extremes of pH. The variable regions of the antibody were cloned and expressed as an single chain variable fragment (scFv) (A5). A5 had a relative affinity comparable to the mouse monoclonal and showed antigen binding in presence of 20% DMSO, 8 M urea and 3 M NaCl. It bound the antigen in the pH range of 6-8, though its tolerance for guanidium HCl was reduced. Sequence analysis demonstrated a significant increase in the frequency of somatic replacement mutations in CDRs over framework regions in the light but not in the heavy chain. A comparison of the molecular models of the variable regions of the 5S antibody and its germ-line precursor revealed that critical mutations in the heavy and light chains interface resulted in better inter-chain packing and in the movement of CDR H3 and CDR L1 from their germline positions, which may be important for better antigen binding. In addition to providing a reagent for neutralizing for the virus, such an antibody provides a model for the evolution of stable high affinity interaction during antibody maturation.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bose B, Khanna N, Acharya SK, Sinha S.Generation and characterization of a high-affinity chimaeric antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen.Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2006 Feb;43(Pt 2):93-101.". In: Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2006 Feb;43(Pt 2):93-101. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
Antibody against HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen) is advocated for the passive immunotherapy in certain cases of hepatitis B infections. A recombinant monoclonal antibody against HBsAg would offer several advantages over the currently used polyclonal human hepatitis B immunoglobulin. 5S is a mouse monoclonal antibody that binds to HBsAg with very high affinity. However, this mouse antibody cannot be used for therapeutic purposes, as it may elicit antimouse immune responses. Chimaerization, by replacing mouse constant domains with human counterparts, can reduce the immunogenicity of this molecule. We have cloned the V(H) (heavy-chain variable region) and V(L) (light-chain variable region) genes of this mouse antibody, and fused them with C(H)1 (heavy-chain constant domain 1) of human IgG1 and C(L) (light-chain constant domain) of human kappa chain respectively. These chimaeric genes were cloned into a mammalian expression vector (pFab-CMV), which has a modular cassette coding for part of the hinge, C(H)2 and C(H)3 of human IgG1. The recombinant construct was transfected in CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary) cells to generate a stable transfectoma. The resulting transfectoma was maintained in a serum-free medium and the full-length chimaeric anti-HBsAg antibody was purified from the culture supernatant. The yield of the purified chimaeric antibody was moderate ( approximately 5.5 mg/l). We further characterized the chimaeric antibody using several in vitro techniques. It was observed that the chimaeric molecule was glycosylated and expressed in the expected heterodimeric form. This chimaeric antibody has very high affinity and specificity, similar to that of the original mouse monoclonal antibody.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bose B, Khanna N, Acharya SK, Sinha S.Generation and characterization of a single-gene mouse-human chimeric antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Sep;21(9):1439-47.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Sep;21(9):1439-47. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is used for passive immunotherapy in certain cases of hepatitis B infection. The authors have earlier reported a high-affinity mouse monoclonal (5S) against HBsAg. However, this mouse antibody cannot be used for therapeutic purposes because it may elicit antimouse immune responses. Chimerization by replacing mouse constant domains with human ones can reduce the immunogenicity of this antibody. METHODS: A single-chain variable fragment (scFv), derived from the mouse monoclonal 5S, was fused with the fragment crystallisable (Fc) fragment of human IgG1. The scFv region is expected to bind to the antigen, whereas the Fc fragment can provide the effector functions required for virus neutralization. This chimeric molecule was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in serum-free medium. It was purified by affinity chromatography and characterized by in vitro binding studies. RESULTS: Purification and characterization indicated that this chimeric scFv-Fc fusion protein is secreted as a disulfide-linked, glycosylated, homodimeric molecule. The yield of the purified chimeric antibody was approximately 4.6 mg/L. In vitro analyses confirmed that this chimeric molecule retained the high affinity and specificity of the original mouse monoclonal. CONCLUSION: Because it is a single-gene product, this chimeric scFv-Fc has the advantage of stable expression. Being chimeric and bivalent, it is expected to be less immunogenic and therefore suitable for further in vivo studies on virus neutralization.
KAAYA, G.P., VALLI, V.E.O., MAXIE MG. "Bovine erythrocytic, granulocytic and macrophage colony formation in culture." Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine. 1978;42:322-326.
KAAYA, G.P., MAXIE, M.G., VALLI VEO, LOSOS GJ. "Bovine granulocyte/macrophage and erythroid colony culture: Characteristics of the colonies and the assay systems." Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine. 1979;43:448-457.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "The Boy Who Learnt to Play Ball. Barrack Muluka and Tobias Otieno (Eds). The Doomed Conspiracy and Other Stories. 191-94.". In: John Wiley & Sons. Publishers Chichester. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 2011. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Braddick MR, Ndinya-Achola JO, Mirza NB, Plummer FA, Irungu G, Sinei SK, Piot P. Towards developing a diagnostic algorithm for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae cervicitis in pregnancy.Genitourin Med. 1990 Apr;66(2):62-5.". In: Genitourin Med. 1990 Apr;66(2):62-5. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1990. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae are major causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. To identify characteristics predictive of cervical infection, we examined pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. C trachomatis was isolated from 14/178 (8%), and N gonorrhoeae from 17 (10%); cervical infection with either pathogen was present in 28 (16%). Two characteristics were independently predictive of cervical infection by logistic regression analysis; the presence of either endocervical mucopus or induced endocervical bleeding, relative risk 4.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2 to 8.0) and having more than one sexual partner during pregnancy, relative risk 3.3 (95% CI 1.4 to 7.6). A screening programme for cervical infection which tested women with one or both risk markers would have a sensitivity of 68% (95% CI 51 to 85%) and a positive predictive value of 0.35 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.47). In countries where resources are limited, diagnostic algorithms incorporating clinical signs and behavioural characteristics may be useful in identifying pregnant women at high risk of cervical infection. PIP: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea are major causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity in developing countries. 178 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, were therefore examined in the attempt to identify characteristics predictive of cervical infection. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 14 (8%) and Neisseria gonorrhoea from 17 (10%); cervical infection with either pathogen was present in 28 (16%). Logistic regression analysis found that the presence of either endocervical mucopus or induced endocervical bleeding and having more than 1 sex partner during pregnancy were independently predictive of cervical infection. A screening program for cervical infection which tested women with 1 or both risk markers wold have a sensitivity of 68% and a positive predictive value of 0.35. The authors conclude that countries with limited resources may use diagnostic algorithms and incorporate clinical signs and behavioral characteristics to help identify pregnant women at high risk of cervical infection.
KITHUNGA PETERN. "Brand Associations and Consumer Perceptions of Value of Products.". 2002. Abstract

Purpose - Brands are so valuable that companies may soon include a ‘statement of value’ addendum to their balance sheets to include intangibles such as the value of their brands.
This paper examines the importance of brands and the bases for purchase decision and loyalty. The bases are derived from a theoretical framework on the perceptual dimensions of brand association. The framework contains attributes, application, benefits, user, personality and country of origin as the associations that consumers use in their purchase decisions and loyalty.
Practical implications- The growing importance of brands and consumer perceptions of brands among marketing researchers requires that an extensive conceptual treatment of brand association be developed. The paper shows the nature of brand association and the future directions in the measurement of perceptual dimension of brand associations.

Key Words: Brand association, consumer perception, formation of brand association

M NI, Munyoki JM, Kinoti M. "BRANDING PRACTICES FOR FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLE AND THE PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL FRAMERS IN KIAMBU COUNTY, KENYA." European Journal of Business and Social Sciences. 2016;Vol. 5, (No. 09):1-15.munyoki_and_nkaari.pdf
Kodwavwala Y, Jani PG. "Breast cancer in Kenya." J ObstGynecol East Cent.Afric. 1987.
Kihara AB, Kiarie G, Cheserem EJ, Amin M, Issak B, Rogena E, Kosgei RJ. "Breast cancer in pregnancy; routine examination, diagnosis and management- A case report ." Case reports in clinical medicine. 2013;2:119-122.breast_cancer_in_pregnancy_routine_examination_diagnosis_and_managemen_a_case_report.pdf
Kihara" "A-B, Gladwell" "K, Eunice" "CJ, Medhat" "A, Issak" "B, Emily" "R, Rose" "KJ. Breast cancer in pregnancy; routine examination, diagnosis and management: A case report.; 2013.crcm_acceptance_of_breast_manuscript.doc
Chung MH, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Lehman DA, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC. "Breast milk HIV-1 suppression and decreased transmission: a randomized trial comparing HIVNET 012 nevirapine versus short-course zidovudine." AIDS. 2005;19(13):1415-22. Abstract

To compare the effect of perinatal regimens of short-course nevirapine (HIVNET 012) and zidovudine [Thai-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) regimen] on breast milk viral shedding and perinatal transmission during the first 6 weeks postpartum in a randomized clinical trial.

Kimani PM;, Githiri SM;, Kamau JK. "Breeding bean for resistance to diseases."; 1990. Abstract

Seven bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.) lines contrasting in disease resistance and agronomic characters were crossed in a diallel. The parents, F(1s), F(2s) and F(3s) were evaluated and selected in glasshouse and field for resistance to rust, Uromyces phaseoli (Reben) Wint, anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum), angular leaf spot (Phaeoisariopsis griseola), halo blight (Pseudomonas phaeolicola) and bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). F(4s) and F(5s) were evaluated in the field only. Several F4 and F5 lines combining resistance to three or more diseases, acceptable seed characteristics and good yield potential were selected from nine crosses.

Kimani PM;, Buruchara R;, Ampofo K;, Pyndji M;, Chirwa RM;, Kirkby R. "Breeding beans for smallholder farmers in Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa: Constraints, achievements, and potential."; 2001. Abstract

Serious declines in food security and income in sub-Saharan Africa over the past two decades have resulted in widespread poverty and malnutrition, especially among resource-poor smallholders and the urban poor. The common bean is a major part of their food requirements and source of income, but there have been declines in bean productivity, attributable to a number of factors and estimated at nearly 3,000,000 t per year. In the last 16 years, the Pan-African Bean Research Alliance (PABRA) together with NARS partners, farmers, NGOs, and other stakeholders have sought to overcome these constraints by breeding highyielding, disease- and pest-resistant cultivars adapted to poor soils, with characteristics acceptable for domestic and export markets, and seed production and delivery systems for smallholder producers, among other things. A record 188 distinct varieties have been released and have contributed significantly to improvements in the livelihoods of resource-poor rural communities through increased availability of food and household income, savings in cooking time, reduced wood fuel consumption, gender equity, and empowerment of women and other vulnerable groups. Adoption rates of up to 100% indicate that accelerated dissemination and adoption of improved bean cultivars can significantly contribute to improving food security, household income, and poverty alleviation, especially for the most vulnerable group

Kimata MD, Mwangi RW, Mathiu P. "The Breeding Performance of the Helmeted Guinea Fowl (Numida meleagris) in a Semi-confined Outdoor System.". In: Sixth KARI Scientific Conference Nairobi Nov 9 – 13 . KARI Nairobi; 1998.
Namayanja A;, Tukamuhabwa P;, Opio F;, Ugen M;, Kimani PM;, Takusewanya R;, Kitinda X. "Breeding Red-Mottled Beans for East and Central Africa."; 2001. Abstract

The common bean is grown by more than 90% of small-scale farmers in Africa. Of all the seed types grown in East and Central Africa, the red-mottled types occupy the greatest area: 650,000 ha in Eastern Africa and 90,000 ha in Southern Africa. This is also the most important bean type sold and consumed in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, Malawi, Zambia, and Mozambique, with a market share of about 22% in Eastern Africa. The breeding programme in Uganda is aimed at developing improved, marketable, red-mottled varieties with resistance to two or more biotic and abiotic constraints, and with acceptable agronomic and culinary qualities. In order to achieve this objective, breeding activities have been implemented under five major projects: hybridisation, evaluation of segregating populations and new introductions, multilocational yield trials, on-farm testing, and maintenance breeding. Since 1995, eight varieties of bush beans and four climbing varieties have been released. Several others are in advanced stages and, currently, 10 bush and five climbing varieties are being tested on-farm. There have been high demand and adoption of these new varieties, thereby contributing to household food security, protein availability, and income. However, it has been observed that the selection criterion used by farmers is different from that used by breeders. There is now a need to involve farmers at the very early stage of selection through participatory plant breeding so as to accelerate the adoption process.

Kimani PM, Mulanya MM, Narla RD, Ambuko J, Ouma L, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M, Owino WO, Njuguna J, Kosgei PK, others. "Breeding runner bean for grain yield, disease resistance and short-day adaptation in eastern Africa.". In: Proc. Fourth RUFORUM Biennial Conference.; 2014:. Abstract
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KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Breyten Breytenbach: A Veil of Footsteps: Memoir of a Nomadic Fictional Character.". In: The African Book Publishing Record 35.1 (April 2009) 31-32. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2009. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno SP. Bridge on Fire. Simon, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2009.
Wangai FK, Masika MM, Lule GN, Karari EM, Maritim MC, Jaoko WG, Museve B, Kuria A. "Bridging antimicrobial resistance knowledge gaps: The East African perspective on a global problem." PLoS ONE. 2019;14(2):e0212131. Abstract

There is worldwide concern of rapidly increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). However, there is paucity of resistance surveillance data and updated antibiograms in Africa in general. This study was undertaken in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) -the largest public tertiary referral centre in East & Central Africa-to help bridge existing AMR knowledge and practice gaps.

Kimani E, Kigamwa J, Chege F, Muthomi J. "Bridging phytosanitary capacity through the Centre of Phytosanitary Excellence (COPE).". In: aGRO 2011 Inaugural Biennial Conference, Faculty of Agriculture. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.
Kamau A, Paul Kamau, Muia D, Baiya H, Ndung'u J. "Bridging the entrepreneurial gender gap through social protection among women small-scale traders in Kenya.". In: Women Entrepreneurs and the Myth of ‘Underperformance’: A New Look at Women’s Entrepreneurship Research. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2018.1-14619-flier.pdf
Mgalula ME, Richter U, Hensel O, Hülsebusch C, Kaufmann B, Oliver Wasonga. "Bridging the gap between increasing knowledge and decreasing resources.". 2017. Abstract

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KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Bringing Old Pains to the Surface: Loss, Grief and Healing in Margaret Laurence.". In: Margaret Laurence Review 13 (2003): 9-12. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract

The article sets out to investigate the question of the identity of Kenyan literature in the context of East Africa, Africa and the Commonwealth. It argues that this literature appears to reflect as it seeks to create and define a national culture because, despite Kenya being a mosaic of peoples and cultures, symbols of nationhood, defined boundaries and memories of the colonial experience continue to shape and mould its sense of national being. Its literature therefore needs to be discussed in the context of exploring its national sensibility, discussing how the nation produces it and how it narrates the nation. This discourse would assist the nation understand itself, unravel the aesthetic ideal the literature embodies, and, hopefully, galvanise the nation for a unity of purpose arising from yearnings for harmonious social relationships the aesthetic ideal embodies.

Landais E, Huang X, Havenar-Daughton C, Murrell B, Price MA, Wickramasinghe L, Ramos A, Bian CB, Simek M, Allen S, Karita E, Kilembe W, Lakhi S, Inambao M, Kamali A, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Edward V, Bekker L-G, Tang J, Gilmour J, Kosakovsky-Pond SL, Phung P, Wrin T, Crotty S, Godzik A, Poignard P. "Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort." PLoS Pathog.. 2016;12(1):e1005369. Abstract

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(-) genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design.

Carron M, Alarcon P, Karani M, Muinde P, Akoko J, Onono J, F`evre E, Ḧasler B, Rushton J. "The broiler meat system in Nairobi, Kenya: using a value chain framework to understand animal and product flows, governance and sanitary risks." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2017;147:90-99.
Dharani N, Kinyamario JI, Wagacha PW, Rodrigues AJ. "Browsing impact of large herbivores on Acacia xanthophloea Benth in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya." Africa Journal of Ecology. 2008;47(2):184-191.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "bugua, S.K. 1977 . The survey of recipes of .". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1977. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Kanyinga K, Walkers S. "Building a Political Settlement: The International Approach to Kenya's 2008 Post-Election Crisis." Stability: International Journal of Security and Development. 2013;2(2):1-21.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Building Capacity for Democratic and Sustainable NGO's Work: Discussion Notes (A paper presented in a workshop on `Coordinated Civic Education for the 1997 General Election and Beyond,' organized by RECAP-ICJ; IED; 4Cs; KENFAD; and CRIC - Silver Springs H.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996.
Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage I0, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talibs Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implementation Science. 2016;11(30). Abstractbuilding_capacity_in_implementation_science_research_training_at_the_university_of_nairobi.pdf

Background: Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap
between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health
care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by
training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative,
the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.
Methods: This paper describes how the University of Nairobi leveraged resources from the Medical Education
Partnership to develop an institutional program that provides training and mentoring in implementation science,
builds relationships between researchers and implementers, and identifies local research priorities for
implementation science.
Results: The curriculum content includes core material in implemerjjation science theory, methods, and experiences.
The program adopts a team mentoring and supervision approach, in which fellows are matched with mentors at the
University of Nairobi and partnering institutions University of Washington, Seattle, and University of Maryland,
Baltimore. A survey of program participants showed a high degree satisfaction with most aspects of the program,
including the content, duration, and attachment sites. A key strength of the fellowship program is the partnership
approach, which leverages innovative use of information technology to offer diverse perspectives, and a team model
for mentorship and supervision.
Conclusions: As health care systems and training institutions seek new approaches to increase capacity in
implementation science, the University of Nairobi Implementation Science Fellowship program can be a model
for health educators and administrators who wish to develop their program and curricula.
Keywords: Implementation science, Training, Fellowship program

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

Dalupan CMG, Haywood C, Wardell AD, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Kibugi R. Building enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique: A synthesis. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
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Dalupan CMG, Haywood C, Wardell AD, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Kibugi R. Building enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique: A synthesis. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
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Dalupan CMG, Haywood C, Wardell AD, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Kibugi R. Building enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique: A synthesis. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
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Mathai M, Stoep A, Kumar M, M.Kuria, Obondo A, Kimani V, Amugune B, Makanyengo M, Mbwayo A, Child M, Unutzer J, Kiarie J. "Building Mental Health Research Capacity in Kenya: a South-North Collaboration." Glob Soc Wek . 2018;2018:1-12.
M M, Vander Stoep A, Kuria M, Obondo A, Kimani V, Amugune B, M M, Child M, Unützer J KJ. "Building Mental Health Research Capacity in Kenya: A South-North Collaboration." Global Social Welfare. 2019;6(3):177-188.
Owusu F, Kalipeni E, Awortwi E. "Building research capacity for African institutions: confronting the research leadership gap and lessons from African research leaders." International Journal of Leadership in Education. 2015:1-26.
Ngesu L, Gunga S, Wachira L, Muriithi E, K'Odhiambo AK. "Bullying In Kenyan Secondary Schools: Manifestations, Causes, Consequences And Mitigation Measures.". 2013.
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala LI, Syanda J, Mutiso V, Othieno CJ, Odhiambo G, Kokonya DA. "Bullying in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi,Kenya.". 2007.bullying_in_public_secondary_schools_in_nairobikenya.pdf
Kaburu SM, Bulimo W, Maina GG, Ongus J. "Burden of human rhinovirus infections in influenza like illnesses in Kenya." International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2014;21:222. AbstractWebsite
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Ng’ang’a M, Matendechero S, l. Kariuki, Omondi W, Makworo N, Owiti PO, Kizito W, Tweya H, Edwards JK, Takarinda KC, Ogutu O. "Burden of soil transmitted helminthiases in primary school children in Migori County, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
KA W, A V, DO A, EAO D, A M, AK L, J G, chindia ML. "Burning mouth syndrome presenting with oral lichen planus – A case report." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2014.
Ndetei DM, Pizzo M, Khasakhala LI, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Mutiso V, Kokonya DA. "Burnout in staff working at the Mathari psyhicatric hospital.". 2009.burnout_in_staff_working_at_the_mathari_psyhicatric_hospital.pdf
Kabura S, Otieno SP. Bury My Bones But Keep My Words I . Mbuga E, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2014.
Kabura S, Otieno SP. Bury My Bones But Keep My Words II. Mbuga E, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2014.
kinyua OH. "BUSINESS AND SECURITY: ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE.". In: Business and Security in Africa. Laico Regency Hotel; 2012.business_and_security_hasan_kinyua-presentation_14_sept.ppt
Kihiko MK, Kinoti MW. "The business case for climate change: The impact of climate change on Kenya’s public listed companies.". In: Climate Change and the 2030 Corporate Agenda for Sustainable Development Advances in Sustainability and Environmental Justice. Emerald Group Publishing Limited; 2016.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Business dynamics, Problems, Constraints and Coping by Agro food Enterprises; A case for Maize and Cassava in Kenya. Food Africa,.". In: International Working Meeting. Sponsored by INCO2, E.C. Frame work V and International Foundation for Science (IFS), 5 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Ndung’u CW, Ogutu M, Yabs J, Muranga NJ, Kinoti M. "Business Environment, Corporate Image, Competitive Strategies And Performance Of Large Manufacturing Firms In Kenya." African Journal of Business and Management (AJBUMA). 2020;6(1):215-233. Abstractbusiness_environment_corporate_image_competitive_strategies_and_performance_of_large_manufacturing_firms_in_kenya.pdf

Firms’ performance differs from firm to firm in the same industry with some firms achieving higher
levels of performance than others which can be connected to the type of competitive strategies a
firm adopts. The never-ending changes today calls for firms to continuously monitor their business
environment with a view to creating strategies that will make them different from their competitors
and improve their corporate image in the eyes of their customers. The study sought to determine
how business environment and corporate image affect the relationship between competitive
strategies and the performance of large manufacturing firms in Kenya. It was guided by positivist
philosophy and a cross-sectional descriptive survey. The target population was large
manufacturing firms in Kenya where a structured questionnaire was utilized to collect data.
Regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The study found that the joint influence of
competitive strategies, business environment and corporate image on performance of large
manufacturing firms in Kenya was statistically significant. Manufacturing firms should adopt
competitive strategies in response to business environment and craft strategies to enable them
position themselves better than competitor. The firms can indirectly improve performance by
maintaining a good corporate image also.

Gannon, Kate Elizabeth, Conway, Declan, Pardoe, Joanna, Ndiyoi, Mukelabai, Batisani, Nnyaladzi, Odada, E.O., Kgosietsile, Sinah, Opere, Alfred, Nyambe, Mubita, Omukuti, Jessica, Siderius, Christian, Olago DO. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability.. 2018; ISSN 2059-4798.
Oribu W, King’oriah PG, Agwata DJ, Gongera PGE. "Business Sustainability: A Need To Re-Look Environmental Practices And Initiatives." European Journal of Business and Management. 2014;Vol.6, No.3. Abstractbusiness_sustainability-a_need_to_relook_environmental_practices_and_initiatives.pdf

Due to the increasing degradation of the natural business enterprises’ environmental commitment has become an
important variable in most of today’s competitive business environment. This is because activities of most
enterprises are the main causes of environmental degradation which in turn impact on the sustainability of their
performance. This study looks at the specific business environmental practices and initiatives and how they
impact on their sustainability. The overall objective of the study was to establish the impact of environmental
initiatives on business sustainability around Lake Naivasha. The study design was descriptive survey in order to
pick behaviors which needed to be mitigated for purposes of business sustainability. Purposive random sampling
was used from the target population which comprised of farming, hospitality and fishing sectors. Discriminant
analysis was used to analyze the data and the key findings of the study show that business sustainability depends
mainly on the current environmental practices and initiatives that have been put in place. The study recommends
that business associations be at the frontline in regulating activities by their members in order to achieve
sustainability.

Dorothy MC, Kimuyu P. "Business Systems Theory: An African Perspective.". In: Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. University of Nairobi Press; 2007.
Calatayud PA, Okuku G, Musyoka B, Khadioli N, Ong’amo G. "Busseola segeta, a Potential New Pest of Maize in Western Kenya." ENTOMOLOGY, ORNITHOLOGY & HERPETOLOGY. 2014;3:132.
KAVIN DRWAKOLI. "Butt FM, Chindia ML, Wakoli KA.Problems in diagnosing odontogenic myxoma: case report.East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):141-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):141-5. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2007. Abstract
Tumours and tumour-like growths arising from odontogenic tissues constitute a heterogenous group of lesions whose diagnosis can be particularly challenging on the part of both surgeons and pathologists. In children, these lesions are even more difficult to clinically and histopathologically diagnose definitively because of the concurrent diverse embryologic differentiation of dental tissues. A case is presented of a 12 year-old boy who was subjected to inappropriate primary management of a left mandibular mass, due apparently to inadequate consultation to establish an accurate diagnosis.
Namu FN, Githaiga JM, Kioko EN, Ndegwa PN, Häuser CL, Kühn L. "The butterfly, Hypolimnas salmacis magnifica.". 2008.Website
K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "By Accident and Design, Contextualizing the Success and Dominance of the Kikuyu as Entrepreneurs in Kenya.". In: (IFRA) Nairobi. uon press; 1995. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "By the Sweat of Your Brow: Culture and Work,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1987. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

C
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "C. De Greef, E. Chimfwembe, J.K. Wabacha, E.B. Songa, and R. Hamers (1992). Only the serum -resistant bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense express the serum resistance associated (SRA) protein. Ann. Soc. Beig. Med. Trop.72(1): 13-21.". In: Kenya Veterinary Assciation Annual Scientific Conference, 22nd - 24th April, 1998), Embu, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1992. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "C.K Sigei and E.K. Njeru.Surveillance and Research in STI, In: A.P. Mwangi and J. Ndinya-Achola (ed), STI Control and Prevention. Ministry of Health and Belgian Development Cooperation, Nairobi, 1999.". In: A.P. Mwangi and J. Ndinya-Achola (ed), STI Control and Prevention. Ministry of Health and Belgian Development Cooperation, Nairobi, 1999. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of cigarette filters and the effect of smoking Kiraiku (home processed, hand rolled tobacco) on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia among cigarette smokers. DESIGN: Case control using population-based study groups in a Kenyan rural community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 85 cases and 141 controls identified in a cross-section house-to-house screening of subjects aged 15 years and over and matched for sex, age (+/- 3 years) and cluster origin were compared for their use of filter and non-filter cigarettes as well as their history of smoking Kiraiku. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia was 9.1 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 4.1-20.2) in smokers of filter cigarettes and 9.8 (95% CI = 2.3-47.0) in smokers of non-filter cigarettes. The RR in the latter compared to the former was 1.1 and was not statistically significant. Regarding the influence of smoking Kiraiku, the RR of this lesion was 29.3 in smokers of both Kiraiku and filter cigarettes and 17.3 in smokers of both Kiraiku and non-filter cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant difference between the influence of filter and non-filter cigarettes on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. The effect of Kiraiku on the risk of this lesion was stronger in filter than in non-filter cigarettes. However, the confounding effect of tobacco dose response parameters could not be ruled out.
Maitai CK, Kibwage IO, Guantai AN, Ombega JN, Ndemo FA. "C.K. Maitai, I.O. Kibwage, A. N. Guantai, J. N. Ombega and F.A. Ndemo (1998). A retrospective study of childhood poisoning in Kenya in 1991- 93." East Cent Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 1998;1(1):7-10. AbstractWebsite

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "C.M. Mulei and G.K. Gitau. Antibiotic sensitivity of aerobic bacterial organisms isolated from cows with postpartum vaginal discharges and their implications in therapy of uterine infections in Kenya. Indian Veterinary Journal. (1993) 70: 999-1002.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Indian Veterinary Journal; 1993. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "C.M. Mulei, E.R. Mutiga and G.K. Gitau. Retained fetal membranes in cattle: Relationship between bacterial isolates, blood picture and systemic involvement. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. (1993) 63 (3): 235-238.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1993. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "C.M. Mulei, G.K. Gitau and P.G. Mbuthia. Causes of calf mortality in Kabete area Kenya. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. (1995) 62 (3): 181-185.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research; 1995. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "C.M. Mulei, J.K. Wabacha and P.M.F Mbithi. Short-term Economic impact of Foot and Mouth disease outbreak in a large dairy herd in Kenya. Kenya Veterinary Association Annual.". In: Scientific Conference, 26th - 28th April, 2000), Mombasa, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "C.M. Mulei, J.K. Wabacha and P.M.F. Mbithi (2001). Short-term Economic impact of Foot and Mouth disease outbreak in a large dairy Farm in Kiambu District, Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 22: 76-78.". In: Biennial scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 7th-9th August 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2001. Abstract
The short-term farm level economic impact of Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak in a large-scale dairy scale dairy farm was assessed during the quarantine period (35 days) and 60 days after lifting of the quarantine. Direct and indirect areas that contributed to the financial losses were identified for the period of observation (85 days). The greatest direct financial impact was due to milk losses (42.0%) followed by purchase pf additional feeds (13.65) and culling of milking cows that developed chronic mastitis (12.5%). The other direct costs were; extra labout inputs (8.9%), veterinary fees (3.350, transport (3.05), death (3.0%), drugs (2.9%), abortions (1.4%) and chemicals (0.5%). The indirect costs (9.4%) were associated with the effects of the quarantine period on other farm enterprises. During the quarantine period there were no sales of pigs and hay, and the retained additional feeds. The overall short-term farm level direct and indirect costs associated to US$16,026 (1US$=75ksh). This colossal economic loss within such a short period of time indicates that the control of FMD is of paramount economic importance in the diary farming sector in Kenya. The factors that would determine the magnitude of the financial losses due to an outbreak of FMD are discussed
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "C.M. Mulei, P.K.Gathumbi and P.G.Mbuthia (2000). Suspected sheep associated malignant catarrhal fever in a zero.". In: Proceedings of the first national workshop on medicinal, aromatic and other underutilized plant species in Kenya. Naivasha, Kenya, 29 Oct. to 3rd Nov. 2001. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2000. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "C.M. Mulei, T.A. Ngatia and J.K. Wabacha (2001). Epidemiological, Clinical and Pathological findings of Oedema disease of Swine in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 22: 79-81.". In: Biennial scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 7th-9th August 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2001. Abstract
A study was conducted in fourty randomly selected herds in a peri-urban area in the Central Kenyan highlands to obtain prevalence estimates of sarcoptic mange in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. A total of 476 pigs of various age-group categories were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was based on physical examination for clinical signs indicative of mange infestation and on direct detection of Sarcoptes scabiei mites. Ninety per cent of the herds had clinical signs suggestive of sarcoptic mange and in 70% of the herds Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was positively identified. The results also indicated that 273 (57.3%) of the 476 pigs had clinical signs indicative of sarcoptic mange and 90 (18.9%) of the 476 pigs were positive for Sarcoptes scabiei var suis. The hypersensitive form of mange was more common than the chronic form. The direct examination technique to detect Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was more effective in weaners than in the other age categories of pigs. The results indicate that sarcoptic mange is a common problem in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "C.M. Mulei, T.A. Ngatia and J.K. Wabacha. Epidemiological, Clinical and Pathological findings of Oedema disease of Swine in Kenya.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 26th - 28th April, 2000), Mombasa, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
Kyule MD. CAC 202 Archaeology Field Methods. Nairobi: lecture module for the Center for Open and Distance Learning (CODL), University of Nairobi.; 2008.
Kyule MD. CAC 405 Tourism in the Internet Age. Nairobi; 2011.
Setty SNRS, Katikireddi RS. "Cadaveric study of arterial pattern of caecum and vermiform appendix - research article." International Journal of Current Research and Review. 2013;5:73-75. AbstractWebsite
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Kayongo SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Nyagah PN;, Maitho TE;, Mbugua PN. "Caged-layer waste as a nitrogen source in crop-residue utilization."; 1992. Abstract

Examine the effect of processing methods on the composition and degradability of caged-layer waste (CLW). Investigate the effect of ensiling CLW (as a nitrogen source) with crop residues on the chemical composition and degradability of the silage. The proximate composition of unprocessed, sun-dried, ensiled, deep-stacked and fumigated CLW are shown in Table 1. Assesses the effect of sun-drying, ensiling, deep-stacking and fumigating with formaldehyde gas on the nutritional value of caged-layer waste (CLW). Deep-stacking resulted in a higher (P0.01) ash content and undesirable odour, but also in a higher (P0.01) dry-matter degradability (DMD) than the other treatment methods. Duration of sun-drying or deep-stacking or the number of times the CLW was fumigated did not affect (P0.05) DMD in the rumen. However, ensiling CLW for 42 days resulted in a higher (P0.01) DMD than ensiling for 21 days and also reduced odour. Ensiling fibrous crop residues with caged-layer waste could provide a means of more efficiently utilising caged-layer wastes and crop residues as livestock feed.

Kayongo SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Nyagah PN;, Maitho TE;, Mbugua PN. "Caged-layer waste as a nitrogen source in crop-residue utilization."; 1992. Abstract

Examine the effect of processing methods on the composition and degradability of caged-layer waste (CLW). Investigate the effect of ensiling CLW (as a nitrogen source) with crop residues on the chemical composition and degradability of the silage. The proximate composition of unprocessed, sun-dried, ensiled, deep-stacked and fumigated CLW are shown in Table 1. Assesses the effect of sun-drying, ensiling, deep-stacking and fumigating with formaldehyde gas on the nutritional value of caged-layer waste (CLW). Deep-stacking resulted in a higher (P0.01) ash content and undesirable odour, but also in a higher (P0.01) dry-matter degradability (DMD) than the other treatment methods. Duration of sun-drying or deep-stacking or the number of times the CLW was fumigated did not affect (P0.05) DMD in the rumen. However, ensiling CLW for 42 days resulted in a higher (P0.01) DMD than ensiling for 21 days and also reduced odour. Ensiling fibrous crop residues with caged-layer waste could provide a means of more efficiently utilising caged-layer wastes and crop residues as livestock feed.

Kayongo SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Nyagah PN;, Maitho TE;, Mbugua PN. "Caged-layer waste as a nitrogen source in crop-residue utilization."; 1992. Abstract

Examine the effect of processing methods on the composition and degradability of caged-layer waste (CLW). Investigate the effect of ensiling CLW (as a nitrogen source) with crop residues on the chemical composition and degradability of the silage. The proximate composition of unprocessed, sun-dried, ensiled, deep-stacked and fumigated CLW are shown in Table 1. Assesses the effect of sun-drying, ensiling, deep-stacking and fumigating with formaldehyde gas on the nutritional value of caged-layer waste (CLW). Deep-stacking resulted in a higher (P0.01) ash content and undesirable odour, but also in a higher (P0.01) dry-matter degradability (DMD) than the other treatment methods. Duration of sun-drying or deep-stacking or the number of times the CLW was fumigated did not affect (P0.05) DMD in the rumen. However, ensiling CLW for 42 days resulted in a higher (P0.01) DMD than ensiling for 21 days and also reduced odour. Ensiling fibrous crop residues with caged-layer waste could provide a means of more efficiently utilising caged-layer wastes and crop residues as livestock feed.

Kayongo SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Nyagah PN;, Maitho TE;, Mbugua PN. "Caged-layer waste as a nitrogen source in crop-residue utilization."; 1992. Abstract

Examine the effect of processing methods on the composition and degradability of caged-layer waste (CLW). Investigate the effect of ensiling CLW (as a nitrogen source) with crop residues on the chemical composition and degradability of the silage. The proximate composition of unprocessed, sun-dried, ensiled, deep-stacked and fumigated CLW are shown in Table 1. Assesses the effect of sun-drying, ensiling, deep-stacking and fumigating with formaldehyde gas on the nutritional value of caged-layer waste (CLW). Deep-stacking resulted in a higher (P0.01) ash content and undesirable odour, but also in a higher (P0.01) dry-matter degradability (DMD) than the other treatment methods. Duration of sun-drying or deep-stacking or the number of times the CLW was fumigated did not affect (P0.05) DMD in the rumen. However, ensiling CLW for 42 days resulted in a higher (P0.01) DMD than ensiling for 21 days and also reduced odour. Ensiling fibrous crop residues with caged-layer waste could provide a means of more efficiently utilising caged-layer wastes and crop residues as livestock feed.

Kihara E, Owino R, Otwoma J, Dimba E, Chindia M, others. "Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour manifesting in the maxillary antrum: Case report." Open Journal of Stomatology. 2013;3:504-506. Abstract
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Chindia M, Dimba E, Otwoma J, Owino R, Kihara E. "Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour manifesting in the maxillary antrum: Case report.". 2013. Abstract
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KS S, FMA B, EAO D. "Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour. Anatomy Journal of Africa." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013.
Kaduki KA, Batty W. Calculations of in-plane subband dispersion for non-square quantum wells. Warwick, U.K.: Institute of Physics; 1994.
Lamuka P, Njeru F, Gitao C, Khalif A. "Camel health management and pastoralists’ knowledge and information on zoonoses and food safety risks in Isiolo County, Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2017;7(20, DOI 10.1186/s13570-017-0095-z).
Calatayud P-A, Njuguna E, Mwalusepo S, Gathara M, Okuku G, Kibe A, B M, Williamson D, Ong’amo G, Juma G, Johansson T, Subramanian S, Gatebe E, BP LR. "Can climate-driven change influence silicon assimilation by cereals and hence the distribution of lepidopteran stem borers in East Africa? ." AGRICULTURE, ECOSYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT. 2016;224:95-103.
Mwabu G, Bold T, Kimenyi M, Sandefur J. "Can Free Provision Reduce Demand for Public Services?". In: World Bank Economic Review, doi:10.1093/wber/lht038.; 2014.
KURIA KAMAU, Carr MMW(E). "Can It Be Mended? Kenya and the MFA Phase Out." ISBN 0-978-0-85092-873-0; 2010. Abstract
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Furukawa T, Fujiwara K, Kiboi S, Mutiso P. "Can stumps tell what people want: Pattern and preference of informal wood extraction in an urban forest of Nairobi, Kenya." Biological Conservation. 2011;144:3047-3054.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Canadian Literature, Nairobi: Nairobi UP.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1992. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

Grossheim L, Ruff P, Ngoma T, Vanderpuye V, Wango GM, Ochieng P, Palmer D, Kouya F, Lasebikan N, Ntekim A, Ngoma M, Bih N, Malloum A, Elzawawy A, Kerr D, Ngwa W. "Cancer and Covid-19 Experiences at African Cancer Centers: The Silver Lining." JCO Global Oncology. 2021;7:410-415.
De Vuyst H, Parisi MR, Karani A, Mandaliya K, Muchiri L, Vaccarella S, Temmerman M, Franceschi S, Lillo F. "Cancer Causes & Control > Vol. 21, No. 12, December 2010.". 2010.Website
Kiptoon DK, Ngugi PM, Rana FS. "Cancer of the penis: case report.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Two patients with penile carcinoma are presented after management at a district hospital in Kenya. Both had undergone ritual circumcision as teenagers and presented late. HR was a 73 year old who presented with a fungating penile mass for which a partial penectomy was performed after wedge biopsy confirmed malignancy. He thereafter declined to have the surgical specimen sent for histology and took the amputated stump for burial in his compound to avoid bad omen. GK was 25 years old and presented with a fungating mass and underwent partial penectomy after a histological diagnosis was made. He absconded from follow-up after being informed of the need for further surgery due to tumour infiltration of the surgical margins. The history and clinical images are presented and we discuss the difficulties of cancer management at a rural district hospital

Kiptoon DK, Ngugi PM, Rana FS. "Cancer of the penis: case report." East Afr Med J. 2009;86(4):196-200. Abstract

Two patients with penile carcinoma are presented after management at a district hospital in Kenya. Both had undergone ritual circumcision as teenagers and presented late. HR was a 73 year old who presented with a fungating penile mass for which a partial penectomy was performed after wedge biopsy confirmed malignancy. He thereafter declined to have the surgical specimen sent for histology and took the amputated stump for burial in his compound to avoid bad omen. GK was 25 years old and presented with a fungating mass and underwent partial penectomy after a histological diagnosis was made. He absconded from follow-up after being informed of the need for further surgery due to tumour infiltration of the surgical margins. The history and clinical images are presented and we discuss the difficulties of cancer management at a rural district hospital.

Zhang X, Wallace OL, Domi A, Wright KJ, Driscoll J, Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Kamali A, Karita E, Allen S, Fast P, Gilmour J, Price MA, Parks CL. "Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein." Virology. 2015;482:218-24. Abstract

Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies.

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