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OW M, KA B, GK K, er CS G. "Antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with venous thrombosis at Kenyatta National Hospital." Afr J Rheumatol . 2013;2013(1(2): ):52-56.
Kerubo L, Midiwo JO, Derese S, Langat MK, Akala HM, Waters NC, Peter M, Heydenreich M. "Antiplasmodial activity of compounds from the surface exudates of Senecio roseiflorus." Natural Products Communications. 2013;7:1-2.kerubo_et_al_3_npc.pdf
Mark O. Nanyingi, Lagat BK, Wagate CG, Adanyi FN, Koros KB, Rono BC, Asaava LL. "Antiplasmodial Activity of Some Plants Traditionally used in Treatment of Malaria in Samburu District, Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the 1st National Conference and Exhibition of Research Results and Review of Innovations.Ministry of Science and Technology. K.I.C.C. Nairobi ; 2008.
Irungu BN, Adipo N, Orwa JA, Kimani F, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Björemark PM, Håkansson M, Yenesew A, Erdélyi Máté. "Antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of the constituents of Turraea robusta and Turraea nilotica." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015;174:419-425. AbstractJournal Article

Ethnopharmacological relevance
Turraea robusta and Turraea nilotica are African medicinal plants used for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including malaria. The genus Turraea is rich in limonoids and other triterpenoids known to possess various biological activities.

Yenesew A, Twinomuhwezi H, Kabaru JM, Akala HM, Kiremire BT, Heydenreich M, Peter. "Antiplasmodial and larvicidal flavonoids from Derris trifoliata.". 2009.Website
Yenesew A, Twinomuhwezi H, Kabaru JM, Akala HM, Kirimire B, Heydenreich M, Peters MG, Eyase FL, Waters NC, Walsh DS. "Antiplasmodial and larvicidal flavonoids from Derris trifoliata." Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2009;23(3):001-006.
CN M, Keriko JM, Mutai C, A Y, Gathirwa JW, Irungu BN, Nyangacha R, Mungai GM, s. D. "Antiplasmodial potential of traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru-Tharaka Nithi County of Kenya." J Ethnopharmacol.. 2015;175(3):15-23. Abstract

J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Dec 4;175:315-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.017. Epub 2015 Sep 25.
Antiplasmodial potential of traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru-Tharaka Nithi County of Kenya.
Muthaura CN1, Keriko JM2, Mutai C3, Yenesew A4, Gathirwa JW5, Irungu BN5, Nyangacha R5, Mungai GM6, Derese S4.
Author information
Abstract
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Medicinal plants play a major role in many communities across the world, in the treatment and prevention of disease and the promotion of general health. The aim of the study was to escalate documentation from an earlier study of medicinal plants, traditionally used to combat malaria by the Ameru community of Imenti Forest area and Gatunga in Eastern Region of Kenya, and validate their ethnopharmacological claims by evaluating their antiplasmodial efficacies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The study was carried out in Meru County at Imenti Forest Game Reserve and in Tharaka Nithi County at Gatunga. Traditional health practitioners (THP) were interviewed with a standard questionnaire to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for management of malaria. Group interviews were also held among THPs and members of the community. The antiplasmodial activities of the crude extracts against chloroquine sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum were determined using the semi-automated micro-dilution technique that measures the ability of the extracts to inhibit the incorporation of (G-3H) hypoxanthine into the malaria parasite.
RESULTS:
Ninety nine (99) species in eighty one (81) genera and forty five (45) families were documented and evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity. Compositae, Fabaceae, Meliceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae had the highest number of species mentioned in treatment of malaria in Meru/Tharaka Nithi study area. Twenty four (24.2%) species showed antiplasmodial efficacy of IC50≤5µg/ml and were considered to have potential for isolation of antimalarial compounds. Eight plant (8) species with moderate antiplasmodial activity namely; Cordia africana, Commiphora africana, Elaeodendron buchananii, Gomphocarpus semilunatus, Tarena graveolens, Plectranthus igniarius, Acacia senegal and Ziziphus abyssinica were documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. The antiplasmodial activity of MeOH root bark extract of Maytenus obtusifolia was very promising (IC50<1.9µg/ml) and this is the first report on traditional use of M. obtusifolia for treatment of malaria and antimalarial activity.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results seem to indicate that ethnopharmacological inquiry used in search for new herbal remedies as predictive and could be used as the basis for search of new active principles. Eight plant (8) species are documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. This is the first report on traditional use of M. obtusifolia for treatment of malaria and evaluation of its antiplasmodial activity.

Muiva-Mutisya LM, Atilaw Y, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Akala HM, Cheruiyot AC, Brown ML, Irungu B, Okalebo FA, Derese S, Mutai C, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial prenylated flavanonols from Tephrosia subtriflora." Natural product research. 2018;32(12):1407-1414. AbstractJournal article

Abstract
The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia subtriflora afforded a new flavanonol, named subtriflavanonol (1), along with the known flavanone spinoflavanone B, and the known flavanonols MS-II (2) and mundulinol. The structures were elucidated by the use of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the flavanonols was determined based on quantum chemical ECD calculations. In the antiplasmodial assay, compound 2 showed the highest activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum reference clones (D6 and 3D7), artemisinin-sensitive isolate (F32-TEM) as well as field isolate (KSM 009) with IC50 values 1.4–4.6 μM without significant cytotoxicity against Vero and HEp2 cell lines (IC50 > 100 μM). The new compound (1) showed weak antiplasmodial activity, IC50 12.5–24.2 μM, but also showed selective anticancer activity against HEp2 cell line (CC50 16.9 μM).

Keywords: Tephrosia subtriflora, Leguminosae, prenylated flavanonol, subtriflavanonol, antiplasmodial, cytotoxicity

Muthaura CN, Keriko JM, Mutai C, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Atilaw Y, Gathirwa JW, Irungu BN, Derese S. "Antiplasmodial, Cytotoxicity and Phytochemical Constituents of Four Maytenus Species Used in Traditional Medicine in Kenya." The Natural Products Journal. 2017;7(2):144-152.
Muthaura CN, Keriko JM, Mutai C, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Atilaw Y, Gathirwa JW, Irungu BN, Derese S. "Antiplasmodial, Cytotoxicity and Phytochemical Constituents of Four Maytenus Species Used in Traditional Medicine in Kenya." The Natural Products Journal. 2017;7(2):144-152. AbstractJournal article

Description
Background:
In Kenya, several species of the genus Maytenus are used in traditional medicine to treat many diseases including malaria. In this study, phytochemical constituents and extracts of Maytenus undata, M. putterlickioides, M. senegalensis and M. heterophylla were evaluated to determine compound/s responsible for antimalarial activity.
Objective:
To isolate antiplasmodial compounds from these plant species which could be used marker compounds in the standardization of their extracts as a phytomedicine for malaria.
Methods:
Constituents were isolated through activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH/CHCl3 (1:1) extracts and in vitro inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using Vero cells and the compounds were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopy.
Results:
Fractionation of the extracts resulted in the isolation of ten known compounds. Compound 1 showed …
Total citations
Cited by 1
2018
Scholar articles
Antiplasmodial, Cytotoxicity and Phytochemical Constituents of Four Maytenus Species Used in Traditional Medicine in Kenya
CN Muthaura, JM Keriko, C Mutai, A Yenesew… - The Natural Products Journal, 2017
Cited by 1 Related articles

Graham SM, Masese L, Gitau R, Jalalian-Lechak Z, Richardson BA, Peshu N, Mandaliya K, Kiarie JN, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Antiretroviral adherence and development of drug resistance are the strongest predictors of genital HIV-1 shedding among women initiating treatment." J. Infect. Dis.. 2010;202(10):1538-42. Abstract

Persistent genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) shedding among women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) may present a transmission risk. We investigated the associations between genital HIV-1 suppression after ART initiation and adherence, resistance, pretreatment CD4 cell count, and hormonal contraceptive use. First-line ART was initiated in 102 women. Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA levels were measured at months 0, 3, and 6. Adherence was a strong and consistent predictor of genital HIV-1 suppression (P < .001), whereas genotypic resistance was associated with higher vaginal HIV-1 RNA level at month 6 (P = .04). These results emphasize the importance of adherence to optimize the potential benefits of ART for reducing HIV-1 transmission risk.

Kamau F, Strijdom H, Mwangi P, Blackhurst D, Imperial E, Salie R. "Antiretroviral drug-induced endothelial dysfunction is improved by dual PPARα/γ stimulation in obesity.". 2019;121:106577. AbstractWebsite

Obesity rates are rising in HIV-infected populations; however, the putative role of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the development of endothelial and cardiovascular derangements in the presence of pre-existing overweight/obesity is unclear. Although dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-alpha/gamma (PPARα/γ) stimulation mitigates HAART-induced metabolic dysfunction, vascular effects are unresolved. To investigate whether HAART induces vascular dysfunction in obesity and to explore the underlying mechanisms of PPARα/γ stimulation, male Wistar rats were placed on a high-calorie diet for 16 weeks. After 10 weeks, HAART (lopinavir/ritonavir, azidothymidine/lamivudine) with/without PPARα/γ agonist, Saroglitazar, was administered daily for six weeks. Excised thoracic aorta rings were subjected to isometric tension studies and Western blot measurements. HAART+Saroglitazar-treated obese animals recorded lower adiposity indices (4.3 ± 0.5%) vs. HAART only-treated obese rats (5.6 ± 0.3%; p < .01). Maximum acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation (Rmax), was lower in obese+HAART group (76.10 ± 3.58%) vs. obese control (101.40 ± 4.75%; p < .01). However, Rmax was improved in obese+ HAART+Saroglitazar (101.00 ± 3.12%) vs. obese+HAART rats (p < .001). The mean LogEC50 was improved in obese+HAART+Saroglitazar vs. obese+HAART group; p = .003. Improved endothelial function in obese+ HAART+Saroglitazar group was associated with upregulation of eNOS, PKB/Akt and downregulated p22-phox expression vs. obese+HAART group. Therefore, PPARα/γ stimulation attenuated HAART-induced endothelial dysfunction by upregulating vasoprotective eNOS, PKB/Akt signaling and downregulating pro-oxidative p22-phox expression.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "AntiRetroviral Treatment Adherence Among Adolescents.". In: MSc Thesis, University of Nairobi. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
Okombo J, Singh K, Ndubi F, Barnard L, Wilkson C, Peter M. Njogu, Mireille V, Keiser Jennifer, Egan T, Chibale K. "Antischistosomal activity of pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives and correlation with inhibition of β-hematin formation." ACS Infect. Dis.. 2017;3:411-420.
Kilonzo G, Musisi S, Sebit MB, editor Ndetei, D.M., Szabo CP. "Anxiety and Adjustment Disorders."; 2006.
Kuria MW. "Anxiety Disorders Chapter 2.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kamanda M, Kiboi JG. "AN APPARENTLY AGGRESSIVE CRANIOFACIAL OSTEO-DYSPLASTIC LESION PRECIPITATING DEBILITATING SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS: CASE REPORT." East Afr Med J. 2012;89(6):214-6. Abstract

This is a case report of an 18 year old man with craniofacial fibro-osteo-dysplastic lesion which exhibited both exophytic and endophytic growth patterns. We discuss the extent of tumour growth and its associated secondary changes.

KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Application lactic cultures on the fermentation of .". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Okaru AO, Brunner TS, Ackermann SM, Kuballa T, Walch SG, Kohl-Himmelseher M, Lachenmeier DW. "Application of 19F NMR spectroscopy for content determination of fluorinated pharmaceuticals." Journal of analytical methods in chemistry. 2017;2017. Abstract
n/a
Nancy M, Birech Z, Kaduki K. "Application of butterfly wing iridescence, reflection spectroscopy, and chemometric tools in adulteration sensing in gasoline.". In: Laser Science. Optical Society of America; 2019:. Abstract
n/a
Nancy M, Birech Z, Kaduki K. "Application of butterfly wing iridescence, reflection spectroscopy, and chemometric tools in adulteration sensing in gasoline.". In: FiO/Laser Science (pp. JTu4A-13). Washington DC; 2019.
Mwega BW, Mati BM, Mulwa JK, Kituu GM. "Application of electrical resistivity method to investigate groundwater potential in Lake Chala watershed." International Academic Research for Multidisciplinary. 2015;3(7):396-403. Abstract

A geo-electrical investigation was carried out in Lake Chala Watershed in Kenya to determine the roundwater potential of the area. The Vertical Electrical Sounding using schlumberger configuration with a maximum current electrode spread varying from 250 320m and potential electrode spread of 25m was utilized to provide information of the aquifers and subsurface lithology. A total number of 50 VES were carried out. The data obtained were interpreted by computer iteration process. Interpreted results revealed four to six distinct subsurface layers which comprised of top soil (clay, sandy clay soil intercalated with silt, sand and gravel)
, highly weathered ryholite, and moderately weathered basalt volcanic ash, highly weathered fractured basalt, weathered basalt, slightly fractured dry and fresh basalt and basalt basement rock layers. The results showed that the auriferous layer was composed of highly weathered fractured basalt, moderately weathered basalt & volcanic ash and weathered basalt geological material. The layer had a resistivity range of 40 to 200 and a thickness range of 1.38 to 91m. The results showed that lake chala watershed have high groundwater potential which can be exploited as an alternative source of water in the area.

Kiriinya LK, Marijnissen JCM, Agostino LF. "Application of Electrospray in thermal desalination in tropical countries.”.". In: Aerosol Technology Conference (AT2018). Bilbao, Spain; 2018.
Patel JP, Karanja PK, Githiri JG, Barongo JO. "APPLICATION OF EULER DECONVOLUTION TECHNIQUE IN DETERMINING DEPTHS TO MAGNETIC STRUCTURES IN MAGADI AREA, SOUTHERN KENYA RIFT." JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2016;18(1). AbstractFull Text

Magadi area is located in the southern part of the Kenyan rift, an active continental rift that is part of the East African Rift system. Thermal manifestations in the form of hot springs in the northern and southern shores of Lake Magadi and high heat flows suggest geothermal potential in the area. A ground magnetic survey was carried out in the study area with the aim of locating depths to bodies with sufficient magnetic susceptibility that may represent magmatic intrusions. The magnetic data was corrected, a total intensity magnetic contour map produced and profiles drawn across identified anomalous regions. Magnetic survey data in profile form over anomalous regions was interpreted rapidly for source positions and depths by Euler deconvolution technique. Geologic constraint was imposed by use of a structural index 1.0 that best describes prismatic bodies such as intrusive dykes. The magnetic bodies were imaged at depths ranging from 0 km to about 11 km along the profiles. The imaged depths along the profiles display discontinuities in magnetic markers due to presence of numerous faults in the area. The detected magnetic bodies may be cooling dykes that heat the underground water responsible for the numerous hot springs surrounding Lake Magadi. Such a dyke is suspected to originate from a magma chamber conducting heat to the underground water. A model whereby the faults in the region provide escape of water as hot springs is proposed.

K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Application of field calculations in optimization of insulator designs.". In: 4th International conference on properties and applications of dielectric materials" University of Queensland, Australia, July 1994. FARA; 1994. Abstract
When an insulator is placed in an electrode gap, its surface charge field distorts the geometric field, leading to a flashover at a voltage value dependent on the degree of the gap field distortion. This paper reports on studies conducted to determine the relationship between flashover voltages and electric filed distribution along solid insulator surfaces. The surface electric field distribution along different insulator profiles was determined using the Finite-Difference method, and the flashover of the actual profile model measured. The obtained results show that each profile had a peak surface electric field and the higher the peak value, the lower the flashover voltage. The correlation curve for peak electric field and flashover voltage was developed using a curve fitting technique based on the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm.
Muhwanga CN, Obiero JPO, Karanja FN. "Application of Geographic Information Systems in Groundwater Prospecting: A Case Study of Garissa County, Kenya." Journal of Geographic Information System. 2018;10:439-460.
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal as a Coarse Medium in Dual Media Filtration of Water". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Jadini Beach Hotel, Mombasa. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal as a Coarse Medium in Dual Media Filtration of Water". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal in the Removal of Organic Matter in Water Treatment". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: East African Journal of Engineering. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal in the Removal of Organic Matter in Water Treatment". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: East African Journal of Engineering. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

Wambugu M, Nyandega I, Kithia S. "Application of Hydrological Models in Poorly Gauged Watersheds: A review of the Usage of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research. 2017;6(8):132-141.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "APPLICATION OF IMMUNOAFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY AND ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY IN RAPID DETECTION OF AFLATOXIN B1, IN CHICKEN LIVER TISSUES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract

Existing physicochemical analytical methods for the determination of aflatoxins in animal tissues are expensive, cumbersome, and hazardous. To offer an alternative to these methods, a novel and highly sensitive immunochemical method for the rapid detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in chicken liver tissues is described in this study. Liver tissues were homogenized with cold methanol-acetone (50:50), followed by AFB1 extraction with methanol-acetone-PBS (25:25:50). The tissue extracts were, with or without further purification by immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC), applied to a highly sensitive direct ELISA for determination of AFB1. The detection limits for this assay were 15 +/- 0.77 pg/mL when standards and samples were dissolved in methanol-PBS (10:90) and 17 +/- 2.0 pg/mL when methanol-acetone-PBS (5:5:90) solution was used. The average recoveries of AFB1 were 54.3 to 65.5% in artificially contaminated tissue samples at 1 to 5 ng/g. In samples spiked with AFB1 at 1 ng/g, the method had diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% for samples processed with IAC and 91.7 and 100%, respectively, for samples without IAC purification. The test was successfully applied to the detection of AFB1 in liver tissues from chickens that were experimentally dosed with AFB1. It is hoped that this test will be applicable in rapid detection of aflatoxins in poultry meats and in diagnosis of aflatoxicosis in chicken.

KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Application of Lactic fermentation and amylolytic enzymes in the Development of therapeutic feeding porridges in Africa,.". In: 6th International Seminar on Traditional African Fermented Foods, Sponsored by European Union, Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA) and CSIR . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Application of microbial fuel cells in the degradation of 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil)." Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2019;4(2):28-35. Abstract

Description
Pesticide’s persistence in the environment due to the relatively slow degradation mechanism leads to their bio-accumulation which in turn has adverse impacts on human health. Bio-remediation involves utilization of microbes from nature to the breakdown of organic molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of microbes in degrading chlorothalonil. Aerobic-anaerobic combined conditions in an H-shaped double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) were employed for the breakdown of chlorothalonil. Decomposing tomatoes were used as the major substrate with their proximate properties being analyzed using standard method. Glucose loaded with different concentrations of chlorothalonil was introduced to the cells on day 10 when voltage production had stabilized. The voltage and current generated were monitored using a digital multi-meter while pesticide concentrations were obtained using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest voltage readings were obtained on day 9 of degradation, with values ranging from 0.463 to 0.537 V. The current ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 mA. Higher voltage and current values were recorded in solutions with lower pesticide concentration. The obtained degradation level was highest in 10 g glucose at 95.95 and 98.75% for day 10 and 20 respectively. The lowest breakdown was observed in the cells without glucose at 10.54 and 31.04% on day 10 and 20 respectively. The results demonstrate that MFC technology can be employed in mineralization of chlorinated pesticides as an alternative for incineration and photo-degradation.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Application of microbial fuel cells in the degradation of 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil)." Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2019;4(2):28-35. AbstractJournal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery

Description
Pesticide’s persistence in the environment due to the relatively slow degradation mechanism leads to their bio-accumulation which in turn has adverse impacts on human health. Bio-remediation involves utilization of microbes from nature to the breakdown of organic molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of microbes in degrading chlorothalonil. Aerobic-anaerobic combined conditions in an H-shaped double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) were employed for the breakdown of chlorothalonil. Decomposing tomatoes were used as the major substrate with their proximate properties being analyzed using standard method. Glucose loaded with different concentrations of chlorothalonil was introduced to the cells on day 10 when voltage production had stabilized. The voltage and current generated were monitored using a digital multi-meter while pesticide concentrations were obtained using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest voltage readings were obtained on day 9 of degradation, with values ranging from 0.463 to 0.537 V. The current ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 mA. Higher voltage and current values were recorded in solutions with lower pesticide concentration. The obtained degradation level was highest in 10 g glucose at 95.95 and 98.75% for day 10 and 20 respectively. The lowest breakdown was observed in the cells without glucose at 10.54 and 31.04% on day 10 and 20 respectively. The results demonstrate that MFC technology can be employed in mineralization of chlorinated pesticides as an alternative for incineration and photo-degradation.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, B. MF. "Application of microbial fuel cells in the degradation of 2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil)." Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2018;4(2):28-35. Abstract

Pesticide’s persistence in the environment due to the relatively slow degradation mechanism leads to their bio-accumulation which in turn has adverse impacts on human health. Bio-remediation involves utilization of microbes from nature to the breakdown of organic molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of microbes in degrading chlorothalonil. Aerobic-anaerobic combined conditions in an H-shaped double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) were employed for the breakdown of chlorothalonil. Decomposing tomatoes were used as the major substrate with their proximate properties being analyzed using standard method. Glucose loaded with different concentrations of chlorothalonil was introduced to the cells on day 10 when voltage production had stabilized. The voltage and current generated were monitored using a digital multi-meter while pesticide concentrations were obtained using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest voltage readings were obtained on day 9 of degradation, with values ranging from 0.463
to 0.537 V. The current ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 mA. Higher voltage and current values were recorded in solutions with lower pesticide concentration. The obtained degradation level was highest in 10 g glucose at 95.95 and 98.75% for day 10 and 20 respectively. The lowest breakdown was observed in the cells without glucose at 10.54 and 31.04% on day 10 and 20 respectively. The results demonstrate that MFC technology can be employed in mineralization of chlorinated pesticides as an alternative for incineration and photo-degradation.

kariuki J, DiasTibihika P, ManuelCurto, EsayasAlemayehu, GeroldWinkler, HaraldMeimberg. "Application of microsatellite genotyping by amplicon sequencing for delimitation of African tilapiine species relevant for aquaculture.". 2021.
Cheruiyot EK, Mito CO, Kaduki KA. "Application of Multispectral Imagery in Monitoring of Aquatic Vegetation and Water Quality Parameters in Large Inland Waters.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Joodaki M, Kompa G, Arshad S, Kamucha G. "Application of Neural Networks for Distance Measurement in Pulsed Laser Radar (PLR).". In: Proceedings of ODIMAP III, 3rd Topical Meeting on Optoelectronic Distance Measurements and Applications. University of Pavia, Italy; 2001.
Kariuki CN. "Application of OR in Public Project Managemnt: Issues to resolve in stakeholder Involvement.". In: A paper presented in the 1st ORSEA Conference in . Nairobi: African Crop Science Society; 2003. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

Lelei JK, Kariuki CN. "Application of perational Research in Public Project Management.". In: The First ORSEA Conference held in Nairobi. African Crop Science Society; 2003. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

Lelei JK, Kariuki CN. "Application of perational Research in Public Project Management.". In: The First ORSEA Conference held in Nairobi. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 2003. Abstract

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Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Bulimo WD, Zoueu JT. "Application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Multispectral Imaging Microscopy for Malaria Diagnosis.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Bulimo WD, Angeyo HK. "Application of principal component analysis to multispectral-multimodal optical image analysis for malaria diagnostics." Malaria Journal . 2014;2014(13):485.
Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Bulimo WD, Angeyo HA. "Application of principal component analysis to multispectral-multimodal optical image analysis for malaria diagnostics." Malar. J.. 2014;13(1):485. Abstract1475-2875-13-485.pdf

Multispectral imaging microscopy is a novel microscopic technique that integrates spectroscopy with optical imaging to record both spectral and spatial information of a specimen. This enables acquisition of a large and more informative dataset than is achievable in conventional optical microscopy. However, such data are characterized by high signal correlation and are difficult to interpret using univariate data analysis techniques.

Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Bulimo WD, Angeyo HK. "Application of principal component analysis to multispectral-multimodal optical image analysis for malaria diagnostics." Malar. J.. 2014;13:485. Abstract

Multispectral imaging microscopy is a novel microscopic technique that integrates spectroscopy with optical imaging to record both spectral and spatial information of a specimen. This enables acquisition of a large and more informative dataset than is achievable in conventional optical microscopy. However, such data are characterized by high signal correlation and are difficult to interpret using univariate data analysis techniques.

Mbuge DO, Negrini R, Nyakundi LO, Kuate SP, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Muiru WM, Baldwyn Torto RM. "Application of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) as desiccants to dry maize and reduce aflatoxin contamination.". In: 2nd International Conference of the Pan African Society of Agricultural Engineers (PASAE), . Rabat, Morocco; 2019.
Kiluva VM, Mutua F, Makhanu SK, Ong’or BTI. "Application of the Geological Streanflow Model in the Yala River Basin of Western Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Management and Risk Reduction (IJDMRR) (ISSN: 1992-27. 2011;Vol. 3(3):pp 22-33.
Wakiaga J, Kisumbi BK. "Application of the microabrasion technique in the management of enamel fluorosis: A preliminary report.". In: JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH. Vol. 76. AMER ASSOC DENTAL RESEARCH 1619 DUKE ST, ALEXANDRIA, VA 22314; 1997:. Abstract
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KIMINGICHI WABENDE, PARK JEONGKYUNG. "APPLIED THEATRE AS A MEDIUM OF COMMUNAL COMMUNICATION: 'ACCESS TO JUSTICE' PROJECT IN KWALE, KENYA.". In: THE PELGRAVE HANDBOOK OF GLOBAL ARTS EDUCATION. LONDON: SPRINGER NATURE; 2017.
Zachariah R, Reid T, Van den Bergh R, Dahmane A, Kosgei RJ, Hinderaker SG, Tayler-Smith K, Manzi M, Kizito W, Khogali M, Kumar AMV, Baruani B, Bishinga A, Kilale AM, Nqobili M, Patten G, Sobry A, Cheti E, Nakanwagi A, Enarson DA, Edginton ME, Upshur R, Harries AD. "Applying the ICMJE authorship criteria to operational research in low-income countries: the need to engage programme managers and policy makers." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2013;18(8):1025-8.applying_the_icmje_authorship_criteria_to_operational_research_in_low-income_countries_the_need_to_engage_programme_managers_and_policy_makers.pdf
Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Appraisal of Land Use Transformation using Remote Sensing in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020;46(2):177-186. Abstractenieindia.org

Kajiado County is predominantly inhabited by the Maasai nomadic pastoralists who rely on natural systems for their provisions and production needs. Traditionally, communal land management has been the norm in the area but that has evolved under the swift development context with the private holding of land becoming prevalent. The land-use transformation has curtailed the traditional seasonal movement of livestock and that has exposed the Maasai community to production risks which have contributed to the widespread food insecurity in the area. To address this gap, the study investigated land-use transformation in the area using Landsat 8, 4 and 5 datasets, where 1987, 2000 and 2015 epochs with a spatial resolution of 30*30m were sourced from www.glovis.usgs.org Remote sensing technology used to evaluate biophysical attributes showed changes in land-use patterns with the bare area, built-up area, cropland, forested land, grassland, riverine, shrubland, waterbody and wetland having undergone significant changes in their respective sizes. These land-use transformations have been compounded with the spread of invasive species to the point of threatening pastoralism. However, the successive governments have shown a marked disdain for resource use patterns. Thus, there is need for an all-inclusive land-use policies to inform adaptation and resilience planning in Kajiado County, Kenya.

Keywords

Natural Resource; Pastoralism; Biophysical Attributes, Land-Use Transformation; Remote Sensing; Masai Pastoralists

Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Appraisal of Land Use Transformation using Remote Sensing in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020;46(2):177-186. Abstractnieindia.org

Kajiado County is predominantly inhabited by the Maasai nomadic pastoralists who rely on natural systems for their provisions and production needs. Traditionally, communal land management has been the norm in the area but that has evolved under the swift development context with the private holding of land becoming prevalent. The land-use transformation has curtailed the traditional seasonal movement of livestock and that has exposed the Maasai community to production risks which have contributed to the widespread food insecurity in the area. To address this gap, the study investigated land-use transformation in the area using Landsat 8, 4 and 5 datasets, where 1987, 2000 and 2015 epochs with a spatial resolution of 30*30m were sourced from www.glovis.usgs.org Remote sensing technology used to evaluate biophysical attributes showed changes in land-use patterns with the bare area, built-up area, cropland, forested land, grassland, riverine, shrubland, waterbody and wetland having undergone significant changes in their respective sizes. These land-use transformations have been compounded with the spread of invasive species to the point of threatening pastoralism. However, the successive governments have shown a marked disdain for resource use patterns. Thus, there is need for an all-inclusive land-use policies to inform adaptation and resilience planning in Kajiado County, Kenya.

Keywords

Natural Resource; Pastoralism; Biophysical Attributes, Land-Use Transformation; Remote Sensing; Masai Pastoralists

Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Appraisal of Land Use Transformation using Remote Sensing in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020;46(2):177-186.
Kihu. SM, Gitao. CG, Bebora. LC, Njenga. MJ, G.G. Wairire, Maingi. N, Wahome. RG. "Appraisal of Pese des petitis ruminants disease by Turkana Pastoral community of Turkana County in Kenya." American Journal of Research Communication. 2014;2(10):186-214.kihu_vol210.pdf
Kihu S.M, Gitao C.G, Bebora L.C, J NM, Wairire G.G, Maingi N, R.G W. "Appraisal of Peste des petits ruminants disease by Turkana pastoral community of Turkana County in Kenya. ." American Journal of Research Communication . 2014;2(10):186.abstract.pdf
Ocholla S, Jumba G, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Wadegu MO, Mukunzi S, Majanja JM, Opot B, Osuna F, Muthoni J, Njiri J, Mwangi J, Kibet K, Coldren R. The Appropriateness of WHO influenza B vaccine component to Kenya in 2011-2012. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: In the 1980’s, influenza B viruses were discovered to belong to two evolutionary groupings (B/Victoria/2/87-like viruses and B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses) that continue to co-circulate globally in the human population. These viruses exist as independent lineages. Information about lineage of circulating influenza B viruses in a country is important for determination of the appropriateness of either a trivalent or a quadrivalent vaccine composition for that country.Objective: To genetically analyze the HA1 of influenza B viruses isolated in Kenya during the 2011-2012 season with reference to WHO vaccine strains recommended for Kenya.Method: Nasopharyngeal swab specimens obtained from patients meeting WHO definition criterion for ILI were screened by real-time PCR for influenza B viruses. Influenza B virus positive samples were inoculated onto MDCK cells and the lineages of the isolates determined by hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI). To confirm the lineages, HA1 gene segments of selected isolates were amplified by PCR and sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics tools.Results: Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all the 24 influenza B viruses that circulated between 2011- 2012 were closely related to B/Brisbane/60/2008 vaccine Strain. Comparison of the HA1 amino acid sequences of influenza B viruses with the reference vaccine strain (B/Brisbane/60/2008 lineage) revealed substitutions at 19 amino acid positions. FLU-MBG-11-02-010 had R188K amino acid change in the 120-loop antigenic receptor binding site relative to B/Brisbane vaccine reference strain. FLU-MBG-12-05-011 had V124I amino acid change in the 120-loop antigenic receptor binding site relative to the vaccine reference strain. The majority (87.5%) had I146V/A amino acid change in the 150-loop antigenic receptor binding site. All the Kenyan isolates had D197N amino acid change in the 190-helix antigenic receptor site. The other fifteen positions that showed polymorphisms were outside of the antigenic sites with these mutations being randomly distributed among the isolates.Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that the WHO vaccine strain recommendations for the southern hemisphere were appropriate for use in Kenya.

Kipchirchir IC. "An Approximation of the Fisher’s Information for the Negative Binomial Parameter k." Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics. 2011;34(2):129-138.
Kariuki CN. "Apriori determinants of performance of entrepreneurs in Jua Kali Sector: The case of Nairobi Eastlands.". In: A paper presented in the 1st ORSEA Conference in Nairobi, . African Crop Science Society; 1989. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

Kokwaro JO. Aquatic resources of Kenya. Mombasa, Kenya; 1981.
Kyule MD. "Archaeology of Pli-Pleistocene Hominids in Eastern Africa.". In: MIZIZI: Essays in Honor of Prof. Godfrey Muriuki. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 2013. Abstract

This paper reviews recent and continuing research undertaken in eastern Africa on aspects that characterize proto-human behavioral patterns. Flaked stone from amongst other places, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, and Koobi Fora, Kenya, represent some of the earliest definite signs of modification of natural materials for use as tools. Fossil fauna from these sites show cut marks and other modification, which establish that hominids were using stone tools on animal tissues as early as the Lower Pleistocene; that hominids acquired meat based foods through scavenging rather than hunting; and that hominids and carnivores were in competition for carcasses and/or bones. Presently, there is no indisputable archaeological evidence for Plio Pleistocene hominid deliberate construction of habitation shelter. However, it is possible that Oldowan hominids may have used their most sophisticated organizational abilities in activities such as foraging, social relations or communication, but employed only simple organizations in the actual manufacture of stone tools.

Kachlik D, Baca V, Stingl J, Sosna B, Lametschwandtner A, Minnich B, Setina M. "Architectonic arrangement of the vasa vasorum of the human great saphenous vein." Journal of vascular research. 2007;44:157-166. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The detailed spatial arrangement of the vasa vasorum (VV) of the human great saphenous vein (HGSV) was demonstrated in qualitative and quantitative terms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Segments of the HGSV taken from cadavers 12-24 h post mortem and from patients undergoing aortocoronary bypassing were studied by light microscopy of India-ink-injected specimens and by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. RESULTS: Arterial feeders were found to approach the HGSV from nearby arteries every 15 mm forming a rich capillary network within the adventitia and the outer two thirds of the media in normal HGSV, while in HGSV with intimal hyperplasia capillary meshes extended into the inner layers of the media. Within the media, capillary meshes ran circularly. Postcapillary venules drained centrifugally towards the adventitial venous vessels which finally formed venous drainers running adjacent to the arterial feeders. Three-dimensional morphometry of vascular corrosion casts of VV revealed that diameters of (i) arterial VV ranged from 11.6 to 36.6 microm, (ii) capillary VV from 4.7 to 11.6 microm and (iii) venous VV ranged from 11.6 to 200.3 microm. CONCLUSIONS: The 3D network of VV suggests these layers are metabolically highly active and therefore require a continuous blood supply. We conclude, therefore, that the VV network must be preserved during in situ bypassing.

ILAKO DR, Karimurio J. "Are blind people more likely to accept free cataract surgery? A study of vision-related quality of life and visual acuity in Kenya." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. . 2010;17(1):41-9. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and vision-related Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.

METHODS: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.

RESULTS: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.

CONCLUSION: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person's decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. "Are Blind People More Likely to Accept Free Cataract Surgery? A Study of Vision-Related Quality of Life and Visual Acuity in Kenya." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17(1):41-49. Abstract

Purpose: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and visionrelated Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.
Methods: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.
Results: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.
Conclusion: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person’s decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO, L K, A.K VH, C S, K K, K H, H T. "Are cell lines a suitable model for studying endometriosis.". 2010.
Kimuyu PK. "Are informal firms really different? Findings from small scale manufacturing in Kenya. Discussion Paper No.20.". In: Inst itute of Policy Analysis and Research, Nairobi, Kenya.; 1999.
Hoxha I, Malaj A, Kraja B, Bino S, Oluka M, Markovic-Pekovic V, Godman B. "Are pharmacists’ good knowledge and awareness on antibiotics taken for granted? The situation in Albania and future implications across countries." Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance. 2018;13:240-245.pdf_hoxha_et_al_2018.pdf
Kanyinga K. "Are you worried about this lot of MPs? You ain’t seen nothing yet." Daily Nation, June 20, 2015.
Mans BJ, Featherston J, Kvas M, Pillay K-A, de Klerk DG, Pienaar R, de Castro MH, Schwan TG, Lopez JE, Teel P, others. "Argasid and ixodid systematics: implications for soft tick evolution and systematics, with a new argasid species list." Ticks and tick-borne diseases. 2019;10:219-240. Abstract
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Mans BJ, Featherston J, Kvas M, Pillay KA, de Klerk DG, Pienaar R, de Castro MH, Schwan TG, Lopez JE, Teel P, others. Argasid and ixodid systematics: Implications for soft tick evolution and systematics, with a new argasid species list. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 10: 219–240.; 2019. Abstract
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Kiriti-Nganga TW, Tisdell C. "arital Status, Farm Size and other Influences on the Extent of Cash Cropping in Kenya: A Household Case Study." Indian Development Review. 2004;2(2):205-221.
Kaimuri J, Otieno SPV. Aritwa. Kaimuri J, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2013.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Acharya SK.Prediction of severity of acute pancreatitis.Gut. 1990 Dec;31(12):1419.". In: Gut. 1990 Dec;31(12):1419. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990. Abstract
Nutritional Status of 89 patients was assessed during their course of hospitalisation. All patients consumed diet deficit in protein and calories. The mean daily intake of calories was 819 +/- 425 Kcals and of protein was 22 +/- 19 g per day. 74.13 per cent patients lost weight while 31.25 per cent gained. 50% patients had fall in SKFT values during their hospital stay.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Acharya SK.Ultrasonography in portal hypertension.Indian J Gastroenterol. 1989 Oct;8(4):307.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 1989 Oct;8(4):307. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the value of needle aspiration in uncomplicated amoebic liver abscess. DESIGN–Randomised case-control study with a minimum follow up of one year, comparing patients treated with drugs alone with those treated with additional needle aspiration. SETTING–Referral based gastroenterology clinic. PATIENTS–39 Consecutive patients with amoebic liver abscess in the right lobe, of whom 37 completed the study. INTERVENTION–Metronidazole 2.4 g/day was given to all patients for 10 days. Needle aspiration of the abscess was performed in 19 patients on the day of admission to hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES–Abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, and hepatomegaly were measured. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum aspartate, and alanine aminotransferase activities, and alkaline phosphatase activity were also measured. RESULTS–Clinical improvement was similar in both groups of patients. Improvement in haematological and biochemical variables and rates of healing of cavities were also similar. CONCLUSIONS–Chemotherapy with potent tissue amoebicidal drugs such as metronidazole is optimally effective in treating amoebic liver abscess, and in uncomplicated cases routine aspiration is not required.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Seth S, Acharya SK, Sharma MP.Hepatic coma as a presenting feature of constrictive pericarditis.Am J Gastroenterol. 1993 Mar;88(3):430-2.". In: Am J Gastroenterol. 1993 Mar;88(3):430-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract
The efficacy of the interferon stimulator named Stronger Neo Minophagen-C (SNMC) derived form the plant G. glabra was studied at a dose of 40 or 100 ml daily for 30 days followed by thrice weekly intravenously for 8 wk in 18 patients of subacute hepatic failure due to viral hepatitis. The survival rate amongst these patients was 72.2 per cent, as compared to the earlier reported rate of 31.1 per cent in 98 patients who received supportive therapy (P < 0.01). Death in four of the five patients was due to associated infections leading to hepatorenal failure and terminal coma. Further studies are necessary to standardize the dose and duration of therapy with SNMC in subacute hepatic failure.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Seth S, Sharma MP, Acharya SK, Mukhopadhayaya S.Case report: unusual CT appearances in a case of Budd-Chiari syndrome.Clin Radiol. 1991 Jun;43(6):431-2.". In: Clin Radiol. 1991 Jun;43(6):431-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
We describe a case of Budd-Chiari Syndrome due to hepatic venous blockage in which there were multiple space-occupying lesions on CT simulating tumour deposits. Ultrasound directed liver biopsy and laparoscopy proved these to be areas of haemorrhagic necrosis consistent with Budd-Chiari Syndrome without any evidence of malignancy. The CT finding of multiple large focal non-enhancing areas in liver does not always indicate tumour deposits in a patient suspected to have Budd-Chiari Syndrome.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Sharma MP, Acharya SK, Panda SK, Berry M.Diagnostic utility of ultrasonography in hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction in a tropical country.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1991 Jul-Aug;6(4):368-73.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1991 Jul-Aug;6(4):368-73. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
The present study was undertaken to define the role of ultrasonography (US) in screening and diagnosis of hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction. Forty-five consecutive patients clinically suspected to have hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction were included in the study for screening by US and for assessment of patency or block in the hepatic vein (HV) and/or inferior vena cava (IVC). Four patients were excluded from the study. Eleven patients had a diagnosis other than hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction and all these patients were found to have patent HV and IVC. Thirty patients were finally diagnosed to have hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction. Using US, as a screening test 27 (90%) out of 30 such cases were correctly identified as cases of hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction and in these cases the site of block in hepatic venous outflow tract (major HV and/or IVC) was correctly diagnosed in 90% of the cases. Our results indicate that US is a sensitive and accurate test and should be the initial investigation for screening and identifying the site of obstruction in patients with hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Tandon N, Sharma MP, Acharya SK.Constrictive pericarditis masquerading as Budd-Chiari syndrome.J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991 Apr;13(2):178-81.". In: J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991 Apr;13(2):178-81. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and constrictive pericarditis (CP) share many common clinical features. Over the last year we encountered three patients in whom CP clinically mimicked BCS. Two of the three did not even have raised jugular venous pressure. One patient with severe jaundice and hepatic coma ultimately died. Liver biopsy features were not discriminating. The final diagnosis of CP was established by echocardiography, chest computed tomography (CT), or cardiac catheterization. We conclude that in all patients with apparent BCS and atypical features, a noninvasive test like echocardiography or chest CT should be done to rule out treatable illness like CP before embarking on such invasive procedures as liver biopsy for diagnosis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Tandon RK, Acharya SK, Tandon BN.The role of sustained achlorhydria in bleeding peptic ulcer.J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991 Apr;13(2):147-53.". In: J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991 Apr;13(2):147-53. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
Twenty-five patients with bleeding peptic ulcers were randomized to receive either ranitidine 50 mg 8 hourly i.v. (control group) or a continuous nasogastric antacid infusion at the rate of 0.5 ml/min along with an i.v. injection of cimetidine 100 mg/h (treatment group). Twelve patients were included in the control group and 13 in the treatment group. The mean gastric pH on therapy was significantly higher in the treatment group (7.88 +/- 0.37) than in the control group (5.00 +/- 0.55) (p less than 0.001), and the gastric pH was noted to be greater than 7 on 95% of the occasions in the treatment group and on 8.6% of the occasions in the control group. An overall control of bleeding was achieved in 92.3% of the patients in the treatment group and 50% of the patients in the control group (p less than .05). Thus, the failure of therapy was significantly more common in the control group than in the treatment group (p less than 0.05), and more patients of the control group had to undergo emergency surgery than that in the treatment group. None of the patients in the treatment group, but 16.6% of the patients in the control group, died during the study period in the hospital stay. We conclude that in patients with bleeding peptic ulcer an intensive medical therapy comprising hourly injections of cimetidine (or presumably of other H2 blockers) and continuous nasogastric antacid infusion can achieve sustained achlorhydria, better control of bleeding, and reduce the need for emergency surgery.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Tandon RK, Acharya SK, Tandon BN.Treating bleeding peptic ulcer with sustained achlorhydria.Gastroenterol Jpn. 1991 Jul;26 Suppl 3:62-5.". In: Gastroenterol Jpn. 1991 Jul;26 Suppl 3:62-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
A controlled randomized study and a subsequent prospective therapeutic trial have demonstrated the efficacy of an intensive therapy comprising hourly intravenous injections of 100 mg of cimetidine along with a continuous nasogastric infusion of a liquid antacid at the rate of 0.5 ml per minute in achieving achlorhydria and controlling bleeding in patients with bleeding peptic ulcer. We recommend that this regimen should be routinely employed for treating patients with bleeding peptic ulcer, at least in center that do not practise topical therapeutic modalities for control of bleeding.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Tandon RK, Acharya SK.Intragastric pH and control of peptic ulcer bleeding.Am J Gastroenterol. 1991 Jan;86(1):116-7.". In: Am J Gastroenterol. 1991 Jan;86(1):116-7. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
Nutritional Status of 89 patients was assessed during their course of hospitalisation. All patients consumed diet deficit in protein and calories. The mean daily intake of calories was 819 +/- 425 Kcals and of protein was 22 +/- 19 g per day. 74.13 per cent patients lost weight while 31.25 per cent gained. 50% patients had fall in SKFT values during their hospital stay.
Boon CJPM, Visser NL, Kemoli AM, van Amerongen WE. "ART class II restoration loss in primary molars: re-restoration or not." Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2010;11(5):228-231. Abstract

AIM: The purpose of this study was to find an answer as to what to do with Atraumatic restorations (ART) failures:
re-restore or leave the preparation further unfilled?
STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional study.
METHODS: In 2006 of 804 children in Kenya each had one proximal cavity treated using the ART approach. Out of the original group 192 children, who had lost their restorations but still had the treated molars in situ, were selected for further study in 2008. The length of time that the restorations had been in situ was known while the colour, hardness and the extent of infected dentine was then evaluated and documented. STATISTICS: Analysis of the data obtained was conducted using SPSS 16.0. Chi Square tests were performed with the variables of hardness, colour and infected dentine, and a 5% confidence interval was used. The Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient was also calculated.
RESULTS: The results showed that 66% of the molars that had lost restorations had hard dentine, 78% of the preparations showed dark dentine and 50.7% appeared to have no infected dentine. These percentages increased with the increase in the survival time of the restorations.
CONCLUSIONS: It is not always necessary to re-restore primary molars after ART restoration loss. Further research is necessary to confirm these findings.

Kemoli AM. "ART-an alternative approach to the management of dental caries.". In: KDA Annual Conference. Panafric Hotel, Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Introduction
Dental caries is a world-wide disease, having its aetiological factors involving cariogenic bacteria, saliva composition and flow-rate, exposure to fluoride, tooth integrity and dietary habits. The treatment of dental caries is two prong. First, through a surgical model, entailing the removal of carious materials from a dental cavity and sealing it with an appropriate dental restorative material. Second, a medical model which comprises the reduction of the risk to dental caries and controlling the carious process through a remineralization process.

Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART)
Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) utilises only hand instruments for its application. This is one dental caries treatment method that incorporates certain facets of the two caries treatment models described above. ART is a simple clinical method that can be performed by any dental personnel with a reasonable clinical background knowledge on the management of dental caries. Once a tooth has been selected that needs to be treated using the ART approach, the operator isolates the tooth with cotton wool rolls. If necessary, the cavity entrance is widened using a hatchet or hoe, before removing the carious materials with an excavator. The cavity is rinsed and dried using wet or dry cotton pellets respectively. The dentine is conditioned with appropriate conditioner for 15 seconds.

After mixing the glass ionomer following the manufacturer's instructions, the mixture is inserted into the cavity using an applier or carver, overfilling it, so that by use of a gloved finger rubbed with petroleum jelly, the material is pressed into the prepared cavity and fissures (press finger technique). After 5 minutes, the excess material is removed with the carver and the occlusion checked. A thin layer of petroleum jelly is applied over the restoration to protect the restoration from moisture contamination, before discharging the patient with the instructions not to chew any food within the first one hour.

Materials used with ART
The preferred material for use with the ART technique is high viscosity glass ionomer cement (GIC). This glass ionomer cements have been developed specifically for use with the ART technique. Like the other glass ionomer cements, this material is self curing, adheres to the tooth tissues, has good marginal adaptation, fluoride releasing properties, reasonably good aesthetics and biocompatible with the oral tissues.what is of importance here is that the high viscosity GCs, though still possess lower material strength, their strength is much higher than the ordinary GICs. However, That is why they still posses same some pertinent shortcomings that include the poor physical strength, water sensitive, long setting reaction, low wear resistance, low compressive and tensile strength.

Advantages and Shortcoming of ART technique
ART is a simple technique to learn and apply and does not need sophisticated dental equipment. For this reason, ART approach can be applied in the field environment, even where there is no electricity or piped water systems. However, the technique has also got its own shortcomings that include hand fatigue, poor strength of the GIC material used with the technique, poor aesthetics due to discolouration of GIC, poor attitude by some dentists who consider the technique to be of low calibre.

Success rate of ART restorations
For periods ranging up to three years, the ART restorations have been reported to have success rates of 85% or higher for occlusal restorations, but of about 49% and lower for proximal restorations. This success rate is obviously dependent on the operator experience, the caries removal from the cavity, the effectiveness of the isolation method used, the size of the cavity, the post-restoration meal consumed by the patient soon after the placement of the restoration, the cooperation of the patient during the procedure and afterwards and the type of material used for the restoration.

Future of the ART technique
ART is not a compromise treatment but an alternative treatment method that is simple and practical for the prevention of dental caries, particularly, for developing nations with scarce resources. It is a technique that is less costly than the conventional methods. ART should be able to form part of a total oral health care for promotion and prevention of dental caries, potentially in children, fearful adults and the handicapped persons, especially in restoring class I and V cavities or as interim restoration in some other cases.

Ngatia TA, Mugera GM, Njiro SM, Kuria JKN, A.B. C. "Arteriosclerosis and related lesions in Rabbits." Journal of Comparative Pathology. 1989;101:279-286.
Ngatia TA, Mugera GM, Njiro SM, Kuria JK, Carles AB. "Arteriosclerosis and related lesions in rabbits.". 1989. Abstract

Eleven female rabbits, mainly of the NZW breed, aged between 1 and 3.5 years, were examined post mortem. All had originated over the years 1982 to 1987 from the same rabbitry where they had been fed on pellets from the same manufacturer. Apart from one rabbit, all had a history of progressive loss of bodily condition and six of them had also been infertile. Grossly, most of them were emaciated and their arteries were hardened. In some, hepatopathy, nephropathy and pulmonary emphysema were evident. In one case, mummified foetuses were recovered from the abdominal cavity. Microscopically, degenerative changes and calcification were found in the walls of arteries, kidneys, lungs, hearts and ovaries.

Goo Y-K;, erkawi A;M, ia H;, Aboge O;G, Ooka H, Nelson B;, Kim S;, Sunaga F, Namikawa K;, Igarashi I. "Artesunate, a potential drug for treatment of Babesia infection.". 2010. Abstract

The effects of artesunate, a water-soluble artemisinin derivative, against Babesia species, including Babesia bovis, Babesia gibsoni and Babesia microti were studied. Cultures of B. bovis and B. gibsoni were treated with 0.26, 2.6, 26 and 260 μM artesunate, showing inhibition of parasite growth at concentrations equal to and greater than 2.6 μM artesunate by days 3 post-treatment for B. gibsoni and B. bovis in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with in vitro experiments, artesunate was effective in the treatment of mice infected with B. microti at doses equal to and greater than 10 mg/kg of body weight on days 8–10 post-infection. Taken together, these results suggest that artesunate could be a potential drug against Babesia infection.

KIMANI DRWANJERIJOSEPH. "Article title: Risk factors for kerosene stove explosion burns seen at Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya Journal title: Burns Dr. Alex N Dr.Ombati, Dr.P.L.W.Ndaguatha, Dr.J.K.Wanjeri (Correspnding author) Online publication complete: 19-SEP-2012.". In: BURNS. ELSEVIER; 2012. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
Meru AK, Musau F, Kinoti MW. "Artificial Intelligence-Based Decision Making Applied in Marketing and Sales in Third World Countries." Business Strategy in the Artificial Intelligence Economy. 2018.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Aryan Kaganof: 12 Shooters," The African Book Publishing Record, No. 3, 2008. 191-92.". In: The African Book Publishing Record, No. 3, 2008. 191-92. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "As Flies to Boys Are We to the Gods: Human Identity in Kenyan Myths.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 1 (March 2003): 15-22. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract

Borrowing its title from William Shakespeare's King Lear, this article examines some aesthetic and cognitive characteristics of some indigenous ethnic myths in Kenya as a subgenre of the oral narrative. The article asserts that human beings create the myth to help them make sense of human existence

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Aspects of East African Literature,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1977. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Aspects of East African Literature,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1977. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

Kyule MD. "Aspects of modern human behavior during the late Pleistocene: insights from southwest Kenya.". In: Conference on Current Archaeology and Paleoanthropological research in Kenya . National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; 2003.
W. MUTHOMIJ, K. MUREITHIB, N. CHEMINING'WAG, K. GATHUMBIJ, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE. "Aspergillus species and Aflatoxin b1 in soil, maize grain and flour samples from semi-arid and humid regions of Kenya." International Journal of AgriScience . 2012;2(1):22-34.
KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Assenga SP, You M, Shy CH, Yamagishi J, Sakaguchi T, Zhou J, Kibe MK, Xuan X, Fujisaki K. (2006). The use of a recombinant baculovirus expressing a chitinase from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis and its potential application as a bioacaricide for .". In: Parasitology Research 98, 111-118. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
Baculoviruses are specific insect pathogens used as selective biological insecticides on lepidopteran insects. We have tested a recombinant baculovirus expressing a chitinase gene for its efficacy as a tick bioacaricide. The recombinant Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus expressing a chitinase enzyme (AcMNPV-CHT1) from the hard tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, was constructed and found to have a novel bioacaricidal effect against ticks. The recombinant baculovirus was used to express the chitinase enzyme in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells. Topical application of the supernatant harvested from the insect cell culture was found to cause mortality in nymphal ticks of H. longicornis. High temperature (>30 degrees C) and infrared radiation affected the chitinase enzyme activity and recombinant baculovirus infectivity by reducing the speed of tick killing by 60%. A mixture of recombinant virus and chitinase was found to kill ticks faster (p < 0.01) than pure chitinase and recombinant virus alone. Thus, the recombinant virus showed a synergistic effect with the foreign chitinase gene. In order to reduce the excessive use and cost of acaricides, it was found that a mixture of recombinant virus and flumethrin could halve the dose of the chemical acaricide used. These findings are important for the safe use of the recombinant virus expressing chitinase as a bioacaricide against ticks.
K'AKUMU OA. "Asserting the nature of man as zoon politikon.". In: City. Taylor and Francis; 2010. Abstract

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

Koech R, Koroti E, Aboge G, Mwangi A, Odhiambo J;, Ouma E;, Staal S;, McDermott J;, Kangethe E;, Arimi S;, Omore A. "Assessing and managing milk-borne health risks for the benefit of consumers in Kenya.". 2002.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Assessing business responses to HIV / AIDS in Kenya. Roberts M, Wangombe J. AIDS STD Health Promot Exch. 1995;(2):13-5.". In: AIDS STD Health Promot Exch. 1995;(2):13-5. SITE; 1995. Abstract
PIP: A consulting firm conducted interviews with managers of 16 businesses in 3 Kenyan cities, representatives of 2 trade unions, focus groups with workers at 13 companies, and an analysis of financial/labor data from 4 companies. It then did a needs assessment. The business types were light industry, manufacturing companies, tourism organizations, transport firms, agro-industrial and plantation businesses, and the service industry. Only one company followed all the workplace policy principles recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization. Six businesses required all applicants and/or employees to undergo HIV testing. All their managers claimed that they would not discriminate against HIV-infected workers. Many workers thought that they would be fired if they were–or were suspected to be–HIV positive. Lack of a non-discrimination policy brings about worker mistrust of management. 11 companies had some type of HIV/AIDS education program. All the programs generated positive feedback. The main reasons for not providing HIV/AIDS education for the remaining 5 companies were: no employee requests, fears that it would be taboo, and assumptions that workers could receive adequate information elsewhere. More than 90% of all companies distributed condoms. 60% offered sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. About 33% offered counseling. Four companies provided volunteer HIV testing. Almost 50% of companies received financial or other external support for their programs. Most managers thought AIDS to be a problem mainly with manual staff and not with professional staff. Almost all businesses offered some medical benefits. The future impact of HIV/AIDS would be $90/employee/year (by 2005, $260) due to health care costs, absenteeism, retraining, and burial benefits. The annual costs of a comprehensive workplace HIV/AIDS prevention program varied from $18 to $54/worker at one company.
Gitau PW, Kunyanga CN, Abong’ GO, Ojiem JO, Muthomi JW. "Assessing Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Preference of Legume-Cereal-Root Based Porridges in Nandi County." Journal of Food Quality. 2019;https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3035418.
Njeru CM, Ekesi S, Mohamed SA, Kinyamario JI, Kiboi S, Maeda EE. "Assessing stock and thresholds detection of soil organic carbon and nitrogen along an altitude gradient in an east Africa mountain ecosystem." Geoderma Regional. 2017;10:29-38.
Kihuba E, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Mulaku M, Kosgei R, Mogoa W, Nyamai R, English M. "Assessing the ability of health information systems in hospitals to support evidence-informed decisions in Kenya." Glob Health Action. 2014;7:24859.
Kihuba E, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Mulaku M, Kosgei R, Mogoa W, Nyamai R, English M. "Assessing the ability of health information systems in hospitals to support evidence-informed decisions in Kenya." Glob Health Action. 2014;7:24859. Abstractassessing_the_ability_of_health_information_systems_in.pdf

Hospital management information systems (HMIS) is a key component of national health information systems (HIS), and actions required of hospital management to support information generation in Kenya are articulated in specific policy documents. We conducted an evaluation of core functions of data generation and reporting within hospitals in Kenya to facilitate interpretation of national reports and to provide guidance on key areas requiring improvement to support data use in decision making.

Nyumba TO, Sang CC, Olago DO, Marchant R, Waruingi L, Githiora Y, Kago F, Mwangi M, Owira G, Barasa R, others. "Assessing the ecological impacts of transportation infrastructure development: A reconnaissance study of the Standard Gauge Railway in Kenya." PLoS one. 2021;16:e0246248. Abstract
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Nyumba TO, Sang CC, Olago DO, Marchant R, Waruingi L, Githiora Y, Kago F, Mwangi M, Owira G, Barasa R, Omangi S. "Assessing the ecological impacts of transportation infrastructure development: A reconnaissance study of the Standard Gauge Railway in Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2021;16(1):e0246248-. AbstractWebsite

Transportation infrastructure, such as railways, roads and power lines, contribute to national and regional economic, social and cultural growth and integration. Kenya, with support from the Chinese government, is currently constructing a standard gauge railway (SGR) to support the country’s Vision 2030 development agenda. Although the actual land area affected by the SGR covers only a small proportion along the SGR corridor, a significant proportion of the area supports a wide range of ecologically fragile and important ecosystems in the country, with potential wider impacts. This study used a qualitative content analysis approach to gain an understanding and perceptions of stakeholders on the potential ecological impacts of the interactions between the SGR and the traversed ecological systems in Kenya. Three dominant themes emerged: 1) ecosystem degradation; 2) ecosystem fragmentation; and 3) ecosystem destruction. Ecosystem degradation was the most commonly cited impact at while ecosystem destruction was of the least concern and largely restricted to the physical SGR construction whereas the degradation and fragmentation have a much wider footprint. The construction and operation of the SGR degraded, fragmented and destroyed key ecosystems in the country including water towers, protected areas, community conservancies and wildlife dispersal areas. Therefore, we recommend that project proponents develop sustainable and ecologically sensitive measures to mitigate the key ecosystem impacts.

Angwere OW, Koech OK. "ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF CHARCOAL PRODUCTION AND USE ON THE TRANSITION TO A GREEN ECONOMY IN KENYA." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2016;19(2016):327-335.
WAMBUI MBOTEBETH, Opere A, Gathiga JM, Karanja FK. ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON BIODIVERSITY IN LAKE NAKURU, KENYA. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2016. AbstractDepartment of Meteorology

Hydrological systems are potentially very sensitive to changes in climate. Recently, attention has been mainly drawn to the rising global temperatures; however, over the past century, human livelihoods have substantially been directly affected by changes in the regional hydrological balance. Lake Nakuru is one example of a hydrological system which has seen its water levels increasing since September 2010 during the beginning of the short rains making it the first lake in the Rift Valley bursting its banks, leading to decreased electrical conductivity levels as a result of water dilution. All flamingos left the lake, initially settling in the Lake Oloidien a small alkaline lake south of Lake Naivasha and Lake Bogoria. The increased water levels led to change in aquatic life and biodiversity, including submersion of habitats adjoining the lake and have therefore had major ecological implications on the lake and its environs.
This study, therefore, assesses the impacts of the increased water levels and the flooding of Lake Nakuru and its surrounding areas on biodiversity, specifically, the phytoplankton and lesser flamingo communities, owing to climate change and climate variability. The study focused on reviewing and analysing observed climatic records from 2000 to 2014, obtained from the Kenya Meteorological Department, especially temperature, precipitation and evaporation of Lake Nakuru in order to assess how climate variability and climate change has contributed to the increased lake levels, monitoring and reviewing information on the state of past and present records of the lesser flamingo and phytoplankton communities of Lake Nakuru was undertaken, with the data sets obtained from the Kenya Wildlife Service and National Museums of Kenya database. Several methods were employed in order to determine the past and current trends of climatic parameters (temperature, precipitation and evaporation), and also for the physicochemical characteristics of Lake Nakuru (conductivity, phytoplankton, lesser flamingos and the lake depth). These included time series analysis, trend analysis and the Pearson's correlation analysis was used to correlate the changes in lake conductivity to changes in population estimates of the lesser flamingos and the phytoplankton. Data set extracted from the Coupled Model lntercomparison Project Phase 5 (CM1P5) (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Atlas subset) models were subjected to time series analysis method where the future climate scenarios of near surface temperature, precipitation and evaporation were plotted for the period 2017 to 2100 (projection) for RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 in Lake Nakuru were analysed. The results were used to assess the impact of climate change on the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton abundance.
It was observed that there was an increase in the mean annual precipitation during the study period (2009 to 2014) which caused the increase in the lake's surface area from a low area of 31.8 km2 in January 2010 to a high of 54.7 km2 in Sept 2013, indicating an increase of 22.9 km2 (71.92% surface area increase). Mean conductivity of the lake also decreased leading to the loss of phytoplankton on which flamingos feed causing them to migrate. A strong positive correlation between conductivity and the lesser flamingo population was observed implying that low conductivity affects the growth of phytoplankton and since the lesser flamingos depend on the phytoplankton for their feed, this subsequently demonstrated th&t the phytoplankton density could be a significant predictor of the lesser flamingo occurrence in Lake Nakuru. There was also a strong positive correlation observed between phytoplankton and the lesser flamingo population which confirms that feed availability is a key determining factor of the lesser flamingo distribution in the lake.
It is projected that there would be an increase in temperatures, precipitation and evaporation for the period 20 I 7 to 2100 under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble. As a result, it is expected that the lake will further increase in surface area and depth by the year 2 I 00 due to increased precipitation thereby affecting the populations of the lesser . flamingos and phytoplankton, as the physicochemical factors of the lake will change as wel I during the projected period.
Recommendation.s that can be taken to contribute to the country's biodiversity resources, specifically in Lake Nakuru through climate change mitigation and appropriate adaptations have been provided. They include: In order to assess the variability in climate, continuous monitoring and analysing meteorological parameters in the lake basin is suggested; government policy on illegal water abstractions and massive afforestation of indigenous trees need to be enforced in order to enhance precipitation regularity so as to sustainably utilize and manage Lake Nakuru 's waters; Climate vulnerability assessments need to be carried out in order to come up with mitigations and adaptations measures unique to Lake Nakuru basin to inform the measures that need to be taken in order to minimize the negative impacts of climate vulnerability/change, and exploit the beneficial ones.

WAMBUI MBOTEBETH, Opere A, GITHAIGA JOHNM, Karanja FK. "Assessing the Impacts of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Biodiversity in Lake Nakuru, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2018;8(1):13-24. Abstractassessing_the_impacts_of_climate_variability_and_climate_change_on_biodiversity_in_lake_nakuru_kenya.pdfSMUJO (smujo.id)

Wambui MB, Opere A, Githaiga MJ, Karanja FK. 2017. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and climate change on biodiversity in Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Bonorowo Wetlands 1: 13-24. This study evaluates the impacts of the raised water levels and the flooding of Lake Nakuru and its surrounding areas on biodiversity, specifically, the phytoplankton and lesser flamingo communities, due to climate change and climate variability. The study was to review and analyze noticed climatic records from 2000 to 2014. Several methods were used to ascertain the past and current trends of climatic parameters (temperature, rainfall and evaporation), and also the physicochemical characteristics of Lake Nakuru (conductivity, phytoplankton, lesser flamingos and the lake depth). These included time series analysis, and trend analysis, so the Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to show a relationship between the alterations in lake conductivity to alterations in population estimates of the lesser flamingos and the phytoplankton. Data set extracted from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Atlas subset) models were subjected to time series analysis method where the future climate scenarios of near surface temperature, rainfall and evaporation were plotted for the period 2017 to 2100 (projection) for RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 in Lake Nakuru were analysed. The results were used to evaluate the impact of climate change on the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton abundance. It was noticed that there was a raise in the mean annual rainfall during the study period (2009 to 2014) which brought the increment in the lake’s surface area from a low area of 31.8 km² in January 2010 to a high of 54.7 km² in Sept 2013, indicating an increment of 22.9 km² (71.92% surface area increment). Mean conductivity of the lake also lessened leading to the loss of phytoplankton on which flamingos feed making them to migrate. A strong positive correlation between conductivity and the lesser flamingo population was noticed signifying that low conductivity affects the growth of phytoplankton and since the lesser flamingos depend on the phytoplankton for their feed, this subsequently revealed that the phytoplankton density could be a notable predictor of the lesser flamingo occurrence in Lake Nakuru. There was also a strong positive correlation noticed between phytoplankton and the lesser flamingo population which confirms that feed availability is a key determining factor of the lesser flamingo distribution in the lake. It is projected that there would be an increment in temperatures, rainfall and evaporation for the period 2017 to 2100 under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble. As a result, it is expected that the lake will further increment in surface area and depth by the year 2100 due to increased rainfall thereby affecting the populations of the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton, as the physicochemical factors of the lake will alter as well during the projected period.
Keywords: Biodiversity, climate change, Lake Nakuru, Kenya

Kalungu JW, Mbuge DO. "Assessing the impacts of Kenyan universities in adapting to climate change.". In: African Regional Conference of Vice Chancellors, Provosts and Deans of Science, Engineering and Technology (COVIDSET 2013). Gabarone, Botswana; 2013.
Uwizeyimana D, Karuku NG, Mureithi MS, Kironchi G. "Assessing the potential of surface runoff generated from a conserved catchment under drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda." Journal of Hydrologeology & Hydrologic Engineering. 2018;7 (1):1-9.
Kamugisha M, Mutembei HM TT. "Assessing the value of agroforestry and food security among households in Isingiro District, South-Western Uganda." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology. In Press:1-16.
Bergin P, Langat R, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Farah B, Ouattara G, Park H, Coutinho H, Laufer D, Fast P, Verlinde C, Bizimana J, Umviligihozo G, Nyombayire J, Ingabire R, Kuldanek K, Cox J, McMorrow M, Fidler S, Karita E, Gilmour J, Anzala O. "Assessment of anti-HIV-1 antibodies in Oral and Nasal Compartments of Volunteers from Three different Populations." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016. Abstract

In this study, we assessed the feasibility of collecting standardized nasal and salivary samples at centers in Nairobi (Kenya), Kigali (Rwanda) and London (UK) using different collection devices and media (Synthetic absorptive matrices versus flocked swabs, and Salimetrics Oral swabs versus whole oral fluid collection). We detected anti Gag (p24) and envelope (gp140) antibodies in both nasal fluid and salivary collections from all HIV-infected individuals, and cross-reactive anti-p24 antibodies were detected in 10% of HIV-uninfected individuals enrolled at one site. Collections from the nasal turbinates were comparable to samples collected deeper in the nasopharyngeal tract, and the yield of anti-p24 IgA in the whole oral fluid samples was higher than in samples collected from the parotid gland. We noted a trend toward reduced levels of anti-HIV antibody in the volunteers receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Levels of antibodies were stable over multiple collection visits. Overall, this study shows that nasal and salivary samples can be collected in a standardized manner over repeated visits in both low and high resource settings. These methods may be used in support of future HIV vaccine clinical trials.

KAAYA GP. "An assessment of antibiotic potentials of insect antibacterial factors." Insect Science and Its Application . 1989;10:341-346.
Njagi JM, Piero MN, Ngeranwa JJN, Kibiti CM, Njue WM, Maina D, Gathumbi PK. "Assessment of Antidiabetic Potential of Ficus Sycomorus on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Mice.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Diabetes mellitus is a predominant public health concern, causing substantial morbidity, mortality, and long-term complications. Many of the conventional drugs used for the management of this disease are not only expensive but also have numerous side effects. Herbal medications are cheaper and locally available. Many plants have been traditionally used to manage diabetes without authentication on their antidiabetic properties and assessment of their safety. In this study aqueous stem bark extract of Ficus sycomorus was assessed for its antidiabetic potential along with evaluation its preliminary in vivo toxicity in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Results show that the plant harbours remarkable antidiabetic potential. It safely lowered blood glucose level to levels below what insulin, the model drug, lowers, in a dose-dependent manner.

Mpatswenumugabo, JP, Bebora LC, Gitao, C.G., Kamana, O, Mobegi, VA, Irahuga B, B S. "Assessment of Bacterial contaminations andmilk handling practices along the raw milk market chain in North-western region of Rwanda." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2019;13(29 ;http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR2018.8919 ):640-648.second_paper_published-jean_pierre.pdf
Kivai JM, KAYIMA JK, Were AO, Zahida Q. "Assessment of characteristics of patients with pregnancy related acute kidney injury in Kenyatta National hospital.". 2019. Abstract

Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) remains a grave complication of pregnancy. Studies on patient characteristics are few and demonstrate diverse patient features. Objective: To determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with PRAKI at Kenyatta National Hospital (K.N.H) Methods: We carried out a descriptive study on women with gestation age equal to or above 28 weeks and on women in postpartum, within six weeks after delivery. The principal investigator or study assistant introduced study requirements to patients with diagnosis of PRAKI. After consent, clinical and demographic information was obtained from participants through verbal interviews and from medical records using a data capture form. Follow up was until discharge or maximum of two weeks which ever came first. Management of patients was at the discretion of the attending clinician. Results Out of 2068 admissions, 66 participants were enrolled into the study. The prevalence of PRAKI was 3.2%. The mean age was 28 years with peak age between 26-30 years. Forty-two (63.6%) were referred from other health facilities, of whom, 24(57.1%) were from rural areas. Nineteen (27.8%) had pre-pregnancy medical conditions, predominantly cardiovascular. All participants developed one or more obstetric complication: -preeclampsia 28(42.4%), eclampsia eight (9.1%) and hemolysis with elevated liver enzyme low platelet (HELLP) syndrome 17(25.8%). Sixty (91%) pregnancies were delivered. Average gestation age at delivery was 35 weeks, with 33(55%) preterm births, of whom, 10 (30.3%) were fresh still births. Severity of PRAKI at presentation was evenly distributed across stages 1 to 111. Forty-one (62.1%) participants improved on conservative management and 25(37.9%) worsened, of whom, 19 (76.0%) were dialyzed. No maternal mortality was reported during the study. Conclusion: We demonstrate a prevalence of PRAKI of 3.2% in K.N.H. Hypertensive disorders were the main associated factors. There was high rate of premature births and a six-fold increase in fresh still births among participants.

Ogendo KN, Kihara AB, Kosgei RJ, Tweya H, Kizito W, Murkomen B, Ogutu O. "Assessment of Community Led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93.
Ngigi MW;, Okello JJ;, Lagarkvist C;, Karanja N, Mburu J. "Assessment of developing-country urban consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of leafy vegetables: The case of middle and high income consumers in Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

The improvement in income in developing countries has led to emergence of middle and high income consumers in urban centers. Improvement in income usually causes the shift to consumption of non-staples including leafy vegetables. Thus in major developing country urban centers there has been rapid expansion of the grocery sections featuring leafy vegetables in leading retail stores. Specialty stores have also emerged featuring broad range vegetables. Many middle and high income consumers shop these stores. This study examines the willing of the middle and high income consumers who shop specialized stores to pay for quality of leafy vegetables and drivers of willingness to pay for quality. The study uses contingent valuation and the payment card method in eliciting consumers’ WTP. It considers a broad range of quality attributes including safety, nutrition, environmental friendliness, hygiene in handling. The study finds that mean willingness to pay for quality is higher among high income consumers (>60%). It also finds that income, age of children the consumer has, access to information of food safety are among the significant drivers of kale consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of kales. The study concludes that there is demand for quality of leafy vegetables and discusses policy implications.

Ngigi MW;, Okello JJ;, Lagarkvist C;, Karanja N;, Mburu J. "Assessment of developing-country urban consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of leafy vegetables: The case of middle and high income consumers in Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

The improvement in income in developing countries has led to emergence of middle and high income consumers in urban centers. Improvement in income usually causes the shift to consumption of non-staples including leafy vegetables. Thus in major developing country urban centers there has been rapid expansion of the grocery sections featuring leafy vegetables in leading retail stores. Specialty stores have also emerged featuring broad range vegetables. Many middle and high income consumers shop these stores. This study examines the willing of the middle and high income consumers who shop specialized stores to pay for quality of leafy vegetables and drivers of willingness to pay for quality. The study uses contingent valuation and the payment card method in eliciting consumers’ WTP. It considers a broad range of quality attributes including safety, nutrition, environmental friendliness, hygiene in handling. The study finds that mean willingness to pay for quality is higher among high income consumers (>60%). It also finds that income, age of children the consumer has, access to information of food safety are among the significant drivers of kale consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of kales. The study concludes that there is demand for quality of leafy vegetables and discusses policy implications.

Degu A, Njogu P, Weru I, Karimi P. "Assessment of drug therapy problems among patients with cervical cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Gynecol. Oncol. Res. Pract. 2017;4(15):1-15.
Karimi PN. Assessment of drug utilisation and patient knowledge on management of hypertension.; 2008. Abstract

Hypertension is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. It is a chronic disease and hence requires long-term management. Inadequate control leads to complications that may be fatal if not treated. 5-10 % of the general population is hypertensive. Unfortunately, most victims are not aware of their status and diagnosis is usually accidental especially after complications have set in. Objective The overall objective of this study was to assess patient's knowledge on proper management of hypertension and the types of antihypertensive drugs used at KNH. Aspects covered included types of drugs used, lifestyle issues such as salt intake, exercise, weight loss, use of alcohol and smoking status. Methods The study was conducted at KNH in the department of internal medicine. A cross sectional study design was used and the target population was hypertensive patients. Data was collected using a questionnaire that was filled after interviewing the patients and looking at their hospital records. Fifty patients were selected using systematic random sampling. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution tables, charts and graphs. Statistical techniques used included percentages, figures and mean, standard deviation and confidence intervals. Relationship between variables was evaluated using chi-square. Results All the patients were adults with a mean age of 56.16 years and majority were females (76%). Majority of the respondents were overweight with a mean body mass index of 27.9Kg/m2 • Minority (12.2%) had no formal education and majority (53.2%) was not aware of the normal blood pressure reading. Most patients were unaware of the fact that hypertension can cause complications such as heart failure ( 56%), kidney damage (64%), visual damage (60%) and disturbance of circulation to lower limbs (70%). On average, patients were aware of four out of six non pharmacological measures in the management of hypertension had mixed. All the respondents were either on two (28%), 11 three (50%) or four (22%) antihypertensive drugs. The drugs that were mainly prescribed included Hydrochlorthiazide (58%), Losartan (38%), Amlodipine (34%), Nifedipine (32%), Enalapril (30%) and Atenolol (30%). The association between education level and awareness of complications was statistically significant but that between education level and awareness of non pharmacological management had mixed results. Conclusion A significant proportion of the respondents were not aware of complications and non pharmacological measures of managing hypertension. Antihypertensive drugs were not rationally prescribed. Recommendation Patient education regarding non-pharmacological methods of management and awareness of complications of hypertension should be intensified and rational prescribing should be practiced at KNH.

Njue LG, Ombui JN, Kanja LK, Gathumbi JK. "Assessment of effectiveness of garlic extract from Laikipia County on shelf life of meat." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2017;5(5):632-641.
Gathumbi JK, Njue LG, Ombui JN, Kanja LW. "Assessment of Effectiveness of Garlic Extract from Laikipia County, on Shelf-Life of Meat." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2017;5(5):632-641.
Mutua GK;, Kinyari P;, Githuku C;, Kironchi G;, Kang’ethe E;, Prain G;, Njenga M;, Karanja NN. "Assessment of environmental and public health hazards in wastewater used for urban agriculture in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Thirty percent of residents in Nairobi practise urban agriculture (UA) with a majority of the farmers using untreated sewage to irrigate crop and fodder. Due to the environmental and health risks associated with wastewater irrigation, a study was carried out in partnership with farmers in Kibera and Maili Saba which are informal settlements along the Ngong River, a tributary of the Nairobi River Basin. Soil, water, crops and human faecal samples from the farming and non-farming households were analysed to elucidate sources, types and level of heavy metal pollutants in the wastewater and the pathogen loads in humans and vegetable crops. Heavy metal accumulation in soils collected from Kibera and Maili Saba were Cd (14.3 mg kg-1), Cr (9.7 mg kg-1) and Pb (1.7 mg kg-1) and Cd (98.7 mg kg-1), Cr (4.0 mg kg-1) and Pb (74.3 mg kg-1), respectively. This led to high phytoaccumulation of Cd, Cr and Pb in the crops that exceeded the maximum permissible limits. No parasitic eggs were detected in the vegetables but coliform count in the wastewater was 4.8 x108±2.2 x1011/100ml. Soils irrigated with this water had parasitic eggs and non-parasitic larvae counts of 54.62 and 27.5/kg respectively. Faecal coliform and parasitic eggs of common intestinal parasites increased in leafy vegetable sampled from the informal markets along the value chain.

K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Assessment of erosion damage in Ndome and Ghazi, Taita Taveta, Kenya: Towards an integrated erosion management approach. GeoJournal 56: 171-176.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Nguli M, Gatari MJ, Keith Shepherd, Njenga L, Boman J. "Assessment of Essential Micronutrient Levels in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Kenya by Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF)." X-Ray Spectrometry. 2022;2022. Abstract

This study reports concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn analysed from Kenyan bean grains and leaves using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) methods. Samples of fresh bean leaves and 7 species of dry grains were collected from small scale farmers in Machakos and Kiambu counties. They were delivered to the laboratory where bean grain samples for TXRF analysis were prepared and leaves for both TXRF and ICP-OES. Standard methods of sample preparation successfully tested and used by other authors were used, Average elemental concentrations of the samples were then compared with established sufficiency values mainly given in ranges. Bean leaves from Muguga had sufficient Mn, Ni and Cu concentrations while 6% of the samples had Zn concentrations higher than the sufficiency range. Fe concentrations were consistently high with 97% of the samples having concentrations that were higher than the sufficiency range. No deficiencies were observed from bean leaves from Kyevaluki. For dry bean grains, deficiencies were observed in which four species were found to be deficient in Mn while Zn deficiency was observed in all the species. Fe concentrations were above the sufficiency ranges for all the species but not to toxic levels and 29% of the samples had Cu concentrations that were within the sufficiency range. The obtained data will be essential information for both farmers and policy makers on the nutritional quality of beans in the sampled areas. However, further studies are recommended including soil analysis and elemental bioavailability for full nutritional assessment. Keywords: ICP-OES, hidden hunger, mortality rate, cognitive development, bioavailable

Ndambiri HK;, Ritho C;, Mbogoh SG;, Ng’ang’a SI;, Muiruri EJ;, Nyangweso PM;, Kipsat MJ;, Ogada JO;, Omboto PI;, Kefa C;, Kubowon PC;, Cherotwo FH. "Assessment of Farmers' Adaptation to the Effects of Climate Change in Kenya: the Case of Kyuso District.". 2012. Abstract

The study was carried out to assess how farmers in Kyuso District have adapted to the effects of climate change. Survey data was collected from 246 farmers from six locations that were sampled out through a multistage and simple random sampling procedure. The probit regression model was fitted into the data in order to assess factors influencing farmers’ adaptation to the effects of climate change. The analysis revealed that 85% of the farmers had adapted in various ways to the effects of climate change. In this regard, the age of the farmer, gender, education, farming experience, farm income, access to climate information, household size, local agro-ecology, distance to input/output market, access to credit, access to water for irrigation, precipitation and temperature were found to have significant influence on the probability of farmers to adapt to climate change. The study suggests that more policy efforts should thus be geared towards helping all the farmers in the district to adapt to climate change.

Kimani G.N., S. C. "An assessment of Head Teachers Preparedness in School Management on First Appointment in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya." Kenya Journal of Educational Management. 2013;6(ISSN 2074 – 5400).kimani_9.pdf
Koteng POG, Ralwala AO. "Assessment of Heat Stress Exposure on Construction Workers in Hot and Humid Environments during the Covid-19 Pandemic Period. .". In: (Re)Setting Built Environment Theory and Practice in a Post-pandemic World: Disrupted Buildings or Design for Disruption. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online (virtual) conference, JKUAT; 2021.
Maina DM, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, GATARI MJ. "Assessment of heavy metal pollution of L." Victoria. 1997. Abstract
n/a
Maina DM, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, GATARI MJ. Assessment of heavy metal pollution of L." Victoria. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 1997. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Kisangaki P, Nyamasyo G, Ndegwa P, Kajobe R. "Assessment of honey bee colony performance in the agro-ecological zones of Uganda." Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research. 2018;1(5):1-6.
Kasangaki P, Gideon Nyamasyo, Paul Ndegwa RK. "Assessment of Honeybee Colony Performance in the Agro-Ecological Zones of Uganda." Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research. 2018;1(5):122-127.
Nyagol J, Kisato V, Ochuk W, Wakio M. "Assessment of hormonal receptors and Her-2/neu status in breast cancer using cell block: a case study. ." J. Afr. Cancer.. 2013;5:180-184.
Mulaku GC, Kiema JB, Siriba DN. "Assessment of Kenya's readiness for Geospatial data Infrastructure take off." Survey Review (UK)[ISSN 0039-6265]. 2007;39(306):328-337. Abstract

Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. Four hundred and thirty six pupils in two primary schools in Kibwezi, Kenya aged between seven and sixteen years and positive for S. mansoni were treated as follows: 320 pupils with a single dose of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg body weight and 116 controls with a placebo. Immediate and delayed side effects of praziquantel were observed. The main side-effects were abdominal pain (36.3%), headache (35.3%) and nausea (13.1%). There was correlation between frequencies of these side-effects and intensity of infection measured as eggs per gram of faeces. Other side-effects included dizziness (9.7%), fever (7.8%), urticaria and bloody diarrhoea. Overall, the side-effects of praziquantel were mild and transient, and did not require any intervention. For ethical reasons, all pupils who served as controls were treated with praziquantel after the study. PMID: 8898462 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Kibet CW. "Assessment of Kenya’s montane forest ecosystems: A case study on the Cherangani Hills in Western Kenya." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce . 2016;1(9).
Mulaku GC, Kiema JBK, Siriba DN. "Assessment of Kenya’s Readiness for Geospatial Data Infrastructure Take off." Survey Review. 2006;39(306):328-337.
Omwenga I, Kanja L, Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Irungu P. "Assessment of lead and cadmium residues in farmed fish in Machakos and Kiambu counties, Kenya." Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 2014;96(1):58-67.
Gathumbi J.K., Kanja L.W., Maitho T.E., Mbaria J.M., Nduhiu J.G., Gitau F.K., J.G. N, Lucy M.W, K. M. "Assessment of lead and copper in fish and soil sediments in Kirinyaga South District, Kenya." Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation. 2013;8 (3):145-150.
Were FH. Assessment of Levels of Selected Heavy Metals among Industrial Workers and Related Occupational Health Effects in the City of Nairobi and Athi River Township in Kenya. Kamau GN, Shiundu PM, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

The study assessed the concentrations of heavy metals among factory workers (N = 282) and their related adverse health effects in Nairobi and Athi River Township in Kenya. Sets of whole blood, spot urine, scalp hair and personal breathing zone air samples were collected from these workers in various sections of 6 different plants, and analysed for cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) levels using atomic absorption spectrophotometery. This method of analysis was validated using certified reference whole blood samples, BCR®-635 and BCR®-636. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) in production sections as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 ug/rrr' in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 ug/m' in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 ug/rrr' in steel and scrap welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 ug/nr' in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 ug/rn" in leather and tannery, and 5.5 ± 3.6 !!g/m3 in the pharmaceutical plant. The average airborne Pb levels in production sections were significantly high (P < 0.05) when t·.... .• compared to those in their respective office areas, which was: 23.9 ± 6.9 ug/rrr', 18.8 ± 1.6 ug/m", 23.5 ± 5.8 ug/m:', 13.8 ± 3.0 ug/rn", 8.0 ± 2.7 ug/m" and 2.1 ± 0.2 ug/nr'. In all cases, the average airborne Pb levels in production areas markedly exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety Health Administrations' Permissible Exposure Limit of 50 ug/rrr' ~ over an 8-hour Time-Weighted Average except for leather and tannery, and pharmaceutical plant. Blood lead (BPb) levels of all employees correlated positively (r = 0.86) with airborne Pb. All the determined mean BPb values in production workers exceeded 30 ug/dl, proposed by of the American Conference of Governmental for Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) biological exposure indices (BEls), except for employees in leather and tannery, and pharmaceutical plant. Similarly, levels of Cd, Ni and Cr in the ambient air correlated positively (r = 0.99 Cd, 0.89 Ni and 0.84 Cr, N = 282) with those in the urinary samples. The production areas of steel and scrap welding plant had the highest mean levels of 0.13 ± 0.05 ug/rrr' Cd and 10-:-3±4.3 ug/rrr' Ni in the breathing zone air compared to those in the other plants. In this* facility, 50% (20 of 40) and 27.5% (11 of 40) of employees had urinary Ni and Cd levels that exceeded the ACGIH BEls. The average airborne Cr levels of 23.4 ± 11.6 ug/rrr' were highest in production areas of leather and tannery industry, where urinary mean Cr levels of 35.2 ± 12.1 ug/g exceeded the BEIs. Nearly 71% (22 of 31) and 27.5% (11 of 40) of leather tanners and steel and v scrap welders, respectively had urinary Cr levels that exceeded this limit. A positive correlation of r = 0.55 Cr; 0.61 Pb; 0.58 Cd and 0.30 Ni was also observed in the levels between these metals in the ambient air and hair samples. The relationship between levels of heavy metals in the hair and other biomarkers of exposure further indicated correlation coefficient values (r) of 0.57 for urinary-Cr; 0.51, urinary-Cd; 0.21, urinary- Ni; 0.59, blood-Pb; and 0.42 for blood-Cd. The results also established that a high proportion of steel and scrap welders (47.3%, N 19), battery recyclers (39%, N = 16) and battery manufacturers (37.5%, N = 15) had hypertensive range of blood pressure with high incidences of cardiovascular diseases and related symptoms, which were associated with significantly high levels of Pb and Cd. Almost 10.7% of production workers (N = 233) were anaemic, which was associated with elevated levels of BPb. Leather tanners (48.3%, N = 15) and steel and scrap welders (47.5%, N = 19) had high prevalence of respiratory illnesses that were marked by severely reduced forced' vital capacity (FVC) .' . and forced expiratory volume of air in thi -(l.i;t second (FEV i). These were indication of airway obstructions. It was further observed that leather tanners (41.9%, N = 13) and steel and scrap welders (40.0%, N = 13) had high occurrences of dermatological conditions that manifested in the form of rashes and itching and which were associated with elevated airborne levels of Cr and Ni.

Joseph Muiruri, Wahome R, Karatu K. "Assessment of methods practiced in the disposal of solid waste in Eastleigh Nairobi County, Kenya [J]." AIMS Environmental Science. 2020;7(5):434-448.
Aluvaala J, Nyamai R, Were F, Wasunna A, Kosgei R, Karumbi J, Gathara D, English M. "Assessment of neonatal care in clinical training facilities in Kenya.". 2014;10(306423):42-47. Abstractassessment_of_neonatal_care_in_clinical_training_facilities_in_kenya..pdf

Objective
An audit of neonatal care services provided by clinical training centres was undertaken to identify areas requiring improvement as part of wider efforts to improve newborn survival in Kenya.
Design
Cross-sectional study using indicators based on prior work in Kenya. Statistical analyses were descriptive with adjustment for clustering of data.
Setting Neonatal units of 22 public hospitals.
Patients Neonates aged <7 days.
Main outcome measures
Quality of care was assessed in terms of availability of basic resources (principally equipment and drugs) and audit of case records for documentation of patient assessment and treatment at admission.
Results
All hospitals had oxygen, 19/22 had resuscitation and phototherapy equipment, but some key resources were missing—for example kangaroo care was available in 14/22. Out of 1249 records, 56.9% (95% CI 36.2% to 77.6%) had a standard neonatal admission form. A median score of 0 out of 3 for symptoms of severe illness (IQR 0–3) and a median score of 6 out of 8 for signs of severe illness (IQR 4–7) were documented.
Maternal HIV status was documented in 674/1249
(54%, 95% CI 41.9% to 66.1%) cases. Drug doses
exceeded recommendations by >20% in prescriptions for
penicillin (11.6%, 95% CI 3.4% to 32.8%) and
gentamicin (18.5%, 95% CI 13.4% to 25%),
respectively.
Conclusions
Basic resources are generally available, but there are deficiencies in key areas. Poor documentation limits the use of routine data for quality improvement. Significant opportunities exist for improvement in service delivery and adherence to guidelines in hospitals providing professional training.

Aluvaala J, Nyamai R, Were F, Wasunna A, Kosgei R, Karumbi J, Gathara D, English M. "Assessment of neonatal care in clinical training facilities in Kenya." Arch Dis Child. 2016;(100):42-47. Abstractassessment_of_neonatal_care_in_clinical_training_facilities_in_kenya.pdf

Objective: An audit of neonatal care services provided by clinical training centres was undertaken to identify areas requiring improvement as part of wider efforts to improve newborn survival in Kenya.
Design: Cross-sectional study using indicators based on prior work in Kenya. Statistical analyses were descriptive with adjustment for clustering of data. Setting Neonatal units of 22 public hospitals. Patients Neonates aged <7 days.
Main outcome measures: Quality of care was assessed in terms of availability of basic resources (principally equipment and drugs) and audit of case records for documentation of patient assessment and treatment at admission.
Results: All hospitals had oxygen, 19/22 had resuscitation and phototherapy equipment, but some key resources were missing—for example kangaroo care was available in 14/22. Out of 1249 records, 56.9% (95% CI 36.2% to 77.6%) had a standard neonatal admission form. A median score of 0 out of 3 for symptoms of severe illness (IQR 0–3) and a median score of 6 out of 8 for signs of severe illness (IQR 4–7) were documented. Maternal HIV status was documented in 674/1249 (54%, 95% CI 41.9% to 66.1%) cases. Drug doses exceeded recommendations by >20% in prescriptions for penicillin (11.6%, 95% CI 3.4% to 32.8%) and gentamicin (18.5%, 95% CI 13.4% to 25%), respectively.
Conclusions: Basic resources are generally available, but there are deficiencies in key areas. Poor documentation limits the use of routine data for quality improvement. Significant opportunities exist for improvement in service delivery and adherence to guidelines in hospitals providing professional training.

Aluvaala J, Nyamai R, Were F, Wasunna A, Kosgei R, Karumbi J, Gathara D, English M. "Assessment of neonatal care in clinical training facilities in Kenya." Arch. Dis. Child.. 2014. Abstractassessment_of_neonatal_care_in_clinical_training.pdf

An audit of neonatal care services provided by clinical training centres was undertaken to identify areas requiring improvement as part of wider efforts to improve newborn survival in Kenya.

Mutero CM, Mbogo C, Mwangangi J, Imbahale S, Kibe L, Orindi B, Girma M, Njui A, Lwande W, Affognon H, Gichuki C, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana. "An assessment of participatory integrated vector management for malaria control in Kenya." Environmental health perspectives. 2015;123(11):1145.
K LJ, Jumba IO, Keter JK, Wekesa Chamuku W, Oduor FDO. "Assessment of Physical Properties of Gum Arabic from Acasia Senegal Varieties in Baringo District, Kenya." African Journal of Plant Science. 2010; 4(4):95-98.
Kibe RS, Muthama NJ, Alfred OO, Franklin OJ. "Assessment of Potential Changes in Hydrologically Relevant Rainfall Statistics over the Sondu River Basin in Kenya Under a Changing Climate .". 2016. Abstract

Abstract
Scenarios of past, present and intermediate future climates for Sondu River basin were analysed in this study to evaluate the potential changes in hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics that are likely to be observed by the middle of this century as a result of climate change. These climate scenarios were developed by applying dynamical downscaling of the relatively course resolution climate scenarios simulated by the fourth generation coupled Ocean-Atmosphere European Community Hamburg Model (ECHAM4) using the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modelling system. The regional climate scenarios, which were available at a daily time-step and a spatial grid resolution of 0.5˚ over the Eastern Africa region, were matched to the Sondu river basin in the western region of Kenya. The possible hydrological impacts of climate change were assessed by applying the scenarios in a daily time-step hydrological model. The analysis of hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics focussed on determining changes in rainfall patterns and the likely hydrological implications to the basin. The results indicated that more rainfall is projected for the region in the immediate and intermediate future in form of increased seasonal rainfall during the December-January-February (DJF), March-April-May (MAM) and September-October-November (SON) seasons resulting from increased number of days of rainfall and higher probabilities of a wet day following a dry day in a month. Based on these scenarios, the combination of the wetter antecedent conditions and the more rain days in a month will result in more surface runoff being generated which will not only have implications on the water balance but also the water quality in the basin.
Key Words: climate change, climate scenarios, climate modelling, climate downscaling, Sondu Basin, Kenya

Onono JO, Kithuka J. "Assessment of Provision of Extension Services and Advocacy on Donkey Health and Welfare in Kenya." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics Sociology. 2020;38(5):15-28.
Mugo JN, Karanja NN, Gachene CK, Klaus Dittert, Nyawade SO, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Assessment of soil fertility and potato crop nutrient status in central and eastern highlands of Kenya.". 2020.
James. N. Mugo, Nancy N. Karanja, Gachene CS, Klaus Dittert, Nyawade SO, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Assessment of soil fertility and potato crop nutrient status in Central and Eastern Highlands of Kenya." Nature research. 2020.
Namoi NL, Onwonga RN, Onyango CM, Karuku GN, Kathumo VN. "Assessment of Soil Nutrient Balances in Organic Based Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Cropping Systems of Yatta Sub-county, Kenya." American Journal of Experimental Agriculture . 2014;4(12):1557-1578.
 Namoi NL, Onwonga RN, Onyango CM, Karuku GN, Kathumo VM. "Assessment of Soil Nutrient Balances in Organic Based Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Cropping Systems of Yatta Sub-county, Kenya." American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 2014;4(2):1557-1578.
Namoi NL, Onwonga RN, Onyango CM, Karuku GN, Kathumo VM. "Assessment of Soil Nutrient Balances in Organic Based Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Cropping Systems of Yatta Subcounty, Kenya." American Journal of Experimental Agriculture . 2014;4(12 ):1557-1578.
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Kamau G, Njiraine D. "An Assessment of the Accessibility of Electronic Information Resources by Academic Library Users: A Case of the University of Nairobi.". In: Emerging Trends in Information and Knowledge Management. Eldoret; 2017.
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