Publications

Found 5778 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Asc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is K  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J [K] L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
K
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Kaahwa, A.R., Okoth, M.W. and Imungi, J.K. 1999. The effect of homogenization stabilizer and amylase treatment on viscosity of passion fruit juice. J. Food Technol. Afr. 4(1): 22.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1999. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "E.G.M. Mogoa, J.K. Wabacha (2005) P.M.F. Mbithi, S.G. Kiama. An overview of animal welfare issues in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian 29:48-52.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 6th . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2005. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Kahuho, S.K., Ayim E.N.: .". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Mar;60(3):134-9. Links. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1983. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
K RS, Mutham NJ, Opere AO, Opijah FJ, Gichuki FN. "Simulated Impacts of Climate Change on Surface Water Yields over the Sondu Basin in Kenya.". 2016. Abstract

Abstract
Potential impacts of climate change on surface water yields over the Sondu River basin in the western region of Kenya were analysed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model with climate input data obtained from the fourth generation coupled Ocean-Atmosphere European Community Hamburg Model (ECHAM4) using the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) model. Daily time step regional climate scenarios at a spatial grid resolution of 0.44˚ over the Eastern Africa region were matched to the Sondu river basin and used to calibrate and validate the SWAT model.
Analysis of historical and projected rainfall over the basin strongly indicated that the climate of the area will significantly change with wetter climates being experienced by 2030 and beyond. Projected monthly rainfall distribution shows increasing trends in the relatively dry DJF and SON seasons while showing decreasing trends in the relatively wet MAM and JJA seasons. Potential changes in water yields resulting from climate change were computed by comparing simulated yields under climate change scenarios with those simulated under baseline conditions.
There was evidence of substantial increases in water yields ranging between 88% and 110% of the baseline yields by 2030 and 2050 respectively. Although simulated water yields are subject to further verification from observed values, this study has provided useful information about potential changes in water yields as a result of climate change over the Sondu River basin and in similar basins in this region
Keywords: Simulated Impacts, Climate Change, Water Yields, Sondu Basin, Kenya

K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Korir, S.C.R., Imungi, J.K. and Muroki, N.M. 1996. Proximate chemical composition of street foods and their energy and protein contribution to the nutrition of manual workers in Nairobi. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 37: 123.". In: Presented in International Conference on Traditional Foods. 6 - 8 March 1997.Mysore,India. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1996. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, J.M. Maribei and M.N. Kyule (2001). Farm demographics and pig management practices of smallholder pig farms in Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District. The Kenya Veterinarian 22: 72-75.". In: Biennial scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 7th-9th August 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2001. Abstract
A study was conducted in fourty randomly selected herds in a peri-urban area in the Central Kenyan highlands to obtain prevalence estimates of sarcoptic mange in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. A total of 476 pigs of various age-group categories were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was based on physical examination for clinical signs indicative of mange infestation and on direct detection of Sarcoptes scabiei mites. Ninety per cent of the herds had clinical signs suggestive of sarcoptic mange and in 70% of the herds Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was positively identified. The results also indicated that 273 (57.3%) of the 476 pigs had clinical signs indicative of sarcoptic mange and 90 (18.9%) of the 476 pigs were positive for Sarcoptes scabiei var suis. The hypersensitive form of mange was more common than the chronic form. The direct examination technique to detect Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was more effective in weaners than in the other age categories of pigs. The results indicate that sarcoptic mange is a common problem in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai C.K. Ogeto J and Juma F. A compasative study of 7 brands of Frusemide Product E.A. Med. J. Vol 61, 1984.". In: E.A. Med. J. Vol 61, 1984. African Crop Science Society; 1984. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kamau RK, Rogo KO. Chronic ectopic pregnancy with perforation of posterior fornix: Case report. East Afr Med J 1988; 65: 57-9.". In: East Afr Med J 1988; 65: 57-9. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "Musuva, J.K. and Rading, G.O. "The Effects of Welding on the Fatigue crack Growth Rate in a Structural Steel" Proc. 4th Disciplinary Area Seminar, Mechanical/ Production Engineering Sub-Network, Ibadan, Nigeria (January, 1984), pp. 14 - 42.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1984. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Kabira, J.N. and Imungi, J.K. 1991. Possibility of incorporating potato flour into three traditional Kenya foods. African Study Monographs 12:211.". In: Presented at the Seminar of Post harvest Management of Food Crops. Nairobi, 29 - 30 January 1992. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1991. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, J.M. Maribei, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule and E.H. Weda. Evaluation of Sarcoptic mange status in pigs in smallholder farms in Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennnial Scientific Conference 30th -1st September 2000. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of Mucuna Planting Density and Time on Water and Light Use in Maize .". In: African Crop Science Proceedings 6: 536-540. Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "The Nephrotoxity of Netilmicin and Gentamicin .". In: M.Sc. thesis in Clinical Pharmacology 1980, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi Press; 1980. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Soil erosion effects on productivity of humic Nitosol. Soil Science Society of East Africa ,ISBN No. 9966-8879-27-7, p 233-239.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2000. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. 1987. Food Additives: Benefits and Hazards. Presented at the 2nd KBS National Food Control Seminar, Nairobi, and 6 - 9 October 1987.". In: Presented at the 2nd KBS National Food Control Seminar, Nairobi, and 6 - 9 October 1987. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1987. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES, N PROFGUANTAIA. "Guantai AN, Maitai CK.Relative distribution of cathinone and D-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edulis (Miraa) growing in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):394-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):394-8. A. N. GUANTAI, J. W. MWANG1, G1CHURU MURIUKI and K. A. M. KURIA; 1982. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "National Soil and Water Conservation Programme, Sida Evaluation 96/25. Department for Natural Resources and the Environment, Sweden.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1996. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "The political career of electoral process in Kenya: From the colonial period to the present: A framework for analysis, IED.". In: A framework for analysis, IED 1996. uon press; 1996. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Salah, A.M., Gathumbi, J., Vierling W. (2002). Inhibition of intestinal motility by methanol extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (malvoceae) in rats. Phytotherapy Research 163: 283-285.". In: 6th Biennial Conference of the African Crop Science Society held in on October 12-17th, 2003. University of nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Kayima JK, Anderton JL, Swainson CP.Persistent microcytosis and its association to the recovery of anaemia after kidney transplantation. Afr J Health Sci. 1995 Feb;2(1):220-222.". In: Afr. J. Medical Pract. 2(1) 8-9, 1995. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1995. Abstract
Persistent microcytosis was noted among a number of post renal transplant patients attending the transplant clinic at the Western General Hospital Edinburgh. We retrospectively looked at the pattern of recovery of the anaemia of chronic renal failure following successful renal transplantation with good graft function (Creatinine less than 250 (mol/l). Comparisons were made between those patients with persistent microcytosis and those with normal mean cell volume (MCV). Patients with microcytosis tended to have a slower recovery compared to those with normal MCV especially from week 12 to 21 after transplantation with corresponding Hb changes of 108+ 20 to 126+/-20 g/l vs 128+ 17 to 144+/-19 g/l ([P < 0.05], 95% confidence limits). The microcytic groups also tended to have had poorer graft function with serum creatinines significantly higher than those with normal MCV from week 8 to 21, 182+/- 62 to 173+/- 51 (mol/1 vs 139+/- 40 to 149+/- 38 (mo1/L ([P < 0.05] 95% confidence limits). In both groups haemoglobin concentration was negatively correlated to serum creatinine. (r=-0.54, [P < 0.05]). Body iron status studies had not been done in these patients. Persistent microcytosis though a non sensitive marker of iron deficiency may be a marker of disordered iron metabolism in patients with poorer graft functions.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of environment on Growth and Phenological Development of Pigeonpea (Cajanus Cajan) in Kenya.". In: Paper presented in the 6th Conference of the African Crop Science Society held in Nairobi, Kenya 12th to 17th October. University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Kaitho, R.J., Biwott, K.J, C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and J. Tanner. 2001. Effects of allocation of fixed amounts of concentrate on milk yields and of dairy cows. AGRIPPAPeer reviewed electronic journal. http://www.fao.org/agrippa/agrippa-main asp.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2001. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kaihura DM, Koigi-Kamau R, Ndavi PM. A survey of knowledge, attitude and use of emergency contraception among undergraduate female students in two Kenyan universities. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1999; 15: 36-44.". In: East Cent Afr 1999; 15: 36-44. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Onyango, M. C. and Imungi, J. K. 2007. Post harvest handling and characteristics of fresh-cut traditional vegetables sold in Nairobi-Kenya. Proc. African Crop Science Conference, 27 .". In: African Crop Science Conference, 27 . Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2007. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Mbuthia, E.M., C.K. Gachuiri, A.A. Abate, J.W. Kiragu and D.I. Kariuki. 1996. Sahiwal calf performance on colostrum preserved by different methods. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 46:63-64.". In: Proceedings, 6th KARI Scientific conference, November, 1998. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1996. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K O, J A, N O. "Demographic Diversity in Top Management Team and Financial Reporting Quality in Commercial State Corporations in Kenya." Donnish Journal of Accounting and Taxation. 2015;1(1):001-016. Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of demographic diversity in Top Management Team (TMT) on financial
reporting quality in commercial state corporations. The study adopted correlational and longitudinal research design and
stepwise regression analysis of FRQ variables on a set of demographic diversity variables in TMT. The findings provide
considerable evidence to suggest that TMT demographic diversity are associated with financial reporting quality
measured by fundamental qualitative characteristics of accounting information, earnings management, timeliness in
reporting and disclosure quality. The research implication is that; in general, demographic diversity in TMT- gender, age,
education, tenure and functional background may have important implication for financial reporting quality under
different measures. The value of this paper is to extend Prior research by addressing the potential effects of TMT
demographic diversity on FRQ. The findings reported in this paper provide novel insight to empirical financial reporting
quality literature in commercial state corporations.

K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Changes in ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and sensory properties in sundried and stored amaranthus hybridus vegetables. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 39: 459.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2000. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "M.J. Njenga, J.K. Wabacha, D.Lamba and P.K. Gathuru. An assessment of the knowledge base about selected zoonoses among residents of Kibera slums of Nairobi.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 26th - 28th April, 2006, Mombasa, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2006. Abstract
A study to evaluate alternative health interventions for the control of sarcoptic mange and gastro-intestinal nematodes in smallholder pig herds was carried out in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya. A total of 40 herds were randomly allocated, by a simple random strategy, to 3 treatment groups and 1 control group. Each group comprised of 10 herds. Herds in group 1 (control) were treated with a placebo, physiological saline. In group 2, control of nematodes and mange was attempted through the use of ivermectin, while in group 3, nematodes and mange were treated through the use of an anthelmintic (piperazine hydrochloride) and an acaricide (amitraz), respectively. In group 4, nematodes and mange were treated by using an anthelmintic (levamisole hydrochloride) and an acaricide (amitraz), respectively. The anthelmintic activity of ivermectin was not different (p>0.05) from that of levamisole. The proportion of pigs positive for mites was not different (p>0.05) between the ivermectin and the amitraz treatment groups. The overall costs for the treatments were US$0.50 for the ivermectin treatment, US$0.31 for the piperazine/amitraz combination treatment and US$0.26 for the levamisole/amitraz combination treatment. Amitraz/levamisole drug combination was the most cost-effective against sarcoptic mange and gastro-intestinal nematodes of pigs in the studied smallholder herds.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. 1997. Traditional Foods of Kenya. Presented in International Conference on Traditional Foods. 6 - 8 March 1997, Mysore, India.". In: Presented in International Conference on Traditional Foods. 6 - 8 March 1997, Mysore, India. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1997. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K. H. Zessin, E.H. Weda, and J.M. Maribei (2002). Prevalence of Sarcoptic mange in pigs in smallholder herds in a peri-urban area in Central Kenyan highlands. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 50:9-14.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2002. Abstract
A study was conducted in fourty randomly selected herds in a peri-urban area in the Central Kenyan highlands to obtain prevalence estimates of sarcoptic mange in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. A total of 476 pigs of various age-group categories were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was based on physical examination for clinical signs indicative of mange infestation and on direct detection of Sarcoptes scabiei mites. Ninety per cent of the herds had clinical signs suggestive of sarcoptic mange and in 70% of the herds Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was positively identified. The results also indicated that 273 (57.3%) of the 476 pigs had clinical signs indicative of sarcoptic mange and 90 (18.9%) of the 476 pigs were positive for Sarcoptes scabiei var suis. The hypersensitive form of mange was more common than the chronic form. The direct examination technique to detect Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was more effective in weaners than in the other age categories of pigs. The results indicate that sarcoptic mange is a common problem in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai C.K. Tropical Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Kenya P. 63 .". In: Proc. symposium commonwealth science council, Harare, Zimbabwe, June 3 . African Crop Science Society; 1985. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kamau RK, Karanja JG, Kigondu CS, et al. Barriers to contraceptive use in two areas of Kenya: rural and urban. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi and Family Health International, USA, 1993.". In: Health International, USA, 1993. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "Musuva, J.K. (Chairman) et al-Report on "The Presidential Team of inquiry into Affairs of Kenya Railways Corporation", July 1989.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1989. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
K MJ, E.N.M N, Lerna KN. Effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection on Mammalian host glucose metabolism. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.munyua_files_2.png
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Hydroeconomic evaluation of rainwater harvesting and management technologies: Farmers.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. 1993. Storage and ripening of Kenyan mangoes. In: Post harvest Handling of Tropical Fruits. Eds. Champ BIR. Highley E. and Johnson, G.I. ACIAR Proceedings No. 50. Pp. ISBN 186320 1017.". In: Post harvest Handling of Tropical Fruits. Eds. Champ BIR. Highley E. and Johnson, G.I. ACIAR Proceedings No. 50. Pp. ISBN 186320 1017. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, J. M. Maribei and P.M.F. Mbithi. Occurrence of Dermatophilosis in Zero-grazed Dairy Cattle.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 26th- 28th April, 2000), Mombasa, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Weed management options for resource poor maize-dairy farmers in central Kenya.". In: Paper presented in the the British Crop Protection Council international congress held on 10 to 12th November at Glasgow, Scotland, Pp. 993-998. UK. ISBN 1 901396 63 0. Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "The pharmacokinetics of netilmicin by J.K. Ndele. The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Volume 15 No. 1 42-48 1990.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Volume 15 No. 1 42-48 1990. University of Nairobi Press; 1990. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Field assessment of the effect of cumulative soil loss on soil productivity East Afr. Agric. For. J., Vol. 67 (2), 129-145.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2001. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. 1988. Possibility of extraction of Leaf Protein Concentrate from Kale Leaves.Presented at the First Symposium of the National Council of Zimbabwe, Harare, and 3 - 7 January 1988.". In: Presented at the First Symposium of the National Council of Zimbabwe, Harare, and 3 - 7 January 1988. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1988. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRKARUUSIMONP. "Ph.D. Thesis: "The Study of the effects of some Kenyan soils on the corrosion.". In: Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2000. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
K MRSASIEMAJOY. "Joy K. Asiema and Francis D.P. Situma,"Indigenous Peoples and the Environment: The Case of the Pastoral Maasai of Kenya", in the Colorado.". In: Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy, Volume 5, Number 1, p.149. African Meteorological Society; 1994. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Soil erosion effects on soil properties in a highland area of Central Kenya. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 61: 559 .". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1997. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "The political economy of constitutional amendments in Kenya".". In: SAREAT - Nairobi. uon press; 1999. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Gathumbi, J.K. (2003). Mycotoxin status in Kenya.". In: A paper presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Nairobi Branch Scientific Conference and Annual General Meeting held in Nairobi on 26th February, 2003. University of nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Kayima J.K., Twahir A., Njenga Asyptomatic bacteriuria among diabetics attending Kenyatta National Hospital East African Medical Journal, 73(8): 524-26; 1996.". In: East African Medical Journal, 73(8): 524-26; 1996. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1996. Abstract
Significant asymptomatic bacteriuria is an important cause of pyelonephritis and gram negative septicaemia among certain predisposed individuals, such as diabetics. We investigated the incidence of asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) among our diabetic patients and the type and antibacterial sensitivity patterns of the organisms causing these UTIs. One hundred and thirty five patients submitted midstream urine specimens for culture. Fifteen patients had positive cultures showing the incidence of asymptomatic UTI to be 11.1%. There were ten female and five male patients with UTI. The commonest organism isolated was Escherichia coli at 40%. Gram negative bacilli made up 66.7% of the isolates. Isolates were poorly sensitive to the regularly available antibiotics-ampicillin (33% sensitive, cotrimoxazole (33% sensitive). Nitrofurantoin inhibited growth in 93% of the isolates. Other antimicrobials with over 80% sensitivity level included: gentamicin, ceftazidime, augmentin, cefuroxime and norfloxacin. They are expensive or require parenteral administration. The incidence of asymptomatic UTI is high among diabetics and although the organisms isolated are those usually isolated in UTIs, they are not that sensitive to the commonly available and antibacterial agents.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI. "Influence of irrigation and N fertilizer on maize growth, nitrogen uptake and yield in a semi-arid Kenyan environment. East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal.69:99-108.". In: Proceedings of 19th Soil Science Society of East AfricaConference,2-7 2001, Moshi, Tanzania. Pp 1-13. University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Rearing of Dairy Cows 2002. C.K. Gachuiri. Published by Radio Listening Groups.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Koigi-Kamau R, Letting PK, Kiarie JN. Perceptions and practices of vaginal delivery after cesarean among privately practicing obstetricians in Kenya. East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46.". In: East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Cecilia M. Onyango1 and Jasper K. Imungi. 2008. Post harvest handling and characteristics of fresh-cut traditional vegetables sold in Nairobi .". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2008. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Kinuthia, M.N., J.W. Wakhungu, M.M. Wanyoike and C.K. Gachuiri. 1998. Milk production performance of dairy goat crosses on smallholdings in central Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:196-198.". In: Proceedings, 6th KARI Scientific conference, November, 1998. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K A, A P, G G. "Pattern of Inner- vation of the Upper Gluteus Maximus Muscle: Implication in Prosthetic Hip Dislocation." Annals of African Surgery. 2011;8(2):28-30. Abstract

Gluteus Maximus Muscle: Implication in Prosthetic Hip Dislocation
Awori K.O. MBChB, MMed (Surgery), Dip. (SICOT), FCS (Orth) ECSA, Anne N. Pulei A.A. Bsc, MBChB, Gikenye G. MBChB, MMed,FCS(ECSA) Affiliation: Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197 00100 Nairobi, Kenya. Correspondingauthor: KirsteenO.Awori,Tel.254-722812499,Email: karsto2005@yahoo.com
Abstract
Background: Dislocation is one of the most common complications after total hip arthroplasty. The posterolateral approach avoids disruption of the abductor mechanism but may denervate gluteus maximus as a basis for associated higher dislocation rates.
Objective: To determine the pattern of innervation of gluteus maximus Study design: Descriptive cross-sectional study
Materials and methods: Twenty four cadavers for routine dissection in the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi were used. Having exposed the gluteus maximus, the muscle was transected close to its distal attachment and reflected superiorly to expose the entry of the neurovascular structures into it from the greater sciatic foramen. The pattern of distribution of the inferior gluteal nerve to the muscle was
Introduction
Gluteus maximus (GM) is a powerful hip extensor inner- vated by the inferior gluteal nerve (IFN) and an impor- tant muscle in rising up from squatting position, climb- ing (1) and running (2). Its functions during running are to control flexion of the trunk on the stance-side (3) and to decelerate the swing leg. Low levels of GM activity may contribute to hip extension during stance, and to re- strain hip flexion during swing. During loading response of the gait cycle, in the frontal plane, activity in the up- per portions of the gluteus maximus, hip abductors and tensor fascia lata control drop of the contralateral pelvis, which is relative hip adduction (4).
Risk factors in prosthetic hip dislocation include patient- related ones such as neuromuscular disease (5) and sur- gical ones. Of the surgically-related factors, the approach has generated a lot of controversy. In the Moore posteri- or approach to the hip the incision starts 10 centimetres from the posterior superior iliac spine, is directed later- ally and distally to the back of the greater trochanter and extends for 10 or more centimetres, parallel to the shaft of the femur. The deep fascia is exposed and the iliotibial band is incised from the trochanter to the distal end of
noted and the left and right in the same cadaver compared
Results: In all the 48 cadaver sides, the inferior gluteal nerve exited
the pelvis via the infra-piriformic compartment of the greater sciatic foramen. In majority (43, 89.6%) of gluteal regions this nerve funned out in multiple equal branches to the GM. Only one branch crossed the upper border of piriformis muscle. In 5 cases, this single branch that crossed the upper border of piriformis was a major trunk almost equal in size to the parent nerve. One such case was bilateral.
Conclusion: A major branch of the inferior gluteal nerve to the upper part of GM, when present, could be injured in the posterior approaches to the hip to significantly weaken the upper part of this muscle increasing the risk of prosthetic hip dislocation.

K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kamau RK. Birth Interval and Family Planning. Manual of Clinical Family Planning Practice, Ch. 14, pp 155-66. Kenya Medical Association, 1988.". In: Manual of Clinical Family Planning Practice, Ch. 14, pp 155-66. Kenya Medical Association, 1988. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Ngatia, E. M., Nyanga, P. M., Imungi, J. K., Muita, J. W. and Ogard, B. 2001b. Association between breast/bottle feeding and sucking habits among 3-5 year olds in Nairobi. AJOHS 2(2): 44.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2001. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K MRGAKERIJACOB. ""Challenges Facing the Legal Profession .Role of Young Lawyers" (1996) University of Nairobi Law Journal Page 16.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya symposium. Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1996. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Nganga, J.K., : On the Frequency and Stability Wind Roses in a Tropical Region. Journal of Air, Water and Soil Pollution, Vol. 16: pp. 385 - 386.". In: Journal of Air, Water and Soil Pollution, Vol. 16: pp. 385 - 386. SMA; 1981. Abstract
n/a
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.M.A. Kitaa, C. Mulei, J.D. Mande, J.K. Wabacha. Clinical and Laboratory diagnosis of Ehrlichial infections in dogs: A Review.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2004. Abstract
A longitudinal study was carried out in Kikuyu Division (a peri-urban area in central Kenyan highlands) between January 1999 and December 1999 to estimate the baseline parameters on reproductive performance of the sow, as well as health and productivity of grower and preweaning pigs of smallholder herds. Data were collected on 155 breeding pigs, 795 grower pigs and 801 preweaning piglets in 74, 50 and 40 smallholder herds, respectively, using record cards that were updated during monthly visits. The sow-level medians were: weaning-to-service interval 3 months; interfarrowing interval 6.4 months; number of live-born piglets 9.0; and number of piglets weaned per litter 7.5. The piglet crude morbidity incidence risk was 29%. The cause-specific incidence risks for the important health problems encountered in preweaned piglets were diarrhea (4.3%), pruritus (17.1%), and skin necrosis (4.2%). The estimated crude mortality incidence risk to 8 weeks of age was 18.7%. The cause-specific mortality incidence risks to 8 weeks of age for the important causes of mortality were overlying (9.9%), savaging (2.4%), unviable piglets (2.0%) and unknown (1.9%). Overall, 78.8% of the total live-born piglet mortality occurred during the first week postpartum with 69% of these deaths being caused by overlying. The grower-pig crude morbidity incidence risk was 20% and the cause-specific incidence risks of the important health problems encountered were gut edema (1.3%), pruritus (21.1%), and unknown (2.3%). The crude mortality incidence risk was 3.8% and the important causes were gut edema and unknown causes (cause-specific mortality incidence risks of 1.3 and 1.6%, respectively). The median weight:age ratio and average daily weight gain for the grower pigs were 5.1 kg/month of age and 0.13 kg/day, respectively. For preweaning pigs, the median average daily weight gain was 0.13 g/day.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Kanja L, Skare JU, Nafstad I, Maitai CK, Lokken P. Organochlorine pesticides in human milk from different areas of Kenya 1983-1985. J Toxicol Environ Health.1986;19(4):449-64.". In: J Toxicol Environ Health.1986;19(4):449-64. African Crop Science Society; 1986. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kidula NA, Kamau RK, Ojwang SBO, et al. A survey of knowledge, attitude and practice of induced abortion among nurses in Kisii District, Kenya. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1993; 10: 10-12.". In: J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1993; 10: 10-12. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "Musuva, J.K. (Member) et al-Report on "The Presidential Committee on Students Unrest and Indiscipline in Kenyan Secondary Schools", November 1991.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1991. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
K CC, S.O A, C B, W MC. "Water Use and water productivity of Agroforestry systems in semi-arid tropics ." Annals of arid zone . 2007;46((3&4)):1-30,.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Karuku G, Gachene CKK and Macharia P. 2006. Soil water behaviour under different cover crops and under different residue management practices. In Jg Muriethi, CKK Gachene, JW Wamuongo and M Eilitta (eds) Enhancing agricultural productivity in East Africa:.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2006. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Ndele JK, Yoshioka K, Fisher JW.Hydrogen peroxide in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. East Afr Med J. 1996 Feb;73(2):143-6.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vol. 19, No. 1 pp 8-12, 1996. University of Nairobi Press; 1996. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "The effect of post-harvest crop cover on soil erosion in a maize-legume based cropping system in Gatanga, Kenya. Journal of Agriculture in the Tropics and Subtropics, Vol 103, pp 17-28.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. 1989. Contribution of indigenous vegetables to nutrition in Kenya. Presented at the KENGO Symposium on Green Vegetation, Nairobi 20 - 23 September 1989.". In: Presented at the KENGO Symposium on Green Vegetation, Nairobi 20 - 23 September 1989. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1989. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRKARUUSIMONP. "The measurement of corrosion current in soil-water extracts" International Journal of Biochemiphysics Vol.10,2000 pg. 20-24.". In: Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2000. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Incorporation of green manure legumes into smallholder farming systems in Kenya: achievements and current activities of legume screening network. In (eds): F Rasolo and M. Raunet. Agrobiological Management of Soils and Cropping Systems. Montpelier France,.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K MMO, M KP, PB G, WO O, ME E, TD K, A C. "Participatory approaches in the control of camel trypanosomosis in Lapur Division of Turkana District." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2006;30:1-9.
K DRGITAUSAMSON. "Christian Environmentalism in Kenya in Bron R.Taylor(Ed.),The Encyclopeadia of Religion and Nature(BRISTOL,Thoemmes Continnum).". In: Ph.D Colloquium) Proceedings of the 1st Annual (International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 244-256. 2003; 2005. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "State Banditism, Social Bandits and the Moral Economy of Violence: Contesting Peripherial Citizenship in the Cradle of Man.". In: Claude Fievet (Ed) Invention Et Reinvention De La Citoyennete, Editions Joelle sampy 2000. uon press; 2000. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Mbugua, S.M. and Gathumbi J.K. (2004). The contamination of Kenyan lager beers Fusarium mycotoxins. Journal of The Institute of Brewing 110: 227-229.". In: Proceedings of a WHO Experts group meeting on aflatoxins and health held on 24 . University of nairobi; 2004. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "The Informal Apprenticeship Training and Skill Acquisition: A case study of Informal Technical Training in Nairobi Kenya.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Oliech J.S., Kayima J.K., Otieno L.S. Urinary tract stone disease in Nairobi East African Medical Journal, 75: 30-34; 1998.". In: East African Medical Journal, 75: 30-34; 1998. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1998. Abstract
At the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and other private hospitals in Nairobi urinary stone disease is not being correctly diagnosed. Over a 15 year period (1980-1995) only 56 patients have been confirmed to have urinary tract stones out of the expected number of 220 patients. The age range was 10-60 years. The peak age was 30-40 years. Pain and haematuria were the commonest presenting symptoms. Ultrasonography and plane abdominal radiology were the commonest methods of diagnosis. Open surgery and endoscopic stone removal were the commonest modes of management. Extracorporeal shortwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has recently been introduced into the Nairobi Hospital, but was not functional at the time of this study. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is possible but has not been adequately used due to lack of correct equipment. Septicaemia and haemorrhage were the commonest complications of the open surgery.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Evaluation of Legumes as Cover Crops for Soil and Weed Management in Smallholder Coffee Cropping Systems in Central Kenya. Research Concept Note. Issue No. 11: 19-21.". In: Proceedings of 19th Soil Science Society of East AfricaConference,2-7 2001, Moshi, Tanzania. Pp 1-13. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Kuria, S.G., R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and M.M. Wanyoike. 2004. Evaluation of forages as mineral sources for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. South African J Anim Sci 34:180-188.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K, wa Gachigi. "• Effects of Farm Pesticides on water quality in Lake Naivasha, Kenya." American Journal of Plant Physiology. 2013;8 ( 1557-4539):105-113.kaoga_e_tal_water.pdf
K SARNA, M K, SW G. "Surgical Management of A Massive Congenital Haemangioma of the Tongue in an Infant: A rare Case Report." International Journal of Paediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2021;9:e04909(9:e04909):9:e04909.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Wambugu. M, R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and J. Tanner. 1998. Evaluation of the use of milk urea nitrogen (MUM) as an indicator of nutritional status of dairy cattle in small holder farms in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:152-154.". In: Proceedings, 6th KARI Scientific conference, November, 1998. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kamau RK, Mati JKG. East Afr Med J 1988; 65: 470-77.". In: Kamau RK, Mati JKG. East Afr Med J 1988; 65: 470-77. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Dietary patterns and dental carries in nursery school children in Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2001. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Carles, A.B., Gachuiri,C.K. and Schwartz, H.J. 1987. A comparison of goat mortality of two herds at Rendille and Isiolo.". In: Proceedings of the KVA/ SR-CRSP Kenya workshop, Nairobi. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1987. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K DRKARIUKIDAVID. Antibacterial Activity of Selected Plants used by the Maasai People in Kenya. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2014. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE: To determine the bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial isolates in chronic maxillary sinusitis patients seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, ENT department. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients had bilateral sntral washout done and the lavage submitted for culture and anti-microbial sensitivity between January and June 1996. RESULTS: Antral lavage yielded secretions in 63% of patients but bacteria were cultured in only 28.8% of the specimens. The isolates included Streptococcus pneumonia (22.2%), Staphylocococus albus (18.5%), Staphylocococus aureus (11.1%) and Enterobactericiae (11.1%). Anaerobic bacteria were cultured in 22.2% of the specimens. Of the commonly used antibiotics, there was high sensitivity to erythromycin, cefadroxyl, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin and poor sensitivity to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and perfloxacin. CONCLUSION: The bacteriology of chronic maxillary sinusitis at Kenyatta National Hospital is generally similar to that found elsewhere. The bacteria are susceptible to relatively affordable antibiotics like amoxicillin, erythromycin and cefadroxyl.

K NJ, Munyoki JM, N KF, Kinoti M. "Effect of Integrated Marketing Practices and Organizational Structure on Efficiency and Effectiveness of NGOs in Nairobi City County, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention . 2017;Vol.6(No 8):41-49.munyoki_and_john_njau_1.pdf
K MRMUTAIEMMANUEL. "Environmental Modelling in Poultry Structures. JEAE(3):24-31.". In: Journal of African Finance and Economic Development 1(2). Fall. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
n/a
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "E.G.M. Mogoa, J.K. Wabacha, P.M.F. Mbithi, S.G. Kiama. An overview of animal welfare issues in Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2004. Abstract
A longitudinal study was carried out in Kikuyu Division (a peri-urban area in central Kenyan highlands) between January 1999 and December 1999 to estimate the baseline parameters on reproductive performance of the sow, as well as health and productivity of grower and preweaning pigs of smallholder herds. Data were collected on 155 breeding pigs, 795 grower pigs and 801 preweaning piglets in 74, 50 and 40 smallholder herds, respectively, using record cards that were updated during monthly visits. The sow-level medians were: weaning-to-service interval 3 months; interfarrowing interval 6.4 months; number of live-born piglets 9.0; and number of piglets weaned per litter 7.5. The piglet crude morbidity incidence risk was 29%. The cause-specific incidence risks for the important health problems encountered in preweaned piglets were diarrhea (4.3%), pruritus (17.1%), and skin necrosis (4.2%). The estimated crude mortality incidence risk to 8 weeks of age was 18.7%. The cause-specific mortality incidence risks to 8 weeks of age for the important causes of mortality were overlying (9.9%), savaging (2.4%), unviable piglets (2.0%) and unknown (1.9%). Overall, 78.8% of the total live-born piglet mortality occurred during the first week postpartum with 69% of these deaths being caused by overlying. The grower-pig crude morbidity incidence risk was 20% and the cause-specific incidence risks of the important health problems encountered were gut edema (1.3%), pruritus (21.1%), and unknown (2.3%). The crude mortality incidence risk was 3.8% and the important causes were gut edema and unknown causes (cause-specific mortality incidence risks of 1.3 and 1.6%, respectively). The median weight:age ratio and average daily weight gain for the grower pigs were 5.1 kg/month of age and 0.13 kg/day, respectively. For preweaning pigs, the median average daily weight gain was 0.13 g/day.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK, Dhadphale M. Khat-induced paranoid psychosis. Br J Psychiatry. 1988 Feb;152:294.". In: Br J Psychiatry. 1988 Feb;152:294. African Crop Science Society; 1988. Abstract
During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kaihura DM, Koigi-Kamau R, Ndavi PM. A prospective study on outcome of cesarean section at Chogoria Hospital. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 2003; 16: 18-27.". In: J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 2003; 16: 18-27. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
n/a
K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "Musuva J.K. ""Importance of Railways in the National Economy; An Example of Kenya Railways"". Presented to the 3rd MAPS Seminar of International Union of Railways, New Delhi, India held on 10th - 14th January 1994.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1994. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "GN Chemining.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2007. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Onyango, C.A., Keya, E.L. and Imungi, J.K. 1993. Aspects of cassava-cereal composite flour quality and appropriate use in some Kenyan food products. Discovery and Innovation 15:241.". In: Proc. 5th Symp. ISTRCAB. pp 332-335. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J. K. Wabacha, J.M. Maribei, A.G. Thaiya, S.J.M. Munyua, D.N. Karanja and E.M.Njoroge(2000). Progressive atrophic rhinitis in a medium scale pig farm in Kiambu, Kenya.". In: Journal of South Africa Veterinary Association. 71(2): 122-124. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Nitrogen use in maize-pigeonpea intercrop in semiarid conditions of Kenya.". In: Paper presented in the International Edible Legume (IELC)/4th World Cowpea Congress held on 17 . Taylor & Francis; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
K'AKUMU OA, Mwangi W. "Involuntary resettlement policy and praxis in Kenya: conforming with the national land reforms." Journal of Basic and Applied Research International. 2016;16(4):278-291.
K'AKUMU OA, JONES B, BLYTH A. "The market environment for artisanal dimension stone in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Habitat International, 34(1): 96-104. Elsevier; 2010. Abstract

This paper reports on a study involving the market environment for artisanal dimension stone in Nairobi, Kenya. Taking the point of view of exchange relationships within a market systems framework it maps out economic interactions involving actors in this market such as suppliers of raw materials, producers, marketers and users of artisanal dimension stone. This strategy enabled the study to understand the enabling environment for the production and use of artisanal dimension stone that is characterized by the following factors: a rising population that sustains the demand for the built environment products, a vibrant construction market, building regulations that favour the use of stone, availability of cheap and abundant unskilled labour and low standards of stone finish involved, availability of natural rock, a regulatory system that can compromise, lack of support by government institutions and an informal system of transaction that is non-compliant with conventional requirements such as labour and environmental laws but ensures ease of entry into the market environment. Such understanding brings potential for rectifying the negative perceptions about this market environment through policy development and change. Keywords: Artisans; Dimension stone; Exchange relationships; Market environment; Micro-enterprise; Nairobi; Kenya; Artisanal and small scale mining

K'AKUMU OA, · AMA. "Inter-agency collaboration for fire disaster management in Nairobi City." Journal of Urban Management. 2016;2016.
K'AKUMU OA. "Construction statistics review for Kenya.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

Construction is a strategic industry in developing economies like Kenya. In order for construction to ably perform this role, there is a need to provide information on its various economic aspects including raw materials, products, processes, finance and labour. Construction statistics of Kenya have been evaluated in order to ascertain their adequacy in terms of scope, portrait, reliability and responsiveness in their coverage of the construction industry. Official statistics published in the annual Statistical Abstract were reviewed according to these adequacy criteria. The findings are that: the scope of construction statistics is narrowly defined making the statistical portrait of the sector incomplete; the statistics are also unreliable in terms of quality and unresponsive to economical challenges of inflation, structural adjustment policies and the decline of the public sector's role in the construction industry. A participatory statistical governance framework is recommended in order to improve the scope of statistics and alleviate the attendant problems, such as the incomplete portrait, that come with the narrow scope.

K'AKUMU OA. "Reforming the statistical system of Kenya: policy implications for the development of building construction statistics.". In: Habitat International, 33(1):120-124. Elsevier; 2009. Abstract

Kenya is in the process of reforming its national statistical system that has been catering to the various sectors of the economy including the building construction sub-sector. This paper evaluates opportunities that the reforms may bring for the improvement of building construction statistics. It starts by a conceptual review of the pertinent issues that generally constitute a challenge to statistical frameworks for construction. These issues are to do with:scope and coverage, institutional governance, comprehensive information system and the informal sector. The reforms to the statistical system in Kenya through the enactment of a new Statistics Act are then considered against their potential for tackling the pertinent issues in building construction statistics as listed above. The paper concludes that the reforms augur well for the improvement of building construction statistics in Kenya but more need to be done to translate the legislative provisions into actionable policy framework. Keywords: Building construction statistics; Statistical system reform; Statistics policy; Kenya

K'AKUMU OA. "Mapping stakeholder positions in the Kenyan land reform process." International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development . 2016;15(1):15-36.Mapping stakeholder positions in the Kenyan land reform process
K'AKUMU OA. "Asserting the nature of man as zoon politikon.". In: City. Taylor and Francis; 2010. Abstract

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

K'Kakumu D. "Urban migration policy and its implications for housing in Nairobi.". In: The First Conference on Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration in Sub- Saharan Africa. Nairobi,Kenya; 2012.
K'Kakumu D. "Subordinationist Typology of Urban Development: Its origins and Manifestation in Nairobi.". In: Conference of the African Studies Association in Germany (VAD) on Embattled Spaces. Cologne,Germany; 2012.
K'Obonyo PP, Bolo AZ, Lorika J. "Effects of the value Chain Strategy in Selected Producer-owned Dairy Groups in Kenya." Business Administration and Management. 2011;Volume 1(Issue 3):pp. 93-100. Abstract

Dairy is a major component of many rural households at least in the High and Medium Potential Lands (HMPL) in Kenya. The Kenyan dairy industry is based mostly on smallholder milk production. The history of cooperative development in Kenya is tied closely to the aims of the Government’s rural development policy. Soon after Independence in 1963, Government was given wide-ranging powers in organizing farmer cooperatives to deliver the necessary services. The government’s aim was to use cooperatives as a tool to facilitate commercialization of Kenya’s smallholder farm sector. Currently, most of the running cooperatives are characterized by weak management capacities, inadequate capital base, and low economies of scale. This exploratory research reveals the effectiveness of the value chain strategy as a planning tool, on the performance of the selected producer-owned dairy groups. The paper identifies the value activities within the milk value chain and the cost drivers within the chain that contribute to competitive advantage. An in-depth analysis of how the value chain strategy has been used in the selected dairy groups, the impact on their performance, challenges faced and the specific areas that supporting partners are able to focus on within the dairy value chain are discussed. As a result of this research, a positive change in the livelihoods of the farmers was realized, as a result of maximizing the core value activities within the dairy chain. The core activities were the activities within the ‘’inbound stage’’ of the dairy value chain and which include; Provision of farm inputs, selection of good cattle breeds, provision of animal feeds and drugs and proper milk handling practices, this means training the dairy farmers on clean milk production, at the farm level. The study established the lack of knowledge by the farmers on how to handle milk especially at the milking stage, and poor hygiene of the milk jars used during the milking process. This affected the quality of milk as a result of bacteria that contaminates the milk, causing rejects at the collection points. With such improved business services to small farmers, it was established that small farmers’ transaction costs that are usually large relative to the size of their output, was greatly reduced, resulting to improved quality of milk and efficiency of the producer-owned groups. It was also established that in order for Michael Porter’s value chain model to be effective in the producer-owned dairy groups, there is need to include external support activities that are outside the milk value chain. The study indicates that managers performing value-chain analysis need to take into account newly important business drivers. Expanding the value chain ensures that no potential strategic activity is forgotten and no opportunity for enhancing value are over-looked. The added-value chain proposes adding an expanded set of activities to the original value-chain concept; specifically activities that can help improve the livelihoods of the dairy farmers. The study reveals the following set of external activities that help improve the livelihoods of the farmers; Credit Facilities, provision of basic necessities like soap, sugar, bonuses/advances and school fees loans.

K'Obonyo PO, Ongore VO. "Effects of Selected Corporate Governance Characteristics on Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence from Kenya." International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues. 2015;Vol 1(Iss No 3):pp 99-122. Abstract

This paper examines the interrelations among ownership, board and manager characteristics and firm performance in a sample of 54 firms listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange(NSE). These governance characteristics, designed to minimize agency problems between principals and agents are operationalized in terms of ownership concentration, ownership identity, board effectiveness and managerial discretion. The typical ownership identities at the NSE are government, foreigh, instituttional manager and diverse ownership forms. Firm performance is measured using Return on Assets(ROA), Return on Equity(ROE) and Divident Yield(DY). Using PPMC, Logistic Regression and Stepwise Regression, the paper presents evidence of significant positive relationship between foreign, insider, institutional and diverse ownership concentration and government and firm performance, was significantly negaive. the role of boards was found to be of very littele value, mainly due to lack of adherence to board member selection criteria. The results also show significant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreign, manager (insider) and institutional ownership forms, but significantly differ concerning the effects of ownership concentration and diverse ownership on firm performance.

K'Obonyo PP, J.K T, Prof. Kibera FN. "Customer Relationship Management And Competitiveness of Commercial Banks In Kenya." Journal of Science Technology Education and Management. 2011;Vol 4(Issue 1):125-141. Abstract

Customer Relationship Management(CRM), is heralded by some marketing academics and practitioners as the new paradigm of marketing. However, despite the intense growth in the adoption of CRM practices by organizations all over the world and the widely accepted conceptual underpinnings of CRM strategy abound the marketing literature. To this effect, scholars have called for more rigorus studies to establish the usefulness of CRM as a strategic orientation. This study sought to establish the usefulness of CRM practices on competitiveness of comercial banks in Kenya. The study utilized a descriptive correlational research design. A survey methodology was employed for data collection. The results showed statistically significant positive linear relationships between CRM practices and organizational competitiveness. The study also established that the relationshipss between CRM practices and marketing productivity, marketing productivity and organizational competitiveness, organizational factors and marketing productivity and the moderation role of organizational factors on the relationship between CRM practices and marketing productivity were all significant. However, the relationship between organizational factors and organizational competitiveness was statistically insignificant. THe overall conclusion of the study was that organizational competitiveness is not significatly influenced by the mere existence of a range of organizational fctors within the firm such as age, size and ownership structure, type of customers served, corporate reputation and duration of CRM implementation or even technology level. Rather, organizational competitiveness is achieved through appropriate CRM practices and marketing productivity. Nonetheless, organizational factors positively inhance the relationship between CRM practises and marketing productivity thus indirectly influences organizational competitiveness. The findings of the study have significant managerila and theoretical implications.

K'Obonyo PP, Kilika JM, Ogutu PM. "Human Resource Development Drivers for University-Industry Collaboration: Empirical Evidence from Universities in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;Volume 1(Issue No. 4):81-98. Abstract

The study leans towards the human capital development nature of universities and applies the philosophy of human resource development to explain the phenomenon of University-Industry Collaboration (U-C-I) in Kenya. The study reports the findings of an empirical research investigating the patterns of U-I-C and the human resource develpment (HRD) driving factors for the identified patterns of collaboration in Kenya using data gathered from 16 universities both public and private. The findings of the study reveal a significant correlation between the Motivation to pursue Collaboration and the Level of U-I-C among key decision makers in universities in Kenya (n=16; r=492; p<0.05). While the findings provide an empirical explanation on the Motivation, Level and Types of collaboration prevailing in Kenya together with the managerial issues universities need to address in order to strengthen links with the productive sector, they strengthen the call for future research to focus on strategic HRD issues offering a viable pillar for supporting U-I-C.

K'Obonyo PP, M'Nchebere DGK. "Market Strategy and Corporate Performance: The Contextual Application of PIMS Principles in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2011;Vol.1(Issue 1):Pp 1-24. Abstract

The influence of market strategy on corporate performance has been and still is a central issue in Strategic Management Discipline. In spite of immense academic curiosity in this area, exemplified by extensive empirical research, results still remain inconclusive. Some argue that performance differences across firms is as a result of strategic choice the firm makes regarding the market and its subsequent positioning while others argue that firm performance is influenced by the context within which it operates. Besides, empirical studies that forge these propositions in an African setting and specifically in Kenya using empirically grounded PIMS(Profit Impact of Market Strategy) principles, are scanty. This study examined the influence of PIMS principles on corporate performance in Kenya. Primary data were collected vide a structured close ended Likert type questionnaire administerd to all 56 CEOs of quoted companies in a census survey. Secondary data were collected on financial performance of the same companies for a period of five years between 2002 and 2006. Data were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate techniques. Theory testing show that Kaplan and Norton's Balanced Score Card(BSC) conforms to Kenyan context and remains a viable measure of Corporate performance. Further, the study provides additional support for the linkages between PIMS principles and corporate performance, suggetsitn that PIMS principles are generalizable across a broad spectrum of contexts though the veracity of prediction varies across the principles and the model is also context specific. In Kenyan context, the PIMS model explains up to 53.9% of variation in corporate performance. These findings hold implications for corporate managers. They should pay special attention to market positioning strategies especially product quality and market share. These strategies should be specifically targeted to cash generating portfolios calibrated in such a manner as to avoid investment intensity that acts as a drag to profitability. Future studies should seek to replicate the findings of this study to Small and Micro Enterprises. Also open to further study is extension of this study results by employing optimization methodology procedures to address the limitation of spuriousness.

K'Obonyo P, Okeyo W, Gathungu J. "The Effect of Business Development Services on Performance of Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises in Kenya." Internal Journal of Business and Social Research and. 2014;Volume 4(Issue No. 6). Abstract

Small and Medium Enterprises have been regarded to play significant roles of job creation, poverty alleviation and economic development of many countries worldwide. These enterprises are however affected by many different factors. How these factors manifest singly or jointly is therefore a key concern for these organizations. Vital among these factors are business development services that affect how organizations produce and sell their finished goods. There is however a dearth of studies focusing on effects of aspects of business development services on organizational performance in Kenya. This study aimed at establishing how market access, procurement services and infrastructure facilities affect performance of small and medium manufacturing enterprises in Kenya. The study adopted a cross sectional survey design and examined primary data collected from 150 enterprises in Nairobi. Inferential statistics were used to interrogate relationships between independent variables and performance while descriptive statistics were used to determine distribution, central tendency and dispersion and hence establish conformity to linear regression requirements. Contrary to expectation, market access did not show any relationship but procurement services and infrastructure facilities each had a positive and significant influence on performance of the enterprises. The study also determined that the joint effect of the three variables on performance is greater than their individual effect. This study therefore concludes that since procurement services and infrastructure facilities showed a positive influence on performance of small and medium manufacturing enterprises in Kenya, the enterprise studied should adopt strategies that enhance procurement and improve infrastructure facilities to experience better performance.

K'Obonyo PP, Bolo AZ, W WR, Isaiah I. "Challenges facing the implementation of differentiation strategy at the mumias sugar company limited." Business Administration and Management. 2011;Volume 1(Issue 5):pp. 149-153. Abstract

Many organizations today are focusing on becoming more competitive, by launching competitive strategies that give them an edge over others. To do this, they need to craft differentiation strategies (Micheal, E. Porter 1985). However, most sugar firms have not been able to formulate these strategies required to gain competitive advantage. This calls for a strategic fit of an organization’s core competence levels, technology, leadership styles, markets, culture, people, and environmental influences, which is an emerging paradigm in the study of strategic management. This paper focuses on the challenges facing the implementation of differentiation strategies in the sugar industry in Kenya. To guide this study, two specific objectives were used: (1) To find out the differentiation strategies used by the sugar industry in Kenya, (2) To establish the challenges faced by the sugar industry in Kenya in implementing differentiation strategies. Two research questions were tested. A sample of Mumias Sugar Company limited was purposely selected, as the largest sugar manufacturing company in Kenya was used.

K'Obonyo PP, M'Nchebere DMGK. "The Predictive Value of Contextual Factors on Corporate Performance in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management. 2012;Volume 2(Issue 10):709-725. Abstract

Corporate performance is of utmost importance because business organizations exist to optimize this functional objective. In spite of this importance, the findings of the studies on performance remain inconclusive (Ramanujan and Varadarajan, 1989). Various reasons have been advanced for the inconclusive findings including methodological flaws, ignoring organizational characteristics in performance relationships (Hill, 1994), and contextual application of models (Aosa, 1998). This has led to emergence of two complementing and at times conflicting schools of thought. One school led by Industrial Organizational Economists, contends that corporate performance is related to broader economic performance and differences in performances are a reflection of the context in which firms operate (Nelson, 1994). On the other hand, Evolutionary Theorists argue that performance arises from choices made by the firms and differences in performance arise from the interplay of firm capabilities in pursuit of earning rents. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the contextual factors on corporate performance in Kenya. Kaplan and Norton’s Balanced Score Card (BSC) model was used to measure corporate performance. Empirical literature review on studies across Africa was used to build a framework of contextual factors. These factors included Infrastructural, Distribution Systems, Political and Legal, Economic factors, Social- Cultural, Corruption and Security factors. A census survey of the 56 companies quoted on the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) was conducted. To achieve the objective both primary and secondary data were collected from the population of interest. Primary data was collected vide a structured close ended 5 point Likert type questionnaire administered to the CEO. Secondary data on financial measures were collected from NSE and Capital Markets Authority (CMA) for an average of five years from 2002 to 2006. Validity was computed using factor analysis while composite reliability of constructed indices was tested using cronbach alpha. Exploratory principal component factor analysis extracted four components from the twenty seven items used to assess contextual factors. The extracted factors were Security, Political Risk, Corruption and Economic factors in this order of importance indicated by factor loadings. Linear regression however, revealed weak and insignificant negative effect of extracted factors on corporate performance, only accounting up to 7 % variation in corporate performance ( R2 = 0.07, adj. R2 = -0.027, F = 0.720, P = 0.584) with predictive power completely lost when adjustment for sample size and degrees of freedom is effected. The study therefore, appears to lend credence to the evolutionary theory that postulates firm performance is largely influenced by strategic capabilities, by demonstrating the limited influence of contextual factors on corporate performance. Further studies should therefore seek to determine the effects of strategic capabilities and contextual factors in integrated models.

K'Obonyo PP, Machuki VN. "Organizational strategic behaviour and performance of publicly quoted companies in Kenya." Business Administration and Management. 2011;Volume 1(Issue 7):pp. 212-232. Abstract

The study explores the relationship between strategy and performance of companies listed in the Nairobi Stock Exchange. Data on the firms’ strategic orientations, strategy types and performance indicators were obtained from 23 companies through structured questionnaires and interviews. The results reveal that the companies leaned more towards the strategic orientations of futurity, analysis, defensiveness, and proactiveness. These firms largely pursued market development, product development, and diversification strategy types. However, overall results are not statistically significant for the effect of strategic orientations and strategy types on corporate performance, except for their effect on total net assets. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the pertinent theories, previous research findings and strategic management.

K'Obonyo PO, Lucy OK, Ogutu M. "The Effect of Human Resource Strategic Orientation and Organizational Factors on Employee Job Performance in Tanzania State Corporations.". 2014. Abstract

This study examined the relationship among human resource strategic orientation, organizational factors and employee job performance in Tanzania State Corporations. A total of three hypotherses were established to test for the hypothesized relatinships. A cross sectional survey research design was adopted. Primary data was colleced through a properly disinged questionnaire while secondary data was obtained thrugh published information. Data on human resource strategic orientation and organizational factors variable was obtained from HR managers in 53 State Corporation in Tanzania. Furthermore, a double source ratings data on employee job performance variable was obtained from a sample of 284 employees and 80 supervisors. Correlations and hierarchical regression analysis were performed to examine the relationships. Results of this study provide support for the the central hypothesis of this study that human resource strategic orientatin has a positive and significant effect on employee job performance. Furthermore, culture and politics have a significant influence n the relationship between human resource strategic orientation and employee job performance. This study has contributed significantly to the conceptual and theoretical foundation in the strategic human resource management literature.

K'Obonyo PP, PhD VOO, Ogutu PM. "Implications of Firm Ownership Identity and Managerial Discretion on Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence from Nairobi Stock Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2011;Vol.1(Special Issue):187-195. Abstract

Research on the implications of ownership identity and managerial discretion on firm performance has been yielded mixed results. Further, there is scanty literature, if any, on studies combining these variables in a single research. yet there is near-convergence in literature that ownership identity impacts managerial discretion in decision making processes. this paper presents results of a study that shows the intrrelationships between ownership identity and mangerial discretion and their impact on financial performance as measured by ROA, ROE and DY. State ownership of firms is particularly indicated for poor stewardship, whereas foreign, insider, diverse and institutional ownership gave the best results. The results also show signigicant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively, these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreighn manager( insider) and instititional ownership forms, but significatly differ concerning the effects of diverse ownership on firm performance

K'Obonyo P, Busienei JR, Ogutu M. "Effect of Universalistic Perspective of Human Resource Strategic Orientation On Performance Of Large Private Manufacturing Firms in Kenya.". In: AIBUMA Conference. NAIROBI; 2013. Abstract

The study was set to investigate the effect of universalistic perspective of human resource strategic orientation on performance of large private manufacturing firms in Kenya. The target population was all large private manufacturing firms in Kenya that were registered members of Kenya Association of Manufacturers. The research adopted descriptive research design which utilized both descriptive and inferential statistics for effective generation of the required output. Using probability sampling, a sample of 108 firms was chosen. Data was collected using questionnaires developed by other researchers and that these were modified by the researcher. The respondents
were human resource managers, finance managers, corporate planning managers or any other senior manager. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version seventeen (17) was used to analyze the data. The results of this study showed that there was high positive correlation between universalistic human resource strategic orientation and firm performance. These results to a great extent show that all forms of universalistic human resource strategic orientation enhance performance of manufacturing firms and most particularly those registered with the Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM). These findings can also be generalized
to cover all other manufacturing firms in the country. As of the direction for further study, the researcher recommends that future research in universalistic human resource strategic orientation focus on public manufacturing firms and for the sake of knowledge, consider the use of longitudinal research design as opposed to the survey research designed which was central to this study. Further still, researchers should consider moderating or intervening variables. The main contribution of this paper lies in highlighting the fact that, proper configuration of universalistic human resource strategic orientation in manufacturing firms, will enable them enhance performance.

K'Obonyo PP, Arasa DR. "The Relationship between Strategic Planning and Firm Performance." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2012;Vol. 2(Special Issue):201-213. Abstract

Organizations from both the private and public sector are increasingly embracing the practice of strategic planning in anticipation that this will translate to improved performance. Past studies have mainly focused on the direct relationship between strategic planning and performance and did not give attention to the specific steps that make up the strategic planning process. The manner and extent to which each of the steps is practiced could have implications on the expected strategic planning results. This study examined the relationship between strategic planning and firm performance giving attention to the strategic planning steps. Correlation analysis results indicate the existence of a strong relationship between strategic planning and firm performance. Further, all the strategic planning steps (defining firm’s corporate purpose, scanning of business environment, identification of firm’s strategic issues, strategy choice and setting up of implementation, evaluation and control systems) were found to be positively related to company performance.

K'Obonyo P, Omari S. "Human Resources Practices, the relationship between Locus of Control and Employee Outcomes." DBA Africa Management Review. 2013;Vol 3(Issue No. 1). Abstract

This paper explores the effect of human resource practices on the relationship between locus of control and employee outcomes. Personality is a stable characteristic that employees bring to the work place. It is presumed that locus of control will influence employee outcomes but the strength of its effect will be influenced by the implementation of human resource practices in the organization. Human resource practices were expected to moderate these relationships. Predicted relationships were drawn from prior theory that identified how human resource practices influence employee outcomes and on how locus of control affected employee outcomes. The individual’s locus of control was evaluated based on the external and internal continuum. Employee outcomes studied were job satisfaction, trust, employee commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour. Results obtained from 181 questionnaires from respondents in Kenyan public corporations indicated that human resources practices influenced the relationship between locus of control with job satisfaction, employee commitment, trust and organizational citizenship behaviours. Data were analyzed using multiple regression and the moderating effect was shown by the changes in r values. Implications for theory and managerial practice are given.
Keywords: Locus of control, Human resource Practices, employee outcomes

K'Obonyo PP, PhD VOO, Ogutu PM. "Implications of Firm Ownership Identity and Managerial Discretion on Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence from Nairobi Stock Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2011;Volume 1(Issue 13). Abstract

Research on the implications of ownership identity and managerial discretion on firm performance has been yielded mixed results. Further, there is scanty literature, if any, on studies combining these variables in a single research. Yet there is near-convergence in literature that ownership identity impacts managerial discretion in decision making processes. This paper presents results of a study that shows the interrelationships between ownership identity and managerial discretion, and their impact on financial performance as measured by ROA, ROE and DY. State ownership of firms is particularly indicted for poor stewardship, whereas foreign , insider, diverse and institutional ownership gave the best results. The results also show significant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively, these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreign, manager (insider) and institutional ownership forms, but significantly differ concerning the effects of diverse ownership on firm performance.

K'Obonyo PO, Sagwa VE, Ogutu M. "Human Resource Management Practices and Performance of Firms Listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange." DBA Africa Management Review. 2015. Abstract

Most research demonstrating the link between (HRMP) and firm performance has focused on the private sector, yet understanding this relationship in publicly listed firms, in the Developing World setting is equally important. The role of HRMP on firm performance of the NSE listed firms has not been established using the selected set of variables, yet theory has demonstrates that these HRMP can have an effect on firm performance. This study was motivated by the desire to fill this gap in knowledge. The study objective was to establish the relationship between HRMP and firm performance. The research design was cross sectional descriptive survey. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire, from a population of 60 NSE listed firms. The response rate was 60%. Simple linear regression was used to analyze the data. The results of the study show a statistically significant relationship between HRMP and performance of firms listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange. This study contributes to understanding of the link between HRMP and firm performance, while at the same time confirms the findings of previous studies that have found a significant link between HRMP and firm performance. It was recommended that firms have to ensure that the HRMP that they adopt assist them to attain and sustain a superior competitive advantage in their operations.

K'Obonyo P, Bulitia GM, Ojera PB. "Moderating Effect of Technology Innovation on the Human Resource Management Practices And Firm Performance: A Study of Manufacturing firms in Kenya." Researchjournali's journal of Human Resource. 2014;Volume 2(Issue No. 3):1-21. Abstract

Manufacturing in Kenya account for the greatest share of industrial production output characterized by relatively low value addition of 7.5% in 2010 to 2.3% in 2011 and a paltry 25% export volumes with 7% share
regional market and stagnant 10% to GDP sine 1960s.
However, no improvement from practicing managers. This study therefore sought to determine the moderating effect of technology innovation on the human resource management practices and performance of manufacturing firms. Used a census survey of the 68 medium and large manufacturing firms involved in production and marketing of edible oils, soaps and detergents, beverages or sugar registered in the Kenya Association of Manufacturers directory 2012. Data was collected through self administered questionnaires sent to the Production Manager, Brand Manager, Human Resource Manager, Marketing Manager, or the relevant manager dealing with innovations. The main findings of this study reveals that 82% of the respondents perceived that 41% and 80% of the firm‟s improvement was attributed to technological
innovation , 6% indicated that technological improvement had contributed over 80% towards firm
improvement while only 4 % felt that the technological improvement had contributed between 20% and 40% of firm performance.

K'Obonyo PO. "Severity of consequences for the leader and subordinates work history as determinants of leader attribution .". 1986. AbstractWebsite

The effects of the level of seriousness of consequences of a subordinates performance and the nature of a subordinate's work history on leader attribution and response were investigated in a 2 x 3 factorial design with a sample of 46 male and 38 female junior and middle-level managers. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of six experimental conditions. Two variables, "consequences" of subordinate's performance and subordinate's "work history" were manipulated in a laboratory setting. As expected, (1) the level of internal attribution and response directed at the subordinate increased with the increase in the seriousness of consequences; (2) Internal attribution and the level of response directed at the subordinate were greater in the "poor work history" situation than in the "good work history" situation. Contrary to expectation, however, there was no significant difference between the two levels of serious consequences, i.e., "serious" and "serious with consequences" for the manager.

K'Obonyo PP, Dimba B. "Influence of Culture on Strategic Human Resource Management(SHRM) Practices in Multinational Companies(MNC) in Kenya: A Critical Literature Review.". 2007. Abstract

Extant theories of strategic human resource management(SHRM) practices and cultures have generally adopted on the one hand the assumption that organizations develop a culture of thier own that is distinct from the national and industry contexts in which the organization is embedded, thus ignoring the potential impact of external environmental factors on organizational culture. on the other hand, some researchers and scholars have questioned the validity and reliability of national cutlure- SHRM pactices research.
The current paper explores the employee cultural values in the Kenyan multinational companies(MNCs) and the influence of culture on SHRM practices. Hofestede's cultural dimensions of collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and feminity are applied. These value dimensions reflect human thinking and feelings of people which pose baic problems that any society has to cope with but for which solutions differ.

K'Obonyo P, Mutuku C. "Top Management Team Diversity, Involvement Culture and Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2013;Vol 3(Issue No. 2). Abstract

The study of the effect of Top Management Team (TMT) diversity on organization performance produces mixed results. This study investigated the effect of involvement culture on the relationship between TMT diversity and organization performance. The target respondents were the Heads of Human Resources in all the commercial banks in Kenya and out of the 43 targeted banks, 33 responded. The questionnaire was the main
tool of data collection and the data was analyzed using regression analyses. Past studies have shown that the question as to whether diversity leads to organization performance depends of the performance measures used. Since past studies have shown mixed results on the effect of TMT diversity on organization performance, the study used
involvement culture as a moderating variable and found that it had a significant effect on the relationship between TMT diversity and organization performance. As a result, since most organizations have diversity at the TMT, they need to make deliberate efforts and invest in good management practices which enhance organization performance. Future studies can find out which other moderating variables have a
positive effect on the relationship between TMT diversity and organization
performance.

K'Obonyo P, et al. "Effects of Selected Corporate Governance Characteristics on Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence from Kenya." International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues . 2011;Volume 1(Issue 3):pp. 99-122. Abstract

This paper examines the interrelations among ownership, board and manager characteristics and firm performance in a sample of 54 firms listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE). These governance characteristics, designed to minimize agency problems between principals and agents are operationalized in terms of ownership concentration, ownership identity, board effectiveness and managerial discretion. The typical ownership identities at the NSE are government, foreign, institutional, manager and diverse ownership forms. Firm performance is measured using Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Dividend Yield (DY). Using PPMC, Logistic Regression and Stepwise Regression, the paper presents evidence of significant positive relationship between foreign, insider, institutional and diverse ownership forms, and firm performance. However, the relationship between ownership concentration and government, and firm performance was significantly negative. The role of boards was found to be of very little value, mainly due to lack of adherence to board member selection criteria. The results also show significant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively, these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreign, manager (insider) and institutional ownership forms, but significantly differ concerning the effects of ownership concentration and diverse ownership on firm performance.

K'Odhiambo AK. "i) The impact of interactions between verbal and mathematical languages in education." , Journal of Philosophical Association of Kenya. 2010;2(2):79-99.
K'Odhiambo AK. "ii) Argument for a historical foundation of African Philosophy of Education." A Journal of Philosophy (The Consolata Institute of Philosophy Journal). 2010;1:113-129.
K'Odhiambo AK. TIME AS A METAPHYSICAL DETERMINANT OF PEDAGOGY. Germany: VDM of Germany (2010); 2010.
K'Oyugi BO. Mortality and Morbidity Situation in Siaya District. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1982.
K'Oyugi BO. Draft Population Policy for National Development. Hotel Intercontinental, Mombasa: National Council for Population and Development; 2011.
K'Oyugi BO. "A framework for Demographic and Health data collection in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas, in “Kenya’s Population Prospects Now and Beyond”.". In: Population Association of Kenya Occational Publication No.1, pp. 40-46.; 2000.
K'Oyugi BO, Kekevole J, Muia E. Kenya Country Population Assessment. Nairobi: UNFPA Kenya Country Office; 2003.
K'Oyugi BO. Adolescents Sexual and Reproductive Health and Future Challenges. Morocco: Partners in Population and Development; 2007.
K'Oyugi BO. Linkages between Population and Vision 2030. KPA , Mombasa: Ministry of Planning national Development and Vision 2030; 2009.
K'Oyugi BO. Kenya Population Policy and Its Effects on the MDGs. Serena Beach Hotel Mombasa: Ministry of Planning National Development and Vision 2030; 2012.
K'Oyugi BO. Kenya’s Rapid Population Growth and Its Implications on attainment of MDGs. Soi Safari Lodge Baringo: Ministry of Planning National Development and Vision 2030; 2012.
K'Oyugi BO. "Socio-economic Differentials in Infant and Child Mortality in Kenya: Application of a Hazards Model,pp. 89-98.". In: “Population, Health and Development in Africa: Anthropological Perspectives. Nairobi: Population Studies and Research Institute University; 2001.
K'Oyugi BO, Team CR. Socio-cultural Factors and HIV Transmission: A Case Study of Mwingi and Homa Bay Districts. Nairobi: UNDP Kenya Country Office; 2001.
K'Oyugi BO, Mati J, Maina N. Mid-Term Review of the 6th GOK/UNFPA Country Programme 2004-2008. Nairobi: UNFPA Kenya Country Office; 2007.
K'Oyugi BO. Climate Change and Environmental Degradation: Impact on Population. Kampala Uganda: Partners in Population and Development; 2008.
K'Oyugi BO. Overview of Population Trends and Policy in Kenya. KICC Nairobi,: National Council for Population and Development ; 2010.
K'Oyugi BO. Drivers That Will Influence National Development Beyond 2030 – Population and Resources Maximization Dynamics in Kenya. Kenya School of Monetary Studies Nairobi: National Economic and Social Council Secretariat; 2011.
K'Oyugi BO. ICPD+10 Kenya’s Progress in Implementing the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action 1994-2004. Nairobi: National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development; 2004.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. "Optimal Power Flow in Kenya" on 4th August 1994 at the 4th JKUAT Annual Electrical and Electronic Engineering Seminar on Innovations in Electrical Engineering Technology.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1994. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.

UoN Websites Search