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DN K, TA N, JK W, C BL. "Systemic porcine salmonellosis: A potential zoonosis and cause of mortality in small-holder pig farm in Kenya." Tanzania Veterinary Journal. 2013;28(1):8-13.
DN Kareithi, Salifu D, N Owuor, Subramanian S, Tonnang EZH. "An algorithm for data reconstruction from published articles–Application on insect life tables." Cogent Mathematics & Statistics. 2019;6(1):1701377. AbstractWebsite

Data collection in life table experiments is generally time-consuming and costly such that data reconstruction of published information provides an avenue to access the original data for purposes of further investigation. In this paper, we present an algorithm that reconstructs life table raw data using a summary of results from published articles. We present the steps of the development and implementation (in the R computer language) of the algorithm, its scope of application, assumptions, and limitations. Statistical background of the algorithm is also presented. The developed algorithm was then applied to reconstruction of life table data of two insect species, Chilo partellus and Busseola fusca, from published information. Welch’s two-sample t-test was applied to test the difference between the original and reconstructed data of the insect life stages. C. Partellus results were not significantly different, but, for B. fusca, pupa development time, and larva and pupa development rate were significantly different at the 95% confidence level. It is concluded that the algorithm could be used to reconstruct original data sets from cohort life table data sets of insects, given published information and sample sizes.

Do DV. "Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jul 16;(3):CD006366.. 2008. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular
surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the
vitreous used in the treatment of disorders that affect the posterior segment of
the eye. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to evaluate benefits and
adverse outcomes of surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract with respect to visual
acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the
Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes
and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2007), MEDLINE,
EMBASE, Latin America and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) and the UK Clinical
Research Network Portfolio Database (UKCRN).The databases were last searched on
18 January 2008. We also searched www.clinicaltrials.gov,
www.controlled-trials.com, and www.actr.org.au in December 2007, in case
pertinent trials were registered and were nearing completion. SELECTION CRITERIA:
We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing cataract
surgery with no surgery in adult patients who developed cataract following
vitrectomy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors screened the search results
independently. No studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. MAIN
RESULTS: We found no randomized or quasi-randomized trials comparing cataract
surgery with no cataract surgery for patients developing cataracts following
vitrectomy surgery. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence from randomized or
quasi-randomized controlled trials on which to base clinical recommendations for
surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract.

Do DV, Hawkins BS, Gichuhi S, Vedula SS. "Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract (Review).". 2011. Abstract

Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the vitreous used in the treatment of disorders that affect the posterior segment of the eye.The underlying problemthat led to vitrectomy may limit benefit from cataract surgery. Objectives The objective of this review was to evaluate benefits and adverse outcomes of surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract with respect to visual acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes. Search strategy We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1950 to April 2011), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2011), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2011), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrial.gov) and the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) (www.anzctr.org.au). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 19 April 2011. Selection criteria We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing cataract surgery with no surgery in adult patients who developed cataract following vitrectomy. Data collection and analysis Two authors screened the search results independently. No studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. Main results We found no randomized or quasi-randomized trials comparing cataract surgery with no cataract surgery for patients who developed cataracts following vitrectomy surgery. There is no evidence from randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials on which to base clinical recommendations for surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract. There is a clear need for randomized controlled trials to address this evidence gap. Such trials should stratify participants by their age, the retinal disorder leading to vitrectomy, and the status of the pathologic process in the contralateral eye. Outcomes assessed in such trials may include gain of 8 or more letters vision on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale, quality of life, and adverse events such as posterior capsular rupture. Both short-term (six months) and long-term (oneyear or two-years) outcomes should be examined.

Do DV, Gichuhi S, Vedula SS, Hawkins BS. "Surgery for postvitrectomy cataract." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;1:CD006366. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:
Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the vitreous that is used in the treatment of many disorders that affect the posterior segment of the eye. The underlying problem that led to vitrectomy may limit the benefit from removal of the cataractous lens.

OBJECTIVES:
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgery versus no surgery for postvitrectomy cataract with respect to visual acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes.

SEARCH METHODS:
We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 5), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 17 May 2017), Embase.com (1947 to 17 May 2017), PubMed (1946 to 17 May 2017), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (LILACS) (January 1982 to 17 May 2017), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com); last searched May 2013, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 17 May 2017, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 17 May 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials.

SELECTION CRITERIA:
We planned to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that had compared surgery versus no surgery to remove the lens from eyes of adults in which cataracts had developed following vitrectomy.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
Two review authors independently screened the search results according to the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane.

MAIN RESULTS:
We found no RCTs or quasi-RCTs that had compared surgery versus no surgery to remove the lens from eyes of adults in which cataracts had developed following vitrectomy.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:
There is no evidence from RCTs or quasi-RCTs on which to base clinical recommendations for surgery for postvitrectomy cataract. There is a clear need for RCTs to address this evidence gap. Such trials should stratify participants by their age, the retinal disorder leading to vitrectomy, and the status of the underlying disease process in the contralateral eye. Outcomes assessed in such trials may include changes (both gains and losses) of visual acuity, quality of life, and adverse events such as posterior capsular rupture and retinal detachment. Both short-term (six-month) and long-term (one- or two-year) outcomes should be examined.
Update of Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013]

Do DV, Gichuhi S, Vedula SS, Hawkins BS. Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract (update of 2011). Cochrane Eyes & Vision Group; 2013. Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the vitreous which is used in the treatment of disorders that affect the posterior segment of the eye. The underlying problem that led to vitrectomy may limit the benefit from cataract surgery.

OBJECTIVES:

The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract with respect to visual acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes.

SEARCH METHODS:

We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE in-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to May 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2013, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to May 2013), PubMed (January 1946 to May 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrial.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 22 May 2013.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing cataract surgery with no surgery in adult patients who developed cataract following vitrectomy.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

Two authors screened the search results independently according to the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration.

MAIN RESULTS:

We found no randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing cataract surgery with no cataract surgery for patients who developed cataracts following vitrectomy surgery.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:

There is no evidence from randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials on which to base clinical recommendations for surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract. There is a clear need for randomized controlled trials to address this evidence gap. Such trials should stratify participants by their age, the retinal disorder leading to vitrectomy, and the status of the underlying disease process in the contralateral eye. Outcomes assessed in such trials may include gain of vision on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale, quality of life, and adverse events such as posterior capsular rupture. Both short-term (six-month) and long-term (one-year or two-year) outcomes should be examined.

DO A, KA W, EAO D, chindia ML, JF O, AK L, JO G. "Nasopalatine duct cyst." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2014.
DO Gisiora, Mburu S. A framework for implementation of information security management in government ministries, a case study of Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Not only is Inlormation Security Strategy crucial to protect information systems, but it is central to organization survival. Ioday's organizations depend on information for their survival. Specifically, organizations depend on the systems and controls in place that provide for the ongoing confidentiality, integrity, and availability of their data and information. Many organizations are ill-equipped to define their security goals, let alone
to make an explicit connection between their security goals and the strategic drivers of
the organization. Threats to organizational information and information systems are
increasing in occurrence and in complexity and this emphasizes the urgency for
organizations to learn how to better protect their information and information systems
Information security is subjective and contextual therefore, every organization's approach
to a security strategy should be different and customized accordingly, because each
organization has its own threats, risks, business drivers, and industry compliance
requirements .
To improve the governance of IT and comply with regulatory demands, organizations are
using best practice frameworks implement information security. One of these IT
governance frameworks is COBIT (The Control Objectives for Inlormation and related
Technology). COBIT provides guidance on what could be done within an IT organization
in terms of controls, activities, measuring and documentation. This framework is however
generic and require specific knowledge in order to enable customization and use in a
local scenario.
The research methodology that was adopted was a case study. I he population of interest
was officers in the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports working at the headquarters.
Random sampling was used with targeted interviews to the olficers in ICT department
who are the custodians of Information systems in the ministry and the administration
which provide policy guidelines for the ministry. Data was analyzed by the use of
descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution tables, percentages, bar charts and pie
charts.
n
I he research established that the ministry faces a number of challenges in relation to
implementing information security in today's environment. In as much as the ministry’s
top officials expressed firm commitment to implementing security in the ministry, there
seemed to be no co-ordination between ministry staff and IT staff on the role of
information which indicates a communication deficit.
The key recommendations include the need for management to fully recognize that
Information Communication Technologies are a critical asset and which should be
restricted to authorized/legal use only; Information Communication Technology is a
Business Issue - not a technology issue and need to be aligned with priorities, industryprudent
practices and government regulations, and Information Communication
Technologies are enterprise-wide business with associated risks, and therefore all staff
should be involved in securing them. An implementation framework, The Control
Objectives for Government Information Technologies (COGIT) was developed which the
researcher recommended to government ministries as a reference model to Information
security management.

and DO Ogoyi, CJ Mwita EKNCOWPMS. Effect of heavy metal pollution on microalgae richness and diversity in Lake Victoria. Bujumbura, Burundi: VICRES; 2009.
DO Oyugi, Mavuti KM, Aloo PA, Ojuok JE, Britton JR. "Fish habitat suitability and community structure in the equatorial Lake Naivasha, Kenya." Hydrobiologia. 2014;727(1):51-63.
Doddapaneni K, Tasiran AC, Omondi F, Shah P, Mostarda L, Ever E. "Middlesex University Research Repository." core.ac.uk. 2018. Abstract76948233.pdf

Wireless Sensor Networks have seen a tremendous growth in various application areas despite prominent performance and availability challenges. One of the
common configurations to prolong the lifetime and deal with the path loss phenomena
is having a multi-hop set-up with clusters and cluster heads to relay the information.
Although researchers continue to address these challenges, the type of distributions
for arrivals at the cluster head and intermediary routing nodes is still an interesting
area of investigation. The general practice in published works is to compare an empirical exponential arrival distribution of wireless sensor networks with a theoretical
exponential distribution in a Q-Q plot diagram. In this paper, we show that such comparisons based on simple eye checks are not sufficient since, in many cases, incorrect
conclusions may be drawn from such plots. After estimating the Maximum Likelihood parameters of empirical distributions, we generate theoretical distributions
based on the estimated parameters. By conducting Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistics for each generated inter-arrival time distributions, we find out, if it is possible to
represent the traffic into the cluster head by using theoretical distribution. Empirical
exponential arrival distribution assumption of wireless sensor networks holds only
for a few cases. There are both theoretically known such as Gamma, Log-normal
and Mixed Log-Normal of arrival distributions and theoretically unknown such as
non-Exponential and Mixed cases of arrival in wireless sensor networks. The work is
further extended to understand the effect of delay on inter-arrival time distributions
based on the type of medium access control used in wireless sensor networks.

Dollinger LM, Ndakala AJ, Hashemzadeh M, Wang G, Wang Y, Martinez I, Arcari J, Galluzo DJ, Howell AR, Rheingold AL, Figuero JS. "Preparation and Properties of 2-Methyleneoxetanes." Journal of Organic Chemistry. 1999;64:7074-7080. AbstractWebsite

 
 
 
 

Dominic O'iO, Jemimah OA. "Overview of governmental support across Africa towards the development and growth of herbal medicine .". In: Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa: Therapeutic Potential against Metabolic, Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases. London: Elsevier; 2017.
Dominic O. Ochwang’I., Charles N. Kimwele. JOPGJMSKAKMG. "Medicinal plants used in treatment and management of cancer in Kakamega County, Kenya. ." Journal of Ethnopharmacology.. 2014;151:1040-1055. Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicine plays a critical role in treatment of chronic
debilitating and life threatening conditions and diseases. Cancer is one such condition whose therapeutic
intervention is commonly through inexpensive traditional herbal remedies. Increasingly industrialised
societies are developing drugs and chemotherapeutics from these traditional herbal plants. Plant
biogeography determines the abundance and availability of medicinal plants which in turn determine
their use by local communities. The present study was carried out in Kakamega County of Kenya to
identify and document medicinal plants used for treatment and management of cancer states by
communities living adjacent to Kakamega Tropical rainforest of Kakamega County, Kenya.
Materials and methods: An ethnobotanical survey was done using semi-structured questionnaires
administered to 32 randomly selected herbalists from Kakamega County.
Results and discussion: Sixty five (65) plants of 59 genera and 32 families were identified as candidates in
therapeutic intervention against cancer states. Most commonly cited plant species were Spathodea
campanulata P. Beauv. ssp. nilotica (Seem), Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze, Harungana madagascariensis
Lam. ex poir, Prunus africana (Hook. f.) kalkman, Cyphostemma serpens (A. Rich), Catharanthus
roseus (L.) G. Don and Aloe volkensii Engl. The following were documented for the first time;
Aeschynomene abyssinica (A. Rich.) Vatke, Synsepalum cerasiferum (welw.) T. D penn., Albizia coriaria
Welw. ex Oliv., Aloe volkensii Engl. Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill, Croton macrostachyus Delile,
Cyphostemma serpens (A. Rich), Dicliptera laxata C.B. Clarke, Ekebergia capensis Sparrm., Gardenia volkensii
K. schum. ssp. volkensii, Glycine wightii (wight & Arn.), Ocimum gratissimum Suave, Olea hotcsh spp.
hochstetteri, Pavetta abyssinica Fresen., Phyllanthus fischeri Pax, Psydrax schimperiana (A. Rich), Rhus
vulgaris Meikle, Senna didymobotyra (Fresen.) Irwin and Barneby, Solanecio nandensis (S. Moore) C. Jeffrey,
Solanum mauritianum Scop, Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. ssp. nilotica (Seem), Spermacoce princea
(K. Schum.) Verdc., Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten, Tragia brevipes Pax and Zanthoxylum gilletii (De
Wild.) P.G.Waterman. The most frequently used plant parts were fresh or dried leaves and stem barks.
Administration to patients was almost exclusively oral, with the exceptions being topical application
especially for breast cancer and skin sarcomas.
Conclusions: This study identified diverse medicinal plants used in therapeutic and management
intervention against cancer by communities living adjacent to Kakamega Tropical Rainforest. The
primary mode of administration was oral.

Dommain R, S Riedl ALD, deMenocal PB, Olaka LA, Strecker MR, Potts R. "Lake level history of Paleolake Siriata and hydrological sub-basin connectivity in the Southern Kenya Rift during the African Humid Period (AHP).". In: American Geophysical Union, Fall General Assembly 2016. San Fransisco; 2016. Abstract

The AHP is one of the most dramatic examples of late Quaternary hydroclimatic change in the tropics. During this wet period numerous large and deep lakes existed in the eastern arm of the East African Rift System (EARS) as testified by paleo-shorelines and lacustrine sediments. The tempo of onset and termination as well as the duration of the AHP is a matter of ongoing research and are still poorly established for the Southern Kenya Rift. Here we present new paleo-shoreline and sedimentary evidence for the existence of a freshwater lake during the AHP to the east of alkaline Lake Magadi. The AHP lake - Paleolake Siriata - was a critical link in the paleodrainage network that connected the central with the southern Kenya rift lakes and northern Tanzania. To establish the timing and spatial extent of Paleolake Siriata we mapped elevations of paleo-shorelines and associated shoreline facies and diatomaceous lacustrine sediments along the former basin margins. Morphometric and topographic details were mapped using a dGPS and an UAV to create a DEM with a resolution of 5 cm to define shoreline elevations and the characteristics of the former basin outlet. Reservoir age-corrected radiocarbon dates of gastropod and bivalve shells and 40Ar/39Ar ages of pumice from the lacustrine strata provide the chronological framework of the Lake Siriata highstand. In addition, oxygen-isotope measurements of gastropod shells indicate past variations in the former lake water-balance. Paleolake Siriata formed abruptly immediately after the dry Younger Dryas interval and reached a maximum depth of 55 m and a surface area of 30 km2; during highstand conditions the lake overflowed into adjacent Lake Magadi while it received inflow from Lake Naivasha via the Kedong Valley and the Olorgesailie Basin in the north. This hydrological connectivity provides important context for the interpretation of the sediment records from the recently collected Olorgesailie-Koora and Lake Magadi drill cores.

Dommergues Y, Keya SO, Freire J, Diem Hoang G, Dreyfus B. "Nitrogen fixation in tropical agriculture and forestry.". 1987. Abstract

Nitrogen compounds comprise from 40 to 50 percent of the dry matter of protoplasm, the living substance of plant cells. For this reason, nitrogen is required in large quantities by growing plants and is indeed the key to soil fertility. Non-nitrogen-fixing plants, for example cereals, obtain all the nitrogen they need from the soil. In Senegalese conditions this uptake was estimated to be as follows: 79-132 kg N ha/crop for pearl millet; 74-84 kg N ha/crop for rice; 134 kg N hdcrop for sorghum; and 121-139 kg N ha/crop for maize. Nitrogen-fixing plants, essentially legumes, take a part of the nitrogen they require from the atmosphere, the other part being provided by the soil."

Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Nyakiti LO, Muthoka B, Mwabora JM. "Effects of TiO2 Film Thickness and Electrolyte Concentration on Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell." Surface Review and Letters. 2017;24:1750065. Abstract
n/a
Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Muthoka B, Mwabora JM. "Optical and Electrical Properties Dependence on Thickness of Screen-Printed TiO2 Thin Films." Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry.. 2016;4(1):1. Abstract

Effect of film thickness on the optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films was studied. Thin films of different thicknesses were deposited by screen printing method on fluorine doped tin oxide coated on glass substrate. The film thickness was determined by surface profile measurement. The thicknesses were 3.2, 8.2, 13.5 and 18.9 µm. Transmittance, reflectance and absorbance spectra were studied using UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer in the photon wavelength range of 200-2500 nm for transmittance and reflectance and 200-1200 nm for absorbance. Band gap and refractive index of the films were determined using these spectra. It was found that reflectance, absorbance, band gap and refractive index increase with film thickness while transmittance decreases with increase in thickness. I-V characteristics of the films were also measured by a 4- point probe. Electrical resistivity (

Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Asiimwe GM, Mwabora JM. "Influence of Pore Size on the Optical and Electrical Properties of Screen Printed Thin Films." Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2016. Abstract

Influence of pore size on the optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films was studied.
TiO2 thin films with different weight percentages (wt%) of carbon black were deposited by
screen printing method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated on glass substrate. Carbon
black decomposed on annealing and artificial pores were created in the films. All the films
were 3.2 µm thick as measured by a surface profiler. UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer was
used to study transmittance and reflectance spectra of the films in the photon wavelength …

Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Asiimwe GM, Mwabora JM. "Influence of Pore Size on the Optical and Electrical Properties of Screen Printed Thin Films." Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2016;2016. Abstract
n/a
Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Muthoka B, Mwabora J. "Optical and Electrical Properties Dependence on Thickness of Screen-Printed TiO2 Thin Films. ." Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. . 2016;4(1):1-3.
Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Muthoka B, Nyakiti LO, Mwabora JM. "Effects of Film Thickness and Electrolyte Concentration on the Photovoltaic Performance of TiO2 Thin Films." Surface Reviews and Letters. 2016;24. Abstract

Effects of film thickness and electrolyte concentration on the photovoltaic performance of TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cell were studied. Nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 thin films with varying thicknesses (3.2-18.9 µm) have been deposited on FTO/glass substrates by screen printing method as work electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The prepared samples were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy/scanning tunneling microscopy (AFM/STM) and x-ray diffraction. The optimal thickness of the TiO2 photoanode is 13.5 µm. Short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) increases with film thickness due to enlargement of surface area whereas open-circuit voltage decreases with increase in thickness due to increase in electron diffusion length to the electrode. However, the Jsc and Voc of DSSC with a film thickness of 18.9 µm (7.5 mA/cm2 and 0.687 V) are smaller than those of DSSC with a TiO2 film thickness of 13.5 µm (8.2 mA/cm2 and 0.711 V). This is because the increased thickness of TiO2 thin film resulted in the decrease in the transmittance of TiO2 thin films hence reducing the incident light intensity on the N719 dye. Photovoltaic performance also depends greatly on the redox couple concentration in iodide\triiodide. Jsc decreases as the redox concentration increases as a result of increased viscosity of the solution which lowers ion mobility.
Similarly, Voc decreases as the electrolyte concentration increases due to enhanced back electron transfer reaction. An optimum power conversion efficiency of 3.5 % was obtained in a DSSC with the TiO2 film thickness of 13.5 µm and redox concentrarion of 0.03 mol dm-3 under AM 1.5G illumination at 100 mW/cm2

Donald Adjeroh, Guan Huiwei SNBMSZ. "Acupoint: An expert system for Traditional Chinese Medicine ." American Journal of Acupuncture . 1995.
Donatien Ntawuruhunga, Funga Alemu Assefa WMHMMMROJNNJBMPWM, T Mubyana-John, F Pule-Meulenberg MLCOAPSONJROON’getich DSTJJ, JA Odhiambo, U Norton AJWWIMIMVAOSMKD, Patrick Jeremy Likongwe, Noella Andenyi Ekhuya MSMJNMMMLAOL, Khaemba Emma Nelima, WO Owino EMMDNSMMTHMG, NO Ojijo, B Mukabane GCDSLKMMFCBJD, V Wekesa, B Torto MWTGMKETMH-KJNKS. "Farmers’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards African Indigenous Vegetables in Kenya.". 2016.
Donnell D, Baeten JM, Kiarie J, Thomas KK, Stevens W, Cohen CR, McIntyre J, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort analysis." Lancet. 2010;375(9731):2092-8. Abstract

High plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations. We aimed to assess the effect of ART use by patients infected with HIV-1 on risk of transmission to their uninfected partners.

Donnelly TM, Srivastava KK, Oyejide A, Kanyari PW, Ngatia TA, Mbaabu-Mathiu P. "Oozing ostrich egg: omphalitis caused by Enterobacter sp.". 2002.
Döpfer D, Ersbøll AK, Evans R, Gettinby G, Gitau GK. "Publisher's Acknowledgement.". 2004.
Dorcah Asiago, Jeremiah Kalai LG. "Quality of Education in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya: Does Teacher Motivation Matter?" Journal of Education and Practice. 2018;9(32).
Dorcas K, Koech OK, Kinama J, Chemining’wa G, Ojulong HF. "Sorghum Production Practices In An Integrated Crop-Livestock Production System In Makueni County, Eastern Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2019;22:13-23.2019-_sorghum_production_practices-_dorcas.pdf
Dorothy FK, Makori EO, Dorothy MN. " Dorothy Flora Khamala (2018). Webometrics Ranking and Its Relationship to Quality Education and Research in Academic Institutions in Kenya." Library Philosophy and Practice (E-journal). 2018;Paper 2020.
DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Emerging psychosocial needs for people living with HIV/AIDS undergoing private commercial anti-retroviral treatment in some selected Hospitals in Nairobi - Kenya.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1998. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

Dorothy MC, Kimuyu P. "Business Systems Theory: An African Perspective.". In: Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. University of Nairobi Press; 2007.
DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "8-4-4 system of education and the teaching of English The way forward Research Paper. presented at the international conference on communication and education, Nairobi, 1992.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1992. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "The Role of People Living with HIV and AIDS in AIDS Education and Awareness. A poster and oral presentation at the 8th International Conference of AIDS in Africa: Morocco, Marakech 12th - 16th December 1993.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Attitudes & problems of implementing a policy of English across the Curriculum. A Paper presented at a National Seminar Analysis English across the Curriculum, Nairobi 1993.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

Dorothy MC, Kimuyu PK, Kinyanjui M. "Kenya's Garment Industry: An Institutional View of Medium and Large Firm. Working Paper No. 531.". In: Institute of Development Studies, University of Nairobi.; 2001.
Dorothy MC, Kuzilwa J,(eds) TG-E. " Industrialising Africa in the Era of Globalisation.". In: Challenges to Clothing and Footwear. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.; 2009. Abstract

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DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Law, Ethics and HIV: Kenya.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "The role of psychosocial support to children infected and affected by HIV/AIDS: A WOFAK Experience.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1997. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

Dorothy MC, Kimuyu P, Kinyanjui M. "The Textile and Garments’ Sector: Global Players with Local Struggles.". In: Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. University of Nairobi Press; 2007.
DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Emerging psychosocial needs for people living with HIV/AIDS undergoing private commercial anti-retroviral treatment in some selected Hospitals in Nairobi - Kenya.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1998. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Dissemination or Method.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1992. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Sensitizing students to small group work. A paper presented at the International Conference of Communication Skills, Nairobi, 1992.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1992. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Women and AIDS: The Vulnerability Issue.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

Dorothy, Mccormick; Kimuyu P. "Business Systems Theory: An African Perspective .". 2001.Website
DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Integrating AIDS Education in young women.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "The role of legal education and awareness in reducing stigma and discrimination among HIV positive people. presented at the XIIth international conference on AIDS/STDs Vancouver Canada 7th - 12th July 1996.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1996. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Legal, ethical and Gender implications of implementation of programmes on the Reduction of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1998. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Analysis of Time Use among First Year Students of Moi University.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1992. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

Dorothy MC, Patrick A, Mary O. "Business in Kenya.". In: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Nairobi: Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.; 2007. Abstract

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DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Effective ways of communicating the dangers of HIV infection among rural women in Kenya.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

Dorothy MC. "China and India, Africa's new donors." Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.; 2008. Abstract

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DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Gender, Policy & HIV: Reproductive Rights. A paper presented at the 10th International Conference in STD / AIDS, Yokohama, Japan, August 1994.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "istening skills as an active process.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

Dorothy McCormick, Odhiambo W, Paul Kamau. "Kenya’s Participation in the WTO: Lessons Learned.". In: Managing the Challenges of WTO Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2005. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Can Africa Industrialise Through Enterprise Clusters?". In: Eastern Africa Productive Capacity Initiative. Vienna: UNIDO. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2003. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. ""Policies Affecting Kenyan Industrialisation, 1964-1994." In Njuguna Ng\.". In: Firm-Level Institutions in Small-Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi." Paper presented at Business Systems Workshop, Machakos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1999. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Goldstein, Andrea; Pinaud N; RH. "The Asian Drivers and Africa: Learning from Case Studies.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

When the OECD Development Centre launched research in 2005 to document the economic, political and social impacts of China’s and India’s economic growth on sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the arrival (or resurgence) of new important players had triggered concerns among traditional donors. Accusations ran from free riding on Western debt relief over violation of governance standards and unfair company competition to fragmentation of aid delivery. At the same time, there was a tendency to neglect the diversity of SSA in terms of resource endowments, trade links and industrial development. It was time then to promote African voices from various backgrounds to reflect Africa’s heterogeneity. The introductory section presents a summary of findings about the economic impact of the two Asian giants in SSA countries by Africa-based economists, with three practical conclusions. First, African countries should favor strategies that minimize areas of direct competition with the Asian giants. Second, industrialization strategies are required to exploit opportunities complementary to the Asian development path. Third, sectors of mutual interest should be identified in order to develop long-term views on how to cooperate with China and India and these views should be mainstreamed into national development plans.

Dorothy McCormick, Kinyanjui N, Ongile G. "Networks, Markets, and Growth in Nairobi's Garment Industry.". In: International Center for Economic Growth. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Raphael Kaplinsky, Morris M. "The Impact of China on Sub Saharan Africa.". In: Global Markets and Local Responses: The Changing Institutions in the Lake Victoria Fish Cluster"Clusters in Africa: Pattern, Practice and Policy for Innovation. Tokyo: United Nations University Press. Tokyo: United Nations University Press; 2007. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "How to Collaborate: Associations and Other Community Based Organisations Among Kenyan Micro and Small-scale Entrepreneurs.". In: How to Collaborate: Associations and Other Community Based Organisations Among Kenyan Micro and Small-scale Entrepreneurs." Occasional Paper No. 70. Nairobi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2003. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "African Business Systems in a Globalising World.". In: Firm-Level Institutions in Small-Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi. Machakos, Kenya: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1999. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Africa and Its Emerging Development Partners: Helping or Hindering Industrialisation.". In: OECD Development Centre. Paris.; 2011.
Dorothy McCormick, Kinyanjui N. "Small Enterprise Clusters: Fishing and Vehicle Repair in Kenya.". In: Small Enterprise Clusters. Sussex, UK: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1996. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Fundis and Formality: Very Small Manufacturers in Nairobi.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1987. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Dorothy McCormick. "Industrialisation through Cluster Upgrading: Theoretical Perspectives". In Dorothy McCormick and Banji Oyeyinka, eds., Clusters in Africa: Pattern, Practice and Policy for Innovation.". In: Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.; 2007. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Upgrading MSE Clusters: Theoretical Frameworks and Practical Approaches for African Industrialisation.". In: Innovative Systems and Innovative Clusters in Africa. Bagamoyo, Tanzania: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2004. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Gender Issues in Small Enterprise Development in Kenya.". In: Studies in Economic Development with Reference to East Africa and India. New Delhi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2001. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Women in Business: Class and Nairobi's Small and Medium-sized Producers.". In: Firm Linkages: Importance for Industrial Structure and Performance. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1996. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Wamalwa HN. "Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Trade and Development in Africa.". In: SMEs Trade and Development. Geneva; 2015.
Dorothy McCormick, Raphael Kaplinsky, Morris M. "Impacts and Challenges of a Growing Relationship Between China and Sub Saharan Africa." London: Washington: The Johns Hopkins University, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies.; 2008. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Ligulu P, Kinyanjui N. "The Clothing and Footwear Industries in Kenya.". In: Clothing and Footwear in African Industrialisation. Africa Institute of South Africa, Johannesburg. ISBN 0-7983-0162-7. University of Leipzig: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2004. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Value Chains and the Business System: Applying a Simplified Model to Kenya’s Garment Industry.". In: Weaving Through Reforms:Business Systems in Africa. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2001. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. ""Enterprise Clusters in Africa: On the Way to Industrialisation?" Paper presented at Workshop on Collective Efficiency, Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, UK, April 1997.". In: "Firm Linkages: Importance for Industrial Structure and Performance." Paper presented at national workshop for Multi-country Study of Private Enterprise Development, Nairobi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1997. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Nairobi's Clothing Retailers: Some Preliminary Findings.". In: Financing, Human Resources, Environment, and Markets of African Small Enterprise: A Literature Review. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1991. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Rogerson C. "Clothing and Footwear in African Industrialisation.". In: Managing the Challenges of WTO Participation. Johannesburg: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2004. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "African Enterprise Clusters.". In: "Linkages between Small and Large Firms in the Kenyan Food Processing Sector." Innovation and Small Enterprises in the Third World. Montpellier, France: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2002. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. ""Growth and Barriers to Growth Among Nairobi's Small and Medium-Sized Garment Producers." Co-authored with Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and Grace Ongile. World Development 25(7): 1095-1110.". In: "Growth and Barriers to Growth Among Nairobi's Small and Medium-Sized Garment Producers."World Development 25(7): 1095-1110. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1997. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Kinyanjui N. "Risk and Firm Growth: The Dilemma of Nairobi's Small-scale Manufacturers.". In: Financing, Human Resources, Environment, and Markets of African Small Enterprise: A Literature Review. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1993. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Kinyanjui M. "Retailers and Small scale Garment Producers: Dynamics in Local Level Development in Nairobi.". In: Local Economic Development in Africa. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2005. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Labour and the Paradox of Flexibility.". In: "Labour and the Paradox of Flexibility: The Case of Micro and Small Garment and Metal Enterprises in Nairobi." Paper presented at Mzumbe University/Adger University College International Conference on Research for Development,26-28. Mzumbe University/Adger University College: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2003. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Pedersen O. "Globalization and Regionalisation of Kenya\’s Foreign Trade and Production.". In: Firm-Level Institutions in Small-Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi." Paper presented at Business Systems Workshop, Machakos. Pennsylvania, USA: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1999. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Financing, Human Resources, Environment, and Markets of African Small Enterprise.". In: Literature Review. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Why Small Firms Stay Small Risk and Growth in Nairobi's Small-Scale manufacturing .". 1993. AbstractWebsite

Despite abundant literature on the social and economic benefits of encouraging tiny "informal" firms, scholars generally agree that larger enterprises create more unskilled jobs, use resources more efficiently, and are better at building technological capacity. Yet majority of firms will never grow beyond six workers. This paper argues that one very significant reason why small firms stay small is risk. In Nairobi, the economic and social consequences of business failure are extremely high. Entrepreneurs therefore to protect themselves from failure and, in the process, ensure that their firms remain small. Our research identified four risk-management strategies that work separately and together to discourage firm growth.• First, many entrepreneurs manage risk through flexibility. By working in rent-free quarters, using family labour and little capital, they minimise fixed costs and maximise opportunities for additional income. Second, many small manufacturers also avoid risk by manufacturing standard products for a known market. Third, successful entrepreneurs frequently diversify their income and assetsrather than expanding a single enterprise. Finally, most prefer to preserve their land and other assets unencumbered by debt. These rational responses to a risky 90 business environment ensure that most firms stay small and in the process work against formation of a dynamic manufacturing sector. Policy-makers are challenged to improve the "enabling environment" creating broad policies conducive to firm growth and by targeting specific policies and programmes to small-scale industry. Kenya needs macroeconomic and social policies that indirectly encourage firm growth by removing or reducing business and background risks. It also needs an industrial policy that provides positive incentives for enterprising business owners willing to expand employment, improve efficiency, and upgrade technology and their workers skills

Dorothy McCormick, Charles M. "Micro and Small Enterprise Labour: Job Quality in Garment and Metal Enterprises in Nairobi." African Journal of Business and Economic Research . 2007;2(1):12-39. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Africa Productive Capacity Initiative.". In: Africa Productive Capacity Initiative. Vienna: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2003. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Enterprise Clusters in Africa: Linkages for Growth and Development.". In: Firm-Level Institutions in Small-Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi. Machakos.: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1999. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Institutional Development in Public Transport: Implications of Selective Compliance for Nairobi's Paratransit System.'.". In: Southern Africa Transport Conference. Pretoria, South Africa; 2014.
Dorothy McCormick. "Small Enterprise Development: Problems, Policy, and Practice.". In: Fishing and Vehicle Repair in Kenya. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1996. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Kenya’s Garment and Metal Industries: Global and Local Realities.". In: Kenya’s Garment and Metal Industries. London: London: Routledge.; 2007. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Munguti K. "Micro-finance and Behaviour Change Among Nairobi\’s Commercial Sex Workers.". In: Small Enterprise Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2003. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Kimuyu P, Kinyanjui MN. "Firm-Level Institutions in Small-Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi.". In: Business Systems Workshop. Machakos: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2001. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Kamau. P. "Chinese Ascendancy in the Global Textile Trade.". In: : African Clothing Exports in the Post-MFA Era.’ Paper presented at final workshop of project on ‘Chinese Ascendancy in the Global Clothing Industry. Nairobi - Silver Springs Hotel; 2012.
Dorothy McCormick, Pedersen O. "Small Enterprise Development: A Network Approach.". In: Flexibility and Networking in an African Context., pp. 301-314. Nairobi: Longhorn. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1996. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Universal Access to Communication Services in Rural Kenya.". In: A Baseline Survey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2004. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Kimuyu P, Kinyanjui N. "Kenya’s Garment Industry: An Institutional View of Medium and Large Firms.". In: Kenya’s Garment Industry. University of Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2001. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Small Enterprises: Flexibility and Networking in an African Context.". In: "Firm Linkages: Importance for Industrial Structure and Performance." Paper presented at national workshop for Multi-country Study of Private Enterprise Development, Nairobi. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1996. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, House W, Ikiara G. ""The Promotion of Self-Employment and Small-scale Enterprises in Urban Kenya: A Case Study." Co-authored with William J. House and Gerrishon K. Ikiara.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1990. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "African Perceptions of Afro-Chinese Relations.". In: Sixth Shanghai Workshop. Shanghai: Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.; 2008. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Industrialising Kenya: Building the Productive Capacity of Micro and Small Enterprise Clusters.". In: Building the Productive Capacity of Micro and Small Enterprise Clusters. University of Leipzig: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2004. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Can Micro-Enterprises Export?". In: Institutions in Industry and Agriculture. Mombasa, Kenya: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2002. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Industrial District or Garment Ghetto? The Case of Nairobi's Mini-Manufacturers." In Meine Pieter van Dijk and Roberta Rabellotti, eds. Enterprise Clusters and Networks in Developing Countries, pp. 109-130. London: Frank Cass. 1997.". In: "Growth and Barriers to Growth Among Nairobi's Small and Medium-Sized Garment Producers."World Development 25(7): 1095-1110. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1997. Abstract

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M
MCCORMICK PROFDOROTHY, Dorothy McCormick. ""Women in Small-Scale Manufacturing: The Case of Nairobi, Kenya." Third World in Perspective vol. 1, no. 2. 1992.". In: Financing, Human Resources, Environment, and Markets of African Small Enterprise: A Literature Review." With Mary Njeri Kinyanjui. Prepared for the International Centre for Economic Growth, Nairobi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1992. Abstract

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D
Dorothy McCormick. "Kenyan Business in a Global-Local World.". In: The Regional Question in Economic Development. Villa Serbonelli: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2005. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Schmitz H. "Manual for Value Chain Research on Homeworkers in the Garment Industry Institute of Development Studies.". In: Labour and the Paradox of Flexibility. Mzumbe University/Adger University College: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2002. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Linkages Between Small and Large Firms In the Kenyan Food Processing and Tourism Industries.". In: Linkages Between Small and Large Firms In the Kenyan Food Processing and Tourism Industries. Hague, Netherlands.: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1998. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Ongile G, Kinyanjui N. "Growth and the Organisation of Production: Case Studies from Nairobi's Garment Industry.". In: Financing, Human Resources, Environment, and Markets of African Small Enterprise: A Literature Review. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1993. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Paul K, Ligulu P. "Post-Multifibre Arrangement Analysis of the Textile and Garment Sectors in Kenya.". In: Post-Multifibre Arrangement Analysis of the Textile and Garment Sectors in Kenya." IDS Bulletin 37 (1): 80-88. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.; 2006. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Atieno R. "Eastern Africa Productive Capacity Initiative.". In: Eastern Africa Productive Capacity Initiative. Vienna: UNIDO. Vienna: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2003. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Enterprise Clusters in Africa: Paving the Way to Industrialisation.". In: Firm-Level Institutions in Small-Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi. esperienza italiana: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1999. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Winnie Mitullah. "Policy Experiences of Women in Kenyan Small Enterprise.". In: UNESCO Meeting on Women in the Informal Sector. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1995. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Dorothy McCormick and Winnie Mitullah. "Global Markets and Local Responses: The Changing Institutions in the Lake Victoria Fish Cluster" In Dorothy McCormick and Banji Oyeyinka, eds., Clusters in Africa: Pattern, Practice and Policy for Innovation.". In: Global Markets and Local Responses: The Changing Institutions in the Lake Victoria Fish Cluster"Clusters in Africa: Pattern, Practice and Policy for Innovation. Tokyo: United Nations University Press. Tokyo: United Nations University Press; 2007. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Njeri K. "Value Chains in Small Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi.". In: Challenges in Shifting from the Old Global Regime of Import Substitution to a More Liberalised Global Regime. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2003. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "African Enterprise Clusters and Industrialisation: Theory and Reality.". In: Firm-Level Institutions in Small-Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi. Machakos, Kenya: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1999. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "China and Africa: Win-Win Strategies for the Clothing Trade.". In: Annual Meeting of the African Development Bank. Arusha, Tanzania,; 2012.
Dorothy McCormick, Ongile G, Pedersen O. "Barriers to Small Firm Growth: Evidence from Nairobi's Garment Industry.". In: Flexibility and Networking in an African Context. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1996. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "The Kenyan Economic Situation: An Overview.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers. Geneva: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1990. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "University Involvement in Upgrading Entrepreneurial Networks: The Case of Nairobi’s Small Clothing and Footwear Producers.". In: Universal Access to Communication Services in Rural Kenya: A Baseline Survey. Kisumu, Kenya: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2004. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Enterprise Clusters in Kenya: Urban Production, Upgrading Strategies, and Joint Action.". In: Kenya\’s Garment Industry: An Institutional View of Medium and Large Firms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2001. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "The Impact of Economic Reform on Entrepreneurial Activity: A Theoretical Framework for Analysing Small Enterprise.". In: Importance for Industrial Structure and Performance. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1996. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Risper Orero, Ommeh M. "Paratransit Business Strategies: A Bird’s Eye View of Matatus in Nairobi." Journal of Public Transportation. 2013;16(2):135-152.
Dorothy McCormick, Kinyanjui N. "E-commerce in the Garment Industry in Kenya.". In: Clothing and Footwear in African Industrialisation. Johannesburg: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2004. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Kimuyu P, Kinyanjui. N. "Weaving Through Reforms.". In: Business Systems in Africa. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2002. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Atieno R. "Firm Linkages: Importance for Industrial Structure and Performance.". In: Multi-country Study of Private Enterprise Development. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1997. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Kinyanjui N. "Success in Urban Small-Scale Manufacturing: Implications for Economic Development.". In: Financing, Human Resources, Environment, and Markets of African Small Enterprise: A Literature Review. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1991. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Schmitz H. "Donor Proliferation and Coordination: Experiences of Kenya and Indonesia." Journal of Asian and African Studies. 2011. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Upgrading Enterprise Clusters: A Multidimensional Analysis.". In: Regional Conference on Innovation Systems and Innovative Clusters in Africa. Entebbe, Uganda: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2005. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Linkages between Small and Large Firms in the Kenyan Food Processing Sector.". In: Innovation and Small Enterprises in the Third World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2002. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Firm Linkages in Kenya’s Tourism Sector.". In: "Linkages Between Small and Large Firms In the Kenyan Food Processing and Tourism Industries." Presented at a workshop organised by the European Association of Development Institutes Working Group on Industrialisation Strategies at the Institute of S. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1997. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Urban Self-Employment in Kenya: Panacea or Viable Strategy?". In: Financing, Human Resources, Environment, and Markets of African Small Enterprise: A Literature Review. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1993. Abstract

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Dorothy Syallow Masiga, Mukhovi MS, mwaura F. "Wildlife Population Change in Africa from the Eyes of the Public-The Case of Mara Enoonkishu Conservancy in Southern Kenya." Natural Resources. 2016;7:434-444.
DOSSA, S. C., ESSUMAN S, KAAYA GP. "Characterization of Amblyomma variegatum tick saliva and salivary gland antigens inducing anti-tick immunity in Boran cattle. ." International Journal of Acarology. 1998;24:149-157.
Dossaji SF, Mabry TJ, Wallace JW. "Chromatographic and UV-Visible spectral identification Biflavanoids." Rev. Latinomer Ouim... 1975;6:37-45. Abstract

Thin layer chromatography, coupled with UV-visible spectral data using various
diagnostic shift reagents, was used to differentiate between nineteen bioflavanoids which were
either unsubstituted, partially methylated, or fully methylated. These included biflavanoids of
the amentoflavone type (1-9), 2,3,Klihydroamentoflavone (12), hinokiflavone type (10-11),
2,3,-dihydrohinokiflavone (13), cupressuflavone type (14-16), agathisflavone type (17-18), and
morelloflavone (19).

Dossaji SF, Kubo I. "Quercetin 3-(2"-Galloyglucoside), a molluscicidal flavanoids form Polygonum senegalense:." Phytochemistry. 1980;19:482-483. Abstract

Valepotriates, mainly isovaltrate and valtrate, have been separated and quantitatively estimated by reversed-phase HPLC in the leaves, flowers, stems and rhizomes of Valeriana kilimandascharica. The isovaltrate/valtrate concentration reaches a maximum of 5.89% in the leaves, 3.84% in the flowers, 3.17% in the stems and 5.15% in the rhizomes.

Dossaji SF, Wrangham RW, Rodriguez E. "Selection of Plants with Medicinal Properties by Wild Chimpanzees." Fitoterepia. 1989;60(4):378-380. Abstract

In 1983 Wrangham and Nishida described an unusual feeding behavior in wild chimpanzees (Tan
troglodytes schweinfurthii) whereby the consumption of leaves of three species of Aspilia (Asteraceae) led them to suggest that such selection of certain plant species by the chimpanzees was for therapeutic purposes. In 1985 Rodriguez et al. confirmed that Aspilia mossambicensis and A pluriseta, which are also used medicinally by man, contain a potent antibiotic, thiarubrine A This important plant-primate interaction provided a new and valuable insight on how African primates select diets containing bioactive constitutents other than for nutritional benefits. Subsequent field studies in Africa have established that wild chimpanzees are using a variety of plant species as medicinal plants. These include Lippia, Hibiscus and Rubia. The significance of plant use by chimpanzees is discussed in this communicatio

Dossaji SF, Becker H, Exner J. "Flavone C-glycosides of Phorodendron tomentosum form different host trees,." Phytochemistry. 1983;22(1):311-312. Abstract

Apeginin, three known apigenin C-glycosides and isoschaftoside together with apeginin 4-O-glucoside have been identified in leaves of Phoradendron tomentosum growing on different hosts.

Dossaji SF, Bell EA. "Distribution of alpha-Amino-beta-Methylaminopropionic acid in Cycas." Phytochemistry. 1973;12:143-144. Abstract

alpha-Amino-beta-Methylaminopropionic acid, previously isolated from seeds of Cycas circinalis, has
now been identified either free or bound in all the other nine species of this genus.

Dossaji SF, Kairu MG, Gondwe AT, Ouma JH. "On the evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of Polygonum senegalense." Lloydia (J. of Nat. Prod.). 1977;40(3):290-293.
Dossaji SF, Mabry TJ, Bell EA. "Biflavonoids of the Cycadales." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 1975;2:171-175. Abstract

Biflavanoid patterns of leaves of 82 species of the order Cycadales comprising 3 families and 10
genera have been determined. The biflavanoidswere Identified byTLC, UV, NMR and MS studies. Pattern differences between species, when detected, involve the position or degree of methylation of the base compounds. On the other hand, differences in the biflavanoid patterns at the generic and family levels were sufficient to support taxonomic relationships. Thus, the absence of hinokiflavone and its derivatives clearly distinguish the Zamiaceae from the Cycadaceae and Stangeriaceae. The complete absence of biflavanoids in the latter family suggests an advanced evolutionary condition, but morphologically, this family has the most fern-like characters, and therefore has been considered by previous workers to be the most primitive of the cycads.

Dossaji SF, Becker H. "HPLC-quantitative determination of valepopriates in Valeriana kilimandascharica,." Planta Medica . 1981;43(10):179-182. AbstractWebsite

Valepotriates, mainly isovaltrate and valtrate, have been separated and quantitatively estimated by reversed-phase HPLC in the leaves, flowers, stems and rhizomes of Valeriana kilimandascharica. The isovaltrate/valtrate concentration reaches a maximum of 5.89% in the leaves, 3.84% in the flowers, 3.17% in the stems and 5.15% in the rhizomes.

Dossaji SF, Bell EA, Wallace JW. "Biflavones of Dioon." Phytochemistry. 1973;12:371-373. Abstract

Abstract—Seven biflavones, amentoflavone, bilobetin, sequoiaflavone, ginkgetin, sciadopitysin, 7,4',7',4"-
tetra-O-methylamentoflavone, and diooflavone (amentoflavone hexamethyl ether), were identified from
extracts of the cycad genus Dioon. The biflavones were identified by direct comparison with authentic
samples using m.m.p., co-chromatography in 3 solvents, and NMR studies of the acetates. This is the first
time amentoflavone hexamethyl ether has been identified as a natural product. After surveying numerous
species of the Cycadales, no evidence could be obtained for the occurrence of biflavones glycosides or of biflavones base upon any other nucleus than apeginin.

Dossaji SF, Gitonga J, Bell EA. "Distribution and significance of amino acids in the leaves of Acacia and Crotalaria (Leguminosae)." Kenya J. of Science and Technology, 1, 19.. 1980;1:19-22. Abstract

Leaf extracts of 13 species of Acacia and 9 species of Crotalaria which are native to or estabhshed in Kenya were analysed by 2D paper chromatography and high voltage ionophoresis for their free protein and nonprotein amino acids. In addition to the presence of protein amino acids, both the genera contained nonprotein amino acids. Acacia species contained pipecolic acid, 4-OH pipecolic acid, 5-OH pipecolic
acid and homoarginine. They did not contain N-acetyldjenkolic which is found in the seeds of all but one of the species analysed. The leaf extracts of three species of Crotalaria contained the toxic amino acids, a-amino-p-oxalylaminopropionic acid and a-amino-y-oxalylaminobutyric acid.

Dossaji SF, Herbin GA. "Occurrence of Macrozamin in the seeds of Encephalatos Hildebrandtii." Federation Proceedings. 1972;31(5):1470-1472. Abstract

A water-soluble hepatotoxin has been isolated
f r om the seeds of Encephalartos hildebrandtii (Zamiaceae)
and identified as macrozamin, methylazoxymethanol-;8-
primeveroside (CH3N=NCH20CiiHi909). a-Amino-)3-methyli
O
aminopropionic acid ( C H j — N H — C H 2 —CHCNHO—COOH),
reported to be present i n the seeds of Cycas circinalis (Gycadaceae),
was not detected i n either the seeds of Encephalartos hildebrandtii or
the leaves of Cycoj thuarsii.

Dow TE;, Archer L;, Khasiani S;, Kekovole J. "Wealth flow and fertility decline in rural Kenya, 1981-92 .". 1994.Website
DR DAVIDNYIKA. "An Analysis of the Causes of Failures in the Implementation of Projects in Kenya. ." African Habitat Review.. 2012;6(2012).
DR DAVIDNYIKA. "Variation of Coordinates Method in Geodetic Networks.". In: Department of Surveying; University of Nairobi. Nairobi.; 1972.
DR DAVIDNYIKA. "Analyses of the Dynamic Performance of Photogrammetric and Cartographic Plotting Systems. .". In: Department of Surveying; University of Nairobi. Nairobi.; 1986.
DR I, DG M. "Risk of developing neonatal conjunctivitis in newborns of mothers with prolonged labour." East African journal of ophthalmology. 2008;14(1). Abstract

Objective: To determine whether prolonged labour increased the rate of exposure
of the newborn eyes to maternal vaginal fl ora, and whether this exposure led to
higher risk of developing neonatal conjunctivitis.

Study design: cohort study

Settings: Kenyatta National hospital and Pumwani Maternity Hospital in Kenya
between August 2000 and March 2001.

Subjects: Fifty four cases of prolonged labour (PL) and 55 cases of controls
were studied. Conjunctival swabs were taken from all the newborns and high
vaginal swabs taken from every second mother. A case pair consisted of such
a pair where samples were taken from both the mother and her baby. 23 case
pairs of PL and 19 of controls were studied. This was done on average 24hrs
after delivery.

Results: Conjunctival swabs were positive in 63% of the prolonged labour (PL)
group compared to 51% of the control group (odds ratio 1.9; p-value 0.09). The
rate of transmission of vaginal fl ora to the eyes of the newborns was 57% in the
PL group compared to 40% in the controls (odds ratio 1.95; p value 0.27). The
longer, from birth, it took before taking the conjunctival swabs from the baby,
the higher was the likelihood of obtaining a positive culture (p-value 0.017 MW
test). The longer the duration of labour in the PL group, the higher the rate of
development of conjunctivitis (p-value 0.029 MW test). Staphylococcal aureus,
Staphylococcal epidermidis and E.coli were the three most common organisms
isolated in both groups.

Conclusion: Prolonged labour increased the rate of transmission of maternal
vaginal flora to the eyes of the newborns and to subsequent development of
neonatal conjunctivitis.

DR I, SS J, KHM K, MM K, UC S. "The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of s. aureus; an ocular normal fl ora." East African journal of ophthalmology . 2008;14(2). Abstract

Objective: To determine the changing of drug sensitivity patterns for s. aureas
as the second commonest bacteria of the conjunctival normal fl ora in Nairobi,
Kenya

Design: Descriptive retrospective study

Setting: University of Nairobi, Department of Ophthalmology and Kikuyu Eye Unit
Subjects: 37 (28%) asymptomatic volunteers at KNH and KEU with no signs of
ocular infections or ocular surface abnormalities from January 1994 to December
1997 were selected.

Results: A total of 37 cases were tested positive for S. aureus. The micro
organism showed high resistance to amoxtcillin, aminoglycosides, 1st and 2nd
generation Flouroquinolones except Ofl oxacin and tetracycline. It was sensitive
to carbenocillin, polymyxin B and chloramphenocol and highly sensitive to
Cephalexin and ciprofl oxacin.

Conclusion: The percentage of positive fi nding of S. aureus of the conjunctival
normal flora is comparable to that in other regions of the world. We found a high
resistance to most of the commonly locally prescribed antibiotics.

DR DAVIDNYIKA. "Causes and Management of Errors in Surveying measurements and Computations. ." The Kenya Surveyor Journal. 2013;March 2013.
DR DAVIDNYIKA. "Adjustments of the Wild A8. .". In: Department of Surveying; University of Nairobi. Nairobi.; 1972.
DR DAVIDNYIKA. "The Impacts of Poor Governance on Land Development Applications. The Case of City Council of Nairobi. .". In: 46th ISOCARP Congress on Sustainable City, Developing World. Nairobi.; 2010.
DR DAVIDNYIKA. "New Concepts on the Calibration of Comparators and Projection Instruments. Technical Paper, No. 3; .". In: Department of Surveying; University of Nairobi. Nairobi.; 1978.
DR DAVIDNYIKA. "Application of Queuing Theory in Spatial Planning. The Case of Athi River Weigh Bridge." African Habitat Review.. 2010;4 ((2010) ).
DR DAVIDNYIKA. "Mapping the Earth by Use of Artificial Satellites.". In: Department of Surveying; University of Nairobi. Nairobi.; 1972.
DR I, SE S, K K. "Outcome of childhood cataract surgery at Kenyatta National Hospital." East African journal of ophthalmology. 2008;14(1). Abstract

Objectives: To determine visual outcome, intraoperative and postoperative
complications due to childhood cataract surgery at Kenyatta National Hospital
(KNH).

Design: Retrospective study.

Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)

Subjects: Records of 77 children with cataracts seen in KNH between 1995 and
2005 were reviewed; 8 patients were excluded. A total of 121 eyes analyzed
from 58 children with bilateral and 11 with unilateral cataracts. Information of
up to 6 months post-op was analyzed.

Results: The mean duration between the time when cataract was fi rst noted and
presentation at KNH was 6.4 months for congenital cataract and 35.7 months for
developmental cataract. In 28 eyes, primary IOL implantation was performed,
17 eyes had secondary IOL implantation and 76 eyes remained aphakic. There
was some improvement in visual acuity at 2 months after surgery compared
to the visual acuity at presentation (p<0.001). However, there was no further
improvement in visual acuity at 4 and 6 months after surgery (p=0.213 and
0.238 respectively). The main complications at 2, 4 and 6 months after surgery
were posterior capsular opacifi cation and updrawn pupil. PCO occurred in 41.4%
of the operated eyes; mainly in patients who had lens washout without anterior
vitrectomy.

Conclusion: The outcome of childhood cataract surgery at KNH was poor despite
low rate of complications occurring during surgery. The poor outcome was
attributed to late presentation, poor aphakic correction, development of PCO
and loss to follow up.

Dr Gathece LW. Impact of health education on oral heal threlated Quality of life of people living with Hiv/aids in nairobi..; 2011. Abstract

background Oraldiseases and conditions affect every race worldwide. The prevalence of the
twomajor oral diseases namely periodontal diseases and dental caries has been
foundto vary from region to region among the general population. Studies have
found that the prevalence and severity of these diseases and other oral
conditionsis higher among People Living with the Acquired Immuno-Deficiency
Syndrome (PLWHA) than HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) seronegative
persons.The PLWHA also tend to suffer from other types of oral diseases which
are either very rare or do not occur in the oral cavity among seronegative
individuals. Studies have found to a large extent, that oral diseases can be
effectively prevented by oral health education among the general population.
However, the impact of oral health education on oral diseases and conditions
amongPLWHA is unknown in Kenya.
Objective
To determine the impact of oral health education on the oral health status and
Oral Health-Related quality (OHRQoL) of life among PLWHA.
Study Design: This was a quasi-experimental study
Study sites: The study was conducted at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)
(intervention group) and Mbagathi District Hospital (MDH) (non-intervention
group) Comprehensive Care Centers (CCC).

DR GITAU WILSON, PROF OGALLO LABAN, PROF CAMBERLIN PIERRE, DR OKOOLA RAPHAEL. "Spatial coherence and potential predictability assessment of intraseasonal statistics of wet and dry spells over Equatorial Eastern Africa." International Journal of Climatology. 2013;33(12):2690-2705.Abstract weblink
DR GITAU WILSON, DR OLUDHE CHRISTOPHER, PROF OGALLO LABAN, MR ATHERU ZACHARY, MR AMBENJE PETER. "[Regional Climates] Eastern Africa [in "State of the Climate in 2011"]." Bulletin of America Meteorological Society. 2012;93(7):S180-S182.
Dr Karimi PN. Etiology, Risk Factors And Management Of Infectious Diarrhoea In Children At Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2010. Abstract

Background: Infectious diarrhea is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries.
World Health Organization attributes 3.5 million deaths a year to diarrhea, with 80 percent of these deaths
occurring in children under the age of five, and most occurring in children between six months and three
years of age. The predisposing factors are mainly due to poor hygiene and most of the cases can be
treated using drugs and supportive measures. Prevention is the main intervention strategy used to prevent
this disease.
Objective: The main objective was to assess the factors that predispose children to diarrhea. The specific
factors assessed were prevalence of bacteria, protozoa, and helminthes, antimicrobial susceptibility of
bacteria, risk factors and management of diarrhea.
Methods: A cross section research design was used and target population was children suffering from
diarrhea and accompanied by their guardians who visited KNH to seek treatment. Three hundred and
eighty four children were selected for the study using simple random sampling. Data was collected using a
questionnaire and stool specimens analyzed in microbiology and parasitology laboratories of Kenyatta
National Hospital. The analysis of data was done using SPSS and data summarized in tables and charts.
Both inferential and descriptive statistics were derived using chi square and confidence intervals.
Results: Majority of the children were between 6-12 months of age and there were more males than
females. The average duration of diarrhea was 4.55 days and majority had suffered from the disease
before. Most of the parents had a certain level of formal education. The fathers had a source of income but
most of the mothers were either self employed or not employed at all. Tap water and toilet facilities were
available to most families and about half of the children had malnutrition.
No organisms were found from the stools of 80.2% of the children. The pathogens isolated were Giardia
lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli, Cryptosporidium petvum, Entamoeba coli, Blastocystis
hominis, Endolimax nana, Chilomastix mesnili, Trichiuris trichiura, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella
paratyphi. Bacteria isolated were sensitive to Ciprofioxacin and Levofioxacin but resisted most of the other
drugs tested.
xu
The risks found to be associated with diarrhea were overcrowding, inadequate hand washing methods,
mixed feeding, none or low level of education of the mother and administration of antibiotics. Majority of the
children had concurrent illnesses and the most common were pneumonia, meningitis, malaria, rickets and
malnutrition. Drugs were mainly prescribed to treat concurrent diseases. The most commonly prescribed
drugs were Zinc Sulphate, Paracetamol, Benzyl penicillin G, Gentamicin, Metronidazole, Multivitamin, Coamoxiclav,
Cefuroxime and Calcimax. ORS was most frequently used fluid and the intravenous ones
included Ringers lactate, Darrows solution, 5% Detrose, Hartmans solution, normal saline and Rehydration
salt for the malnourished.
Conclusion
Only a small proportion of diarrhea in children was caused by intestinal protozoa, helminthes or bacteria.
Majority of the cases occurred during weaning and rehydration was the comerstone of diarrhea
management Most of the drugs used were mainly for treating concurrent illnesses.
Recommendation
Mothers should be taught how to wean children especially on the type of food to use. They should also be
educated on proper hygienic practices especially washing of hands. Bottle feeding should be discouraged
and rational use of antibiotics encouraged

Dr Kayima JK. Platelet functions, plasma fibrinolytic activity And coagulation screen findings in africans with nephrotic syndrome without uraemia, as seen at the kenyatta national hospital (kne.; 1981. Abstract

In a nine months period,from March 1987 to November

1987, inc1usiv€, studies on p1ac21et functions, pla$ma fibrinolytic activity and coagulation screen were carried out in 40 patients (30 males and 10 females) with the nephrotic syndrome and 40 matches controls at the Kenyatta
National Hospital. The age range was S-Sl years, mean + SD

20.5+11.6.

patients had unchanged platelet counts and clot retraction compared to controls (p>O.OS), whereas platelet adhesiveness and platelet agg~egation to adenosine diphosphate U",DP) were significantly reduced among patients (P0.05) as well as between plasma fibrinogen concentration and total cholesterol (r=0.25, P>0.05).
It is concluded that our patients have a degree of hype-rcoagulability. Whether the factors for and against hypercoagulabiJ .ity compensate f cr each other in the causation of complications need to be verified. A larger populatibn and more detailed haemostatic study will in future be needed to cover more nephrotic patients in different areas of the country. It is also necessary to folIo w up ou r pat ient s f or complicat ions resul ting from
this hypercoagulable state, like thromboembolic events and

is.c!haemic heart diseas.e to find ou.t.. their pre...lence .

and

contr.ibutionto morbidity and mortality among Africans with

nephrotic syndrome.

DR Oduor RMJ. "Identity.Politics.in.the.Twenty-first.Century:. A.Kenyan.Perspective." Identity.Politics.in.the.Twenty-first.CA.Kenyan.Perspective. . Reginald.M.J..Oduor. (Universität.Nairobi,.Kenia). 2014.rmj_oduor_identity_politics_in_the_twenty-first_century_a_kenyan_perspective_abstract_free_university_berlin_2014.pdf
DR OLUDHE CHRISTOPHER, PROF OGALLO LABAN, MR AMBENJE PETER, MR ATHERU ZACHARY, DR GITAU WILSON. "[Regional Climates] Eastern Africa [in "State of the Climate in 2010"]." Bulletin of America Meteorological Society. 2011;92(6):S194-S196.
Dr Onyambu C.K, Dr Mzumara S.S DKNM. "EVALUATING CHAMBERLAIN’S, McGREGOR’S, AND McRAE’S SKULL-BASE." East African Medical Journal. 2012;89(8):272-277.
Dr Onyambu C.K DWMN. "PATTERN OF INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE AS SEEN BY HIGH RESOLUTION." East African Medical Journal. 2012;89(9):285-293.
DR. WILSON-GITAU, PROF. LABAN-OGALLO, DR. JOSEPH-MUTEMI. "Intraseasonal characteristics of wet and dry spells over Kenya." Journal of Meteorology and Related Sciences. 2008;2(1):18-28.Weblink
DR. FAITH-GITHUI, MR. WILSON-GITAU, PROF. WILLY-BAUMENS, PROF. FRANCIS-MUTUA. "Climate change impact on SWAT simulated streamflow in Western Kenya." International Journal of Climatology. 2008;29(12):1823-1834.Weblink
DR. CHRISTOPHER-OLUDHE, PROF. LABAN-OGALLO, MR. PETER-AMBENJE, MR. ZACHARY-ATHERU, MR. WILSON-GITAU. "[Regional Climates] Eastern Africa [in "State of the Climate in 2009"]." Bulletin of America Meteorological Society. 2010;91(7):S154-S156.
DR. PIERRE-CAMBERLIN, DR. VINCENT-MORON, DR. RAPHAEL-OKOOLA, DR. NATHALIE-PHILIPHON, MR. WILSON-GITAU. "Components of rainy seasons variability in Equatorial East Africa: Onset, cessation, rainfall frequency and intensity." Theoretical and Applied Climatology. 2009;98(3-4):237-249.Weblink
DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "T. Darnhofer, D. Gatama, P. A. Huxley and E. M. W. Akunda. The rainfall distribution at a tree/crop interface.". In: In: Meteorology and Agroforestry. (1987). p. 371 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
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DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M.W Akunda. Improving Food Production by Understanding the effects of intercropping and plant population on soybean nitrogen fixing attributes.". In: The journal of Food technology in Africa. Vol. 6 No. 4, 110 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M.W Akunda. Inter cropping and population density effects on yield component, seed quality and photosynthesis of sorgum and soybean.". In: The journal of Food technology in Africa. Vol. 6 No. 3, 96 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M. W. Akunda, S. K. Imbamba and D. Kumar. Responses of coffee Arabia to pruning in Kenya.". In: Journal of science and technology (B) (1982) 3: 83 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1982. Abstract
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DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "P. A. Oduol and E. M. W. Akunda. Tropical rainforest tree species with Agroforesty potential.". In: In: trees for development in sub-Saharan Africa. (1989) p. 49 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1989. Abstract
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DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M. W. Akunda. Notes on theory of distribution and inferences in statistics for statistics in Agriculture climatology.". In: (SAIC . Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M. W. Akunda, S. K. Imbamba and D. Kumar. High density plantings of coffee II. Adaptive changes in some plant characteristics.". In: E. Afri. Agri. For. J. (1979) 45(2) 133 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1973. Abstract
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DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M.W Akunda. Some aspect of logical way of studying dinitrogen fixation in an agroforestry context for improving food production.". In: The journal of Food technology in Africa. Vol. 6 No. 2, 68 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

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