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2011
2009
JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Othieno, CJ; Obondo, A; Mathai, M; Loewenson, R EQUINET PRA paper: Improving adherence to ante-retroviral treatment for people with harmful alcohol use in Kariobangi, Kenya.". In: Equinet. Equinet; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study aimed to explore the understanding of and factors in adherence to ARV treatment in people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) who are engaged in harmful alcohol use and to intervene on prioritised factors to improve adherence, using participatory research and action (PRA) methods. We sought to determine the perceptions of and understanding of alcohol abuse and ARV treatment among PLWHA, their peers, family members and health workers. We aimed to increase collaboration between the mental health workers from clinic and hospital level and the community to respond to identified barriers to improve adherence to ARV treatment in PLWHA who use alcohol in a socio-economically deprived urban area in Nairobi (Kariobangi). The work was implemented within an EQUINET programme that aimed to build capacities in participatory action research to explore dimensions of (and impediments to delivery of) Primary Health Care responses to HIV and AIDS. The majority of the PLWHA included in the study were socially disadvantaged, unemployed, and with low education. Social support was equally poor since a large number were widowed, separated or divorced. Most of the PLWHA who participated were single or divorced women, some of them admitted that they sometimes engaged in commercial sex to cater for their basic needs. These factors, together with poor health, limited their economic opportunities and security. In this context, alcohol use, noted by PLWHA, community members and health workers to be prevalent in the community, is not only encouraged by poor living and social conditions, but also by cost (it is relatively cheap) and by the social pressure to use alcohol to escape the mental stress caused by poverty. This is exacerbated by social attitudes that do not discourage alcohol use, and misconceptions that in fact encourage alcohol use, such as that alcohol can kill the HIV virus. This study suggests that the problem of alcohol abuse is poorly recognised for both communities and health workers: It was generally under reported to services, with low numbers of people on ARVs reported to have alcohol related problems, so that health workers see only a small share of the problem. A survey of the local health centres providing ARVs showed that screening for alcohol use was not routinely done and protocols for managing alcohol related disorders were not available. For PLWHA on ARVs, there are already challenges in dealing with the timing, frequency of medication and appointments and the availability and cost of food to support treatment. For PLWHA who use alcohol these difficulties are compounded. There are a range of services in the community that could potentially address these barriers that are involved in nutrition, psychosocial, medical care, PHC, HIV prevention and treatment services, counselling, social, legal, information and referral support for PLWHA. However these do not explicitly deal with the treatment of alcohol and drug related problems in the community or the needs of PLWHA on ARVs who use alcohol, and their adherence to treatment. Reflecting on these problems, the participants implemented a programme of counselling and education. The health workers were taught how to use the AUDIT in identifying problem drinkers and how to recognise and manage alcohol related disorders such as withdrawal fits. The PLWHA and their family members were encouraged to support one another and to identify symptoms of harmful alcohol use among themselves. The process was perceived by those involved to have reduced the harmful use of alcohol in those involved; to have made some improvements in community and health service support; in management of mental health and communication with families and in reducing stigma around alcohol use and HIV. The scores of the PLWHA on the repeat AUDIT questionnaire were however significantly lower than the baseline level.
2008
JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Wagoro M C A, Othieno C J, Musandu J & Karani A (2008). Structure and Process Factors That Influence Patients.". In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. Equinet; 2008. Abstractstructure_and_process_factors_that_influence_patients_perception_of_inpatient_psychiatric_nursing_care_at_mathari_hospital__nairobi.pdf

To explore structure and process factors which influence patients' perception of quality inpatient psychiatric nursing care at Mathari hospital. This was a cross-sectional study of 236 inpatients selected by stratified random sampling. Competence to give consent was determined by a minimum score of 24 on Mini Mental State Examination. Patients were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Differences in proportions of variables were determined by calculating confidence interval and summary chi-squared statistics. P-values of < or =0.05 were considered significant. Majority of patients (87%) were aged 20-49 years with 43% having stayed in the ward for over a month. Structure factors related to patients' perception of care included physical environment, being happy with the way the ward looked was significantly related to satisfaction with care (chi(2) = 5.506, P = 0002). Process factors significantly related to patients' satisfaction with care included nurses providing patients with information on prescribed medicines (chi(2) = 10.50, P = 00012). Satisfaction with care was positively related to ability to recommend someone for admission in the same ward (chi(2) = 20.2, P = 00001). Structure and process factors identified as influencing patients' perception of care were physical environment and nurses' qualities that fit within the characteristics of Peplau's Interpersonal Relations Theory.

2007
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Kanyanya I M, Othieno C J & Ndetei D M (2007). Psychiatric morbidity among male sex offenders at Kamiti Prison, Kenya, East African Medical Journal,, Vol. 84 no 4, 151-155.". In: East African Medical Journal,, Vol. 84 no 4, 151-155. Equinet; 2007. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the prevalence and distribution of psychiatric morbidity among convicted male sex offenders and to establish factors associated with sexual offending. Design: A Cross-sectional descriptive survey. Setting: Kamiti Maximum Security Prison, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Seventy six male convicts. Results: Forty seven (61.8%) had defilement-related convictions, 23 (30.3%) had rape-related, while six (7.9%) had other convictions. Twenty seven (35.5%) out of 76 had a DSM-IV Axis I disorder, majority of whom (71.1 %) were dependent on or abused substances, and 26 (34.2%) had an Axis II disorder, most of whom had antisocial and impulsive personality disorders (46.2%). Of these 12 (15.8%) had an Axis I diagnosis alone, 11 (14.5%) had an Axis II diagnosis alone while 15 (19.7%) had both Axis I and II diagnoses, that is, co-morbidity. Exposure to erotica was statistically associated with both Axis I and II (p = 0.02 and p = 0.0003 respectively) and pre-occupation with thoughts about sex was associated with Axis II disorders (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Most of those with psychiatric morbidity targeted children and had antisocial or impulsive personality disorder. Awareness campaigns to enlighten the public of the fact that children are the most common victims and research to determine ways of treating and rehabilitating sexual offenders could reduce the vice.
W DRKURIAMARY, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Mareko G M, Othieno C J, Kuria M W, Kiarie J N & Ndetei D M (2007). Body Dysmorphic Disorder: a case report. East African Medical Journal. Vol. 84 no, 9 450-452.". In: East African Medical Journal, Vol. 84 no, 9 450-452. Equinet; 2007. Abstract
The desire for self-mutilation in the absence of any discernible psychopathology is relatively rare. Self-mutilation is most commonly a manifestation of an underlying psychopathology such as depression, schizophrenia, personality disorder, transexuality, body dysmorphic disorder and factitious disorder. In this article, a case in which a 29-year-old single Kenyan lady of African origin demanded a surgical operation to modify and reduce the size of her external genitalia is presented. Although female genital mutilation is still widespread in the country, this case is of interest in that the woman did not seek the usual circumcision but sought to specifically reduce the size of her labia minora so that she could feel like a normal woman. The unique challenges in her management are discussed. Possible aetiological factors in patients who demand surgical removal or modification of parts of their bodies without an obvious cause is discussed.
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei D M, Ongecha F A, Khasakhala L, Syanda J, Mutiso V, Othieno C J, Odhiambo G & Kokonya D A (2007). Bullying in public secondary schools in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Vol. 19 (1), 45-55.". In: Journal. Equinet; 2007. Abstract
Background: The prevalence and frequency of bullying in Nairobi public secondary schools in particular and in Kenyan schools in general is not known. Knowledge of the extent of the problem is essential in developing effective interventions. Aim: To study the prevalence and frequency of bullying in Nairobi public secondary schools, Kenya. Methods: A self-report sociodemographic questionnaire and the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire of 1991 were administered to 1 012 students from a stratified sample of public secondary schools in Nairobi. Results: Between 63.2% (640) and 81.8% (828) of students reported various types of bullying, both direct and indirect, with significant variations found for sex, age, class and year of study, whether in day or boarding school, and the place where bullied. Being bullied was significantly associated with becoming a bully, in turn. Discussion: Bullying is highly prevalent in Kenyan schools. Further studies are needed to characterise bullies and victims in terms of personality and environmental factors that may be associated with or conducive to bullying, as well as to determine the long-term prognosis for both bullies and victims. Further research is also required to determine the most appropriate intervention.
2006
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V, Ongecha FA, Kokonya DA, Omar A, Gakinya B, Mwangi J. Psychometric properties of an African symptoms check list scale: the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):280-7. PMID: 16866223 [PubMed - indexed.". In: Africa Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies, 6(1): 54-63. 2007. Equinet; 2006. Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Othieno C J, Rono R & Ndetei D M. Human Learning, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, 55-58.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, 55-58. Equinet; 2006. Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Othieno C J, Rono R & Ndetei D M. Human Motivation and Emotions, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp. 59-61.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp. 59-61. Equinet; 2006. Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Othieno C J, Rono R, Sebit M B & Ndetei D M. Memory and Forgetting, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp. 62-65.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp. 62-65. Equinet; 2006. Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Othieno C J, Abdelrahman A, Ndetei D M, Sebit M B, Musisi S, Kilonzo G & Zsabo P. Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research F.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, 87-303. Equinet; 2006. Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Othieno C J, Abdelrahman A, Sebit M B, Musisi S, Ndetei D M & Ovuga E, HIV/AIDS Mental Health. In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 3.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 320-328. Equinet; 2006. Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Othieno C J & Ndetei D M. Sleep disorders, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp. 389-401.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp. 389-401. Equinet; 2006. Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei D M, Othieno C J, Kilonzo G & Mburu J. Epilepsy, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 348-359.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 348-359. Equinet; 2006. Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei D M, Othieno C J & Kilonzo G. Mood disorders. In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 190-213.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 190-213. Equinet; 2006. Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
R DROWITIFREDRICK, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei D M, Othieno C J, Owiti F, Sebit M B, Kilonzo G. Organic disorders, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 329-347.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 329-347. Equinet; 2006. Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
2005
JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Makanyengo MA, Othieno CJ, Okech VC. Consultation liaison psychiatry at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Feb;82(2):79-84.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Feb;82(2):79-84. Equinet; 2005. Abstract

Objectives: To describe the psychiatric services offered at Kenyatta National Hospital and the types
of patients and cases seen at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A retrospective study based on case notes and other hospital records.
Settings: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.
Subjects : All patients seen in the various psychiatric clinics and those who attended the Patient
Support Centre Unit in the hospital in the year 2002.
Results : In the year 2002, 598,119 patients were treated at KNH out of which 6,878 (1.15%) were
seen in the psychiatric clinics: 1,709 adults and 1,412 children were referred to the various psychiatric
clinics. At the hospital's Patient Support Centre (PSC) 3,454 patients were seen, mostly for pre and
post-HIV test counselling. Consultations from the wards accounted for 332 (9.6%) of the cases referred
to PSC. The main diagnoses among the latter in order of frequency were alcohol related psychiatric
disorders, acute and transient psychoses, depressive disorders, dissociative and conversion disorders
and dementia.
Conclusion : In view of the high load of acute and transient psychotic states, as well as substance
related disorders, it is recommended that the hospital should establish acute wards for the
comprehensive management of such patients. An alcohol and drug detoxification and rehabilitation
centre should also be developed at the hospital. Services to those with HIV related disorders should also
be improved.

M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei DM, Rono RC, Mwangi SW, Ototo B, Alaro J, Esakwa M, Mwangi J, Kamau A, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V. Psychological effects of the Nairobi US embassy bomb blast on pregnant women and their children. World Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;4(1):50-2.". In: World Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;4(1):50-2. Equinet; 2005. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi/Africa Mental Health Foundation, Ralph Bunche Road, P.O. Box 48423-00100, Nairobi, Kenya; A descriptive study was carried out in pregnant women who were affected by the 1998 bomb blast in Nairobi, Kenya, and their babies who were in utero at the time of the blast. The psychological effects of the event on the exposed women were severe. After three years, the average score on the Impact of Event Scale - Revised was still higher than 29 for the three subscales combined, suggesting that most of the study group was still suffering from clinical post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The scores on all Childhood Personality Scale (CPS) subscales were significantly higher in children of the study group than in controls. The mothers' PTSD symptom levels at one month after the blast correlated with the children's CPS profiles.

M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, A DROBONDOANNE, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Kisivuli J A, Othieno C J, Mburu J M, Kathuku D M, Obondo A A & Nasokho P W (2005). Psychiatric morbidity among leprosy patients in Teso and Busia Districts of Western Kenya. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 82 no9, 452-456.". In: Journal. Equinet; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To establish the magnitude of psychiatric disorders among leprosy patients in western Kenya. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Busia and Teso districts in western Kenya. SUBJECTS: A sample of 152 male and female, adult leprosy patients. RESULTS: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity (PM) was 53.29%. The PM was positively correlated with physical disability and marital status but not with age, sex, education, type of leprosy, or duration of the illness. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was lower among Kenyan leprosy patients compared to studies carried out in India (56% to 78%). It was high compared to the rate of psychiatric morbidity in those seeking medical help in primary health care centres in Kenya, which was recently estimated to be 10%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PM in leprosy patients in western Kenya was lower than that in studies carried out in India. This could be attributed to de-institutionalisation and re-integration of leprosy sufferers back into their local communities. Since the rate was more than double that in the general Kenyan population and seemed to be related to presence of physical disability, an appraisal of psychiatric services offered to these patients is needed.
JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Njenga F G & Othieno C J. (2005). Mental Health Research in Africa, pp 298-302. In Eds. Njenga F G, Acuda W, Patel V & Maj M. Essentials of Clinical Psychiatry for sub-Saharan Africa. Masson. Milano, Italy.". In: Journal. Equinet; 2005. Abstract
This chapter captures the origins and current status of mental health research in Africa and emphasizes the challenges, current and past, pointing out ways in which they might be overcome. It also gives brief hints to think further on the potential of mental health research in Africa. Of course, the chapter is not intended to be a comprehensive overview or a complete guide to research.
2004
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ongecha-Owuor FA, Kathuku DM, Othieno CJ, Ndetei DM.Post traumatic stress disorder among motor vehicle accident survivors attending the orthopaedic and trauma clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2004 Jul;81(7):362-6. PMID: 15490.". In: Journal. Equinet; 2004. Abstract
Mathari Hospital, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence rate of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated risk factors among motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors attending the orthopaedic and trauma clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: One hundred and ninety seven adult males and sixty seven female patients. METHOD: The 264 patients were interviewed using a questionnaire to collect the socio-demographic data, the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Diagnosis was made using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). RESULTS: The mean age was 34.63+/-12.71 years (range 18-65). Overall, the prevalence rate of PTSD was 13.3%. None of the cases had been previously diagnosed as having PTSD. Females had a higher rate of 17.9% (n = 67), compared to the males 11.7% (n=197). The majority of those with PTSD (42.9%) were young, 20 - 29 years. Other risk factors were having post-primary education (62.9%), experiencing the first motor vehicle accident (14.1%), previous psychiatric illness, and other medical illnesses. The type of accident, role/status and immediate reactions to the accident were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: PTSD following motor vehicle accidents is common. Although the MVA survivors do develop significant rates of PTSD, it is not easy to identify those at risk but some of the parameters documented in this study may help. A multi disciplinary approach is therefore essential in the management of the RTA survivors at the orthopaedic and trauma clinics if their physical and psychological needs are to be adequately addressed PMID: 15490709 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Gakinya B, Ndumbu A, Omar A, Kokonya DA, Ongecha FA, Mutiso V, Oketch V, Mwangi J.Traumatic grief in Kenyan bereaved parents following the Kyanguli School fire tragedy. World Psychiatry. 2004 Feb;3(1):50-3. PMID: 16633455 [PubMed].". In: World Psychiatry. 2004 Feb;3(1):50-3. Equinet; 2004. Abstract
Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
2003
JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Othieno C J. Psychiatry of HIV/AIDS. East Afr Med J. 2003 Oct;80(10):501-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Oct;80(10):501-2. Equinet; 2003. Abstract
Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
2002
M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Gatere N, Othieno CJ, Kathuku DM. Prevalence of tardive dyskinesia among psychiatric in-patients at Mathari Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):547-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):547-9. Equinet; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of tardive dyskinesia among psychiatric in-patients. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Mathari Hospital, Nairobi, the main psychiatric referral hospital in Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and two randomly selected in-patients seen in the hospital between January and April 2000. RESULTS: The prevalence of tardive dyskinesia was 11.9%. Neither the psychiatric diagnosis nor the sex was significantly associated with tardive dyskinesia. The antipsychotic dosage was also not associated with tardive dyskinesia but an increase in age was significantly associated with the abnormal movements. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate of tardive dyskinesia among patients at Mathari Hospital is much lower than that found in western countries but similar to that from Asian studies. These findings indicate the possibility of racial differences in the aetiology of TD. Prospective cross-racial studies are necessary to confirm these findings.
2001
A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Othieno C. J., Obondo A. A., Kathuku D. M., and Ndetei D. M. (2001). Patterns of substance use among Kenya street Children.Southern African Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Vol. 12, no. 2: 154-150.". In: Southern African Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Vol. 12, no. 2: 154-150. Equinet; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of tardive dyskinesia among psychiatric in-patients. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Mathari Hospital, Nairobi, the main psychiatric referral hospital in Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and two randomly selected in-patients seen in the hospital between January and April 2000. RESULTS: The prevalence of tardive dyskinesia was 11.9%. Neither the psychiatric diagnosis nor the sex was significantly associated with tardive dyskinesia. The antipsychotic dosage was also not associated with tardive dyskinesia but an increase in age was significantly associated with the abnormal movements. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate of tardive dyskinesia among patients at Mathari Hospital is much lower than that found in western countries but similar to that from Asian studies. These findings indicate the possibility of racial differences in the aetiology of TD. Prospective cross-racial studies are necessary to confirm these findings.
JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Othieno C. J., Okech V. C. A., Omondi J. A. and Makanyengo M. A., (2001).How Kenyan physicians treat mental disorders. East African Medical Journal. Vol. 78, No.4: 204-207.". In: East African Medical Journal. Vol. 78, No.4: 204-207. Equinet; 2001. Abstract

Objectives: To determine the psychological problems the non-psychiatric doctors commonly encounter, the treatment offered and/or referrals made and to determine any obstacles met in providing psychiatric treatment or making referrals. Design: Cross- sectional survey. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Doctors working at Kenyatta National Hospital. Results: One hundred and thirty (94 males and 36 females) doctors subm .t .J usable questionnaires. Seventy eight per cent of the respondents were below 35 years and 57 had less than five years experience. The commonest psychiatric disorders seen by doctors were anxiety, depression, psychosomatic disorders and organic psychoses similar to findings in previous prevalence studies. Drugs therapy with anxiolytics antidepressants and antipsychotics were commonly utilised. Brief counselling was the verbal form of treatment most commonly used. Referral to mental health workers was less often done. Obstacles cited by the doctors were the patients' resistance to referral, lack of coordination and insufficient knowledge to treat the disorders. Conclusion: The doctors recognise that psychiatric disorders are common among their patients but they have major obstacles in managing them. These findings are discussed and remedial measures suggested.

2000
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Othieno C. J., Kathuku D. M., and Ndetei D. M. (2000). Substance use in outpatients attending rural and urban health centres in Kenya. East African Medical Journal Vol. 77 no. 11; 592-595.". In: East African Medical Journal Vol. 77 no. 11; 592-595. Equinet; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of substance use among patients attending primary health centres in urban and rural areas of Kenya. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional prevalence survey. SETTING: Urban health centres of Jericho and Kenyatta University (KU) and rural health centres in Muranga district. SUBJECTS: One hundred and fifty adult patients (seventy eight males and seventy two females) were included in the study. INTERVENTION: Semi-structured questionnaires and the DSM IV diagnostic criteria were used to record the socio-demographic data and to determine substance dependence or abuse. RESULTS: The substances commonly used in descending order of frequency were alcohol, tobacco, khat and cannabis. Only alcohol and tobacco were extensively used. Lifetime prevalence rates of alcohol use for the two urban health centres were 54% and 62% compared to 54% for the rural health centres. For tobacco the lifetime prevalence rates were 30% for Jericho, 28% for KU and 38% for Muranga. The differences between the rural and urban samples were not statistically significant. More males than females had used alcohol (average lifetime use 80.8% for males compared to 30.6% for females: p<0.05) and tobacco (average lifetime use 56.4% for males compared to 5.6% for females p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The rates of substance abuse were generally low with the exception of alcohol and tobacco. Socio-cultural factors might be responsible for the differences noted. It is suggested that preventive measures and education should be emphasised at the primary care level.
1999
JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Othieno C. J. (1999). Somatization among Kenyan neurotics .". In: Ife Psychologia an International Journal. Vol 7 no 2: 163-178. Equinet; 1999. Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei D. M, Othieno C J, Kathuku D M & Dech H. Trans-cultural Psychopathology and Mental Health Services .". In: Paper presented at the XI World Congress of Psychiatry, August 6-11, 1999, Hanburg, Germany. Equinet; 1999. Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

1998
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei D. M., Kathuku D. M., Othieno C. J. Et al (1998). Final report on economic politico-social aspects of illicit drug trades i n Kenya. A United Nations Drug Control Programme Study. University of Nairobi.". In: Paper presented at the XI World Congress of Psychiatry, August 6-11, 1999, Hanburg, Germany. Equinet; 1998. Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

1996
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Dech H, Ndetei DM,Richter P, Kathuku DM,Sandermann S, Othieno C, Mundt Ch (1996): Symptomatology of Depression - Results from a Kenyan Population. 10th. World Congress of Psychiatry, S. 172, Madrid (A).". In: Paper presented at the XI World Congress of Psychiatry, August 6-11, 1999, Hanburg, Germany. Equinet; 1996. Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Sanderman S, Dech H, Othieno C J, Kathuku D M & Ndetei D M (1996). NOK-African-Depression-Scale: Die Generierung einer kulturspezifischen Symptomskala zur Depressionsmessung in Afrika (NOK-African depression scale: the generation of a culture-specific sym.". In: Paper presented at the XI World Congress of Psychiatry, August 6-11, 1999, Hanburg, Germany. Equinet; 1996. Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Sandermann S, Dech H, Othieno CJ, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM (1996): Die Generierung einer kulturspezifischen Symptomskala zur Depressionsmessung. , 19: 283-294.". In: Curare. Curare; 1996. Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

1995
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Dech H., Richter P., Sanderman S., Othieno C. J. Kathuku D. M., Detei D. M. and Mundt C (1995). Transcultural research on depression 0- study concept and preliminary results vortrag. World psychiatric Association .". In: World psychiatric Association . Curare; 1995. Abstract
Transcultural psychiatry, whose scientific founder Emil Kraepelin is considered as, in its 100 years of tradition has not only developed a varied range of methods but has also brought about a change in the respective scientific questions as well as in related research and clinical applications. Whereas transcultural research on the psychopathology of depression contributed to the further development of psychiatric nosology, transcultural psychiatry has recently been increasingly faced with issues concerning phenomena of social change and globalization. One region, where such conditions can be observed in particular is Africa, where the dissolving of traditional standards and support systems and growing economic insecurity causes a considerable burden especially on women. As an example, results from a cross-sectional study on East African women using a two step design as well as qualitative and quantitative, standardized psychiatric methods are discussed concerning the association of social change, psycho-social risk factors and the development of depressive disorders. Efficient clinical methods towards diagnosis and treatment of new risk groups will have to be developed, of which an important aspect will be crisis intervention.
JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Dech H, Richter P, Sanderman S, Othieno C J, Kathuku D M, Ndetei D M & Mundt C (1995). Trans-cultural research on depression .". In: European Psychiatric Journal. European Psychiatric Journal; 1995. Abstract
Transcultural psychiatry, whose scientific founder Emil Kraepelin is considered as, in its 100 years of tradition has not only developed a varied range of methods but has also brought about a change in the respective scientific questions as well as in related research and clinical applications. Whereas transcultural research on the psychopathology of depression contributed to the further development of psychiatric nosology, transcultural psychiatry has recently been increasingly faced with issues concerning phenomena of social change and globalization. One region, where such conditions can be observed in particular is Africa, where the dissolving of traditional standards and support systems and growing economic insecurity causes a considerable burden especially on women. As an example, results from a cross-sectional study on East African women using a two step design as well as qualitative and quantitative, standardized psychiatric methods are discussed concerning the association of social change, psycho-social risk factors and the development of depressive disorders. Efficient clinical methods towards diagnosis and treatment of new risk groups will have to be developed, of which an important aspect will be crisis intervention.
1992
JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Mulindi S. A. Z. and C. Otieno: .". In: Reveu de Psychosomatique, Paris 1992. European Psychiatric Journal; 1992. Abstract
Transcultural psychiatry, whose scientific founder Emil Kraepelin is considered as, in its 100 years of tradition has not only developed a varied range of methods but has also brought about a change in the respective scientific questions as well as in related research and clinical applications. Whereas transcultural research on the psychopathology of depression contributed to the further development of psychiatric nosology, transcultural psychiatry has recently been increasingly faced with issues concerning phenomena of social change and globalization. One region, where such conditions can be observed in particular is Africa, where the dissolving of traditional standards and support systems and growing economic insecurity causes a considerable burden especially on women. As an example, results from a cross-sectional study on East African women using a two step design as well as qualitative and quantitative, standardized psychiatric methods are discussed concerning the association of social change, psycho-social risk factors and the development of depressive disorders. Efficient clinical methods towards diagnosis and treatment of new risk groups will have to be developed, of which an important aspect will be crisis intervention.
2001
N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. ""Positioning Your Bank For Survival" - Sokoni January .". In: Journal of the Marketing Society of Kenya (MSK)). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
KIMONYE M. "National Council of Women of Kenya HIV facts handbook.". In: Journal of the Marketing Society of Kenya (MSK)). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2001. Abstract

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Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.

1999
N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. "National Council of Women of Kenya/USAID Brochures on.". In: (An article in National Council of Women of Kenya). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1999. Abstract

Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.

N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. "National Council of Women of Kenya Civic education handbook.". In: (An article in National Council of Women of Kenya). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1998
N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. "National Council of Women of Kenya. Leadership Education Training Manual.". In: (An article in the Journal of the Marketing Students Association - University of Nairobi). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1996
N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. "Kenya College of Accountancy. Training manual for the course .". In: (Journal of the Marketing Students Association). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1996. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1994
N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. "Strathmore College Training Manual for the course, .". In: (Journal of the Marketing Students Association). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
2000
CHARLES DROWUOROLUNGAH. "Differential behaviour patterns between men and women in a social gathering: The case of a discotheque.". In: Reveu de Psychosomatique, Paris 1992. European Psychiatric Journal; 2000. Abstract
Transcultural psychiatry, whose scientific founder Emil Kraepelin is considered as, in its 100 years of tradition has not only developed a varied range of methods but has also brought about a change in the respective scientific questions as well as in related research and clinical applications. Whereas transcultural research on the psychopathology of depression contributed to the further development of psychiatric nosology, transcultural psychiatry has recently been increasingly faced with issues concerning phenomena of social change and globalization. One region, where such conditions can be observed in particular is Africa, where the dissolving of traditional standards and support systems and growing economic insecurity causes a considerable burden especially on women. As an example, results from a cross-sectional study on East African women using a two step design as well as qualitative and quantitative, standardized psychiatric methods are discussed concerning the association of social change, psycho-social risk factors and the development of depressive disorders. Efficient clinical methods towards diagnosis and treatment of new risk groups will have to be developed, of which an important aspect will be crisis intervention.
CHARLES DROWUOROLUNGAH. "The Interaction between Ethnomedicine and Biomedicine in community healthcare.". In: Reveu de Psychosomatique, Paris 1992. European Psychiatric Journal; 2000. Abstract
Transcultural psychiatry, whose scientific founder Emil Kraepelin is considered as, in its 100 years of tradition has not only developed a varied range of methods but has also brought about a change in the respective scientific questions as well as in related research and clinical applications. Whereas transcultural research on the psychopathology of depression contributed to the further development of psychiatric nosology, transcultural psychiatry has recently been increasingly faced with issues concerning phenomena of social change and globalization. One region, where such conditions can be observed in particular is Africa, where the dissolving of traditional standards and support systems and growing economic insecurity causes a considerable burden especially on women. As an example, results from a cross-sectional study on East African women using a two step design as well as qualitative and quantitative, standardized psychiatric methods are discussed concerning the association of social change, psycho-social risk factors and the development of depressive disorders. Efficient clinical methods towards diagnosis and treatment of new risk groups will have to be developed, of which an important aspect will be crisis intervention.
CHARLES DROWUOROLUNGAH. "Caring for the Un-born: Antenatal Care in a Socio-cultural context.". In: Reveu de Psychosomatique, Paris 1992. European Psychiatric Journal; 2000. Abstract
Caring for the Un-born: Antenatal Care in a Socio-cultural context.
2010
MALLANS DRRAMBOCHARLES. "Charles M. Rambo and Paul A. Odundo; FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE LEARNERS.". In: The Fountain Journal Vol. IV No. 2. European Psychiatric Journal; 2010.
2009
MALLANS DRRAMBOCHARLES. "DR. RAMBO CHARLES, FINANCING DISTANCE LEARNING IN KENYA: A FOCUS ON BACHELOR OF EDUCATION ( ARTS) OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI ( PHD THESIS TITLE).". In: PHD THESIS. European Psychiatric Journal; 2009. Abstract

Distance Learning programme enhances equitable access to higher education in Kenya. The Bachelor of Education (Arts) by distance learning was initiated at the University of Nairobi nearly two decades ago to enable teachers upgrade their skills for improved service delivery. Learners in this programme are expected to finance their education from own resources. However, the rising cost of living delays completion of the programme by up to 30%, as resources are diverted to cater for immediate family needs. Data from the School of Continuing and Distance Education (SCDE) and University of Nairobi Enterprises and Services Limited (UNES) for 2006 show that out of a total enrollment of 6,740 learners, only 4,467 (66%) were actively pursuing the course; implying that about 2,273 (33%) were inactive mainly because of financial constraints. The situation is attributed to limited financing programmes at the national level. Although HELB was established to further higher education, limited financial support from the exchequer makes it difficult to provide assistance to learners outside regular academic programmes.

The study was guided by the following objectives: assess the impact of socio-economic, academic and professional background of learners on ability to finance B.Ed (Arts) by distance learning; establish various modes of financing adopted by learners; explore the challenges faced under the programme and coping mechanisms; evaluate the effectiveness of various funding strategies in terms of accessibility, affordability and adequacy, as well as determine the cost-efficiency of the B.Ed (Arts) by distance learning. In addressing the objectives, both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. These included a survey, in-depth interviews and desk review to source requisite primary and secondary data. The survey covered 673 learners; drawn using stratified simple random sampling procedures; while in-depth interviews were held with eight officials from financial institutions. Also interviewed were nine officials from the SCDE. Key informants were those directly involved in higher education financing initiatives and management of distance learning activities

Quantitative data were processed and analysed to produce frequency distributions, cross tabulations with Chi Square statistic to test hypotheses and binary logistic regression to determine the net impact of each predictor variable. In addition, qualitative data were organized in line with the objectives. This was followed by description to produce interim reports; areas that required additional information were identified and gaps filled. The final step involved systematic analysis and interpretation of interim reports, which were then integrated with quantitative output. The study found that affordability of the B.Ed (Arts) by distance learning was statistically associated with learners' gender, total number of dependants, average income and highest education level. Further analysis showed that learners financed distance learning through loans from commercial banks; personal savings; donations; support from family members and bursaries. Others included proceeds from disposal of assets; dividends from stocks as well as fundraisers. Loans from SACCO societies and commercial banks were the formal sources of funding.

Impediments to effective participation in the DL included meagre incomes, inadequate time to engage in Income-generating Activities (IGAs), high cost of residential fees; and inadequacy of learning materials. In addressing the issues, learners adopted a number of coping mechanisms such as disposing off properties, suspending personal development projects, venturing into IGAs such as operating nursery schools, grocery shops, cyber cafes, welding workshops and farming among others. On its part, the University allowed learners to take up the optimal number of units they could afford, creating provision for special papers; linked up with other institutions such as African Virtual University (AVU) to source for cost-effective learning materials. The University also engaged in IGAs including facilitation of seminars and training. Further findings showed that B.Ed (Arts) by distance learning was relatively more cost efficient than the regular mode. This arose from effective cost management practices and distance learning methodologies adopted.

Based on the findings, the study recommended that the HELB Act be amended to cover distance learning learners; that annual budgetary allocations to HELB for loans and bursaries should be increased; and that a database on gender, total number of dependants, level of income and education level should be developed and used to decide on the degree of financial support to learners. Other recommendations emphasized on formulating a national policy on financing distance learning learners; strengthening Constituency Development Fund (CDF) programmes; improving networking with stakeholders; creating special funding grants at the university and establishing a revolving fund. In further research, the study recommended the need for study on the role of employers in financing distance learning; the impact of e-learning on affordability of distance learning; factors encouraging drop out and deferment of studies and the cost-benefit analysis of the distance learning.

2004
MALLANS DRRAMBOCHARLES. "Financing Micro, small and medium Enterprises in Kenya (Micro-Finance option).". In: PHD THESIS. European Psychiatric Journal; 2004. Abstract

Distance Learning programme enhances equitable access to higher education in Kenya. The Bachelor of Education (Arts) by distance learning was initiated at the University of Nairobi nearly two decades ago to enable teachers upgrade their skills for improved service delivery. Learners in this programme are expected to finance their education from own resources. However, the rising cost of living delays completion of the programme by up to 30%, as resources are diverted to cater for immediate family needs. Data from the School of Continuing and Distance Education (SCDE) and University of Nairobi Enterprises and Services Limited (UNES) for 2006 show that out of a total enrollment of 6,740 learners, only 4,467 (66%) were actively pursuing the course; implying that about 2,273 (33%) were inactive mainly because of financial constraints. The situation is attributed to limited financing programmes at the national level. Although HELB was established to further higher education, limited financial support from the exchequer makes it difficult to provide assistance to learners outside regular academic programmes.

The study was guided by the following objectives: assess the impact of socio-economic, academic and professional background of learners on ability to finance B.Ed (Arts) by distance learning; establish various modes of financing adopted by learners; explore the challenges faced under the programme and coping mechanisms; evaluate the effectiveness of various funding strategies in terms of accessibility, affordability and adequacy, as well as determine the cost-efficiency of the B.Ed (Arts) by distance learning. In addressing the objectives, both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. These included a survey, in-depth interviews and desk review to source requisite primary and secondary data. The survey covered 673 learners; drawn using stratified simple random sampling procedures; while in-depth interviews were held with eight officials from financial institutions. Also interviewed were nine officials from the SCDE. Key informants were those directly involved in higher education financing initiatives and management of distance learning activities

Quantitative data were processed and analysed to produce frequency distributions, cross tabulations with Chi Square statistic to test hypotheses and binary logistic regression to determine the net impact of each predictor variable. In addition, qualitative data were organized in line with the objectives. This was followed by description to produce interim reports; areas that required additional information were identified and gaps filled. The final step involved systematic analysis and interpretation of interim reports, which were then integrated with quantitative output. The study found that affordability of the B.Ed (Arts) by distance learning was statistically associated with learners' gender, total number of dependants, average income and highest education level. Further analysis showed that learners financed distance learning through loans from commercial banks; personal savings; donations; support from family members and bursaries. Others included proceeds from disposal of assets; dividends from stocks as well as fundraisers. Loans from SACCO societies and commercial banks were the formal sources of funding.

Impediments to effective participation in the DL included meagre incomes, inadequate time to engage in Income-generating Activities (IGAs), high cost of residential fees; and inadequacy of learning materials. In addressing the issues, learners adopted a number of coping mechanisms such as disposing off properties, suspending personal development projects, venturing into IGAs such as operating nursery schools, grocery shops, cyber cafes, welding workshops and farming among others. On its part, the University allowed learners to take up the optimal number of units they could afford, creating provision for special papers; linked up with other institutions such as African Virtual University (AVU) to source for cost-effective learning materials. The University also engaged in IGAs including facilitation of seminars and training. Further findings showed that B.Ed (Arts) by distance learning was relatively more cost efficient than the regular mode. This arose from effective cost management practices and distance learning methodologies adopted.

Based on the findings, the study recommended that the HELB Act be amended to cover distance learning learners; that annual budgetary allocations to HELB for loans and bursaries should be increased; and that a database on gender, total number of dependants, level of income and education level should be developed and used to decide on the degree of financial support to learners. Other recommendations emphasized on formulating a national policy on financing distance learning learners; strengthening Constituency Development Fund (CDF) programmes; improving networking with stakeholders; creating special funding grants at the university and establishing a revolving fund. In further research, the study recommended the need for study on the role of employers in financing distance learning; the impact of e-learning on affordability of distance learning; factors encouraging drop out and deferment of studies and the cost-benefit analysis of the distance learning.

2003
2013
MALLANS PROFRAMBOCHARLES. "DR. RAMBO CHARLES, DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING MARKETING STRATEGIC PLANS: A PERSPECTIVE OF CREATING CUSTOMER VALUE ( TITLE OF THE BOOK ).". In: Developing and Implanting Marketing Strategic Plans. European Psychiatric Journal; 2013.
2004
MALLANS DRRAMBOCHARLES. "SMALL ENTERPRISES MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT .". In: Small Enterprises Management and Development. European Psychiatric Journal; 2004.
2005
MUTISO PROFKINEENEWA. "Utenzi wa Hamziyyah (The Hamziyyah Epic. A detailed Analysis of a Swahili Islamic Epic).". In: Institute of Kiswahili Research, University of Dar-es-Salaam, Dar-es-Salaam, 2005; 360 + 15 pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2005. Abstract

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Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.

2002
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. ".". In: AAP (Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere) Swahili Forum IX 72/2002, pp. 19-24, University of Cologne. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. "First Kiswahili- English Food and Drinks Dictionary Bookman Consultants Ltd, Nairobi, 2002 (It is the first dictionary on food and drinks, in both Swahili and English), 74 pp.". In: Bookman Consultants Ltd, Nairobi, 2002 (It is the first dictionary on food and drinks, in both Swahili and English), 74 pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
2001
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. ".". In: AAP (Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere) 68/2001, Swahili VIII, pp.81-115, University of Cologne. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
2000
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. "Mizani Yangu (A collection of poems in Swahili. It has been a Kenya Teachers.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, September 1986, 58 pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2000. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1997
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. "Mwongozo wa Visiki (.". In: Literary Criticism), Longhorn (K) Ltd, Nairobi, September, 1997, 120 pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1996
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. ".". In: (A Stylistic Approach to the teaching of Poetry), Ufundishaji wa Lugha, Fasihi Pamoja na Utahini katika Shule za Upili, pp. 31-40, Kenya Kiswahili Association. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1996. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. ". .". In: (A Stylistic Approach to the teaching of Poetry), Ufundishaji wa Lugha, Fasihi Pamoja na Utahini katika Shule za Upili, pp. 31-40, Kenya Kiswahili Association. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1996. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1992
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. "The Catharsis (A collection of poems in English) Shinhan.". In: Publishing Media Co. Ltd., Seoul, 1992, 90pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1987
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. "Utamaduni wa Mkorea, A collection of articles on Korean and Swahili culture in Swahili and Korean.". In: Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Press, March 1987, 161pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1987. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1986
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. ". .". In: Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Press, March 1987, 161pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. "Uhakiki Wa Malenga wa Mvita (Literary criticism).". In: Hankuk University Press, March 1st, 1986, 132pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
2005
2004
NYAWIRA DRRITHOCECILIA. "Review of Natural Resource Management Policy Studies in the East African Highlands Department of Agricultural Economics and ICRAF .". In: BOOK TITLE, Small Enterprises Management and Development. European Psychiatric Journal; 2004.
1980
NYAWIRA DRRITHOCECILIA. "On-Farm Experiments: Some Experiences". Presented at the Second Symposium on Intercropping for the Semi-arid Areas (2nd SISA), 4th - 7th August, 1980 in Morogoro, Tanzania.". In: Second Symposium on Intercropping for the Semi-arid Areas (2nd SISA), 4th - 7th August, 1980 in Morogoro, Tanzania. European Psychiatric Journal; 1980.
NYAWIRA DRRITHOCECILIA. "The Role of Women in Small-scale Farm Production in Kenya. Presented at the workshop organized by the Ford Foundation on Women in Agricultural Production in Eastern and Southern Africa. 9th - 11th April, 1980 in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: workshop organized by the Ford Foundation on Women in Agricultural Production in Eastern and Southern Africa. 9th - 11th April, 1980 in Nairobi, Kenya. European Psychiatric Journal; 1980.
2006
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Peter Auma Nyamanga, Collette A. Suda and Jens Aagaard-Hansen Similarities between Human and Livestock Illnesses among the Luo in Western Kenya. Anthropology and Medicine, Vol. 13, No.1 pp.13-24, April 2006.". In: workshop organized by the Ford Foundation on Women in Agricultural Production in Eastern and Southern Africa. 9th - 11th April, 1980 in Nairobi, Kenya. European Psychiatric Journal; 2006.
2003
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Traditional Mechanisms of Conflict Resolution in Isiolo District, Eastern Kenya: Implications for Rural Poverty.". In: International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, Volume 40 .No.2, .pp 281-294,October 2003. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Research Capacity Strengthening and Applied Medical Anthropology within the Kenyan-Danish Health Research Project (KEDAHR).". In: MILA. VOL.5 Pp:1-8. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Traditional Mechanisms of Conflict Resolution in Isiolo District, Eastern Kenya: Implications for Rural Poverty.". In: International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, Volume 40 .No.2, October 2003, .pp 281-294. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda and Jens Aagaard-Hansen Research Capacity Strengthening and Applied Medical Anthropology within the Kenyan-Danish Health Research Project (KEDAHR).". In: MILA. VOL.5 Pp:1-8, 2003. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Anne Muthanje and Collette A. Suda Gender Relations and the Utilization of Family Planning Services in Nyan.". In: MILA. VOL.5 Pp:1-8, 2003. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Peter A. Nyamanga, Collette A. Suda and Jens Aagaard-Hansen. Practical Implications of Ethnoveterinary Medical Pluralism in Western Kenya.". In: Agriculture and Human Values. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

2002
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Gender Disparities in the Kenyan Labour Market: Implications for Poverty Reduction.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies. Vol. 11:3, pp. 301, 2002. European Psychiatric Journal; 2002. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

2001
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Natural Disaster Preparedness, Environmental Degradation and Sustainable Development in Kenya".". In: African Study Monographs Vol. 21 No. 3, 2000, pp. 91-103. ISSN 0285-1601. European Psychiatric Journal; 2001. Abstract

Lack of disaster preparedness has remained one of Kenya's enduring development challenges for decades. The El Nino rains which flooded most parts of the country between 1997 and 1998, and the prolonged drought during the year 2000 have both led to massive displacement of populations, loss of lives, destruction of property, water and energy crises, and the collapse of vital infrastructure. Most of the disaster response initiatives in Kenya have tended to be adhoc, uncoordinated and short-term measures, mainly in the form of emergency relief services to the worst affected areas. However, disaster and environmental management ought to integrate disaster preparedness measures and recovery operations into ongoing development programs for sustainability.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "The Invisible Child Worker in Kenya: The Intersection of Poverty, Legislation and Culture.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies. Vol. 10 No. 2 pp.163-175, 2001. A Publication of the Nordic Association of African Studies. ISSN 1235-4481. European Psychiatric Journal; 2001. Abstract

Lack of disaster preparedness has remained one of Kenya's enduring development challenges for decades. The El Nino rains which flooded most parts of the country between 1997 and 1998, and the prolonged drought during the year 2000 have both led to massive displacement of populations, loss of lives, destruction of property, water and energy crises, and the collapse of vital infrastructure. Most of the disaster response initiatives in Kenya have tended to be adhoc, uncoordinated and short-term measures, mainly in the form of emergency relief services to the worst affected areas. However, disaster and environmental management ought to integrate disaster preparedness measures and recovery operations into ongoing development programs for sustainability.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Gender Disparities in the Kenyan Labour Market Implications for Poverty Reduction".". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies. Vol. 11:3, pp. 301 . European Psychiatric Journal; 2001. Abstract

Parts one and two of this paper deal with conceptual issues and focus on gender mainstreaming into investment activities for increased women's employment and poverty reduction. The central argument here is that the mainstreaming of a gender perspective into investment activities is necessarily a long-term process which involves the integration of gender issues in all national and sectoral policies and programmes. The key to gender mainstreaming is to make the process a collective responsibility. Some of the essential steps in this process are the production of gender disaggregated data, the establishment and strengthening of gender management systems, the commitment of senior management personnel to the goal of gender equality as a reflection of attitudinal and behaviour change at personal and institutional levels. The discussion in part three brings to the fore the issue of women's education and training. Available data show gender and regional disparities in education and training at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. These data indicate women's limited access to formal education and lower adult literacy rates which undermine their capacity to participate in the formal and informal labour market on an equal basis with men. Part four shows the link between women's education, employment and poverty reduction. The analysis of gender participation in different sectors of the economy revealed some important patterns and trends. These include the fact that female labour force participation in the modern sector has remained below 30% over the last several years compared to men who hold a disproportionately larger share of the modern sector jobs. The majority of women are employed in the education and informal sectors. Those who work in the agricultural sector are usually engaged as casuals. Women's overall lower level of education, limited skills, and access to productive, resources, heavy domestic workload, cultural attitudes and segregation of the labour market are some of the factors associated with their limited participation in the modern sector. Gender representation in the Kenyan civil service also shows gross under-representation of women in top management and policy-making positions. This gender disparity calls for an Affirmative and/or Positive Action to deal not only with increasing women's participation in public and private sector institutions at all levels but also address the twin issue of women's entitlements and cultural barriers which are at the root of their poverty and powerlessness. The low budgetary allocations to women's programmes also reflect lack of political will, improper targeting and non-involvement of women in priority setting.

2000
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Gender, Culture and environmental Conservation in Western Kenya Contextualizing community Participation and the Choice of Techniques.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies. Vol. 9 No. 1 pp.31 - 48, 2000. European Psychiatric Journal; 2000. Abstract

Parts one and two of this paper deal with conceptual issues and focus on gender mainstreaming into investment activities for increased women's employment and poverty reduction. The central argument here is that the mainstreaming of a gender perspective into investment activities is necessarily a long-term process which involves the integration of gender issues in all national and sectoral policies and programmes. The key to gender mainstreaming is to make the process a collective responsibility. Some of the essential steps in this process are the production of gender disaggregated data, the establishment and strengthening of gender management systems, the commitment of senior management personnel to the goal of gender equality as a reflection of attitudinal and behaviour change at personal and institutional levels. The discussion in part three brings to the fore the issue of women's education and training. Available data show gender and regional disparities in education and training at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. These data indicate women's limited access to formal education and lower adult literacy rates which undermine their capacity to participate in the formal and informal labour market on an equal basis with men. Part four shows the link between women's education, employment and poverty reduction. The analysis of gender participation in different sectors of the economy revealed some important patterns and trends. These include the fact that female labour force participation in the modern sector has remained below 30% over the last several years compared to men who hold a disproportionately larger share of the modern sector jobs. The majority of women are employed in the education and informal sectors. Those who work in the agricultural sector are usually engaged as casuals. Women's overall lower level of education, limited skills, and access to productive, resources, heavy domestic workload, cultural attitudes and segregation of the labour market are some of the factors associated with their limited participation in the modern sector. Gender representation in the Kenyan civil service also shows gross under-representation of women in top management and policy-making positions. This gender disparity calls for an Affirmative and/or Positive Action to deal not only with increasing women's participation in public and private sector institutions at all levels but also address the twin issue of women's entitlements and cultural barriers which are at the root of their poverty and powerlessness. The low budgetary allocations to women's programmes also reflect lack of political will, improper targeting and non-involvement of women in priority setting.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Change, Persistence and Development in smallholder Livestock Production system in western Kenya.". In: In R.A. Obudho and J.B. Ojwang (eds) Issues in Resource Management and Development in Kenya: Essays in Memory of Prof. Simeon H. Ominde Nairobi. East Africa Publishers. pp. 234-244. ISBN 9966 25 007 7. European Psychiatric Journal; 2000. Abstract

Parts one and two of this paper deal with conceptual issues and focus on gender mainstreaming into investment activities for increased women's employment and poverty reduction. The central argument here is that the mainstreaming of a gender perspective into investment activities is necessarily a long-term process which involves the integration of gender issues in all national and sectoral policies and programmes. The key to gender mainstreaming is to make the process a collective responsibility. Some of the essential steps in this process are the production of gender disaggregated data, the establishment and strengthening of gender management systems, the commitment of senior management personnel to the goal of gender equality as a reflection of attitudinal and behaviour change at personal and institutional levels. The discussion in part three brings to the fore the issue of women's education and training. Available data show gender and regional disparities in education and training at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. These data indicate women's limited access to formal education and lower adult literacy rates which undermine their capacity to participate in the formal and informal labour market on an equal basis with men. Part four shows the link between women's education, employment and poverty reduction. The analysis of gender participation in different sectors of the economy revealed some important patterns and trends. These include the fact that female labour force participation in the modern sector has remained below 30% over the last several years compared to men who hold a disproportionately larger share of the modern sector jobs. The majority of women are employed in the education and informal sectors. Those who work in the agricultural sector are usually engaged as casuals. Women's overall lower level of education, limited skills, and access to productive, resources, heavy domestic workload, cultural attitudes and segregation of the labour market are some of the factors associated with their limited participation in the modern sector. Gender representation in the Kenyan civil service also shows gross under-representation of women in top management and policy-making positions. This gender disparity calls for an Affirmative and/or Positive Action to deal not only with increasing women's participation in public and private sector institutions at all levels but also address the twin issue of women's entitlements and cultural barriers which are at the root of their poverty and powerlessness. The low budgetary allocations to women's programmes also reflect lack of political will, improper targeting and non-involvement of women in priority setting.

1999
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Comment on a chapter by Winnie Mitulla enttitled Urban Poverty and Gender Issues in Environment and Development in Kenya (Ed.) R.A. Obudho pp. 124 - 126.". In: Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. European Psychiatric Journal; 1999. Abstract

Parts one and two of this paper deal with conceptual issues and focus on gender mainstreaming into investment activities for increased women's employment and poverty reduction. The central argument here is that the mainstreaming of a gender perspective into investment activities is necessarily a long-term process which involves the integration of gender issues in all national and sectoral policies and programmes. The key to gender mainstreaming is to make the process a collective responsibility. Some of the essential steps in this process are the production of gender disaggregated data, the establishment and strengthening of gender management systems, the commitment of senior management personnel to the goal of gender equality as a reflection of attitudinal and behaviour change at personal and institutional levels. The discussion in part three brings to the fore the issue of women's education and training. Available data show gender and regional disparities in education and training at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. These data indicate women's limited access to formal education and lower adult literacy rates which undermine their capacity to participate in the formal and informal labour market on an equal basis with men. Part four shows the link between women's education, employment and poverty reduction. The analysis of gender participation in different sectors of the economy revealed some important patterns and trends. These include the fact that female labour force participation in the modern sector has remained below 30% over the last several years compared to men who hold a disproportionately larger share of the modern sector jobs. The majority of women are employed in the education and informal sectors. Those who work in the agricultural sector are usually engaged as casuals. Women's overall lower level of education, limited skills, and access to productive, resources, heavy domestic workload, cultural attitudes and segregation of the labour market are some of the factors associated with their limited participation in the modern sector. Gender representation in the Kenyan civil service also shows gross under-representation of women in top management and policy-making positions. This gender disparity calls for an Affirmative and/or Positive Action to deal not only with increasing women's participation in public and private sector institutions at all levels but also address the twin issue of women's entitlements and cultural barriers which are at the root of their poverty and powerlessness. The low budgetary allocations to women's programmes also reflect lack of political will, improper targeting and non-involvement of women in priority setting.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "African Family and Child Welfare" Tradition in Transition.". In: International Journal of Contemporary Sociology: Vol. 36(1):56-65. JOENSUU UNIVERSITY PRESS. ISSN 0019, 1999. European Psychiatric Journal; 1999. Abstract

Many aspects of African traditional family patterns and child-rearing practices are increasingly being challenged by new pressures, re-evaluated against emerging values and replaced by new arrangements as part of a continuing transition in the social and cultural ecology of African family life. All the interlocking forces of change discussed in this paper have put added stress on the family's capacity to secure sustainable well-being. Although the changes affect everyone, women and children from the poorest families who already suffer different kinds of deprivation in many aspects of their lives are usually the worst affected. At the crossroads of family tradition and transition is the issue of sustainable child welfare. New and innovative strategies are required to strengthen the capabilities of individuals, families and communities to share care-giving responsibilities within the framework of reciprocity and partnerships to facilitate sustainable social relationships in and outside the family. This may require building alliances beyond the family and community to open a wider range of opportunities for men, women and children and a change in the overall perception of parenting to make the unique role of women in childcare meaningful, viable and sustainable

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette Suda, Mary Omosa and Philista Onyango Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Development in Nyanza Province.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C: Humanities and Social Sciences 5 (1) pp 66 - 75. A Publication of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. ISSN 0250-8265. European Psychiatric Journal; 1999. Abstract

Many aspects of African traditional family patterns and child-rearing practices are increasingly being challenged by new pressures, re-evaluated against emerging values and replaced by new arrangements as part of a continuing transition in the social and cultural ecology of African family life. All the interlocking forces of change discussed in this paper have put added stress on the family's capacity to secure sustainable well-being. Although the changes affect everyone, women and children from the poorest families who already suffer different kinds of deprivation in many aspects of their lives are usually the worst affected. At the crossroads of family tradition and transition is the issue of sustainable child welfare. New and innovative strategies are required to strengthen the capabilities of individuals, families and communities to share care-giving responsibilities within the framework of reciprocity and partnerships to facilitate sustainable social relationships in and outside the family. This may require building alliances beyond the family and community to open a wider range of opportunities for men, women and children and a change in the overall perception of parenting to make the unique role of women in childcare meaningful, viable and sustainable

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Culture and Gender in Kenya:The Conceptual Connection and the Agenda for Change Mila Vol.4 1999, pp. 1 - 8.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C: Humanities and Social Sciences 5 (1) pp 66 - 75. A Publication of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. ISSN 0250-8265. European Psychiatric Journal; 1999. Abstract

Many aspects of African traditional family patterns and child-rearing practices are increasingly being challenged by new pressures, re-evaluated against emerging values and replaced by new arrangements as part of a continuing transition in the social and cultural ecology of African family life. All the interlocking forces of change discussed in this paper have put added stress on the family's capacity to secure sustainable well-being. Although the changes affect everyone, women and children from the poorest families who already suffer different kinds of deprivation in many aspects of their lives are usually the worst affected. At the crossroads of family tradition and transition is the issue of sustainable child welfare. New and innovative strategies are required to strengthen the capabilities of individuals, families and communities to share care-giving responsibilities within the framework of reciprocity and partnerships to facilitate sustainable social relationships in and outside the family. This may require building alliances beyond the family and community to open a wider range of opportunities for men, women and children and a change in the overall perception of parenting to make the unique role of women in childcare meaningful, viable and sustainable

1997
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "The Political Economy of Women's Work in Kenya: Chronic Constraints and Broken Barriers in Parvin Ghorayshi and Claire Belanger (Eds) (pp: 75-90).". In: Women, Work and Gender Relations in Developing Countries: A Global Perspective. Greenwood Press: Westport, connecticut. ISBN: 0-313-29797. European Psychiatric Journal; 1997. Abstract

Many aspects of African traditional family patterns and child-rearing practices are increasingly being challenged by new pressures, re-evaluated against emerging values and replaced by new arrangements as part of a continuing transition in the social and cultural ecology of African family life. All the interlocking forces of change discussed in this paper have put added stress on the family's capacity to secure sustainable well-being. Although the changes affect everyone, women and children from the poorest families who already suffer different kinds of deprivation in many aspects of their lives are usually the worst affected. At the crossroads of family tradition and transition is the issue of sustainable child welfare. New and innovative strategies are required to strengthen the capabilities of individuals, families and communities to share care-giving responsibilities within the framework of reciprocity and partnerships to facilitate sustainable social relationships in and outside the family. This may require building alliances beyond the family and community to open a wider range of opportunities for men, women and children and a change in the overall perception of parenting to make the unique role of women in childcare meaningful, viable and sustainable

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Fertility and the Status of Women in Kericho District" Reflections on some key Reproductive Issues.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C: Social Sciences 4(1): 61-76)A Publication of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi .ISSN 0250 - 8265. European Psychiatric Journal; 1997. Abstract

Many aspects of African traditional family patterns and child-rearing practices are increasingly being challenged by new pressures, re-evaluated against emerging values and replaced by new arrangements as part of a continuing transition in the social and cultural ecology of African family life. All the interlocking forces of change discussed in this paper have put added stress on the family's capacity to secure sustainable well-being. Although the changes affect everyone, women and children from the poorest families who already suffer different kinds of deprivation in many aspects of their lives are usually the worst affected. At the crossroads of family tradition and transition is the issue of sustainable child welfare. New and innovative strategies are required to strengthen the capabilities of individuals, families and communities to share care-giving responsibilities within the framework of reciprocity and partnerships to facilitate sustainable social relationships in and outside the family. This may require building alliances beyond the family and community to open a wider range of opportunities for men, women and children and a change in the overall perception of parenting to make the unique role of women in childcare meaningful, viable and sustainable

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Street Children in Nairobi and the African Cultural Ideology of Kin-based Support System: Change and Challenge".". In: Child Abuse Review Vol. 6. A Journal of the British Association for the Study and Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, UK, Child Abuse Review Vol. 6. pp: 199-217. ISSN 0952 - 9136. European Psychiatric Journal; 1997. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
1996
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Encountering of East African Traditions in Paivikki Suojanen and risto Raittila (Eds). Folklore and the Encounters of Traditions.". In: Research Report No. 29. pp 71 - 80 (Proceedings of Finnish-Hungarian symposium on Folklore on the encounters of Traditions, 18 - 20 March 1996, Jyvaskyla, Finland) Published by the University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Ethnology. ISBN 951-34-088. European Psychiatric Journal; 1996. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Household Labour Use and Changes in Gender roles on Small Farms in Ndhiwa Division, western Kenya: The Challenge of comparing the Contributions of different Workers.". In: Monograph No 1, (March 1996), Issues in African Rural Development Monograph Series. Published by Winrock International for Agricultural Development. Arlington, Virginia and Morrilton, Arizona, U.S.A. ISBN 1-57360-002-4. European Psychiatric Journal; 1996. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "The Centrality of Women in the Moral Teachings in African Society".". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies, 5(2) pp. 71-83. Published by the Nordic Association of African Studies, Uppsala and Printed in Helsinki by the Helsinki University Press, Finland. ISSN 1235-4481. European Psychiatric Journal; 1996. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
1993
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Sex Behaviour, Cultural Practices and the Risk of HIV/AIDS in South Nyanza District, Kenya".". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences. Series C: Social Sciences.: Vol.3. pp. 5 18. A Publication of The Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya. European Psychiatric Journal; 1993. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Labour and Land Use Patterns in Small Scale Farms in Siaya and Kakamega Districts": Correlates and Determinants of Farm Labour Supply. Kenya Journal of Sciences. Series C: Social Sciences. Vol. 3. pp. 19-34.". In: A Publication of The Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya. European Psychiatric Journal; 1993. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "The Impact of Changing Family Structures on Nairobi Children.". In: African Study Monographs, 14(2): pp. 109 - 121. Published by the Centre for African Area Studies, Kyoto University, Japan. ISSN 0285-1601. European Psychiatric Journal; 1993. Abstract
Family life in Nairobi has undergone some major transformation in the recent past as a result of the changes in the wider socio-cultural-economic systems. This transformation has had adverse consequences for children who depend primarily or solely on one parent for care, protection and livelihood. This paper examines such changes in the specific salient features of the family system in Kenya and discusses the implications for the well-being of urban children, particularly those living in difficult and deprived circumstances in the slums of Nairobi. What emerges from the analyses is a situation in which changes in the structure and function of the family unit have generated conflicting conceptions of mutual kinship obligation. Such trends have led to the erosion of vital social support systems in the family and community and worsened the condition of many Nairobi children from poor families. The slowing economic growth and deteriorating social infrastructure have also heightened the level of deprivation and marginalization of the urban poor, particularly the children.
1992
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "The Underlying Assumptions of the Dependency Perspective, the World System Theory and the Modes of Production Approach" Some Disjunctures in Thinking Globally and Acting Locally, Journal of Eastern African Research and Development Vol. 2.". In: Published by Gideon S. Were Press, Nairobi, Kenya. ISSN 0251-0405. European Psychiatric Journal; 1992. Abstract
Family life in Nairobi has undergone some major transformation in the recent past as a result of the changes in the wider socio-cultural-economic systems. This transformation has had adverse consequences for children who depend primarily or solely on one parent for care, protection and livelihood. This paper examines such changes in the specific salient features of the family system in Kenya and discusses the implications for the well-being of urban children, particularly those living in difficult and deprived circumstances in the slums of Nairobi. What emerges from the analyses is a situation in which changes in the structure and function of the family unit have generated conflicting conceptions of mutual kinship obligation. Such trends have led to the erosion of vital social support systems in the family and community and worsened the condition of many Nairobi children from poor families. The slowing economic growth and deteriorating social infrastructure have also heightened the level of deprivation and marginalization of the urban poor, particularly the children.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Towards an Understanding of Smallholder Agriculture in Western Kenya: An Analysis of the Factors Influencing Crop Production, Discovery and Innovation", 4 (4): 15 23.". In: A Publication of the African Academy of Sciences (AAS) and the Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS), Nairobi, Kenya, ISSN 1015-079X. European Psychiatric Journal; 1992. Abstract
Family life in Nairobi has undergone some major transformation in the recent past as a result of the changes in the wider socio-cultural-economic systems. This transformation has had adverse consequences for children who depend primarily or solely on one parent for care, protection and livelihood. This paper examines such changes in the specific salient features of the family system in Kenya and discusses the implications for the well-being of urban children, particularly those living in difficult and deprived circumstances in the slums of Nairobi. What emerges from the analyses is a situation in which changes in the structure and function of the family unit have generated conflicting conceptions of mutual kinship obligation. Such trends have led to the erosion of vital social support systems in the family and community and worsened the condition of many Nairobi children from poor families. The slowing economic growth and deteriorating social infrastructure have also heightened the level of deprivation and marginalization of the urban poor, particularly the children.
1990
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda Agricultural Development Policies and Institutional Support Systems in Post Colonial Kenya and Tanzania.". In: Journal of Eastern African Research and Development. Vol. 20: pp. 104 126. Published by Gideon S. Were Press, Nairobi, Kenya. ISSN 0251-0405. European Psychiatric Journal; 1990. Abstract
Family life in Nairobi has undergone some major transformation in the recent past as a result of the changes in the wider socio-cultural-economic systems. This transformation has had adverse consequences for children who depend primarily or solely on one parent for care, protection and livelihood. This paper examines such changes in the specific salient features of the family system in Kenya and discusses the implications for the well-being of urban children, particularly those living in difficult and deprived circumstances in the slums of Nairobi. What emerges from the analyses is a situation in which changes in the structure and function of the family unit have generated conflicting conceptions of mutual kinship obligation. Such trends have led to the erosion of vital social support systems in the family and community and worsened the condition of many Nairobi children from poor families. The slowing economic growth and deteriorating social infrastructure have also heightened the level of deprivation and marginalization of the urban poor, particularly the children.
1989
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Differential Participation of Men and Women in Production and Reproduction in Kakamega District" Implications for Equity. 0169-796X.". In: Journal of Developing Societies. Vol. V, Nos 3 and 4. pp. 234 244. Edited by K. Ishwaran and published by E. J. Bril, Leiden, The Netherlands. ISSN. European Psychiatric Journal; 1989. Abstract

The existing structure of the division of labour between men and women and the changing roles of women in Kenya are at once rooted in cultural norms and institutions and reinforced by structural arrangements. The Kenyan economy is primarily dependent on the agricultural sector. The great majority of the small farms are worked by family labour, and women provide the bulk of the labour force. Differences in male and female labour contributions to production and reproduction and the rewards associated with such roles constitute a basis for gender inequality. Changes in the historical processes and in the structure of the division of labour have conjointly led to the expansion of female roles, intensification of women's workload, and their economic and social marginality. This paper speaks to these issues and details the ways in which cultural and structural forces interact to define and perpetuate the role and subordinate status of women in Western Kenya.

1981
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "The Impact of Social Change on Marital Stability Among the Luo Community in Kisumu Town.".". In: African Journal of Sociology, 1(1), pp: 46 71. European Psychiatric Journal; 1981. Abstract

The existing structure of the division of labour between men and women and the changing roles of women in Kenya are at once rooted in cultural norms and institutions and reinforced by structural arrangements. The Kenyan economy is primarily dependent on the agricultural sector. The great majority of the small farms are worked by family labour, and women provide the bulk of the labour force. Differences in male and female labour contributions to production and reproduction and the rewards associated with such roles constitute a basis for gender inequality. Changes in the historical processes and in the structure of the division of labour have conjointly led to the expansion of female roles, intensification of women's workload, and their economic and social marginality. This paper speaks to these issues and details the ways in which cultural and structural forces interact to define and perpetuate the role and subordinate status of women in Western Kenya.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "A Social System Description of Small Farmers in two Western Kenya Districts.".". In: SR-CRSP Technical Report Series No. 43 pp. 64. (Co-authored with Rex Campbell and Herbert Lionberger). European Psychiatric Journal; 1981. Abstract

The existing structure of the division of labour between men and women and the changing roles of women in Kenya are at once rooted in cultural norms and institutions and reinforced by structural arrangements. The Kenyan economy is primarily dependent on the agricultural sector. The great majority of the small farms are worked by family labour, and women provide the bulk of the labour force. Differences in male and female labour contributions to production and reproduction and the rewards associated with such roles constitute a basis for gender inequality. Changes in the historical processes and in the structure of the division of labour have conjointly led to the expansion of female roles, intensification of women's workload, and their economic and social marginality. This paper speaks to these issues and details the ways in which cultural and structural forces interact to define and perpetuate the role and subordinate status of women in Western Kenya.

2012
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT. 2012. DSM for mapping soil classes in Somalia. In Vargas et al. Workshop Proceedings for "GSP / e-SOTER Workshop: Towards Global Soil Information: Activities within the GEO Task Global Soil Data". 20-23 March 2012. FAO. Rome.". In: SR-CRSP Technical Report Series No. 43 pp. 64. (Co-authored with Rex Campbell and Herbert Lionberger). FAO; 2012. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Soil occurs in nature in groups with unique response characteristics to its forming factors. These characteristics should ideally be represented as a family of curves in the models for producing soil maps. However, the current approaches for producing soil maps use a single model which either blocks/controls the grouping effects or do not statistically recognize the natural landscape groupings. This study tested mixed-effects modelling technique for ingenious recognition of soil groupings and consequent improvement of the accuracy of the resultant soil maps. Mixed-effects modelling is a form of regression analysis for simultaneous modelling of the average landscape characteristics and individual groups within the landscape. It can model a family of curves and potentially remove inadequacies inherent in the current models for soil mapping. Its potential in regression kriging of continuous and categorical soil attributes has been shown in this paper, where it produced about 60% accuracy with holdout validation. Compared to the current application of a single model in regression kriging, mixed-effects modelling produced about five times improvement of the mapping accuracy. It is anticipated that its adoption will contribute to improved soil mapping
2011
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Paron P., Vargas Rojas R. and Omuto C.T. 2011. Integrated landform mapping: methodology and application for digital soil mapping in Somalia. IAG/AIG REGIONAL CONFERENCE 2011, .". In: IAG/AIG REGIONAL CONFERENCE. International Association of Geomorphologists; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Soil occurs in nature in groups with unique response characteristics to its forming factors. These characteristics should ideally be represented as a family of curves in the models for producing soil maps. However, the current approaches for producing soil maps use a single model which either blocks/controls the grouping effects or do not statistically recognize the natural landscape groupings. This study tested mixed-effects modelling technique for ingenious recognition of soil groupings and consequent improvement of the accuracy of the resultant soil maps. Mixed-effects modelling is a form of regression analysis for simultaneous modelling of the average landscape characteristics and individual groups within the landscape. It can model a family of curves and potentially remove inadequacies inherent in the current models for soil mapping. Its potential in regression kriging of continuous and categorical soil attributes has been shown in this paper, where it produced about 60% accuracy with holdout validation. Compared to the current application of a single model in regression kriging, mixed-effects modelling produced about five times improvement of the mapping accuracy. It is anticipated that its adoption will contribute to improved soil mapping
2010
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, CT, Vargas, RR, Alim,SM, Paron P. 2010. Mixed-effects modelling of time series NDVI-rainfall relationship for detecting human-induced loss of vegetation cover in drylands. Journal of Arid Environments, 74:1552-1563.". In: Journal of Arid Environments. Journal of Arid Environments; 2010. Abstract
Many researchers have used time-series analysis of remotely sensed images to gain understanding of the dynamics of loss of vegetation cover in drylands. However, complex interactions between vegetation and climate still mask the potential of remote sensing signals to detect human-induced loss of vegetation cover. This paper presents mixed-effect modelling method for time-series NDVI-rainfall relationship to account for the complex interaction between vegetation and climate. Mixed-effects method is a form of statistical modelling that can simultaneously model environmental relationships for a population and for different groups within the population. In this study, it was used to model the NDVI-rainfall relationship in Somalia and for different vegetation types in the country. Its time-series application removed the interaction between vegetation and rainfall and identified areas experiencing human-induced loss of vegetation cover in the country. On average, it gave an accurate relationship between rainfall and NDVI (r2 > 60%) and detected areas with human-induced loss of vegetation cover (kappa = 75%). Although the potential of mixed-effects was shown using vegetation types, other factors such as soil types and land use can also be included in the method to improve accuracy of time-series NDVI images in detecting human-induced loss of vegetation cover in the drylands.
2009
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. and L.O. Gumbe. 2009. Estimating water infiltration and retention characteristics using a computer program in R. Computers & Geosciences 35: 579-585.". In: Computers and Geosciences. Computers and Geosciences; 2009. Abstract
Infiltration and water retention functions are widely used soil hydraulic properties in the geosciences. They contain coefficients known as hydraulic parameters that are traditionally obtained through curve-fitting. Computer programs for the curve-fitting process are available for certain infiltration or water retention models. However, these programs are either not freely accessible or do not estimate certain hydraulic parameters. They are also inefficient and prone to errors for applications involving large datasets. This paper discusses the use of a freely accessible HydroMe package for fast, efficient, and accurate estimation of soil hydraulic parameters in some commonly used infiltration and water retention models. The package is executable in the freely downloadable R programming software. It contains a program for estimating the parameters in infiltration models previously proposed. The program is capable of estimating parameters from arrays of grouped data in one single pass without having to enter the data each time for the parameter estimation. It incorporates mixed-effects and covariate modelling techniques for improved estimation accuracy. These techniques are not common in any other computer programs in the geosciences. Through covariate modelling, the package provides opportunity to include environmental correlates in the estimation of soil hydraulic parameters. Therefore, HydroMe not only improves the estimation accuracy and efficiency, but also provides insight into environmental risk factors that influence the management of soil and water resources.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. and Vargas, R.R. 2009. Combining pedometrics, remote sensing and field observations for assessing soil loss in challenging drylands: a case study of northwestern Somalia. Land Degradation and Development 20: 101-115.". In: Land Degradation and Development. Land Degradation and Development; 2009. Abstract
Soil loss is a major concern for land managers due to its influence on biomass production, surface water quality and landscape beauty. In Somalia, the risk of soil loss is accelerated by the removal of vegetation, bad land use practices and negative impacts of urbanization. The political upheavals and consequent insecurity in the country are major limitations for detailed database and research in soil loss. This study tested opportunities in pedometrics, remote sensing, limited field data collection and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to model the risk of soil loss in northwestern Somalia. The approach successfully predicted the risk of soil loss with accuracy of 79 per cent. It also showed that RUSLE is only relatively accurate and stable in identifying areas with low risk of soil loss and therefore is useful in modelling early warning signs of erosion. About 24 per cent of northwestern Somalia was depicted to have no significant human-induced soil loss while 68 per cent of the region is in threat of soil loss if no action is taken against the removal of vegetation, land use practices and policies on land tenure systems. About 8 per cent of the area is at high risk of soil loss due to negative effects of urbanization and lack of proper management of steep slopes. It is anticipated that this approach can be integrated in the assessment of soil erosion in areas with poor database.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T., Vargas, R. R., Alim, M.S., Ismail, A., Osman, A., Iman. H.M. 2009. Land degradation assessment and a monitoring framework in Somalia. FA0-SWALIM Technical Report L-14, FAO-SWALIM, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Land Degradation and Development. FAO-SWALIM; 2009. Abstract
Soil loss is a major concern for land managers due to its influence on biomass production, surface water quality and landscape beauty. In Somalia, the risk of soil loss is accelerated by the removal of vegetation, bad land use practices and negative impacts of urbanization. The political upheavals and consequent insecurity in the country are major limitations for detailed database and research in soil loss. This study tested opportunities in pedometrics, remote sensing, limited field data collection and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to model the risk of soil loss in northwestern Somalia. The approach successfully predicted the risk of soil loss with accuracy of 79 per cent. It also showed that RUSLE is only relatively accurate and stable in identifying areas with low risk of soil loss and therefore is useful in modelling early warning signs of erosion. About 24 per cent of northwestern Somalia was depicted to have no significant human-induced soil loss while 68 per cent of the region is in threat of soil loss if no action is taken against the removal of vegetation, land use practices and policies on land tenure systems. About 8 per cent of the area is at high risk of soil loss due to negative effects of urbanization and lack of proper management of steep slopes. It is anticipated that this approach can be integrated in the assessment of soil erosion in areas with poor database.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT, Vargas RR, Paron P. 2009. Soil erosion and sedimentation modelling of the areas between river Juba and Shabelle in South Somalia. Technical Report No. 16. FAO-SWALIM. Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Land Degradation and Development. FAO-SWALIM; 2009. Abstract
Soil loss is a major concern for land managers due to its influence on biomass production, surface water quality and landscape beauty. In Somalia, the risk of soil loss is accelerated by the removal of vegetation, bad land use practices and negative impacts of urbanization. The political upheavals and consequent insecurity in the country are major limitations for detailed database and research in soil loss. This study tested opportunities in pedometrics, remote sensing, limited field data collection and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to model the risk of soil loss in northwestern Somalia. The approach successfully predicted the risk of soil loss with accuracy of 79 per cent. It also showed that RUSLE is only relatively accurate and stable in identifying areas with low risk of soil loss and therefore is useful in modelling early warning signs of erosion. About 24 per cent of northwestern Somalia was depicted to have no significant human-induced soil loss while 68 per cent of the region is in threat of soil loss if no action is taken against the removal of vegetation, land use practices and policies on land tenure systems. About 8 per cent of the area is at high risk of soil loss due to negative effects of urbanization and lack of proper management of steep slopes. It is anticipated that this approach can be integrated in the assessment of soil erosion in areas with poor database.
2008
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. 2008. Assessment of soil physical degradation in Eastern Kenya by use of a sequential soil testing protocol. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 128:199-211.". In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment; 2008. Abstract
Soil physical degradation is a gradual process of many steps beginning from structural deterioration and ending in differential loss of finer particles through erosion. Control of the degradation remains a challenge to many scientists due to lack of proper assessment protocols. This study developed a sequential protocol with emphasis on definition of physical degradation and successive soil testing to determine the stages of degradation development. The protocol was tested in Cambisols, Arenosols, and Ferralsols in Eastern Kenya. Soil physical degradation due to 10 years land use change was defined as more than 25% drop in infiltration and water retention characteristics and aggregate stability and more than 30% increase in bulk density and silt content. Then a soil testing model was sequentially applied to identify physical degradation phases. Visual assessment of degradation symptoms, RUSLE model, and diffuse infrared spectral reflectance were used in the soil testing model as predictors of physical degradation. Visual assessment was found to be cheap and fast method for identifying final stages of physical degradation with 60% accuracy. Visual assessment combined with RUSLE model improved the assessment accuracy to 80%. Infrared spectral reflectance, which is sensitive to subtle changes in soil physical conditions, was also found as a potential surrogate predictor of early-warning signs of soil physical degradation. Inclusion of spectra into the assessment model improved the accuracy to 95%. This protocol is effective in identifying phases of soil physical degradation, which are useful for planning degradation control and monitoring schemes. Its further testing and worldwide application is recommended.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Vargas RR and Omuto CT. 2008. National land degradation assessment in Somalia. Consultative Workshop on Land Degradation Assessment, Holiday-Inn, 8-12th September 2008, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Consultative Workshop on Land Degradation Assessment. FAO; 2008. Abstract
Soil physical degradation is a gradual process of many steps beginning from structural deterioration and ending in differential loss of finer particles through erosion. Control of the degradation remains a challenge to many scientists due to lack of proper assessment protocols. This study developed a sequential protocol with emphasis on definition of physical degradation and successive soil testing to determine the stages of degradation development. The protocol was tested in Cambisols, Arenosols, and Ferralsols in Eastern Kenya. Soil physical degradation due to 10 years land use change was defined as more than 25% drop in infiltration and water retention characteristics and aggregate stability and more than 30% increase in bulk density and silt content. Then a soil testing model was sequentially applied to identify physical degradation phases. Visual assessment of degradation symptoms, RUSLE model, and diffuse infrared spectral reflectance were used in the soil testing model as predictors of physical degradation. Visual assessment was found to be cheap and fast method for identifying final stages of physical degradation with 60% accuracy. Visual assessment combined with RUSLE model improved the assessment accuracy to 80%. Infrared spectral reflectance, which is sensitive to subtle changes in soil physical conditions, was also found as a potential surrogate predictor of early-warning signs of soil physical degradation. Inclusion of spectra into the assessment model improved the accuracy to 95%. This protocol is effective in identifying phases of soil physical degradation, which are useful for planning degradation control and monitoring schemes. Its further testing and worldwide application is recommended.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Vargas, RR, Omuto, CT, and Lewis, N. 2008. Land degradation assessment of a selected study area in Somaliland: application of the LADA/WOCAT approach at local level. National Land Degradation Workshop, 16-18 September, Pretoria, South Africa.". In: National Land Degradation workshop. FAO; 2008. Abstract
Soil physical degradation is a gradual process of many steps beginning from structural deterioration and ending in differential loss of finer particles through erosion. Control of the degradation remains a challenge to many scientists due to lack of proper assessment protocols. This study developed a sequential protocol with emphasis on definition of physical degradation and successive soil testing to determine the stages of degradation development. The protocol was tested in Cambisols, Arenosols, and Ferralsols in Eastern Kenya. Soil physical degradation due to 10 years land use change was defined as more than 25% drop in infiltration and water retention characteristics and aggregate stability and more than 30% increase in bulk density and silt content. Then a soil testing model was sequentially applied to identify physical degradation phases. Visual assessment of degradation symptoms, RUSLE model, and diffuse infrared spectral reflectance were used in the soil testing model as predictors of physical degradation. Visual assessment was found to be cheap and fast method for identifying final stages of physical degradation with 60% accuracy. Visual assessment combined with RUSLE model improved the assessment accuracy to 80%. Infrared spectral reflectance, which is sensitive to subtle changes in soil physical conditions, was also found as a potential surrogate predictor of early-warning signs of soil physical degradation. Inclusion of spectra into the assessment model improved the accuracy to 95%. This protocol is effective in identifying phases of soil physical degradation, which are useful for planning degradation control and monitoring schemes. Its further testing and worldwide application is recommended.
2007
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. 2007. HydroMe: Estimation of soil hydraulic parameters from experimental data.". In: Software. R Development Core Team; 2007. Abstract
HydroMe is a R Package that estimates the parameters in infiltration and water retention models by curve-fitting method. The models considered in this package those that are commonly used in soil science.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. and P.D. Shrestha. 2007. Remote sensing techniques for rapid detection of soil physical degradation. International Journal of Remote Sensing 28, 4785.". In: International Journal of Remote Sensing. International Journal of Remote Sensing; 2007. Abstract

Physical degradation undermines soils' ability to perform their many biophysical functions. Currently, there is lack of rapid methods to facilitate timely large-area assessment for effective control of the degradation. This study tested the combined applications of point-measurements of physical properties, soil spectral reflectance, and remote sensing for prediction of the degradation in a large watershed. Infiltration and water retention measurements at selected sites were used to aid definition of the degradation classes. A tree classification was then developed with diffuse spectral reflectance to predict the degradation classes. 93% accuracy with holdout cross-validation was achieved and the tree used to predict the degradation at multiple points in the study area. In addition, standardized deviations of land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from long-term Landsat scenes were used to study the thermal and vegetation conditions at the sampled points. The deviations of LST and NDVI were effectively incorporated in the prediction of the degradation at other places with 80% accuracy of ground reference data. This approach has the potential as a useful tool for guiding policy decision on sustainable land management.

2006
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT, Minasny B, McBratney AB, Biamah, EK. 2006. Nonlinear mixed effect modelling for improved estimation of water retention and infiltration parameters. Journal of Hydrology, 330:748-758.". In: Journal of Hydrology. Journal of Hydrology; 2006. Abstract
Accurate estimation of soil hydraulic functions is an important topic in soil physics and hydrology. Soil scientists and hydrologists use experimental data to derive parameters of the hydraulic functions, and when measurements are not available they utilise pedotransfer functions. In all of the current methods, there is a lack of consideration for environmental covariates in the parameter estimation process. This paper presents nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) approach that incorporates various sources of information to make parameter estimates for population and individual-sites at the same time. Using likelihood approximations, NLME allows structured covariance matrices and estimated parameters to vary over sample-points thus giving more accurate description of the magnitudes and sources of inter-individual variations. This approach was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters from infiltration and water retention measurements that incorporate information about soil degradation. The performance of NLME was compared to: (i) average parameters obtained by considering whole dataset as one group and (ii) individual treatment of each sample-point independently. The best performance was achieved with NLME that gave the lowest residual standard error for the Philip’s infiltration and the van Genuchten’s water retention function. By including sampling structure and covariates in the parameter estimation process, NLME offers opportunity to study the mechanisms or factors producing a particular hydrologic response from different parts of the watershed. This information can be used for targeting recommendations in watershed management.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, CT and Shepherd KD. 2006. New methods for large-area assessment of soil degradation. 18th World Congress of Soil Science July 9-15, 2006 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.". In: 18th World Congress of Soil Science July 9-15, 2006 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. WCSS; 2006. Abstract
Accurate estimation of soil hydraulic functions is an important topic in soil physics and hydrology. Soil scientists and hydrologists use experimental data to derive parameters of the hydraulic functions, and when measurements are not available they utilise pedotransfer functions. In all of the current methods, there is a lack of consideration for environmental covariates in the parameter estimation process. This paper presents nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) approach that incorporates various sources of information to make parameter estimates for population and individual-sites at the same time. Using likelihood approximations, NLME allows structured covariance matrices and estimated parameters to vary over sample-points thus giving more accurate description of the magnitudes and sources of inter-individual variations. This approach was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters from infiltration and water retention measurements that incorporate information about soil degradation. The performance of NLME was compared to: (i) average parameters obtained by considering whole dataset as one group and (ii) individual treatment of each sample-point independently. The best performance was achieved with NLME that gave the lowest residual standard error for the Philip’s infiltration and the van Genuchten’s water retention function. By including sampling structure and covariates in the parameter estimation process, NLME offers opportunity to study the mechanisms or factors producing a particular hydrologic response from different parts of the watershed. This information can be used for targeting recommendations in watershed management.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT, Shepherd KD, Coe R, Walsh MG, Gumbe LO. 2006. Rapid protocol for assessing soil physical degradation in arid and semi-arid areas. Highland2006 conference on environmental change, geomorphic processes, land degradation and rehabilitation in tropi.". In: Highland2006 conference. Mekelle University; 2006. Abstract
Accurate estimation of soil hydraulic functions is an important topic in soil physics and hydrology. Soil scientists and hydrologists use experimental data to derive parameters of the hydraulic functions, and when measurements are not available they utilise pedotransfer functions. In all of the current methods, there is a lack of consideration for environmental covariates in the parameter estimation process. This paper presents nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) approach that incorporates various sources of information to make parameter estimates for population and individual-sites at the same time. Using likelihood approximations, NLME allows structured covariance matrices and estimated parameters to vary over sample-points thus giving more accurate description of the magnitudes and sources of inter-individual variations. This approach was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters from infiltration and water retention measurements that incorporate information about soil degradation. The performance of NLME was compared to: (i) average parameters obtained by considering whole dataset as one group and (ii) individual treatment of each sample-point independently. The best performance was achieved with NLME that gave the lowest residual standard error for the Philip’s infiltration and the van Genuchten’s water retention function. By including sampling structure and covariates in the parameter estimation process, NLME offers opportunity to study the mechanisms or factors producing a particular hydrologic response from different parts of the watershed. This information can be used for targeting recommendations in watershed management.
2003
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT, Walsh MG, Shepherd KD, Coe R 2003. Prediction of field-measured infiltration rates using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Poster presented at ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meetings, 2-6 November 2003, Denver, Colorado, USA. Annual Meeting Abstracts [CD-.". In: ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meetings, 2-6 November 2003, Denver, Colorado, USA. ASA-CSSA-SSSA; 2003. Abstract
Accurate estimation of soil hydraulic functions is an important topic in soil physics and hydrology. Soil scientists and hydrologists use experimental data to derive parameters of the hydraulic functions, and when measurements are not available they utilise pedotransfer functions. In all of the current methods, there is a lack of consideration for environmental covariates in the parameter estimation process. This paper presents nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) approach that incorporates various sources of information to make parameter estimates for population and individual-sites at the same time. Using likelihood approximations, NLME allows structured covariance matrices and estimated parameters to vary over sample-points thus giving more accurate description of the magnitudes and sources of inter-individual variations. This approach was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters from infiltration and water retention measurements that incorporate information about soil degradation. The performance of NLME was compared to: (i) average parameters obtained by considering whole dataset as one group and (ii) individual treatment of each sample-point independently. The best performance was achieved with NLME that gave the lowest residual standard error for the Philip’s infiltration and the van Genuchten’s water retention function. By including sampling structure and covariates in the parameter estimation process, NLME offers opportunity to study the mechanisms or factors producing a particular hydrologic response from different parts of the watershed. This information can be used for targeting recommendations in watershed management.
2001
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C. T., J .P .O. Obiero and S. C. Ondieki. 2001. Modelling Hydraulic Conductivity. Paper presented at the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers International Conference , Grand Regency Hotel, Nairobi, 2001.". In: Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers International Conference. KSAE; 2001. Abstract
Accurate estimation of soil hydraulic functions is an important topic in soil physics and hydrology. Soil scientists and hydrologists use experimental data to derive parameters of the hydraulic functions, and when measurements are not available they utilise pedotransfer functions. In all of the current methods, there is a lack of consideration for environmental covariates in the parameter estimation process. This paper presents nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) approach that incorporates various sources of information to make parameter estimates for population and individual-sites at the same time. Using likelihood approximations, NLME allows structured covariance matrices and estimated parameters to vary over sample-points thus giving more accurate description of the magnitudes and sources of inter-individual variations. This approach was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters from infiltration and water retention measurements that incorporate information about soil degradation. The performance of NLME was compared to: (i) average parameters obtained by considering whole dataset as one group and (ii) individual treatment of each sample-point independently. The best performance was achieved with NLME that gave the lowest residual standard error for the Philip’s infiltration and the van Genuchten’s water retention function. By including sampling structure and covariates in the parameter estimation process, NLME offers opportunity to study the mechanisms or factors producing a particular hydrologic response from different parts of the watershed. This information can be used for targeting recommendations in watershed management.
2010
Mwango GN, Muriithi IM. "Wandering Spleen: Case Report." EAMJ. 2010;87(2):84-86. AbstractAbstract

Wandering spleens are rare clinical entities found more commonly in women aged 20-40 years. We report one such case found in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman who presented with low abdominal pains of sudden onset and splenomegaly. An emergency abdominal CT scan showed an enlarged spleen located in the right lumbar region and extending into the pelvis. There was a long splenic pedicle containing tortuous vessels. A review of literature and the postulated aetiological factors and associations are discussed.

Onyambu CK, Muriithi IM, Ngare SM. "Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis: A Report of Two Cases." EAMJ. 2010;87(5):220-224. AbstractWebsite

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is an uncommon yet potentially life threatening condition which is often under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of the variability of the clinical signs and symptoms. The imaging findings are often subtle thus the need for a high index of suspicion. The superior sagittal and transverse sinuses are the most frequently involved. The correct diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis relies on neuroimaging studies. The two cases reported highlight the fact that the radiologist may be the first clinician to suspect and diagnose this condition. This ultimately affects prognosis as early diagnosis and treatment reduces morbidity and mortality.

Ekwom PE, Oyoo GO, Amayo EO, Muriithi IM. "Prevalence and Characteristics of Articular Manifestations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection." EAMJ. 2010;87(10):408-414.Website
2009
Kiboi JG, Muriithi IM. "Vertex Epidural Hematoma Manifesting with Bilateral Upper Limb Decerebrate Posture: Case Report." EAMJ. 2009;86(6):300-304. AbstractWebsite

Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.

2001
A MRNYANDEGAISAIAH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O., Nyandega, I.A. and Ochola-Ayayo, AB.C., 2001: Farming in TseTse Controlled Areas: A household Survey of Selected Districts in Western Kenya. A consultancy Report for FITCA-Kenya Project, October, 2001, Nairobi Kenya.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
A MRNYANDEGAISAIAH. "Mosi. R.O. and Nyandega, I.A.: Farming in the Tsetse Controlled Areas: A Veterinary census of Selected Districts in Western Kenya. A Consultancy Report for FITCA-Kenya, October 2001, Nairobi Kenya.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
1998
A MRNYANDEGAISAIAH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O., Nyandega, I.A. and Weere, W.B., 1998: Climate Impact on Human Settlement: Case study of Laikipia and Nairobi Districts.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. Association of Africa Universities; 1998. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
2005
WAFULA DRKHATETEIBRAHIM. "Improving educational quality and schooling in primary schools. Some policy suggestions July, 2005. (Co-authored).". In: SACMEQ (southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality). Association of Africa Universities; 2005. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
WAFULA DRKHATETEIBRAHIM. "Planning of Education in kenya: Which Way.". In: MOI UNIVERSITY. Association of Africa Universities; 2005. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
WAFULA DRKHATETEIBRAHIM. "Innovations in Science and Mathematics Education .". In: SACMEQ (southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality). Association of Africa Universities; 2005. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
1998
JOHN MRNDOLOISAAC. "Ndolo, I.J. (1998): Some Aspects of the Urban Microclimate of Nairobi City.". In: African Urban Quarterly Journal. Association of Africa Universities; 1998. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
1989
JOHN MRNDOLOISAAC. "Ndolo, I.J. (1989): A Dependable Cumulative Soil Water Balance Model for Rice. Paper Presented at WMO Seminar, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: African Urban Quarterly Journal. Association of Africa Universities; 1989. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
1987
JOHN MRNDOLOISAAC. "Lewis, J. and I.J. Ndolo, (1987): Estimating Moisture Availability for Rice in Mwea, Kenya.". In: Agric. Jour. Vol. 41: (81-90). Association of Africa Universities; 1987. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
1985
JOHN MRNDOLOISAAC. "Ndolo, I.J. (1985): Water Balance and Rice Yields in a Tropical Environment: A Case Study of Mwea Irrigation Settlement, M.Sc. Thesis.". In: Agric. Jour. Vol. 41: (81-90). Association of Africa Universities; 1985. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
2006
Sigana DA, Mavuti KM, Ruwa RK. The influence of environmental parameters on fish fauna of the Bahari ya Wali, Kilifi creek, Kenya.. AVU Hall Kenyatta University: Kenyatta University Department of Biological Sciences; 2006. Abstract

isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died.

Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;

2002
Sigana DAO. "The breeding cycle of Scylla serrata (Forskal, 1755) at Ramisi River estuary, Kenya." Wetlands Ecology and Management. 2002;10(3): 257-263.Website
Sigana DA. "The Breeding cycle of Thalamita crenata Latreille, 1829 at Gazi Creek (Maftaha Bay), Kenya." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2002;1(2):145-153.Website
2001
Sigana DA. "The Reproductive biology of Thalamita crenata Latreille at Gazi Bay in Kenya.". In: Marine Science Development in Tanzania and Eastern Africa. Zanzibar Tanzania: Nyenze E, Ilako D, Kimani K; 2001.
2011
Wambugu SN, Mbaabu M, Gakuya DW, Kanui TI, Kabasa JD, Kiama SG. "Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya." Journal of Etnopharmacology. 2011;137:945-955. AbstractWebsite

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya

2005
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "Gakuya,D.W.,Mbithi,P.M.F.,Mugambi,J.M.,Maitho,T.E.and Musimba,N.K.R.2005. Evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extracts of Albizia anthelmintica and Maerua edulis against the nematode Heligsomoides polygyrus infections in mice. The Kenya Veterinarian 28:.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF ALBIZIA ANTHELMINTICA AND MAERUA EDULIS AGAINST THE NEMATODE HELIGMOSOMOIDES POLYGYRUS INFECTIONS IN MICE. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 28,2005.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthelmintica bark and Maerua- edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment groups and one control group. Groups, 2, and 3 were given an oral dose of water extracts of A. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently given a double oral dose of 0.2ml of physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyus egg count reduction of 72%. 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and 1 respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction in worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, /5%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2 3,6, and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use of these plants as anthelmintics
D.W. Gakuya, C.M.Mulei. "AN INVESTIGATION OF THE INCIDENCES OF EAST COAST FEVER (ECF), ANAPLASMOSIS AND BABESIOSIS IN THE BOVINE CASES MANAGED BY AMBULATORY SERVICES OF THE FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE, KABETE." Kenya Veterinarian. 2005;29:21-24. AbstractWebsite

The purpose of this investigation was to establish the incidences of tick borne diseases (TBD) in cattle. The diseases investigated were East Coast Fever (ECF), anaplasmosis and babesiosis. The data used was obtained from the large animal clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary medicine covering a period of 8 years (1996-2003). From the total number of bovine cases recorded (8706), the incidences of the clinical tick borne diseases was 7.8%, with ECF, anaplasmosis and babesiosis accounting for 62.9%, 32.8% and 4.3% of the cases respectively. The confirmed cases of the tick borne diseases represented 2% of all total bovine cases (8706) attended by ambulatory services over this period although only 42.7% were presented for laboratory confirmation. East Cost Fever, Anaplasmosis and babesiosis were confirmed in 65 %, 41.7% and 61.5% of their respective clinical cases. It was concluded that tick-borne diseases were a major problem and ECF was still the most prevalent tick-borne disease in this area. Issues on the number of cases in this area, sample collection, field and laboratory diagnosis are discussed

WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 29,2005. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE STATUS OF BOVINE MASTITIS IN A MEDIUM SCALE DAIRY FARM IN KABETE AREA, KENYA.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
The purpose of this investigation was to establish the mastitis status in the dairy herd of 110 cows (genetically heterogeneous Bos Taurus breeds). All the cows were examined by physical inspection of the udder and California Mastitis Test (CMT) carried out on milk from the quarters of the 89 cows in milk. A total of 37 milk samples were collected from affected quarters of 36 cows, which had visibly abnormal secretion or tested positive on CMT, and taken for bacteriological culture and sensitivity tests. The outcome was a prevalence of 40.4 % based on the cows in milk and 18.4% based on their quarters. From the 37 samples that were cultured, 36 had abundant bacterial growth. Of the bacteria isolated, 45 % were Corynebacteria, 30.0 % Staphylococci, 22.5% Streptococci and 2.65% Pseudomonas. Of the twelve antibacterial compounds used in the sensitivity tests, the bacteria were most sensitive to ampi-clox and cefaclor at 98% and lest sensitive to sulphamethoxazole and cotrimoxazole both at 2%. Pseudomonas was only sensitive to gentamycin, norfloxacin and tetracycline. From this investigation the prevalence of mastitis in the herd is fairly high and there is need for a comprehensive monitoring and control program for udder health in this herd
2004
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "Gakuya, D.W., Mbaria, J.M., Mbithi,P.M.F. and Munenge, R.W. 2004. Evaluation of the bioactivity of some traditional medicinal plants using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. The Kenya Veterinarian 26: 8-11.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the bioactivity of extracts of Chrysanthemum cineraraefolium Vis., Albizia anthelmintica A Brgn, Maerua edulis (Gilg) De wolf and Myrsine Africana L. Which are using tratitioanll as anthelmintic as using brine shrimp lethanitly test serial dilutions of 1000 ug/ml and 10 ug / ml of the extracts were put in five test tubes. Ten (10) brine shrimp larvae were immersed into each of the test tubes and the number surviving after 24 hours counted and the percentage mortality and LC for each extract was determined. Cl cinerariaefolium extract (pyrethrins) was active (LC 1000 ug/ml) of 18ug/ml. The methanol extacts of Maerua edulis, Maera subcordata and Myysine Africana were not active (LC 1000 ug/ml) the results indicated that C. cenerareafolium and A. Anthelmintica extracts have bioactivity and is the basis for their use as anthelmintic by pastoral communities. Brine shrimp lethality test was found to be a simple and rapid test and is thus recommended for similar studies.
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "Gakuya, D.W., Mbithi, P.M.F., Maitho, T.E. and Musimba, N.K.R. 2004. The potential use of plant anthelmintic for the control of livestock helminthoses in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 26: 14-26.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
Helminthoses is a major constraint to livestock production in Kenya. The control of these infections by the use of synthetic anthelmintics is constrained by a number of problems that include; lack of foreign exchange to import them, development of anthelmintic resistance, lack of finance to purchase them, unavailability and misuse due to lack of appropriate information. The use of plant anthelmintics would be a rational alternative to bridge these shortfalls. In some tropical countries, research work has been carried out to validate this possibility. In order to integrate plant anthelmintics in the overall helminth control in Kenya, there is a need to document research findings on indigenous knowledge, through carrying out experiments to determine efficacy, toxicity and optimum dosage rates. In addition, isolation and identification of active ingredients using current laboratory techniques will be a critical milestone.
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "THE POTENTIAL USE OF PLANT ANTHELMINTICS FOR THE CONTROL OF LIVESTOCK HELMINTHOSES IN KENYA.The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 26, 2004.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
D.W. Gakuya,1 P.M.F. Mbithi 1, T.E. Maitho2 and N.K.R. Musimba3 Department of Clinical Studies, 2. Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology 3 Department of Range Management, University of Nairobi. Kenya. Abstract Helminthoses is a major constraint to livestock production in Kenya. The control of these infections by the use of synthetic anthelmintics is constrained by a number of problems that include; lack of foreign exchange to import them, development of anthelmintic resistance, lack of finance to purchase them, unavailability and misuse due to lack of appropriate information. The use of plant anthelmintics would be a rational alternative to bridge these shortfalls. In some tropical countries, research work has been carried out to validate this possibility. In order to integrate plant anthelmintics in the overall helminth control in Kenya, there is a need to document research findings on indigenous knowledge, through carrying out experiments to determine efficacy, toxicity and optimum dosage rates. In addition, isolation and identification of active ingredients using current laboratory techniques will be a critical milestone
2000
2012
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Elsevier; 2012.
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS/BiovisionAlexandria. NXT Conference. Alexandria Egypt. Elsevier; 2012.
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in lake magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS-BiovisionAlexandria NXT Conference, Alexandria Egypt. Elsevier; 2012.
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference, Nairobi. Elsevier; 2012.
2009
LETURA DRKISIPANMOSIANY, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW, ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "The morphology and morphometry of the male reproductive system of the rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens).". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2009.
2005
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Ojoo, R. O., Otiang.". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Kisia, S. M and Onyango, D. W (2005): Muscular System of Vertebrates,Science Publishers Inc., Enfield, New Hampshire, USA.". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

2001
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W (2001): Effects of ethane dimethanesulphonate (EDS) on testicular and epididymal structure, and plasma testosterone profiles in the goat (Capra hircus). Ph.D thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W., Wango, E. O and Werner, G (2001): Epididymal epithelial cell involution following a single intraperitoneal administration of ethane dimethanesulphonate (EDS) in the goat (Capra hircus). Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 175(1): 19-27.". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W., Wango, E. O., Oduor-Okelo, D and Werner, G (2001): Early testicular response to intraperitoneal administration of ethane dimethanesulphonate (EDS) in the goat (Capra hircus). J. Submicrosc.Cytol. Pathol., 33(1-2): 117-124.". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

2000
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W., Wango, E. O., Otiang.". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Otiang'a-Owiti, G. E., Onyango, D. W., Ouma, J. O., Njogu, A and Mungania, S.K (2000): A review on methods employed in studying embryogenesis. AJST, 1(3):38-43.". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

1998
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W., Wango, E. O. Odongo, H., Mugweru, J & Okindo, E (1998):Effects of heptachlor on rat plasma LH, testosterone and cortisol and testicular structure. In;.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology(FASBMB) (Eds. Ochanda, J. O., Kiaira, J. K & Makawiti, D. W.),pp.195-198. Biochemical Society of Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

1997
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Wango, E. O., Onyango, D. W., Odongo, H., Okindo, E & Mugweru, J (1997):In vitro production of testosterone and plasma levels of luteinizing hormone, testosterone and cortisol in male rats treated with heptachlor.Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 118C(3): 381-386.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology(FASBMB) (Eds. Ochanda, J. O., Kiaira, J. K & Makawiti, D. W.),pp.195-198. Biochemical Society of Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

1995
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W., Gachoka, J. M., Otiang.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology(FASBMB) (Eds. Ochanda, J. O., Kiaira, J. K & Makawiti, D. W.),pp.195-198. Biochemical Society of Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

1993
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W., Oduor-Okelo, D & Otiang.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology(FASBMB) (Eds. Ochanda, J. O., Kiaira, J. K & Makawiti, D. W.),pp.195-198. Biochemical Society of Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

1992
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W (1992): Histological and ultrastructural study of the male reproductive system of non-breeding naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber, Ruppell) and in vitro interstitial (Leydig) cell response to luteinizing hormone (LH). MSc. thesis,univers.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology(FASBMB) (Eds. Ochanda, J. O., Kiaira, J. K & Makawiti, D. W.),pp.195-198. Biochemical Society of Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W., Oduor-Okelo, D & Otiang.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology(FASBMB) (Eds. Ochanda, J. O., Kiaira, J. K & Makawiti, D. W.),pp.195-198. Biochemical Society of Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

1991
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W., Otiang.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology(FASBMB) (Eds. Ochanda, J. O., Kiaira, J. K & Makawiti, D. W.),pp.195-198. Biochemical Society of Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

2006
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kiarie, E.G., Kabuage, L.W., Gitau, G.K., Wakhungu, J.W. and Mutero, C.M. (2006). Livestock and their role in Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 54, 110-117.". In: Ufanisi Journal No.47. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2006. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
2004
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Mutero, C.M., Kabutha, C., Kimani,V., Kabuage, L.W. et al (2004). Transdisciplinary perspective on the links between malaria and agroecosystems in Kenya. Acta Tropica. Special Issue on Malaria and Agriculture, Vol. 89, Issue 2, Jan 2004.". In: Ufanisi Journal No.47. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2004. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
2003
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kuria, J.N., Ommeh, H., Kabuage, L., Mbogo, S. and Mutero, C.M. (2003). Technical efficiency of rice producers in Mwea Irrigation Scheme. Paper 9 presented at the 6th Conference of the African Crop Science Society at Hilton hotel Nairobi, Kenya on 16th Oc.". In: Paper 9 presented at the 6th Conference of the African Crop Science Society at Hilton hotel Nairobi, Kenya on 16th October 2003. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2003. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Mutero, C.M., Kabutha, C., Kimani,V., Kabuage, L.W. et al (2003). A transdisciplinary perspective of the links between malaria and agroecosystems in Kenya. Paper presented at the .". In: Paper presented at the . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2003. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage L.W., Kiarie G.E., Gitau G.K., Wakhungu J.W., and Mutero C.M, (2003). Crop-livestock interactions and nutrient cycling in the Mwea agroecosystem.". In: Paper presented at the . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2003. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
2002
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N., Ngatia, T.A. and Schafer, K. (2002). Effect of fortifying amaranth diets with amino acids, casein and ethylene diamine tetraacetate on broiler performance, amino acid availability and mineral utilisation. South A.". In: Paper presented at the . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2002. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N. and Ngatia, T.A. (2002). Effect of steam pelleting and inclusion of molasses in amaranth diets on broiler chicken performance, carcass composition and histopathology of some internal organs. Published by FAO-AGRIP.". In: Paper presented at the . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2002. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Muthee,A.M., Kabuage, L.W.,Gathuma, J.M.and Mwambia, M.W.(2002). The status of dairy industry in Kenya. Review of policy, institutional and market environment;.". In: Paper presented at the . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2002. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Muthee,A.M., Kabuage, L.W.,Gathuma, J.M.and Mwambia, M.W.(2002).The status of the dairy industry in Kenya. Review of production and health issues.". In: Papers presented at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference held at the University of Nairobi in August, 2002. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2002. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L. W ,(2002). .The role of poultry production in poverty alleviation: Current trends in peri-urban and rural areas of Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the 2nd Kenya Livestock Technologists Association (KELITA) Scientific Conference, held at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) in July 2002. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2002. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kiarie, E,G., Kabuage, L.W., Wakhungu, J.W., Gitau, G.K., Githure, J. and Mutero, C.M. (2002). A description of livestock and their role in Mwea irrigation scheme.". In: Paper presented at The Kenya Veterinary Association Conference held on 24-26 April 2002 in Kakamega, Kenya. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2002. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
2001
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Mutero, C., Githure, J., Kabutha, C., Kimani, V., Kabuage L., Gitau, G., Ssennyonga, J. and Muthami, L. (2001). Agro-ecosystem Management for Malaria Control. Paper presented at .". In: Paper presented at . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2001. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1999
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Okong.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Symposium held on 11-12 March 1999, at KARI-Naivasha. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1999. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1998
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N. and Ngatia, T.A. (1998). Effect of pelleting and inclusion of molasses in grain amaranth diets on broiler performance and carcass composition. Paper presented at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scienti.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Symposium held on 11-12 March 1999, at KARI-Naivasha. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Mbugua, P.N. and Kabuage, L.W. (1998). Sustainable use of grasslands, forests, grains and crop residues. Paper presented at the World Conference on Animal Production in Seoul, Korea; June 28 - July 4, 1998.". In: Paper presented at the World Conference on Animal Production in Seoul, Korea; June 28 - July 4, 1998. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Okong.". In: In: Proceedings of Rural Poultry Workshop held in July 1998 at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Kakamega, Kenya. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Ndegwa, J.M., Tchombe, T., Kabuage, L.W., Mukkibi-Muka, G. and Kosgey, I.S. (1998). Improvement of indigenous poultry production in Sub-Saharan Africa. A paper presented at the International Course on Intensive Poultry Production held at the Centre for In.". In: A paper presented at the International Course on Intensive Poultry Production held at the Centre for International Agricultural Development Cooperation (CINADCO), Kibbutz Shefayim, 4th March . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N. and Ngatia, T.A. (1998). Utilisation of minerals in grain amaranth diets by broiler chickens. Paper presented at the BSAS/ KARI/APSK/ILRI conference held at KARI conference centre on 27th- 30th January 1998.". In: Paper presented at the BSAS/ KARI/APSK/ILRI conference held at KARI conference centre on 27th- 30th January 1998. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N. and Mitaru, B.N. (1988). Effect of dietary treatments on body fat level and performance in broiler chickens. Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Regional Conference for Eastern and Southern Africa in Nairo.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Regional Conference for Eastern and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya; 23rd-25th Nov., 1988. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1996
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N. and Ngatia, T.A. (1996). Effect of amino acid supplementation of raw and thermal processed amaranth diets on broiler.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Regional Conference for Eastern and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya; 23rd-25th Nov., 1988. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1996. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W. (1994). Poultry nutrition and management. Agriculture in Pretoria, South Africa on 1-4 April 1996.". In: Paper presented at the 2nd All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture in Pretoria, South Africa on 1-4 April 1996. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1996. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1994
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N. and Ngatia, T.A. (1994). Production, health and economic data in a broiler chicken research project. The Kenya Veterinarian, Special issue, Vol. 18, No.". In: Paper presented at the 2nd All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture in Pretoria, South Africa on 1-4 April 1996. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1994. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1993
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N. and Mitaru, B.N. (1993). The effect of feeding raw and extruded grain amaranth diets on performance in broiler chickens. Paper presented at the World Conference on Animal Production in Edmonton, Canada; 28th June - 2nd July, 19.". In: Paper presented at the World Conference on Animal Production in Edmonton, Canada; 28th June - 2nd July, 1993. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1993. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1992
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N. and Mitaru, B.N. (1992). Nutritional value of grain amaranth in broiler diets.". In: Paper presented at the 1st All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture, Nairobi, Kenya; 23rd-27th November, 1992 - 1992. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1992. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1990
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N.and Mitaru, B.N. (1990). Effect of energy and protein levels in the diet on performance of broiler chickens.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Symposium at Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1990. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
2003
Kaduki KA, Ghiti A, Batty W, Allsopp DWE. "Reduced threshold current in bipolar diode lasers by non-square quantum well growth." Physica Scripta. 2003;67(1):68-73. Abstract

By device simulation, it is shown that non-square quantum well growth (well shaping) provides a means for reducing the threshold current of bipolar quantum well diode lasers. Calculations of subband structure, optical matrix elements and laser gain are performed based on a 4-band (electron, heavy-hole, light-hole, split-off-hole) Hamiltonian with Burt-Foreman Hermitianization. A non-optimized, compressively strained, InGaAs-AlGaAs (on GaAs) shaped well laser, operating at 0.97 µm is predicted to show improvements in both radiative and non-radiative current performance compared to a device based on an optimal square quantum well of the same well width and emission wavelength. These improvements result from modification of subband structure giving greater subband separation in the shaped well than in the square well

2001
Kaduki KA. "Non-square quantum well growth for reduced threshold current in tensilely strained lasers operating at 1.52mm." African Journal of Science & Technology. 2001;2(1):11-19. Abstract

This paper presents calculations demonstrating that non-square quantum well growth
(well shaping) can result in reduced threshold current for tensilely strained quantum well bipolar
diode lasers operating at 1.52μm m. Calculations of subband structure, optical matrix elements and
laser gain are performed for arbitrarily shaped quantum wells based on a 4-band (electron/heavyhole/
light-hole/split off-hole) Hamiltonian. For long wavelength (1.3μm m to 1.55μm) lasers,
Auger recombination dominates the threshold current. Compared to a 1.52 mm optimal square well
just below critical thickness, an InGaAs-InGaAsP (on InP) well incorporating potential ‘spikes’ and
having the same wavelength can be much wider. The wider well, possible with well shaping, results
in a lower value for three-dimensional (3D) carrier density at a given value of modal gain. For low
loss lasers, this implies a reduction in Auger (and hence total) threshold current to a value below the
best obtainable in a laser based on a square quantum well

Kaduki KA. "Theoretical investigation of gain in 1.3mm GaInNAs-GaAs quantum Well diode lasers." Maseno Journal of Education, Arts and Science. 2001;3(2):160-168.

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