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1987
WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "Okoth, M.W. Flat plate solar collectors for water heating in Kenyan rural and urban food processing plants. In: .". In: Proceedings of Sub-regional Seminar of Solar Energy Society of Africa, November 2-4, 1987, Nairobi. University of Nairobi.; 1987. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

1986
WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "OKOTH, M.W. & WILLIAMS, A. Thermal performance of some flat plate solar water heaters,. ." University of Nairobi.; 1986. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

1985
WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "OKOTH, M.W. & WILLIAMS, A. A potential use for solar energy in the Kenyan food processing industry. ." University of Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

1983
WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "OKOTH, M.W. The potential for the utilization of solar energy in the Kenyan Food Processing Industry: with particular reference to suitable food materials and processes; climatic limitations; and processes involving solar water heating. M.Sc. Thesis, Univ.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi, 1983. University of Nairobi.; 1983. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

2000
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Mogoa E.G.M., Omiti J.M., Tsuma V.T., Bwanga C.O; Some constraints and opportunities in the privatization of animal breeding services in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2000.
1998
1997
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.: Management of fertility problems in village herds of cattle in Kenya.". In: A paper presented in the 3rd Commonwealth Veterinary Association Workshop on . The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1997.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Wakhungu J.W. and Bwanga, C.O.; and Kipleel D.B. Strictures on the choice criteria of dairy cattle breeds in smallholder farms in Kenya. Contract Research report to USAID-ARF-KARI, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: A paper presented in the 3rd Commonwealth Veterinary Association Workshop on . The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1997.
1995
O DRBWANGACALEB. "J.W. Wakhungu and Bwanga, C.O. Preweaning mortality of dairy cattle on smallholdings in Western Kenya.". In: Proceedings in Annual Kenya Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, Kabete, Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1995.
1993
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O. Articial Insemination in Pigs.". In: A paper presented at . The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1993.
1992
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Hofino, P.O.; Grevle I.S., einarsson S. & H. Rodriguez- Martinez Viability and Fertility of deep-frozen boar semen packaged in plastic bags.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1992.
1991
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; (1991): Cryopreservation of boar semen: 1. A literature review. Acta Vet. Scand. 32, 431-453.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1991.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Einarsson S.; Rodriguez-Martinez H.Cryopreservation of boar semen: II. Effect of cooling rate and duration of freezing point plateau in boar semen frozen in mini -, maxi-straws and plastic bags. Acta Vet. Scand. 32, 455-461.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1991.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Hofino P.O.; Grevle, I.S. Einarsson S. & H. Rodriguez- Martinez H : In vivo fertilizing capacity of deep-frozen boar semen packaged in plastic bags and maxi-straws. J. Vet. Med. A38, 281-286.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1991.
1990
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; de Bragnaca M.M.; Einarsson S.; Rodriguez .". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1990.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Cyropreservation of Boar Semen: Studies on freezing packaging and fertilizing capacity. Master of Veterinary Sciences, Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1990.
1991
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Einarsson S.; Rodriguez .". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1991.
1999
B DRODUOLCHARLES. "Needs Assessment for Establishing a Gender Resource Centre. CIDA (GESP) 1999.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
1997
B DRODUOLCHARLES. "First Year Language Competence. The British Council, 1997.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1997.
1994
B DRODUOLCHARLES. "Interpretive Procedures in Classroom Discourse: Journal of Applied Discourse. The University of Aston in Birmingham (1994).". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1994.
2003
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Environmental Management Imperatives in Africa\.". In: Nigerian Conservation Foundation, 2003 ISBN 978-36240-40). The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2003.
2002
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Implementation of Environmental Law in Uganda. (93 pages).". In: ISBN 92-807-2207-7. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2002.
2001
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Compendium of Judicial Decisions in Matters Related to the Environment Volume II - National Decisions - 347 pages - (2001).". In: ISBN 92-807-2025-2. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2001.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Compendium of Judicial Decisions in Matters Related to the Environment Volume III - National Decisions - 374 pages.". In: ISBN 92-807-2096-1. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2001.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Background to Environmental Law and Institutions in Burkina Faso and Sao Tome & Principe.". In: ISBN 92-807-2203-7. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2001.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Studies in Environmental Policy and Law in Malawi. June 2001 (295 pages).". In: ISBN 92-807-2257-7. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2001.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Kaniaru, Donald & C.O. Okidi, "Sustainable Development and Investment in Africa" Business Law International (International Bar Association) Issue No. 3 Sept. 2001 pp. 316-329.". In: "Sustainable Development and Investment in Africa" Business Law International (International Bar Association) Issue No. 3 Sept. 2001 pp. 316-329. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2001.
2000
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and Harmonization of Environmental Law: Volume 4.". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 92-807-1881-9. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2000.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and Harmonization of Environmental Law: Volume 5.". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 92-807-1881-9. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2000.
1999
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Bulletin of Environmental Law: Special Issue 1999 - 86 pages.". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 92-807-1881-9. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and Harmonization of Environmental Law: Volume 1 Legal and Institutional Issues in the Lake Victoria Basin 200 pages.". In: UNEP publication. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and Harmonization of Environmental Law: Volume 2.". In: UNEP Publication June 1999 ISBN 92-1804-1. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and Harmonization of Environmental Law: Volume 3.". In: UNEP publication, ISBN 97-807-1805-3. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and Harmonization of Environmental Law: Volume 6.". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 97-807-1883-5. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and Harmonization of Environmental Law: Volume 7.". In: UNEP Publication, ISBN 92-807-1911-4. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and Harmonization of Environmental Law: Volume 8.". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 92-807-1898-3. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
1998
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Compendium of Environmental Laws of African Countries Volume V: 424 pages (comprising only Sectoral Environmental Laws and Regulations) 1998.". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 92-807-1898-3. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1998.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Compendium of Environmental Laws of African Countries Volume VI: 529 pages (comprising only Sectoral Environmental Laws and Regulations) 1998.". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 92-807-1898-3. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1998.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Compendium of Environmental Laws of African Countries Volume VII: 456 pages (comprising only Sectoral Environmental Laws and Regulations) 1998.". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 92-807-1898-3. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1998.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Compendium of Environmental Laws of African Countries Volume VIII:463 pages (comprising only Sectoral Environmental Laws and Regulations) 1998.". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 92-807-1898-3. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1998.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Supplement to Volume I 125 pages (comprising only Framework Laws and EIA Regulations).". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 92-807-1898-3. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1998.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Industries and Enforcement of Environmental Law in Africa: Industry Experts Review Environmental Practice - A4 paper size 198 pages - 1998.". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 92-807-1898-3. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1998.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Bulletin of Environmental Law: Special Issue 1998 - 82 pages.". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 92-807-1898-3. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1998.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Compendium of Judicial Decisions in Matters Related to the Environment Volume I - National Decisions - 511 pages.". In: ISBN 92-807-1762. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1998.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Compendium of Judicial Decisions in Matters Related to the Environment Volume I - International Decisions - 350 pages.". In: ISBN 92-807-1763-4. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1998.
1997
1996
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Compendium of Environmental Laws of African Countries Volume I: 494 pages (comprising only Framework Laws and EIA Regulations ) 1996.". In: ISBN 92-807-1763-4. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1996.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Compendium of Environmental Laws of African Countries Volume II: 362 pages (Comprising only Sectoral Environmental Laws and Regulations) 1996.". In: ISBN 92-807-1763-4. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1996.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Compendium of Environmental Laws of African Countries Volume III: 365 pages (comprising only Sectoral Environmental Laws and Regulation) 1996.". In: ISBN 92-807-1763-4. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1996.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Compendium of Environmental Laws of African Countries Volume IV: 394 pages (comprising only Sectoral Environmental Laws and Regulations) 1996.". In: ISBN 92-807-1763-4. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1996.
1994
1993
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and the Environment in Africa: Policy Initiatives (Nairobi: ACTS Press, Ecopolicy Series No. 5, 1993.". In: ISBN 92-807-1763-4. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1993.
1992
1990
1988
1987
1986
1985
1984
1982
1980
1979
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Kenya.". In: Vol. 18. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1979.
1978
1977
1976
2000
1995
MBATHA DRCHRISTOPHER, O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "The surveying profession beyond the year 2000 with reference to the profession in Kenya.". In: Institution of Surveyors of Kenya Seminar, Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, M PROFSYAGGAPAUL, MBATHA DRCHRISTOPHER, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Education for a modern integrated survey professional: a model curriculum with special reference to developing countries.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,.; 1995. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
2007
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "From Literacy To Life Long Learning: A Renewed Thinking For Educating The Kenyan People: A paper presented to the Conference on Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Adult Literacy, The German Adult Education Association (DVV), December 2006,Addis Ababa, Et.". In: A paper presented to the Conference on Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Adult Literacy, The German Adult Education Association (DVV), December 2006,Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, (to be Association (DVV), December 2006,Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, (to be Assoc. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
2006
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Training of Adult Educators: Institutions, Programmes and Target Groups: A paper presented to the Conference on Training of Adult Educators in Eastern Africa (Nairobi,December 2005), published in Capacity Building and the Training of Adult Educators,Inter.". In: A paper presented to the Conference on Training of Adult Educators in Eastern Africa (Nairobi, December 2005), published in Capacity Building and the Training of Adult Educators, International Perspectives in Adult Education, DVV, No 52, Bonn 2006). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Kenya: .". In: In the National Civic Education Program Training Manual (NCEP II), IntermediaNCG Publications, Nairobi (2006). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
2005
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Adult Education Facilitators Manual, Caritas Switzerland, Somaliland.". In: In the National Civic Education Program Training Manual (NCEP II), IntermediaNCG Publications, Nairobi (2006). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Adult Education Facilitators Manual, (2005) Peace and Anti-Racism Education Adult Education Policy and Practice in Kenya Adult Students as Distance Education Learners:).". In: In the National Civic Education Program Training Manual (NCEP II), IntermediaNCG Publications, Nairobi (2006). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Somalia Developed (with others) 10 books for the refugee literacy programme at various stages and levels (1986-9) and 7 Teachers.". In: Guides in Literacy and Numeracy for ADRA (2005-6). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Somaliland Facilitators.". In: A Manual for Facilitators of Adult Education (2005).Developed (with others) 10 Teachers. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
2004
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Peace and Anti-Racism Education: A Case Study of Umtapo Center.". In: A Manual for Facilitators of Adult Education (2005).Developed (with others) 10 Teachers. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2004. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
1999
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Adult Education Policy and Practice in Kenya: A Critical Policy Analysis. (Asia-pacific Bureau of Adult Education/UNESCO.". In: A Resource Manual For Educators and Trainers (with others) (Umtapo Centre Peace Education Publications,Durban, South Africa, 2002). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
1996
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Namibia Trained writers and participated in the development of nearly all the literacy books published in the Directorate of Adult Basic Education and for distance education materials developed by NAMCOL, the Namibian Open Learning College. (1990-1996).". In: A Critical Policy Analysis (1999),co-authored with J Kebathi and G Righa. (Asia-South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education/UNESCO). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1996. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
1990
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Adult Students as Distance Education Learners: An MA Study Unit, London University/IEC,.". In: A Critical Policy Analysis (1999),co-authored with J Kebathi and G Righa. (Asia-South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education/UNESCO). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1990. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
1986
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Kenya Co-author of materials on .". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1986. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
2002
N DRWAMBUGUMILCAH. "Evaluation of Acute Pelvic/Lower abdominal pain in Women - Nairobi Journal of Medicine March 2002.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine March 2002. University of Nairobi.; 2002. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

1989
N DRWAMBUGUMILCAH. "Okoth FA, Ogutu EO, Lule GN, Wambugu MN. Some Aspects of Obstructive Jaundice at Kenyatta National Hospital (co author) East Afr Med J. 1989 Sep;66(9):594-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Sep;66(9):594-7. University of Nairobi.; 1989. Abstract
A prospective study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and September 1988 to look at some aspects of obstructive jaundice in patients above 12 years of age. Screening for cases was done by use of abdominal ultrasonography. A total of 20 cases (11 females, 9 males) were diagnosed. Carcinoma of the head of pancreas accounted for 55% of cases of the obstruction, followed by gallstones (10%), hepatocellular carcinoma (10%) and gall bladder tumour (10%).
1988
N DRWAMBUGUMILCAH. "Lule GN, Ogutu EO, Okoth F, Were JB, Wambugu M. Sclerotherapy in the treatment of bleeding oesophageal varices: preliminary report. East Afr Med J. 1988 Jun;65(6):416-20. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1988 Jun;65(6):416-20. Review. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
A prospective study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and September 1988 to look at some aspects of obstructive jaundice in patients above 12 years of age. Screening for cases was done by use of abdominal ultrasonography. A total of 20 cases (11 females, 9 males) were diagnosed. Carcinoma of the head of pancreas accounted for 55% of cases of the obstruction, followed by gallstones (10%), hepatocellular carcinoma (10%) and gall bladder tumour (10%).
N DRWAMBUGUMILCAH, M. PROFTOLEN. "Radiation protection and the unborn child. East Afr Med J. 1988 Nov;65(11):778-84.". In: East Afr Med J. 1988 Nov;65(11):778-84. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
A prospective study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and September 1988 to look at some aspects of obstructive jaundice in patients above 12 years of age. Screening for cases was done by use of abdominal ultrasonography. A total of 20 cases (11 females, 9 males) were diagnosed. Carcinoma of the head of pancreas accounted for 55% of cases of the obstruction, followed by gallstones (10%), hepatocellular carcinoma (10%) and gall bladder tumour (10%).
1983
N DRWAMBUGUMILCAH. "The Ten Day Rule and its implementation at the Kenyatta National Hospital Dissertation for the award of the degree of Masters of Medicine University of Nairobi, 1983.". In: Dissertation for the award of the degree of Masters of Medicine University of Nairobi, 1983. University of Nairobi.; 1983. Abstract
A prospective study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and September 1988 to look at some aspects of obstructive jaundice in patients above 12 years of age. Screening for cases was done by use of abdominal ultrasonography. A total of 20 cases (11 females, 9 males) were diagnosed. Carcinoma of the head of pancreas accounted for 55% of cases of the obstruction, followed by gallstones (10%), hepatocellular carcinoma (10%) and gall bladder tumour (10%).
2009
M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Njambi L, Kariuki M.M, Masinde S. Ocular findings in children attending occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 21-26.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. University of Nairobi.; 2009. Abstract
Objectives: To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.   Design: Cross sectional hospital based.   Subjects: A hundred and eighty seven children, aged between three months and 13 years with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits.   Results: Majority of the patients had cerebral palsy(CP), 160(85.6%), while in those with sensory integration deficit(SID), attention- deficit / hyperactive disorder and autism had almost equal proportions, 20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Among all the children, 62% had ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to SID group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included cortical visual impairment (48.7%), refractive errors (39%) and squints (34.2%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was noted more in patients with CP compared with SID. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients with CP. Significant hyperopia was noted only in CP patients. Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic atrophy in patients with meningitis.   Conclusion: Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual impairment, refractive errors and squints were more common. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the SID group.   Recommendation: All Children with CP and SID should be referred to ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment.
2008
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT. "SS Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of s. aureus: an ocular normal flora East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 14, No. 2 (2008).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
Objectives: To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.   Design: Cross sectional hospital based.   Subjects: A hundred and eighty seven children, aged between three months and 13 years with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits.   Results: Majority of the patients had cerebral palsy(CP), 160(85.6%), while in those with sensory integration deficit(SID), attention- deficit / hyperactive disorder and autism had almost equal proportions, 20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Among all the children, 62% had ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to SID group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included cortical visual impairment (48.7%), refractive errors (39%) and squints (34.2%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was noted more in patients with CP compared with SID. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients with CP. Significant hyperopia was noted only in CP patients. Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic atrophy in patients with meningitis.   Conclusion: Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual impairment, refractive errors and squints were more common. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the SID group.   Recommendation: All Children with CP and SID should be referred to ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment.
2007
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: Conjunctival normal flora at Kenyatta national Hospital and Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. University of Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
Objectives: To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.   Design: Cross sectional hospital based.   Subjects: A hundred and eighty seven children, aged between three months and 13 years with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits.   Results: Majority of the patients had cerebral palsy(CP), 160(85.6%), while in those with sensory integration deficit(SID), attention- deficit / hyperactive disorder and autism had almost equal proportions, 20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Among all the children, 62% had ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to SID group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included cortical visual impairment (48.7%), refractive errors (39%) and squints (34.2%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was noted more in patients with CP compared with SID. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients with CP. Significant hyperopia was noted only in CP patients. Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic atrophy in patients with meningitis.   Conclusion: Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual impairment, refractive errors and squints were more common. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the SID group.   Recommendation: All Children with CP and SID should be referred to ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of coagulase negative staphylococci; a major ocular normal flora; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 3 (2007).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. University of Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
Objectives: To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.   Design: Cross sectional hospital based.   Subjects: A hundred and eighty seven children, aged between three months and 13 years with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits.   Results: Majority of the patients had cerebral palsy(CP), 160(85.6%), while in those with sensory integration deficit(SID), attention- deficit / hyperactive disorder and autism had almost equal proportions, 20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Among all the children, 62% had ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to SID group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included cortical visual impairment (48.7%), refractive errors (39%) and squints (34.2%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was noted more in patients with CP compared with SID. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients with CP. Significant hyperopia was noted only in CP patients. Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic atrophy in patients with meningitis.   Conclusion: Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual impairment, refractive errors and squints were more common. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the SID group.   Recommendation: All Children with CP and SID should be referred to ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment.
2010
M. MRMAINADAVID. "NORM and Associated Gamma Radiation Field in the Coltan Mining Areas of Rwanda L. Ntihabose, J. P. Patel, H. K. Angeyo, D. M. Maina.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Radiometric Characteristics of Artisanal Coltan Ore Extraction and Processing in Rwanda L. Ntihabose, J. P. Patel, H. K. Angeyo, D. M. Maina.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010. Abstract
The use of products containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) such as minerals, quarry, sand, clays, etc is widespread in Rwanda, but they are not subject to radiological quality control.  This paper presents the results of studies on the occupational radiation exposure due NORM in the extraction and processing of the Columbite-Tantalite (Coltan) mineral in the Muhanga, Ruli and Ngoma areas of Rwanda, by artisanal miners.  Activity concentration of primordial radionuclides, 40K, 238U and 232Th series in coltan ore (extracted, processed), soil, and mine tailing sediment were determined by HPGe-based gamma-ray spectrometry.  The average activity             concentrations of 238U were 50.2-972.9 Bq kg-1, 64.3-2011.8 Bq kg-1 and 70.7-853.3 Bq kg-1 in Muhanga, Ruli and Ngoma respectively.  These values are far higher than the world average of 35 Bq kg-1.  In all samples from the three regions, the activity concentrations of 40K were below average of 500 Bq kg-1 with the processed ore being   the lowest (< 30 Bq kg-1).  This implies that 40K is primarily in soil and not the ore.  The  average activity of 232Th (44.78-75.5 Bq kg-1) for processed coltan was greater than the world average, while the average activity for 232Th (26.7 Bq kg-1) in the extracted coltan was below the world wide average.  This indicates that 232Th is enhanced when processing coltan.  Based on these values and the working scenarios in artisanal coltan        mining, the occupational doses that may accrue from a variety of exposure pathways were determined by model calculation.  The working scenarios considered included digging to exposure the coltan ore, drying the coltan in open air, grinding, and sieving the dried coltan.  The exposure pathways considered in the dose calculation included external exposure due to gamma-rays from bulk materials containing gamma emitting  radionuclides, external exposure due to sumersions in air containing radioactive dust and the internal exposure due to ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides.  Among the exposure pathways considered, inhalation of coltan bearing dust resulted in the highest does while crushing and sieving coltan in the mill; 0.27, 0.52, 0.25 mSv per annum on  average in Muhanga, Ruli and Ngoma respectively.  These values are below 1 mSv y-1 which are the values recommended by ICRP for the public and occupational exposure respectively.  These results are however important in establishing radiological regulatory  protocol for occupational exposure in artisanal coltan mining since the area is a HBRA (X 11 the world average).  Key words:  Coltan; Processed coltan; Extracted coltan; Background radiation, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM); High Background Radiation Areas (HBRA).    
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Radiactivity and dose assessment of limestone samples from Kitui South Limestone Deposits-Kenya B. Mulwa and J. P. Patel, D. M. Maina.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010. Abstract
Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K of limestone samples collected from Kitui South have been measured using Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector gamma ray spectrometry.  A total of 48 samples were collected from the limestone rock outcrops in the region.  The average activity concentrations varied from 28.3 to 47.4 with a mean value of 35.9 Bq/kg and 87.4 to 142.6 with an average of 108.5 Bq/Kg for 226Ra and 40K respectively.  232Th was below detection limits in all the samples.  The value of the absorbed dose rates, annual effective dose rates, external hazard index, gamma activity index and alpha index were all below the maximum recommended values for radiological safety and showed good comparison within other studies in the world.    
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Bioavailability of Essential Trace elements in Some Traditional Diets Consumed in Eastern parts of Kenya as determined using the EDXRF Technique. B. K. Nyilitya1, D. M. Maina1, L. W. Njenga2 and J. M. Onyari2.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "DISTRIBUTION OF CD AND ZN LEVELS IN SOILS AND ACACIA XANTHOPHLOEA BENTH. FROM LAKE NAKURU NATIONAL PARK KENYA. N. Dharani, J. M. Onyari, J. I. Kinyamario, D. M. Maina, K. M. Mavuti.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
M. MRMAINADAVID, J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "MINERAL MICRONUTRIENT DENSITY CHARACTERIZATION USING ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE (XRF) ANALYSIS IN FOUR ON-FARM KENYAN WILD AFRICAN FRUIT TREE GERMPLASM Akundabweni LSM, Munene RW, Maina DM and Mangala JM.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "IONOMIC VARIATION CHARACTERIZATION IN AFRICAN LEAFY VEGETABLES FOR MICRONUTRIENTS USING XRF AND HPLC Akundabweni LSM, Mulokozi G and DM Maina.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
2007
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Njenga L.W., Maina D.M., Kariuki D.N., Mwangi F.K. "Aluminium exposure from vegetables and fresh raw vegetable juices in Kenya".". In: Journal. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007.
2006
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Inorganic and black carbon aerosol concentrations at a high altitude on Mount Kenya.". In: J. Geophs. Res., under correction after review. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Impact of road transport on air quality in Kenya; Roadside survey in the cities of Mombasa and Nairobi.". In: Poster presentation, abstract in the proceedings of the, International Aerosol Conference, St Paul Minnesota, USA,10 -15 September 2006: Poster presentation, Joint CACP-IGAC-WMO Conference, Cape Town, South Afric, 17 -23 September 2006. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Impact of road transport on air quality in Kenya; Roadside survey in the cities of Mombasa and Nairobi.". In: Poster presentation, abstract in the proceedings of the International Aerosol Conference, St. Paul Minnesota, USA, 10-15 September 2006: Poster presentation, abstract in the proceeding of the joint CACP-IGAC-WMO Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 17 - 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006.
2005
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Trace element categorization of pollution sources in the equator town of Nanyuki, Kenya.". In: X-Ray Spectrometry, 34:118-123. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J.,Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J.B.C, Space Measurements of near surface aerosols in the central district of Nairobi City, Kenya.". In: Poster presentation, abstrct in the preceedings, European Aerosol Conference (EAC2000), Ghent, Belgium, 28 August . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Investigation of the Essential Trace Element concentrations and Chemical safety of Pica Products consumed in some regions of Kenya and Tanzania.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Pica is the habit of eating non-food stuffs. Geophagia is a particular form of pica in which an individual consumes soil and soil related products. It is particularly common among pregnant women and young children. It is generally assumed that the cause of this habit is the lack of certain essential minerals such iron. However, these products may contain other non-essential elements that may cause harm to the consumers. It is therefore important to characterize them and evaluate the health status.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Lead Concentration in Milk and Cereal Products commonly consumed in Kenya.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Environmental pollutants arise from many sources, and exposure may occur through different routes. Some pollutants of particular concern are airborne substances, which occur primarily in suspended particles. These include sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide and lead oxide, among others. Although lead is an environmental and public health hazard of global proportions, the global dimensions of poisoning emanating from this heavy metal remain poorly understood due to persistent lack of information. Leaded petrol (gasoline) causes more widespread human exposure to lead than any other single source. Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the extent of lead contamination in milk and some selected commercial flour brands in Kenya.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Heavy Metal Concentration levels in Lates Niloticus, A Fish Species from Lake Victoria.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Lake Victoria is the main source of fish that is consumed in the major towns in Kenya, including the city of Nairobi. Some of the fish is also exported to Europe. Surveillance and assessment of heavy metals in the fish is important to ensure compliance with stipulated standards for human consumption. Obviously, noncompliance would lead to adverse health effects to the consumers as well as a ban on our fish exports.
M. MRMAINADAVID, J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "Urban Farming along Nairobi River: How Safe are the Food Crops.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Nairobi River originates from a swamp near Kikuyu town, about 24 kilometres west of Nairobi city centre and meanders across the city covering a stretch of about 30 kilometres. Within the city area, the river is contaminated by runoff waters; untreated effluent from residential areas and small-scale industries; and a significant volume of treated wastewaters from Kariobangi Sewerage Treatment Works. Its waters are used for various purposes, in particular agricultural, both within and outside the city environs. Most often the food crops grown along this river appear healthy and are attractive to customers. However, it is suspected that the waters used for irrigation purposes may contain high levels of heavy metals and these may end up being assimilated by these food crops and thereafter enter the food chain.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Microbial Quality of Ready-to-Drink Juice brands sold in the Kenyan Market.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Preservation of the juice is achieved mainly through canning, freezing or addition of microbial inhibitors, which include ascorbic acid, benzoic acid or their salts. In addition to the juice or their concentrates, acids, natural or artificial flavours and colours may also added. The ready-to-drink juices available in Kenya market are normally artificial flavours and colours may also added. The ready-to-drink juices available in Kenyan market are normally artificially made using a blend of colour, flavour and pH to simulate natural tastes and conditions. However, the safety of these juices has been a subject of debat in the recent past. Due to proliferation of the manufacturing industries and distribution points, their microbial quality is of concern as these products are highly consumed by children in urban areas in Kenya.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Heavy Metal Content of Leafy Vegetables grown on sludge amended soils.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Food crops are an important source of minerals that are important to the health of human beings. The main source of these minerals is the soils that they are grown in. The quality of these soils is ameliorated using additives such as fertilizers and manure. Sewage sludge contains important nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in enough quantities to warrant it being used as manure. Some scale farmers who are close to major urban centers use it as a form of manure. However, sludge may also contain harmful heavy metals which when assimilated by the plants will enter the food chain.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "The Impact of Environmental Lead Poisoning on Iron and Haemoglobin Status in Kenya.". In: 18th International Congress of Nutrition, Durban, South Africa . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Food crops are an important source of minerals that are important to the health of human beings. The main source of these minerals is the soils that they are grown in. The quality of these soils is ameliorated using additives such as fertilizers and manure. Sewage sludge contains important nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in enough quantities to warrant it being used as manure. Some scale farmers who are close to major urban centers use it as a form of manure. However, sludge may also contain harmful heavy metals which when assimilated by the plants will enter the food chain.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Aluminium exporsure from vegetables and fresh raw vegetable juices in Kenya.". In: 18th International Congress of Nutrition, Durban, South Africa . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Drinking of fresh vegetable raw juices for both cleansing and cure therapy has become very common in Kenya. Fresh raw vegetable juices have been recommended because they can boost the required minerals and vitamins in the body. This work was carried out to evaluate the amount of labile aluminium content in fresh raw vegetable juices and compare it with the total aluminium in vegetables. In addition, another objective was to determine the amount of aluminium leached out from aluminium pots during cooking. Out of 18 different vegetables analyzed, total alminium ranged from 0.096 mg g-1 to 1.06. mg kg-1; carrots contained the lowest values while parsely contained the highest values. Labile aluminium in fresh raw vegetable juice ranged from 0.003 mg ml-1 to 0.181 mg ml-1 and this gave 1 to 30% of the total aluminium. The amount taken per day during juice therapy, either as a detoxifier or a cure, ranged from 0.95 mg day-1 to as high as 40.22 mg day-1. But levels as high as 321.78 mg can be consumed depending on the volume of the juice consumed per day. The total aluminium consumed during juice therapy was found to be higher than that recommended by WHO. Aluminium pots were found to leach out some aluminium and the amount leached out was found to depend on the storage time and the age of the pot. Key words: Aluminium in vegetables, Nairobi, Kenya, vegetable juices, total and labile aluminium.
J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL, M. MRMAINADAVID. "Trace Elements in some selected dietary staples in Kenya.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Kimani W., Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J., Zakey A.S., Oral presentation "Study of inorganic and black carbon aerosols at a high altitude site on Mount Kenya, East Africa".". In: Oral presentation, The 6th informal conference on atmospheric and molecular science at Helsingor, Denmark, 3 - 5 June 2005. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., "Trace Element categorization of pollution sources in the Equator town of Nanyuki, Kenya".". In: X-ray Spectometry, 34:118-123. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Trace element studies in traditional Kenyan diets.". In: Journal. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
2004
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J.B.C., Application of Cd109 Source in evaluation of background industrial aerosols in Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa. - 2004.". In: Poster presentation, European Conference on X-ray Spectrometry (XRS2004), Alghero, Italy, 6 - 11 June 2004. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2004.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Maina D.M., Air pollution problems in the perspective of the Kenyan situation, regulation and awareness.". In: Oral Presentation, International workshop on Environmental Health education in the Eastern African region: challenges and the way forward at Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya. 24 - 26 March 2004. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2004.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Kimani W., Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J., Zakey A.S., "study of trace metals in PM10 at Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station on Mount Kenya, Kenya, east Africa". European Aerosol Conference at Budapest, Hungary, 6 - 10 September 2004.". In: Poster presentation, European Aerosol Conference (EAC2004), Budapest, Hungary, 6 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2004.
2003
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Development of Technical Capabilities for Sustainable Radiation and Waste Safety .". In: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), IAEA-CN-107, p. 9 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards effective and sustainable systems - Authorization, Inspection and Enforcement in Kenya.". In: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), IAEA-CN-107, p. 374 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003.
2002
M. MRMAINADAVID, J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "Indoor Radon (222 Rn) Levels in Coastal and Rift Valley Regions of Kenya.". In: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), IAEA-CN-91/56, p. 401-405,. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., Trace Element Categorization of Pollution Sources in the Equator Town of Nanyuki, Kenya.". In: Oral Presentation, abstract in the proceedings of the, European Conference on Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry(XRS2002), Berlin, Germany: 16 - 21 June 2002. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002.
2001
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., Inorganic elemental concentrations in near surface aerosols sampled on the northwest slopes of Mount Kenya.". In: Atmospheric Environ., 35: 6015-6019. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001.
2008
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Owuor BO, Odhiambo CO, Otieno WO, Adhiambo C, Makawiti DW, Stoute JA.Reduced immune complex binding capacity and increased complement susceptibility of red cells from children with severe malaria-associated anemia.Mol Med. 2008 Mar-Apr;14(3-4):89-97.". In: Mol Med. 2008 Mar-Apr;14(3-4):89-97. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 2008. Abstractmol14_3p0089.pdf

Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes 1-2 million deaths per year. Most deaths occur as a result of complications such as severe anemia and cerebral malaria (CM) (coma). Red cells of children with severe malaria-associated anemia (SMA) have acquired deficiencies in the complement regulatory proteins complement receptor 1 (CR1, CD35) and decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55). We investigated whether these deficiencies affect the ability of erythrocytes to bind immune complexes (ICs) and regulate complement activation. We recruited 75 children with SMA (Hb < or = 6 g/dL) from the holoendemic malaria region of the Lake Victoria basin, western Kenya, and 74 age- and gender-matched uncomplicated malaria controls. In addition, we recruited 32 children with CM and 52 age- and gender-matched controls. Deficiencies in red cell CR1 and CD55 in children with SMA were accompanied by a marked decline in IC binding capacity and increased C3b deposition in vivo and ex vivo. Importantly, these changes were specific because they were not seen in red cells of children with CM or their controls. These data suggest that the declines in red cell CR1 and CD55 seen in children with SMA are of physiologic significance and may predispose erythrocytes to complement-mediated damage and phagocytosis in vivo.

2006
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Oduma JA, Oduor Okelo D, Odongo H, Makawiti DW.The pesticide heptachlor affects steroid hormone secretion in isolated follicular and luteal cells of rat.". In: Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;144(1):76-84. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 2006. Abstract
Heptachlor, a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide, suppresses the production of progesterone and estradiol in the female rat in vivo or in isolated ovaries in vitro. In this study the effect of heptachlor on steroid hormone production by isolated rat luteal and follicular cells, in the presence of two precursor hormones was investigated. Ovaries were isolated from anesthetized mature normocyclic virgin rats (3 to 4 months old), under sterile conditions. Corpora lutea and follicles were microscopically dissected out and separately enzymatically dispersed with collagenase at 37 degrees C. Viable cells collected after centrifugation were used at a concentration of approximately 2.5 x 10(5) cells/10 mL. Both luteal and follicular cell preparations were separately incubated overnight (15 h) at 37 degrees C in the presence of pregnenolone (P5) and androstenedione (A4) at a concentration of 6.0 nmol/L each, and heptachlor at either 0.12 microg/mL (low dose) or 1.20 microg/mL (high dose) (test cells) or in the absence of heptachlor (control cells). At the end of the incubations, progesterone and estradiol 17beta levels were analyzed in the incubation media. The results indicate that heptachlor significantly suppressed the production of both progesterone and estradiol in both cell types in a dose related manner even in the presence of A4 and P5 as precursor hormones (P<0.05).
2002
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Wango EO, Tabifor HN, Muchiri LW, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Makawiti DW.Progesterone, estradiol and their receptors in leiomyomata and the adjacent normal myometria of black Kenyan women.Afr J Health Sci. 2002 Jul-Dec;9(3-4):123-8.". In: Afr J Health Sci. 2002 Jul-Dec;9(3-4):123-8. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 2002. Abstract
The contents of progesterone and oestrogen, and their respective receptors in uterine leiomyomata and adjacent normal myometrial tissue in indigenous black women in Kenya were studied. A random selection of twenty women undergoing hysterectomy for uterine fibroids at Kenyatta National Hospital was used for the studies. The myometria contained higher levels of E(2 ) (181% : P < 0.001); and P(4 ) (240.6 % : P < 0.001); as compared to the leiomyomata. On the other hand uterine leiomyomata contained significantly higher levels of ER (147.6% : P < 0.001); and PR (178.7% : P < 0.001 ); than normal myometria. These findings differ slightly from those reported in black women in developed countries, but support the proposal that manipulation of sex steroids may be useful in the treatment and management of uterine leiomyomata.
1996
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Lomo PO, Makawiti DW, Konji VN.Thyroid status and adenosine triphosphatase activity in experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection in rabbits. Br Vet J. 1996 Nov;152(6):659-67.". In: Br Vet J. 1996 Nov;152(6):659-67. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1996. Abstract
The effect of trypanosome infection on the plasma levels and ratios of tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) as well as the activity of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) were investigated. Three groups of sexually mature white New Zealand rabbits were used. Group 1 consisted of the normal non-infected rabbits, group 2 were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense and group 3 were infected but given replacement doses of thyroxine. The infected animals (group 2) showed a rapid decline in both T3 and T4 but an increase in the T3/T4 ratio indicating differential production or clearance rates between the two hormones. The mitochondrial ATPase activity was found to be depressed in the infected group whereas there was no significant difference in the ATPase activity between the non-infected (group 1) and infected-treated animals (group 2). It is postulated that trypanosome induced hypothyroid status may play a role in the impairment of mitochondrial ATPase activity, a key enzyme in energy metabolism.
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Okech G, Watson ED, Luckins AG, Makawiti DW.The effect of trypanosoma vivax infection on late pregnancy and postpartum return to cyclicity in boran cattle. Theriogenology. 1996 Oct 1;46(5):859-69.". In: Theriogenology. 1996 Oct 1;46(5):859-69. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1996. Abstract
A study was designed to examine the effect of infection with Trypanosoma vivax KETRI 2501 on the maintenance of pregnancy and postpartum return to reproductive function in susceptible Galana (n = 6) and trypano-tolerant Orma Boran (n = 6) heifers during the third trimester of pregnancy. Of the 12 study animals, 3 Galana and 3 Orma Boran heifers served as controls. One of 3 Galana heifers calved prematurely with subsequent perinatal loss. Of the 2 heifers that produced live calves, 1 calf died shortly after birth, while the other survived. Two of 3 Orma heifers calved prematurely and all 3 calves died shortly after birth. The 6 control heifers produced live calves at term, all of which survived. Infection with T. vivax during the third trimester of pregnancy delayed the resumption of ovarian activity after calving, with the Ormas taking a significantly (P < 0.05) shorter time from calving to ovulation. There was no clear evidence that premature birth was associated with pathological changes in reproductive organs. Results from this study demonstrated that infection with pathogenic T. vivax during late pregnancy influenced the outcome of pregnancy in both susceptible Galana and trypano-tolerant Orma Boran heifers, resulting in premature births, perinatal loss, retained placentae, low birth weights and a prolonged period to the onset of postpartum ovarian activity.
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Okech G, Watson ED, Luckins AG, Makawiti DW.The effect of experimental infection of Boran cattle in early and mid-pregnancy with Trypanosoma vivax. Br Vet J. 1996 Jul;152(4):441-51.". In: Br Vet J. 1996 Jul;152(4):441-51. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1996. Abstract
Six susceptible Galana and five trypanotolerant Orma Boran (Bos indicus) cattle were infected experimentally with Trypanosoma vivax KETRI 2501 by cyclical transmission using Glossina morsitans during early and mid-pregnancy. Four pregnant animals, two of each Boran type were used as controls and remained uninfected throughout the study period. Three out of the six infected susceptible Galana Borans aborted, whilst one had a stillborn calf. None of the trypanotolerant Orma Boran cattle aborted and all carried their pregnancies to term. All control animals produced live calves at term. The mechanisms leading to disruption of reproductive function in susceptible Boran cattle were not clear but could involve a number of factors, including anaemia, weight loss and post-infection decline of plasma progesterone levels. It is concluded that infection with T. vivax disrupts maintenance of pregnancy in susceptible Galana Borans but does not affect maintenance of pregnancy in the Orma Boran, demonstrating their tolerance to infection with T. vivax.
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Okech G, Luckins AG, Watson ED, Makawiti DW.Suspected in utero infection in a boran heifer experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax. Br Vet J. 1996 Jan;152(1):105-7.". In: Br Vet J. 1996 Jan;152(1):105-7. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1996. Abstract
No abstract available yet.
1995
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Nyindo M, Borus PK, Farah IO, Oguya FO, Makawiti DW.Schistosoma mansoni in the baboon: modulation of pathology after vaccination with polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies. Scand J Immunol. 1995 Dec;42(6):637-43.". In: Scand J Immunol. 1995 Dec;42(6):637-43. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1995. Abstract
Vaccination of five baboons with an anti-idiotypic vaccine to irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae resulted in nearly 19% protection compared to 39% protection conferred to five baboons vaccinated with an irradiated vaccine. Vaccination with the anti-idiotypic antibodies resulted in a significant reduction of pathology and granuloma size following challenge with live unattenuated cercariae. Results presented in this work are considered highly significant because the anti-idiotypic vaccine markedly influenced schistosomiasis morbidity which is the main consideration in this disease.
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Lomo PO, Makawiti DW, Konji VN. The effect of L-thyroxine on the anaemia response in Trypanosoma congolense infected rabbits. Vet Parasitol. 1995 Jun;58(3):227-34.". In: Vet Parasitol. 1995 Jun;58(3):227-34. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1995. Abstract

{ The development of anaemia is a major pathological manifestation in chronic trypanosomosis. The anaemia in African trypanosomosis coincides with a marked decrease in plasma concentration of both thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3' triiodothyronine (T3). To evaluate the effect of trypanosome-induced hypothyroidism on the development of anaemia, sexually mature white New Zealand rabbits were used. Three groups were set up, each of ten rabbits: one group was infected with Trypanosoma congolense; the second group was infected but given replacement doses of thyroxine (treated); the third group was not infected. Small volumes of blood were collected for the determination of parasitaemia and packed cell volume (PCV). The concentrations of T3 and T4 were measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay. The decrease in PCV correlated closely (y = -0.38x + 15.2; r = 0.82

W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Makawiti DW, Lomo PO, Konji VN, Oloowokere JO.Altered 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine thyroxine ratio in experimentally induced kwashiorkor and obesity in rats. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1995;65(2):132-6.". In: Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1995;65(2):132-6. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1995. Abstract
The plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) ratios have been evaluated in kwashiorkor and diet-induced obese weaned rats. The concentrations of T3 and T4 were determined in plasma by radio-immunoassay. A significant decrease in T3 level in the order kwashiorkor < obese < control was observed. However T4 concentration was more elevated (P < 0.01) in the obese than the normal controls, while more significantly depressed (P < 0.001) in the kwashiorkor than in control animals. The T3/T4 ratio decreased in the order obese < kwashiorkor < control. It was concluded from these studies that kwashiorkor and diet-induced obesity not only interfere with the absolute concentration of the thyroid hormones but also alter the T3/T4 ratio. The altered T3 and T4 ratio perhaps contributes to the maintenance of the isoenergetic state rather than to the promotion of negative or positive energy balance in kwashiorkor and obese subjects respectively.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC, W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "ODUMA, J. A., WANGO, E. O., ODUOR-OKELO, D., MAKAWITI, D. W. & ODONGO, H. O. (1995). In vivo and in vitro effects of graded doses of the pesticide Hepatchlor on female sec steroid production in rats. J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1995. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Oduma JA, Wango EO, Makawiti DW, Einer-Jensen N, Oduor-Okelo D.Effects of graded doses of the pesticide heptachlor on body weight, mating success, oestrous cycle, gestation length and litter size in laboratory rats. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxico.". In: Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1995 Feb;110(2):221-7. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1995. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with 5 or 20 mg/kg body weight heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. They were weighed every day and the stage of oestrus determined by vaginal smears. One experimental group was mated and pregnancy characteristics studied. Heptachlor affected body weights, cycle patterns, length of gestation period and litter sizes in a dose-related manner. At a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, heptachlor caused a significant decrease in average body weight (P < 0.01), disrupted and/or prolonged oestrous cycles, decreased mating success (P < 0.001), slightly increased gestation length (P < 0.05) and decreased litter size (P < 0.01).
1994
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Kimata DM, Makawiti DW, Tengekyon KM, Dadzie S, Waindi EN.Delayed recovery of adrenocortical and testicular function after chemotherapy of human trypanosomiasis. Acta Trop. 1994 Jun;57(1):69-74.". In: Acta Trop. 1994 Jun;57(1):69-74. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1994. Abstract
The following indicators of pituitary, adreno-cortical and testicular function were measured in 58 male African trypanosomiasis patients from Western Kenya; plasma cortisol, luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels. The measurements were carried out by specific radioimmunoassay methods in early and late stage infected patients on admission to hospital and in both groups of patients after one month of chemotherapy. Packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin levels were also measured in all the patients to determine the extent of their anaemia and success of recovery. High parasitaemia, anaemia and clinical symptoms of human trypanosomiasis were found in the infected patients and were eliminated with chemotherapy in the infected/treated patients. Increased levels of cortisol and decreased concentrations of testosterone without significant changes in LH levels were evident in the infected patients; this condition remained unchanged even after one month of chemotherapy. Evidence is thus provided of persistent hormonal perturbations which probably indicate residual endocrine organ damage.
1993
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Lomo PO, Makawiti DW, Konji VN.Respiratory activity of isolated liver Mitochondria following Trypanosoma congolense infection in rabbits: the role of thyroxine. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1993 Jan;104(1):187-91.". In: Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1993 Jan;104(1):187-91. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1993. Abstract
The effect of trypanosome infection on rabbit liver mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was investigated, with and without thyroxine replacement. 2. State 3 respiration, respiratory control ratio (RCR) and ADP/O ratio were significantly reduced in mitochondria from trypanosome-infected animals whereas there was no change in state 4 respiration. 3. State 3 respiration, RCR and ADP/O ratio were not significantly altered in trypanosome-infected animals given thyroxine replacement therapy. 4. Trypanosome infection leads to impairment of mitochondrial integrity, apparently through lowered thyroxine levels. Replacement of thyroxine therefore sustains optimal mitochondrial respiratory activity.
1991
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Githui EK, Makawiti DW, Midiwo JO.Changes in the concentrations of testosterone, luteinising hormone and progesterone associated with administration of embelin. Contraception. 1991 Sep;44(3):311-7.". In: Contraception. 1991 Sep;44(3):311-7. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1991. Abstract
The mode of action of embelin, a naturally occurring plant benzoquinone with male fertility regulating potential, was investigated. Sexually mature white New Zealand male rabbits were injected intra-muscularly with embelin (30 mg/kg body wt) on alternate days for 14 days (7 injections). Blood was collected on alternate days over 27-day period from the beginning of embelin administration. Testosterone and progesterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and luteinising hormone (LH) by mouse interstitial cell testosterone bioassay. There was a marked reduction of testosterone concentrations within two days of embelin administration and up to 90% reduction by the 6th day. LH showed a corresponding rise with the falling testosterone levels. Similarly, there was rapid increase in progesterone levels with the administration of embelin. Both the concentrations of progesterone and LH declined when embelin dosage was stopped. Evidence from the observed changes in the levels of the three hormones suggest that embelin disrupts production of testosterone at the testicular level.
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Makawiti DW, Osaso J, Gombe S.In vitro metabolism of progesterone by peripheral blood of rock hyrax (Procavia capensis).". In: Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1991 Jul;83(1):159-63. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1991. Abstract
In vitro metabolism of progesterone by hyrax whole blood, erythrocytes, or plasma in the presence or absence of NADPH was investigated. In the presence of NADPH, whole blood metabolized progesterone to 5 alpha-pregnanedione and 5 beta-pregnanedione, but in the absence of NADPH, only 5 beta-pregnanedione was produced. Erythrocytes in the presence and the absence of NADPH produced only 5 beta-pregnanedione. The plasma component of blood metabolized progesterone to give 5 alpha-pregnanedione, but only in the presence of NADPH. These results suggest the presence of two types of steroid reductases found in plasma and erythrocytes. The extent of progesterone metabolism by the blood of animals in different reproductive states is in the order of pregnant females greater than nonpregnant females greater than male.
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Olowookere JO, Konji VN, Makawiti DW, Kiaira JK, Kamau JM, Omwandho CA.Defects in resting metabolic rates and mitochondrial respiration in Kwashiorkor and dietary obese rats.". In: J Comp Physiol [B]. 1991;161(3):319-22. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1991. Abstract
Resting metabolic rates have been measured and compared with hepatic mitochondrial respiration in Kwashiorkor and diet-induced obese weaned rats. In Kwashiorkor, resting metabolic rate was 21% lower than the value of controls, while that of the obese rats was 14% higher than in control animals. The resting metabolic rate for Kwashiorkor animals was 50% of the predicted basal metabolic rate (BMR), whereas that of the obese rats was 23% higher than the predicted BMR. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption patterns, using malate plus glutamate or succinate as respiratory substrates, revealed that the resting respiration (state 4) was 23.9% higher in Kwashiorkor and 29.1% higher in obese animals, while the active (state 3) respiration was 34.8% lower in Kwashiorkor and 43.3% lower in obese rats compared to controls. The respiratory control ratios (RCR) were 51.1% and 43.8% in Kwashiorkor and obese rats, respectively, relative to the values in control rats. It is concluded from these studies that Kwashiorkor disease and diet-induced obesity appear to interfere with oxygen utilization at the level of state 3 mitochondrial respiration, which is markedly decreased when compared to the values for control animals.
1990
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Makawiti DW, Konji VN, Olowookere JO.Interaction of benzoquinones with mitochondria interferes with oxidative phosphorylation characteristics.". In: FEBS Lett. 1990 Jun 18;266(1-2):26-8. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1990. Abstract
Studies with four benzoquinones, viz. juglone, embelin, maesaquinone and maesanin, on rat liver mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation have been carried out. Three of the benzoquinones are uncouplers in the order juglone greater than maesoquinone greater than embelin, while maesanin is an inhibitor of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.
1984
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Eastman SA, Makawiti DW, Collins WP, Hodges JK.Pattern of excretion of urinary steroid metabolites during the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the marmoset monkey.". In: J Endocrinol. 1984 Jul;102(1):19-26. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1984. Abstract
Non-invasive methods for monitoring reproductive status based on the measurement of urinary steroid conjugates were examined. Levels of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide, oestrone-3-sulphate, oestradiol glucuronide, oestradiol sulphate and pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide were determined during the ovarian cycle and pregnancy. Sequential hydrolysis showed oestradiol conjugates to be more abundant than oestrone conjugates. The levels of sulphates and glucuronides were similar in the follicular phase whereas sulphates predominated during the luteal phase and pregnancy. Although levels of oestrone-3-sulphate were two- to fourfold lower than those of oestradiol sulphate, measured after hydrolysis, the profiles throughout the cycle and pregnancy were similar. Levels of oestrone-3-sulphate, measured by direct assay, were below 1 mumol/mmol creatinine during the follicular phase, rising 3-4 days after ovulation to reach maximum values (2-8 mumol/mmol creatinine) in the mid-luteal phase. There was no consistent increase before ovulation. Levels during pregnancy rose gradually until days 70-90, after which there was no further increase (gestation length = 144 days). The pattern of pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide was similar to that of oestrone-3-sulphate during the ovarian cycle but levels did not increase during pregnancy. The patterns of excretion of oestrogen and progesterone metabolites were similar to the pattern of the circulating hormones during the ovarian cycle. Circulating and urinary hormone patterns were similar for oestrogens throughout pregnancy but pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide did not reflect progesterone secretion beyond day 70 of gestation.
1983
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Makawiti DW, Allen WE, Kilpatrick MJ.Changes in oestrone sulphate concentrations in peripheral plasma of Pony mares associated with follicular growth, ovulation and early pregnancy.". In: J Reprod Fertil. 1983 Jul;68(2):481-7. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1983. Abstract
A simple and rapid (less than 2 h) immunoassay method has been developed based upon a novel separation technique called LIDIA (Ligand Differentiation Immunoassay), enabling direct estimation of the concentration of oestrone sulphate in ethanolic extracts of blood plasma. An antiserum raised against oestrone-3-glucuronyl-BSA was used which showed a higher cross-reaction with the sulphate than the glucuronide metabolite. The assay had a sensitivity of 5.2 pg/tube and acceptable inter-(less than 18%) and intra-(less than 8.5%) assay precision. Analysis of samples of peripheral venous plasma obtained daily from Pony mares showed that the mean concentration of oestrone sulphate started to rise from a baseline value (less than 300 pg/ml) at 6 days and reached a peak (greater than 850 pg/ml) at 2 days before follicular rupture as determined by rectal palpation. Progesterone concentrations only started to rise above baseline (less than 0.5 ng/ml) on the day of ovulation and reached a peak 8 days later. Analysis of samples obtained during the first 30 days of pregnancy showed that there was no increase in oestrone sulphate at the time oestrus would have been expected had the mares not conceived.
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Makawiti DW, Barnard GJ, Matson CM, Collins WP.A novel pseudohomogeneous radioimmunoassay for the measurement of plasma testosterone. J Steroid Biochem. 1983 May;18(5):619-23.". In: J Steroid Biochem. 1983 May;18(5):619-23. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1983. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

1994
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Shitanda, D., Mutuli, D.A. and Odongo, F. (1994) Indigenous Vegetable Oils in Kenya as a Diesel Fuel . In Proceedings of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1994) Agricultural Mechanization in Kenya: A Review of Policies and Strategies to date . In Proceedings International Conference August, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1994) The Role of Agricultural Engineering in Food Manufacturing . In Proceedings for the Kenya Institute of Food Science and Technology Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, November 7th.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1994) Some Engineering opportunities for the Sustainable Development of African Agriculture. Proceedings of the FAOE/IEK All African Engineers Conference, December,.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

1993
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Marenya, M.O., Kaumbutho, P.G., Mutuli, D.A. and Kamau J.N. (1993) Simulation of the Materials Handling Systems in a Sugarcane Mill Yard - A case study . Paper accepted for publication in the AMA Journal.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1993. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

1992
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1992) Advances in Agricultural Machinery Technology Towards Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the KSAE Annual Seminar, 5-7th August.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1992. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

1990
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1990) An Investigation into the effect of Cultivator Design on seedbed preparation . Proceedings of the Annual Postgraduate Research Conference, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, England.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1990. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

1988
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1988)Infiltrating solar collectors for crop drying . Proceedings of the Annual Postgraduate Research Conference, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, England.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1988. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1988) The performance of an air-infiltrating solar collector M. Phil thesis. University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, England.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1988. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

1985
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. et al. (1985) The joint GOK/IDA/CDC/Smallholder Coffee Improvement Project supervision and review mission report. Report of findings submitted to the project steering committee.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1985. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1985) Mechanical drying of Arabien Coffee . Proceedings of the Annual Coffee Seminar, Eldoret, Kenya.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1985. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1985) Small holder Coffee Processing in Kenya . Proceedings of the Annual Coffee Seminar, Meru, Kenya.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1985. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

1982
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1982) The general position paper for the coffee factories section of the Ministry of Agriculture. Government Working Paper (unpublished).". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1982. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

1981
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1981) Draft proposals for the practical training programme for graduate engineers serving the coffee industry in the Ministry of Agriculture . Government Working Paper (unpublished)Mutuli, D.A. (1982).". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1981. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

1980
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1980). Design of a solar supplemented continuous flow dryer for coffee . Third year design project dissertation. University of Nairobi (unpublished).". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1980. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

2006
2005
2003
OKEYO DROGOYIDORINGTON. "Ogoyi, DO.,Kadono-Okuda, K, Eguchi, R., Furuta, Y, Nagasu, K. and Hara, W. (2003). Linkage and mapping analysis of nonsusceptibility gene to densonucleosis virus (nsd-2) in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Molec Biol. 12; 117-124.". In: Insect Molec Biol. 12; 117-124. Kenyan Veterinarian; 2003. Abstract
Nonsusceptibility to Bombyx mori densovirus type 2 (BmDNV-2) is controlled by a recessive non-susceptibility gene, nsd-2 (non-susceptibility to DNV-2) in B. mori. Taking advantage of a lack of crossing over in females, reciprocal backcrossed F1 (BF1) progeny were used for linkage analysis and mapping of nsd-2 using silkworm strains C124 and 902, which are classified as being highly susceptible and non-susceptible to DNV-2, respectively. BF1 larvae were inoculated twice with DNV-2 virus at the first and second instar stages. DNA was extracted from each of the surviving fifth instar larvae and analysed by RFLP inheritance patterns using probes specific to each of the 28 linkage groups of B. mori. Our results indicated that the non-susceptibility gene was linked to linkage group 17, since all surviving larvae showed the homozygous profile of strain 902 in their genotype. The other linkage groups showed mixtures of heterozygous and homozygous genotypes, indicating an independent assortment. A linkage map of 30.6 cM was constructed for linkage group 17 with nsd-2 mapped at 24.5 cM and three closely linked cDNA markers were identified.
OKEYO DROGOYIDORINGTON, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD. "Ogoyi, DO., Achieng, D., Nguu, EK. and Ochanda, JO. (2003) Partial characterization of trypanolysisn from the midgut of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. East African Med. Journal 80: 43-47.". In: East African Med. Journal 80: 43-47. Kenyan Veterinarian; 2003. Abstract
Nonsusceptibility to Bombyx mori densovirus type 2 (BmDNV-2) is controlled by a recessive non-susceptibility gene, nsd-2 (non-susceptibility to DNV-2) in B. mori. Taking advantage of a lack of crossing over in females, reciprocal backcrossed F1 (BF1) progeny were used for linkage analysis and mapping of nsd-2 using silkworm strains C124 and 902, which are classified as being highly susceptible and non-susceptible to DNV-2, respectively. BF1 larvae were inoculated twice with DNV-2 virus at the first and second instar stages. DNA was extracted from each of the surviving fifth instar larvae and analysed by RFLP inheritance patterns using probes specific to each of the 28 linkage groups of B. mori. Our results indicated that the non-susceptibility gene was linked to linkage group 17, since all surviving larvae showed the homozygous profile of strain 902 in their genotype. The other linkage groups showed mixtures of heterozygous and homozygous genotypes, indicating an independent assortment. A linkage map of 30.6 cM was constructed for linkage group 17 with nsd-2 mapped at 24.5 cM and three closely linked cDNA markers were identified.
2002
OKEYO DROGOYIDORINGTON, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD. "Kinyua JK, Osir EO, Ogoyi DO, Nguu EK.Characterization of protective antigens from the midgut of Amblyomma variegatum ticks.Exp Appl Acarol. 2002;26(1-2):101-13.". In: Exp Appl Acarol. 2002;26(1-2):101-13. Kenyan Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
2001
OKEYO DROGOYIDORINGTON. "Ogoyi, DO, and Osir, EO (2001). Variation in lipophorin titres during development in solitarious and gregarious Schistocerca gregaria Forskal (Orthoptera:acrididae). Insect Sci. Applic. 21, 73-79.". In: Insect Sci. Applic. 21, 73-79. Kenyan Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
1998
OKEYO DROGOYIDORINGTON. "Ogoyi, DO, Osir, EO and Olembo, NKO (1998). Studies on the fat body tryacylglycerol lipase in solitary and gregarious phase of Schistocerca gregaria. Comp. Biochem Physiol. 119B, 163-167.". In: Comp. Biochem Physiol. 119B, 163-167. Kenyan Veterinarian; 1998. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
1996
OKEYO DROGOYIDORINGTON. "Ogoyi, DO, Osir, EO and Olembo, NKO (1996). The effect of phase staus on responses to adipokinetic hormones in Schistocerca gregaria. Arch. Insect Biochem Physiol 32, 173-185.". In: Insect Biochem Physiol 32, 173-185. Kenyan Veterinarian; 1996. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
1995
OKEYO DROGOYIDORINGTON. "Ogoyi, DO, Osir, EO and Olembo, NKO (1995). Lipophorin and apolipophorin-III in solitary and gregarious phases of Schistocerca gregaria. Comp. Biochem Physiol. 112B, 441-449.". In: Biochem Physiol. 112B, 441-449. Kenyan Veterinarian; 1995. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.

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