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Ryser ET, Arimi SM, Bunduki MM, Donnelly CW. "Recovery of different Listeria ribotypes from naturally contaminated, raw refrigerated meat and poultry products with two primary enrichment media.". 1996. Abstract

Isolation rates for Listeria monocytogenes and the other Listeria spp. typically improve when samples are enriched in more than one primary enrichment medium. This study evaluated the abilities of two primary enrichment media, University of Vermont-modified Listeria enrichment broth (UVM) and Listeria repair broth (LRB), to recover different ribotypes of Listeria spp. from raw meat and poultry samples. Forty-five paired 25-g retail samples of ground beef, pork sausage, ground turkey, and chicken (160 samples) underwent primary enrichment in UVM and LRB (30 degrees C for 24 h) followed by secondary enrichment in Fraser broth (35 degrees C for 24 and 40 h) and plating on modified Oxford agar. After 24 h of incubation of 35 degrees C, 608 Listeria colonies from selected positive samples were biochemically confirmed as L. monocytogenes (245 isolates), L innocua (276 isolates), and L. welshimeri (89 isolates) and then ribotyped with the automated Riboprinter microbial characterization system (E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc.). Thirty-six different Listeria strains comprising 16 L. monocytogenes (including four known clinical ribotypes), 12 L. innocua, and 8 L. welshimeri ribotypes were identified from selected positive samples (15 samples of each product type; two UVM and two LRB isolates per sample). Twenty-six of 36(13 L. monocytogenes) ribotypes were detected with both UVM and LRB, whereas 3 of 36 (1 L. monocytogenes) and 7 of 36 (3 L. monocytogenes) Listeria ribotypes were observed with only UVM or LRB, respectively. Ground beef, pork sausage, ground turkey, and chicken yielded 22 (8 L. monocytogenes), 21 (12 L. monocytogenes), 20 (9 L. monocytogenes), and 19 (11 L. monocytogenes) different Listeria ribotypes, respectively, with some Listeria ribotypes confined to a particular product. More importantly, major differences in both the number and distribution of Listeria ribotypes, including previously recognized clinical and nonclinical ribotypes of L. monocytogenes, were observed when 10 UVM and 10 LRB isolates from five samples of each product were ribotyped. When a third set of six samples per product type was examined from which two Listeria isolates were obtained by using only one of the two primary enrichment media, UVM and LRB failed to detect L. monocytogenes (both clinical and nonclinical ribotypes) in two and four samples, respectively. These findings stress the importance of using more than one primary enrichment medium and picking a sufficient number of colonies per sample when attempting to isolate specific L. monocytogenes strains during investigations of food-borne listeriosis.

Ryan T, K'Oyugi BO. The United Nations Common Country Assessment for Kenya 2001. Nairobi: UNDP Kenya Country Office; 2001.
Rwigi S, Muthama NJ, Opere A, Opijah FJ. "Assessment of Potential Changes in Hydrologically Relevant Rainfall Statistics over the Sondu River Basin in Kenya Under a Changing Climate." J. Meteorol. 2016. AbstractMetoffice.gov.uk

Scenarios of past, present and intermediate future climates for Sondu River basin were analysed in this study to evaluate the potential changes in hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics that are likely to be observed by the middle of this century as a result of climate change. These climate scenarios were developed by applying dynamical downscaling of the relatively course resolution climate scenarios simulated by the fourth generation coupled Ocean-Atmosphere European Community Hamburg Model (ECHAM4) using the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modelling system. The regional climate scenarios, which were available at a daily time-step and a spatial grid resolution of 0.5 over the Eastern Africa region, were matched to the Sondu river basin in the western region of Kenya. The possible hydrological impacts of climate change were assessed by applying the scenarios in a daily time-step hydrological model. The analysis of hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics focussed on determining changes in rainfall patterns and the likely hydrological implications to the basin. The results indicated that more rainfall is projected for the region in the immediate and intermediate future in form of increased seasonal rainfall during the December-January-February (DJF), March-April-May (MAM) and September-October-November (SON) seasons resulting from increased number of days of rainfall and higher probabilities of a wet day following a dry day in a month.

Rwigi SK, Muthama JN, Opere AO, Opijah FJ, Gichuki FN. "imulated Impacts of Climate Change on Surface Water Yields over the Sondu Basin in Kenya ." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2016;4(8):160-172. AbstractInternational Journal for Innovation Education and Research

Potential impacts of climate change on surface water yields over the Sondu River basin in the western region of Kenya were analysed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model with climate input data obtained from the fourth generation coupled Ocean-Atmosphere European Community Hamburg Model (ECHAM4) using the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) model. Daily time step regional climate scenarios at a spatial grid resolution of 0.44˚ over the Eastern Africa region were matched to the Sondu river basin and used to calibrate and validate the SWAT model. Analysis of historical and projected rainfall over the basin strongly indicated that the climate of the area will significantly change with wetter climates being experienced by 2030 and beyond. Projected monthly rainfall distribution shows increasing trends in the relatively dry DJF and SON seasons while showing decreasing trends in the relatively wet MAM and JJA seasons. Potential changes in water yields resulting from climate change were computed by comparing simulated yields under climate change scenarios with those simulated under baseline conditions.

There was evidence of substantial increases in water yields ranging between 88% and 110% of the baseline yields by 2030 and 2050 respectively. Although simulated water yields are subject to further verification from observed values, this study has provided useful information about potential changes in water yields as a result of climate change over the Sondu River basin and in similar basins in this region

Keywords: Simulated Impacts; Climate Change; Water Yields; Sondu Basin; Kenya

Rwigi S, Muthama NJ, Opere A, Opijah FJ. "Assessment of Potential Changes in Hydrologically Relevant Rainfall Statistics over the Sondu River Basin in Kenya Under a Changing Climate." J. Meteorol. 2016;9:2-12. AbstractJ. Meteorol

Scenarios of past, present and intermediate future climates for Sondu River basin were analysed in this study to evaluate the potential changes in hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics that are likely to be observed by the middle of this century as a result of climate change. These climate scenarios were developed by applying dynamical downscaling of the relatively course resolution climate scenarios simulated by the fourth generation coupled Ocean-Atmosphere European Community Hamburg Model (ECHAM4) using the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modelling system. The regional climate scenarios, which were available at a daily time-step and a spatial grid resolution of 0.5˚ over the Eastern Africa region, were matched to the Sondu river basin in the western region of Kenya. The possible hydrological impacts of climate change were assessed by applying the scenarios in a daily time-step hydrological model. The analysis of hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics focussed on determining changes in rainfall patterns and the likely hydrological implications to the basin. The results indicated that more rainfall is projected for the region in the immediate and intermediate future in form of increased seasonal rainfall during the December-January-February (DJF), March-April-May (MAM) and September-October-November (SON) seasons resulting from increased number of days of rainfall and higher probabilities of a wet day following a dry day in a month. Based on these scenarios, the combination of the wetter antecedent conditions and the more rain days in a month will result in more surface runoff being generated which will not only have implications on the water balance but also the water quality in the basin.

Key Words: climate change, climate scenarios, climate modelling, climate downscaling, Sondu Basin, Kenya

Rwigi SK, Muthama JN, Opere AO, Opijah FJ, Gichuki FN. "Simulated Impacts of Climate Change on Surface Water Yields over the Sondu Basin in Kenya." International Journal of Innovation Education and Research. 2016;4(8):160-172. AbstractInternational Journal of Innovation Education and Research

Potential impacts of climate change on surface water yields over the Sondu River basin in the western region of Kenya were analysed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model with climate input data obtained from the fourth generation coupled Ocean-Atmosphere European Community Hamburg Model (ECHAM4) using the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) model. Daily time step regional climate scenarios at a spatial grid resolution of 0.44 Ëš over the Eastern Africa region were matched to the Sondu river basin and used to calibrate and validate the SWAT model. Analysis of historical and projected rainfall over the basin strongly indicated that the climate of the area will significantly change with wetter climates being experienced by 2030 and beyond. Projected monthly rainfall distribution shows increasing trends in the relatively dry DJF and SON seasons while showing decreasing trends in the relatively wet MAM and JJA seasons. Potential changes in water yields resulting from climate change were computed by comparing simulated yields under climate change scenarios with those simulated under baseline conditions.

Rwakatema DS, Ng’ang’a P, Kemoli AM. "Orthodontic treatment needs amongst 12-15 year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania." E Afr Med J. 2007;84:226-232. Abstract

Objective: To assess malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12-15-year-olds in Moshi municipality, Tanzania.
Design: A cross-sectional study.
Setting: Moshi municipality, Tanzania.
Subjects: Two hundred and eighty nine randomly selected primary school children in Moshi municipality in the year 2003.
Results: Maxillary median diastema occurred in 20.1% of the children. Crowding and spacing in the incisor segments occurred in 41.2% and 28.4% respectively with significantly more crowding in males than in females (p = 0.009). Anterior irregularities occurred in 46% of the sample in the maxilla and 51.6% in the mandible. These irregularities were significantly more common in the females than in males in the maxilla and mandible (p=0.014, p=0.037 respectively). Reverse overjet was extremely rare (0.3%). Anterior openbite and antero-posterior molar relation discrepancies
occurred in 6.2% and 32.5% of the sample, respectively. Crowding, irregularities in the incisor segments and antero-posterior molar relation discrepancies were dominant malocclusion traits in this population. The sample mean DAI score was 24.6 points (CI 95% 23.86–25.36). There was no statistically significant gender difference of DAI scores (p = 0.473). About 65% of the subjects had either no need or had slight need for treatment whereas 35.3% were found with orthodontic treatment needs ranging from elective (21.5%), highly desirable (6.9%) to mandatory (6.9%). There was no significant gender difference in the categories of treatment need (p = 0.942). Unmet orthodontic treatment needs were present in this population with a very small proportion of
subjects exhibiting handicapping malocclusion.
Conclusion: The information from this study forms part of the basis not only for further research, but also for planning orthodontic care in this community where unmet orthodontic treatment needs are present.

Rwakatema DS, Ng’ang’a P, Kemoli A. "Prevalence of malocclusion amongst 12-15 year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania, using Bjök’s criteria." E Afr Med J. 2006;83:372-379. Abstract

Objective: To assess the prevalence of malocclusion in 12-15 - year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Setting: Moshi Municipality, Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania.
Subjects: Two hundred and eighty nine randomly selected primary school children (153 males and 136 females) had a clinical examination for malocclusion traits done.
Results: The overall prevalence of malocclusion was 97.6%. Angle’s Class II and III malocclusion occurred in 6.9% and 11% of the sample respectively. Crowding was encountered very frequently in both jaws, especially in the lower anterior segments. Anterior open bite occurred in 6.2% and the deep bite in 10.7% of the sample. There was no significant gender difference in either the overall prevalence of malocclusion or in the occurrence of the different occlusal traits.
Conclusion: It was noteworthy that some of the malocclusion traits recorded were relatively minor deviations from the normal occlusion. Hence the high prevalence of malocclusion did not necessarily imply a heavy burden of need and demand for orthodontic treatment.

Rwakatema DS, Ng’ang’a P, Kemoli AM. "Awareness and concerns about malocclusion amongst 12-15 year-old children in Moshi, Tanzania." E Afr Med J. 2006;83:92-97.
RW. N. "HIV prevention--a public health priority. ." East Afr Med J. 2010 Mar;87(3):89-90. No abstract available. PMID: 23057303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] . 2010.
Ruvuna F;, Cartwright TC;, Okeyo AM. "The Kenya Dual-Purpose Goats: its development and utility."; 1985.
Ruugia SK, Moturi CA. Application of GIS Spatial Interpolation Methods in Auto Insurance Risk Territory Segmentation and Rating. School of Business, University of Nairobi: Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa; 2014. Abstract

Evolution in the field of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has given rise to sophisticated scientific techniques for collection, analysis and visualization of location based data. These GIS analysis processes are used to reveal some critical patterns of occurrences. Due to inaccurate analysis and covering of insurance risks in Kenya, several companies have closed down prompting the Insurance Regulatory Authority (IRA) and Association of Kenyan Insurers (AKI) set up maximum and minimum premium rates on insurance risks. The set premiums discounts are given to the insured based on records of their annual claims. The main problem here is that the rates cover the entire nation without considering the distribution of risk in various regions. The objective of the paper is to show that GIS can be used to analyse and generate auto insurance risk territories for insurance companies from which an insurance rating model can be developed. We used GIS analysis methods such as inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation, data smoothing and clustering techniques and data on auto insurance accidents and crime, geo-coded police stations, roads, socio-economic, aerial and satellite imagery for Nairobi County. A risk territory map showing the distribution of auto insurance risk and other related maps were generated. A prescriptive insurance rating model was then developed that uses generated risk territories to calculate varying rates for auto insurance premiums rates for the respective regions. This research shows that GIS techniques can be used for better visualization of risk at a given location for accurate risk analysis and uptake.

Rutunga V;, Karanja NK;, Gachene CKK. "Six month-duration Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray planted-fallows for improving maize production in Kenya."; 2008. Abstract

An experiment including planted Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia fallow species and natural fallow was conducted at Maseno, Kenya, for assessing whether these fallows grown on a nutrient depleted land could produce sufficient green manure in six month period, whether their biomass retained on the same plots or transferred to continuously cropped plots with or without added P fertiliser could increase yield of consecutive maize crops and whether it is useful to regularly repeat these fallows on same plots. First fallow was established in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. At harvesting, biomass was recorded, then either incorporated in situ or transferred to continuous cropped plots split with and without added P fertiliser and monitored for the effect in improving consecutive maize crops. The second fallow was managed on this split plot design. The two-planted shrubs fallows produced more than 9 Mg total dry biomass and accumulated 154 to 234 kg N.ha-1, which were significantly higher compared to the production in the natural fallow. The shrubs were also superior to natural fallow for P accumulation (5-22 kg versus 2 kg.ha-1). The aboveground dry biomass harvested from planted T. vogelii and T. diversifolia and either incorporated in situ or transferred into continuously cropped plots increased maize yields by 2.5 folds compared to the unmanured crop, the control. Supplementing the organic materials with an additional 20 kg P inorganic fertilizer increased the 1st maize yield by about 40%. Productivity in the plots with T. vogelii or T. diversifolia aboveground biomass removal was low for the subsequent fallow and maize crops when compared to the performance in plots where biomass was incorporated. To achieve sustained yields of maize in depleted soils requires regular improved fallowing at least one season alternating with one season maize, and additional P inputs

Rutunga V;, Karanja NK;, Gachene CKK;, Palm C. "Performance of Zea mays grown under short term duration fallow systems."; 2002.
Rutunga V;, Karanja NK;, Gachene CKK;, Palm C. "Performance of Zea mays grown under short term duration fallow systems."; 2002.
Rutunga V;, Gachene CKK;, Karanja NK;, Palm CA. "Grain maize yield improvement using Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia biomass at Maseno, Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

This study aimed at assessing the response of maize crop to application of Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia biomass obtained six month-old fallows. The biomass were chopped into 5-cm long pieces and incorporated in the soil one week before planting maize. The natural fallow biomass was used as a control. These organic inputs were supplied with 20 kg phosphorus (P) /ha to attain P recommended rates. Shrub aboveground and litterfall biomass incorporation significantly (p=0.05) increased maize yield. Plots where above ground biomass was removed produced lower maize yield compared to those where the aboveground biomass was retained. Addition of 20 kg P/ha to soil together with the biomass increased maize yield by 40%. P in form of organic materials was insufficient to meet plant nutritional requirement. Residual effect of the biomass was low on the second and third subsequent crops. This may be due to the high rate of nutrient release during the biomass decomposition, the high crop nutrient uptake and also the nutrient losses through soil chemical and physical processes

Ruto LC, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Mureithi S, Nyberg G. "Emerging forms of land market participation and implications on pastoralists’ livelihoods in Kenya.". In: 20th Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. Washington DC, USA; 2019.
Ruto S, Kameri-Mbote P, Muteshi J. "Engendering Environmental Management for Sustainable Livelihoods.". In: The Promises and Realities: Taking Stock of the 3rd International Women’s Conference. NAIROBI: African Women & Child Feature Service & Ford Foundation; 2009.
Ruto WKS, Kinyamario JI, Ng'etich NK, Akunda E, Akunda E. "Plant Species Diversity and Composition of Two Wetlands in the Nairobi National Park, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

Two wetlands (Hyena and Nalogomon) in the Nairobi National Park were investigated by comparing plant composition in and around their immediate vicinity. The most common aquatic plant species in the Hyena wetland was Cyperus dives while in the Nalogomon wetland was Typha domingensis. The terrestrial vegetation surrounding Hyena wetland dominated by while that of surrounding Nalogomon wetland was the grass Hyparrhemia rufa. It was also noted that Hyena Dam waters were colonized by aquatic weeds, namely Gunnera perpensa, Enhydra fluctuans and Ludwigia abyssinica, that were absent in Nalogomon wetland waters. This could have been due to eutrophication of the waters of Hyena Dam as it originated from human settlements (city estates) outside the park boundary.

RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. "The Horn, Kenyatta Universrity college newspaper.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1979. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. "Contributing poet to Boundless Voices Poems from Kenya ed. Arthur Luvai. Heinemann.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. "Shocking National Tragedy: Review of So Many Hungers, Daily Nation, January.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. ""Harambee Fund Raising" published in NewZealand school Journal.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. "Exerpts from the Village Bride, Heinnemann.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1979. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. ""An excrept from a long poem titled "TheVillage Bride" Published inMusings a Massey Univeristy literary journal.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. ""An Anatomy of Third world Literature: Northrop Frye's Theory of Modes in a post-colonial context to bothJAmes Curry (London) Making suggested revion.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. ""Saved by Leopard" published in Writers' Forum: A journal of the writers Association of Kenya.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. "Harambe fund raising, School Journal, New Zealand.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. ""Shocking National Tragedy" a review of Bhabani Bhattacharva's So Many Hungers! In Daily Nation Jan.1982.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1982. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. "Contributor to Boundless voices, poems from Kenya, Heinamman.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. "Contrbuted to R.K Narayan: Contemporary Critical Perspectives.Ed. Geoffrey R. Kain, Michigan State University Press. East Lansing. Contribution from PHD research on Third Worl literature.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. "Saved by a Leopard, Writer's forum, A journal of the Writers's association of Kenya.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Russ CM, Ganapathi L, Marangu D, Silverman M, Kija E, Bakeera-Kitaka S, Laving A. "Perspectives of host faculty and trainees on international visiting faculty to paediatric academic departments in East Africa." BMJ Glob Health. 2016;1(3):e000097. Abstract

Investments in faculty exchanges to build physician workforce capacity are increasing. Little attention has been paid to the expectations of host institution faculty and trainees. This prospective qualitative research study explored faculty and resident perspectives about guest faculty in paediatric departments in East Africa, asking (1) What are the benefits and challenges of hosting guest faculty, (2) What factors influence the effectiveness of faculty visits and (3) How do host institutions prepare for faculty visits?

Rummel-Bulska I. "UNEP Basel Convention.". 1990.
Rummel-Bulska I. "UNEP Environmental Policy.". 1995.
Rummel-Bulska I. The negotiating process leading to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Finland: International Environmental Law-making and Diplomacy Review, Joensuu; 2007.
Rummel-Bulska I. "UNEP Environmental Law."; 1991.
Rummel-Bulska I. "Hazardous Wastes.". 1993.
Rummel-Bulska I. "The Montreal Protocol – 20 years ed. by Cameron May Ltd.". In: The Story of the Ozone Layer.; 2007.
RUKWARO DRROBERT. "Developer profits undermine residents.". In: Implications for local government in Kenya. VLIR; 2003.
RUKWARO DRROBERT. "Transformation of Art and Architecture of Maasai.". In: ARTS Nairobi. ISBN 9966-9702-2-8. VLIR; 2006.
and Rukwaro DROOPR. "A Case Study of Architecture, Design and Development (ADD) Building in the University of Nairobi ." LOCAL PAPERS. 2015;Volume 9,(Number 9, August 2015).
Rukwaro RW. Maasai Architecture.; 1995.
Rukwaro RW, Mukono KM. "Architecture of societies in transition—the case of the Maasai of Kenya.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

Historically, it has been observed that people's settlements tend to change with their changing cultural values. Societies in early and rapid transition offer rich laboratories for the testing of this observation. The Maasai of Kenya are such a group that in a relatively short period have undergone revolutionary transformation as a casual observation may reveal. This paper investigates whether there is any relationship between their new built forms and their current cultural values. Using a number of identified culture – change variables including land tenure, education, religion, occupation, and rite of passage, the paper analyses what impact changes in these variables has on the Maasai settlements. It clearly reveals that as these variables change due to contacts with western-based modernity, the settlements have undergone noticeable transformation. For example, change of land tenure from communal to individual leads to permanent settlements. While exposure through education, religion and occupation leads to a change in the spatial organisation of the dwelling and the use of new building materials. These insights are a useful background to any policy matters regarding housing that respects the cultures of the people. They are indications of what can be considered as a transitional architecture as communities struggle to modernise.

RUKWARO DRROBERT. "The Case of the Maasai of Kenya.". In: The Habitat International Journal: 25 (2001) pp81-97. VLIR; 2001.
Rukwaro RW. "Owner User Brief.". 1992.
RUKWARO DRROBERT. "The Role of Social Systems in Production Process of Modern Architecture in Kenya.". In: In Proceedings of the Conference on Modern Architecture in East Africa Around Independence. Published by ArchiAfrica, Utrecht, . VLIR; 2005.
and Rukwaro JMPR. "Resilience of City to Flood: A Case Study of Nairobi City." LOCAL PAPERS. 2016;volume 10(Number 10, November 2016).
Rukwaro RW. Kenyan maasai architecture in a changing culture .; 1997. Abstract

The Kenyan Maasai traditional built form in Kajiado District is changing. It is being replaced by the newly developed homesteads and houses which are inadequately planned, designed and lacking in symbolism. The latter are inconsistent with social arrangements and cultural needs of the contemporary Maasai lifestyle. It was the hypothesis of this study that the culture of the Maasai influences the architecture of their built forms. Multiple research tools were used in the collection of data. These included Observation, Focus Group Discussion, Questionnaires and Interviews. Among the techniques used in analysing the data are the chi-square statistics and qualitative analytical procedures based on the material collected through cluster sampling of 92 homesteads which were presented graphically. It is clear that the architectural conditions of Maasai buildings are a result of culture change variables identified as occupation, religion, rituals, education, family set-up and land tenure which have consistently evolved cultural values such as social status, independence, privacy and sedentary lifestyle. The study concludes that, in view of the changed culture of the maasai, the new built form is satifactory in the incorporating the emerging architectural design concepts such as nuclear family house, linearity, divisibility and permanence in response to emerging spaces and artifacts. These concepts symbolise the changing Maasai culture in the built form.

Rukwaro P. "Conservation of Natural and Cultural Heritage in Kenya." www.ucl.ac.uk/ucl-press; 2018.
RUKWARO DRROBERT. "Inculturation of the Catholic Church in Kikuyu Religious Space.". In: Hekima Journal. 3 (2005) pp. 102-117. VLIR; 2005.
Rukwaro R. "Dissemination of Architectural Knowledge among Research, Training and Practice.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Within the field of architecture, architects and scholars appear to have difficulty making sense of one another’s experience and the relationship between practice and research is often uneven and unclear. In addition, those who identify themselves as scholars of architecture tend to be closed in their academic spheres and vice versa for those who are practitioners. The professionals and scholars seem not to have adequate interchange and reconciliation of the profession. This has not helped much in developing a unifying framework for research and practice of architecture. The scholars and the practicing architect have yet to produce a comprehensive institutional framework capable of directing the profession toward the demonstrable improvement of the architectural practice; training and research. Survey is used as the research design. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data from archiects in practice and those in academia, students of architecture and educational administrators. The practicing architects were randomly sampled from the Board of Architects and Quantity Surveying (BORAQS) register. Forty practicing architects were selected. Twenty lecturers and fifty students were interviewed while four administrators were administered questionnaires. Qualitative techniques were used to analyze the responses from the field. This paper has unraveled the minimal relationship between scholars and professionals; the information flow between them and presented the way forward

Rukwaro R. "Form Making in Architecture.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Form making is one of the most important activities that the architect is engaged in when creating architecture. During the process of form making the architect expresses the individual perceptions of reality in tangible form, which is the symbolic form of architecture. When one observes the majority of built forms in the city of Nairobi they are more of an expression of Western culture than Kenyan culture. The individual perceptions of reality of Kenyan culture and nature are not well symbolized in most of the built forms. This has led to lack of a unifying architectonic style that defines and guides the Kenyan mordern architecture. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to establish the extent to which the built forms in Nairobi portray the Kenyan cultural and natural forms through symbolism in their form making. A sample of 21 buildings constructed between 1960 and 2011 in the City of Nairobi were studied. Data was collected using interviews and observation techniques. Qualitative methods were used to analyse the data. Out of the 21 sampled buildings, only 40% seemed to be inspired by Kenyan culture and nature in their built forms. The study recommends that the architects in Kenya create architectural forms that are inspired by natural environment, traditions and cultural values of the local communities. It is only out of this that the symbolic architectural forms in Kenya can be realised

Rukaria-Kaumbutho RM, Ojwang SB, Oyieke JB. "Resistance to chloroquine therapy in pregnant women with malaria parasitemia.". 1996. Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at therapeutic doses of 25 mg/kg body weight divided over 3 days. METHODS: Three-hundred pregnant women in Kilifi Hospital at the coast of Kenya were screened for malaria parasitemia using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. In vivo and in vitro parasite sensitivity to chloroquine was determined. RESULTS: P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (22%) of 300 pregnant women. The in vivo tests showed that 46% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels. The in vitro tests showed a resistance rate of 35%. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women with malaria do not respond to chloroquine therapy and alternative drugs are required

Ruigu G. "Some Aspects of Employment on Small Holder Farms in Selected Areas of Kenya.". In: Agricultural Policy Issues in East African.; 1973.
Ruhiu S. "Capability Approach Based ICT-for-Poverty Reduction Framework.". In: IFIP 9.4 12 th International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries. Ocho Rios, Jamaica; 2013. Abstract

In the last number of years, many have looked to ICTs to enable the reduction of poverty. A lot of resources have been expended by international organizations, donors and governments in ICT4D and ICT-for-poverty reduction initiatives. The results have been mixed with many of the initiatives having negligible or negative.
Many explanations for this have been given but some have suggested that the way that the projects are carried out is problematic. One of the approaches that have had great promise for development and poverty reduction is Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach (CA). This paper uses the approach to define poverty, poverty reduction and specify a framework for conceptualizing, designing, developing and evaluating poverty reduction initiatives. CA is deliberately incomplete and requires a lot of information to make it operational. Alkire’s has specified a framework for operationalizing CA for poverty reduction. This paper uses that framework to specify a framework for poverty reduction using ICTs. In acknowledgement of the importance of agency in CA, the proposed framework the central role played by the poor community in the conception and design of the project. It lays out the process of the design and implementation of the project and the role the poor community plays, while specifying the roles of the different players in the project.

Ruhiu S, Anthony Rodrigues, Audenhove LV. "Utilization of ICTs for Poverty Reduction: Towards a Poverty Reduction Framework. .". In: 1 st International Conference in Computer Science and Informatics. Mbagathi, Nairobi; 2007. Abstract

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) mean different things to different people; there is little informed discussion on what ICTs actually are; how they are evolving and converging, where they might be going and what the implications are for their further use in poverty reduction. This paper explores the various definitions and conceptualizations of ICTs with a view to arriving at a working definition and conceptualization of ICTs in our attempt to suggest the requirements of a framework for the utilization of ICTs for poverty reduction. To work towards the framework, various definitions and dimensions of poverty are explored and poverty reduction efforts using the capability approach are considered. Lastly, a framework for the utilization of ICTs for poverty reduction is suggested.

Rugendo CJ, Njue N,, Gatimu JC. "woman participation in miraa (khat) Business and Academic performance of primary school children in Runyenjes Divisions, Embu, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and social study. 2012.
Rugangazi BM;, Maloiy GMO. "Salt excretion and saline drinking in the dik-dik antelope (Rhynchotragus kirkii).". 2013. AbstractWebsite

1.1. The ability of the dik-dik antelope to survive while drinking saline solutions was tested in controlled laboratory experiments by providing drinking water containing up to 0.5 M NaCl.2.2. Fluid intake increased from 230.5 ml/day when fresh water was offered to a maximum of 373.9 ml/day when 0.3 M NaCl solution was offered.3.3. At concentrations higher than 0.3 M animals lost weight, were anorexic and developed diarrhoea.4.4. It is concluded that the dik-dik antelope will probably tolerate drinking water containing 0.24 M NaCl.

Rudebjer P, Chakeredza S, Dansi A, Ekaya W, Ghezae N, Aboagye LM, Kwapata M, Njoroge K, Padulosi S. "Beyond commodity crops: Strengthening young scientists’ capacity for research on underutilized species in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: 2nd International Symposium on Underutilised Plant Species. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2011.
Ru BL, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Musyoka BK, Goftishu M, Assefa Y, Ndemah R, Molo R, Chipab G. "Molecular phylogenetics and definition of the Acrapex minima Janse group (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Apameini, Sesamiina) with the description of four new species from the Afrotropics." Annales de la Société entomologique de France (NS). 2017;53(4):219-235.
Ru BL, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Njaku M, Assefa Y, Chipabika G, George Ong’Amo, Jérôme Barbut GKJ. "Updated phylogenetic and systematics of the Acrapex albivena Hampson, 1910 and A. stygiata (Hampson, 1910) species groups (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini, Sesamiina), with the description of nine new species from the Afrotropics." Annales de la Société entomologique de France (NS). 2019;55(3):219-248.
Ru BL, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Musyoka BK, Pallangyo B, Njaku M, Goftishu M, Assefa Y, Sezonlin M, Ong’amo G, Kergoat GJ. "Phylogeny and systematics of the Acrapex apicestriata (Bethune-Baker, 1911) species complex (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini, Sesamiina) with the description of eight new species from the Afrotropics." Annales de la Société entomologique de France (NS). 2017;53(2):106-130.
Roxby AC, Matemo D, Drake AL, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, John-Stewart GC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Pregnant women and disclosure to sexual partners after testing HIV-1-seropositive during antenatal care." AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013;27(1):33-7.
Roxby AC, Fredricks DN, Odem-Davis K, Ásbjörnsdóttir K, Masese L, Fiedler TL, De Rosa S, Jaoko W, Kiarie JN, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Changes in Vaginal Microbiota and Immune Mediators in HIV-1-Seronegative Kenyan Women Initiating Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016;71(4):359-66. Abstractchanges_in_vaginal_microbiota_and_immune_mediators_in_hiv-1-seronegative_kenyan_women_initiating_depot_medroxyprogesterone_acetate.pdfPUBMED

Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is associated with HIV acquisition. We studied changes in vaginal microbiota and inflammatory milieu after DMPA initiation.

Roxby AC, Matemo D, Drake AL, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, John-Stewart GC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Pregnant women and disclosure to sexual partners after testing HIV-1-seropositive during antenatal care." AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013;27(1):33-7.
Roxby AC, Drake AL, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Matemo DN, Overbaugh J, Emery S, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, Farquhar C. "Effects of valacyclovir on markers of disease progression in postpartum women co-infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus-2." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(6):e38622. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression has been shown to reduce HIV-1 disease progression in non-pregnant women and men, but effects on pregnant and postpartum women have not been described.

Roxby AC, Liu AY, Drake AL, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, De Rosa S, Farquhar C. "Short communication: T cell activation in HIV-1/herpes simplex virus-2-coinfected Kenyan women receiving valacyclovir." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2013;29(1):94-8. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) suppression with acyclovir or valacyclovir reduces HIV-1 viral RNA levels; one hypothesis is that HSV-2 suppression reduces immune activation. We measured T cell immune activation markers among women participating in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of valacyclovir to reduce HIV-1 RNA levels among pregnant women. Although valacyclovir was associated with lower HIV-1 RNA levels, the distribution of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) T cells was not different among women taking valacyclovir when compared to women taking placebo. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism of HIV-1 RNA reduction following herpes suppression among those coinfected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.

Roxby AC, Drake AL, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Matemo DN, Overbaugh J, Emery S, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, Farquhar C. "Effects of valacyclovir on markers of disease progression in postpartum women co-infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus-2." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(6):e38622. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression has been shown to reduce HIV-1 disease progression in non-pregnant women and men, but effects on pregnant and postpartum women have not been described.

Roxby AC, Liu AY, Drake AL, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, De Rosa S, Farquhar C. "Short communication: T cell activation in HIV-1/herpes simplex virus-2-coinfected Kenyan women receiving valacyclovir." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2013;29(1):94-8. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) suppression with acyclovir or valacyclovir reduces HIV-1 viral RNA levels; one hypothesis is that HSV-2 suppression reduces immune activation. We measured T cell immune activation markers among women participating in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of valacyclovir to reduce HIV-1 RNA levels among pregnant women. Although valacyclovir was associated with lower HIV-1 RNA levels, the distribution of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) T cells was not different among women taking valacyclovir when compared to women taking placebo. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism of HIV-1 RNA reduction following herpes suppression among those coinfected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.

Roxby AC, Atkinson C, Asbjörnsdóttir K, Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Drake AL, Wald A, Boeckh M, Richardson B, Emery V, John-Stewart G, Slyker JA. "Maternal valacyclovir and infant cytomegalovirus acquisition: a randomized controlled trial among HIV-infected women." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(2):e87855. Abstract

Studies in HIV-1-infected infants and HIV-1-exposed, uninfected infants link early cytomegalovirus (CMV) acquisition with growth delay and cognitive impairment. We investigated maternal valacyclovir to delay infant acquisition of CMV.

Rotich HK, Onwonga R, Mbau JS, Koech OK. "Soil Organic Carbon Content and Stocks in Relation to Grazing Management in Semi-Arid Grasslands of Kenya." . Journal of Rangeland Science. 2018;8(2).
Rotich E, Karani A, Omuga B, Odawa O, Oyieke J. "Socio-economic and cultural factors influencing women's reproductive health decision making among mothers delivered in Pumwani Maternity And Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2006. Abstract

The study was conducted from 30th May 2006 - July 3rd 2006 at Kenyatta and Pumwani hospitals in Kenya. The aim was to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors that influence women's reproductive health decision making. It was cross-sectional and descriptive study on a sample size of 384 subjects. A semi structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 3 groups of eight mothers each was used. The study revealed that age, marital status, level of education and employment status influences women's reproductive health decision making. The main cultural factors found to influence women's reproductive health decision making were; FGM, wife inheritance, sex of baby (preference for boys) and dowry. The conclusions arrived at was that majority of women are participating in their own reproductive health decision making though many need to be given education on different areas of reproductive health to encourage informed decision making. It was recommended that education opportunities for women on reproductive health issues be given more emphasis.

Rotich E, Karani A, Omuga B, Odawa O, Oyieke J. "Socio-economic and cultural factors influencing women's reproductive health decision making among mothers delivered in Pumwani Maternity And Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2006. Abstract

The study was conducted from 30th May 2006 - July 3rd 2006 at Kenyatta and Pumwani hospitals in Kenya. The aim was to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors that influence women's reproductive health decision making. It was cross-sectional and descriptive study on a sample size of 384 subjects. A semi structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 3 groups of eight mothers each was used. The study revealed that age, marital status, level of education and employment status influences women's reproductive health decision making. The main cultural factors found to influence women's reproductive health decision making were; FGM, wife inheritance, sex of baby (preference for boys) and dowry. The conclusions arrived at was that majority of women are participating in their own reproductive health decision making though many need to be given education on different areas of reproductive health to encourage informed decision making. It was recommended that education opportunities for women on reproductive health issues be given more emphasis.

Rotich E, Karani A, Omuga B, Odawa O, Oyieke J. "Socio-economic and cultural factors influencing women's reproductive health decision making among mothers delivered in Pumwani Maternity And Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2006. Abstract

The study was conducted from 30th May 2006 - July 3rd 2006 at Kenyatta and Pumwani hospitals in Kenya. The aim was to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors that influence women's reproductive health decision making. It was cross-sectional and descriptive study on a sample size of 384 subjects. A semi structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 3 groups of eight mothers each was used. The study revealed that age, marital status, level of education and employment status influences women's reproductive health decision making. The main cultural factors found to influence women's reproductive health decision making were; FGM, wife inheritance, sex of baby (preference for boys) and dowry. The conclusions arrived at was that majority of women are participating in their own reproductive health decision making though many need to be given education on different areas of reproductive health to encourage informed decision making. It was recommended that education opportunities for women on reproductive health issues be given more emphasis.

Rotich XJ. "The Confucius Institute at the University of Nairobi, Kenya: Some Lessons for Korean Studies." The Nairobi Journal of LITERATURE. 2015;8(1814-1706):109-121.
Rothschild L, Mwaura F, Kabaru J, Lobo N, Moulton K, Lobo C, Duboise S. "Ultrastructural and Biochemical Analysis of In Vivo and In Vitro Capsid Assembly of the Alkaliphilic Phage [Phi] 1N2-2 for Applications in Nanomedicine." Microscopy and Microanalysis. 2012;18(2):110. AbstractFull text link

Bacteriophage 1N2-2 infects a narrow range of alkaliphilic bacterial strains phylogenetically
related to the family Idiomarinacea [1]. Both phage and host bacterium were isolated from alkaline
and saline waters of Lake Nakuru, a soda lake of Kenya’s Great Rift Valley. Virion structures
including capsids must tolerate extreme alkaline environments of pH 10 and above. The phage is
morphologically and genetically related to lambdoid viruses of the family Siphoviridae (Fig. 1B)[1].
Genomic analysis revealed that 1N2-2 genes are organized in functional modules. Capsid
morphogenesis genes are homologous both in order and predicted amino acid sequence to the
corresponding genes of the coliphage HK97 (Fig. 1A )[2]. Like many dsDNA viruses, HK97
assembles multiple subunits of a single gene product into a protocapsid around a transient
protein-scaffolding core that is subsequently cleaved by a protease at the time of DNA packaging
triggering expansion and stabilization of the mature capsid [3]. 1N2-2, like HK97, lacks an
independent capsid scaffolding gene but rather, as we have inferred, the N-terminal 110 residues of
the major head protein (MHP) encoded by gene 10 probably assume a coiled-coil folding typical of
scaffolding proteins.
We cloned the 1N2-2 gene 10 MHP sequence into a pQE-Tri-system plasmid (Qiagen) and have
expressed a 46-kDa MHP protein in Escherichia coli strain SG19003 (Qiagen) that can be
precipitated by 8% PEG treatment in ice and low speed centrifugation (Fig. 1C and 1E).
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows the presence of virus-like particles (VLP)
of similar size and shape as empty proheads of naturally formed 1N2-2 (Fig. 1B). Alternatively,
the 3’ end of the gene 10 in the pQE vector was modified to eliminate the stop codon allowing in
frame translation of ten additional codons including eight histidine residues at the C-terminus of
MHP (MHP-his). Based on a Swiss-model prediction of the 1N2-2 MHP protein sequence using
the structure of phage HK97 MHP as template (PDB 1OHG)[4] we inferred that the C-terminus and
its additional modifications would be located on the surface of the recombinant capsid allowing the
purification of fully assembled capsids with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography (data not shown).
SDS-PAGE analysis and UAc-stained protein samples visualized by TEM show that MHP-his
expressed in E. coli is a protein of 46.5 kDa (Fig. 1E) that can assemble into VLPs, possibly
proheads of 46 nm in diameter (Fig. 1D). Other non-closed structures that are seen in the sample are
presumably incomplete capsids (Fig 1 C and 1D). We are currently investigating whether capsid
morphogenesis including incomplete structures and proheads produced from the expression plasmid
in E. coli differ from natural capsid morphogenesis in the alkaliphilic host of 1N2-2. We are
formulating capsid assembly buffers to produce fully closed stable VLP in vitro. We conclude that the Φ1N2-2 MHP protein, either intact or with histidineresidues at the C-terminus, is sufficient to produce VLP in theabsence of other virally-encoded proteins. Weexpectthe MHP C-terminus can be used to
display antigens on the prohead surface while modifications of the N-terminus may be used for
packaging antigens internally providing a versatile VLP platform for vaccine development and
other nanomedicine applications.

Rothen-Rutishauser BM, Kiama SG, Gehr P. "A three-dimensional cellular model of the human respiratory tract to study the interaction with particles.". 2004. Abstract

A novel triple co-culture model of the human airway barrier was designed to simulate the cellular part of the air–blood barrier of the respiratory tract represented by macrophages, epithelial cells, and dendritic cells. When epithelial cells (A549 cells) were grown on filter inserts with pores of 3.0 m in diameter in a two-chamber system, they formed monolayers with polarization into apical and basolateral domains. The epithelial cell cultures were then supplemented with human blood monocyte–derived macrophages and dendritic cells on the apical and basal aspect, respectively. The single-cell cultures as well as the triple co-cultures were characterized in terms of a number of typical features, for example, morphology of cell types, integrity of epithelial layer, and expression of specific cell surface markers (CD14 for macrophages and CD86 for dendritic cells). The interplay of epithelial cells with macrophages and dendritic cells during the uptake of polystyrene particles (1 m in diameter) was investigated with confocal laser scanning and conventional transmission electron microscopy. Particles were found in all three cell types, although dendritic cells were not directly exposed to the particles. More investigations are needed to understand the translocation pathway

Roth EA, Ngugi EN, Masako F. "Self-deception does not explain high-risk sexual behavior in the face of HIV/AIDS: A test from northern Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, there is resistance to changing sexual behavior despite survey data indicating high levels of knowledge about HIV transmission patterns and high-risk behavior. Previous explanations for this paradox emphasize indigenous cultural models. An alternative explanation is that, due to a strong natural selection for sexual gratification, individuals evoke the evolved trait of selfdeception to continue practicing high-risk sexual behavior. This alternative is tested using survey data from an Ariaal community in Marsabit District, northern Kenya. Results indicate that respondents make highly accurate self-assessments of HIV risk, negating the concept of self-deception in this study. These results are discussed within the larger context of the applicability of evolutionary theory to the AIDS pandemic.

Rosse C. "Terminologia anatomica: considered from the perspective of next-generation knowledge sources." Clinical Anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2001;14:120-133. Abstract

This report examines the semantic structure of Terminologia Anatomica, taking one page as an example. The focus of analysis is the meaning imparted to an anatomical term by virtue of its location within the structured list. Terminologia's structure, expressed through hierarchies of headings, varied typographical styles, indentations, and an alphanumeric code, implies specific relationships among the terms embedded in the list. Together, terms and relationships can potentially capture essential elements of anatomical knowledge. The analysis focuses on these knowledge elements and evaluates the consistency and logic in their representation. Most critical of these elements are class inclusion and part-whole relationships. Since these are implied, rather than explicitly modeled, by Terminologia, the use of the term list is limited to those who have some knowledge of anatomy; computer programs are excluded from navigating through the terminology. Assuring consistency in the explicit representation of anatomical relationships would facilitate adoption of Terminologia as the anatomical standard by the various controlled medical terminology (CMT) projects. These projects are motivated by the need to computerize the patient record, and their aim is to generate machine-understandable representations of biomedical concepts, including anatomy. Because of the lack of a consistent and explicit representation of anatomy, each of these CMTs has generated its own anatomy model. None of these models is compatible with any other, yet each is consistent with textbook descriptions of anatomy. The analysis of the semantic structure of Terminologia Anatomica leads to some suggestions for enhancing the term list in ways that would facilitate its adoption as the standard for anatomical knowledge representation in biomedical informatics.

Ross JA, Agwanda AT. "The Rise of Injectable Contraception in Sub-Saharan Africa." African Journal of Reproductive health . 2012;16(4):63-73.
Roskoski R, Lim CT, Roskoski LM. "Human brain and placental choline acetyltransferase: purification and properties." Biochemistry. 1975;14(23):5105-10. Abstract

Choline acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.6) catalyzes the biosynthesis of acetylcholine according to the following chemical equation: acetyl-CoA + choline in equilibrium to acetylcholine + CoA. In addition to nervous tissue, primate placenta is the only other animal source which contains appreciable acetylcholine and its biosynthetic enzyme. Human brain caudate nucleus and human placental choline acetyltransferase were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using ion-exchange and blue dextran-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The molecular weights determined by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis are 67000 plus or minus 3000. N-Ethylmaleimide, p-chloromercuribenzoate, and dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) inhibit the enzyme. Dithiothreitol reverses the inhibition produced by the latter two reagents. The pKa of the group associated with N-ethylmaleimide inhibition is 8.6 plus or minus 0.3. A chemically competent acetyl-thioenzyme is isolable by Sephadex gel filtration. The enzymes from the brain and placenta are thus far physically and biochemically indistinguishable.

Rositch AF, Gatuguta A, Choi RY, Guthrie BL, Mackelprang RD, Bosire R, Manyara L, Kiarie JN, Smith JS, Farquhar C. "Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(7):e40766. Abstract

Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies.

Rositch AF, Gatuguta A, Choi RY, Guthrie BL, Mackelprang RD, Bosire R, Manyara L, Kiarie JN, Smith JS, Farquhar C. "Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(7):e40766. Abstract

Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies.

Rositch AF, Cherutich P, Brentlinger P, Kiarie JN, Nduati R, Farquhar C. "HIV infection and sexual partnerships and behaviour among adolescent girls in Nairobi, Kenya." Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23(7):468-74. Abstract

Early sexual partnerships place young women in sub-Saharan Africa at high risk for HIV. Few studies have examined both individual- and partnership-level characteristics of sexual relationships among adolescent girls. A cross-sectional survey of sexual history and partnerships was conducted among 761 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in Nairobi, Kenya. Rapid HIV testing was conducted and correlates of HIV infection were determined using multivariate logistic regression. The HIV prevalence was 7% and seropositive adolescents had a younger age at sexual debut (P < 0.01), more sexual partners in 12 months (P = 0.03), and were more likely to report transactional or non-consensual sex (P < 0.01). Girls who reported not knowing their partner's HIV status were 14 times as likely to be HIV-seropositive than girls who knew their partner's status (adjusted odds ratio: 14.2 [1.8, 109.3]). Public health messages to promote HIV testing and disclosure within partnerships could reduce sexual risk behaviours and HIV transmission among adolescents.

Rositch, A F; Cherutich BKNRW; FP; P; J. "HIV infection and sexual partnerships and behaviour among adolescent girls in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

Early sexual partnerships place young women in sub-Saharan Africa at high risk for HIV. Few studies have examined both individual- and partnership-level characteristics of sexual relationships among adolescent girls. A cross-sectional survey of sexual history and partnerships was conducted among 761 adolescent girls aged 15–19 years in Nairobi, Kenya. Rapid HIV testing was conducted and correlates of HIV infection were determined using multivariate logistic regression. The HIV prevalence was 7% and seropositive adolescents had a younger age at sexual debut (P < 0.01), more sexual partners in 12 months (P = 0.03), and were more likely to report transactional or non-consensual sex (P < 0.01). Girls who reported not knowing their partner’s HIV status were 14 times as likely to be HIV-seropositive than girls who knew their partner’s status (adjusted odds ratio: 14.2 [1.8, 109.3]). Public health messages to promote HIV testing and disclosure within partnerships could reduce sexual risk behaviours and HIV transmission among adolescents.

Rositch AF, Cherutich P, Brentlinger P, Kiarie JN, Nduati R, Farquhar C. "HIV infection and sexual partnerships and behaviour among adolescent girls in Nairobi, Kenya." Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23(7):468-74. Abstract

Early sexual partnerships place young women in sub-Saharan Africa at high risk for HIV. Few studies have examined both individual- and partnership-level characteristics of sexual relationships among adolescent girls. A cross-sectional survey of sexual history and partnerships was conducted among 761 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in Nairobi, Kenya. Rapid HIV testing was conducted and correlates of HIV infection were determined using multivariate logistic regression. The HIV prevalence was 7% and seropositive adolescents had a younger age at sexual debut (P < 0.01), more sexual partners in 12 months (P = 0.03), and were more likely to report transactional or non-consensual sex (P < 0.01). Girls who reported not knowing their partner's HIV status were 14 times as likely to be HIV-seropositive than girls who knew their partner's status (adjusted odds ratio: 14.2 [1.8, 109.3]). Public health messages to promote HIV testing and disclosure within partnerships could reduce sexual risk behaviours and HIV transmission among adolescents.

Rosenthal1, S. K., Lodge, D. M., Mavuti, Muohi, W., Ochieng, P., Stevens, S. S., Mungai BN, Mkoji GM. "Comparing macrophyte herbivory by introduced Louisiana crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) (Crustacea: Cambaridae) and native Dytiscid beetles (Cybister tripunctatus) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), in Kenya." African Journal of Aquatic Science. 2005;30(2):157-162.
Rosenthal NR, Barrett EJ. "An assessment of insulin action in hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic diabetic patients." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1985;60:607-610. Abstract

The effect of insulin treatment on the rate of decline of plasma glucose concentration was determined in nine patients with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketosis [HHNK; mean plasma glucose, 999 +/- 59 (+/- SEM) mg/dl] and in six normal subjects rendered hyperglycemic by a combined infusion of somatostatin and glucose (mean plasma glucose, 653 +/- 28 mg/dl). Both the fractional glucose turnover and the half-time of the fall in plasma glucose during low dose (5-10 U/h) insulin treatment were reduced 10-fold (P less than 0.001) in the diabetic patients compared with the hyperglycemic normal subjects. In the hyperosmolar patients, the mean glucose clearance during insulin treatment was only 7% that in the normal subjects (P less than 0.001). The rate of plasma glucose decline in our hyperosmolar patients after hydration and insulin administration was 80 +/- 7 mg/dl X h. This decline is comparable to the results reported in other series, although in striking contrast to the 508 +/- 32 mg/dl X h decline in normal subjects (P less than 0.001). Our findings do not support the clinical impression that HHNK patients are insulin sensitive. We conclude that marked resistance to infused insulin delays the correction of hyperglycemia during treatment of HHNK and suggest that resistance to the normal basal insulin levels encountered in some HHNK patients may contribute in part to the development of the hyperosmolar state.

ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Linkages between Small and Large Firms in the Kenyan Food Processing Sector" with Dorothy McCormick. In Van Dijk M.P. and H. Sandee (eds). Innovation and Small Enterprises in the Third World. Edward Elgar Publishing.". In: Innovation and Small Enterprises in the Third World. Edward Elgar Publishing. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Gender, Education and Occupational Outcomes: Kenya.". In: Perspectives of Small Entrepreneurs and Farmers. Chapter in Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID). JICA. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "Institutional Credit Lending Policies and the Efficiency of Resource Use among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya. Studien zur L.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "Institutional Credit and the Efficiency of Resource Use among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya. In: African Review of Money Finance and Banking number 1-2/1995.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Lending Policies and the Use of Credit Funds among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya". In: Savings and Development, Vol. 22, number 2, 1998.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Credit Rationing and Access to Credit:A Study of Formal and Informal Credit Institutions in Kenya". In African Journal of Economic Policy, Vol. 5, number 2, 1998.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". With Benjamin Okech and Winnie Mitullah. IDS Working Paper Number 534.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Female Participation in the labour Market:The Case of the Informal Sector in Kenya".". In: AERC Research Paper, number 157. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "R. Atieno and R. Hayanga (1992) The Role of Women in Agricultural Food Production in Kenya: A Case Study of Siaya District. In: Eastern African Social Sciences Research Review, Vol. VIII No. 2, 1992.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "Institutional Credit and the Efficiency of Resource Use among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya. In: African Review of Money Finance and Banking number 1-2/1995.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "The Role of Rural Infrastructure in Attaining Household Food Security:Research Issues and Policy Options With Reference to Kenya In: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Sustainable Farming Systems, November 1996, Colombo, Sri Lanka.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Achievements and Constraints of Structural Adjustments on the Micro-Economy in Africa: "Lending Policies and the Use of Credit Funds among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya". In: Savings and Development, Vol. 22, number 2, 1998.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "Formal and Informal Institutions.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "R. Atieno and R. Hayanga (1992) Perspectives of Small Entrepreneurs and Farmers. Chapter in Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID). JICA.". In: Perspectives of Small Entrepreneurs and Farmers. Chapter in Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID). JICA. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "Institutional Credit Lending Policies and the Efficiency of Resource Use among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya. Studien zur L.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "The Role of Rural Infrastructure in Attaining Household Food Security:Research Issues and Policy Options With Reference to Kenya In: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Sustainable Farming Systems, November 1996, Colombo, Sri Lanka.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "Perspectives of Small Entrepreneurs and Farmers". With Patrick Alila. In:Micro-economies and structural adjustment in Africa-experiences and prospects of small businesses and farmers. Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA), and Foundation for Adva.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Financial Dualism and Financial Sector Development in Low Income Countries". With Alfred Ouma Shem. In Savings and Development, Vol. 25, number 4/ 2001.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
Roseleur OJ, van Gent CM. "Alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis of conjugated bile acids." Clin. Chim. Acta. 1976;66(2):269-72.
ROSEBELLA DRKOTONYA. "Kotonya, R. and Jensen, N.E., "No effect of dieldrin on progesterone production in gilts", Toxicology, 1993, Vol. 81, pp.165-171.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ROSEBELLA DRKOTONYA. "Kotonya, R. and Huddart, H. "Interaction of malathion with modulators of sarcoplasmic reticular function on tension generation in the rat uterus." Toxicological Letters Supplement. 2000.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2000. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ROSEBELLA DRKOTONYA. "Kotonya, R., Mutungi, G.M. and Kanja, L.W. "Organochloride pesticide residues in swine tissues from abattoir material collected in Nairobi. Kenya", Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 1994, Vol.53, pp.39- 45.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Rose N. Obae, Selpher K. Cheloti, Mwangi G. "Influence of Free Day Secondary Education Subsidy On Completion Rates; A Case of Public Day Secondary Schools in Kitui County, Kenya." International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences (IJRESS). 2017;7(2):2249-7382.
Rose N. Obae, Kanori EN, Cheloti SK. "PRINCIPALS' MANAGEMENT STYLES AND STUDENTS' UNREST IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NAIROBI COUNTY,KENYA." Education and Practice. 2014;5(2222-288x):29-37.
Rose D. CHARACTERISTICS OF DROPOUTS AMONG UPPER PRIMARY PUPILS - TEACHERS' PERCEPTIONS. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller GmbH & Co. KG; 2004.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Michira I, Njomo N. "Formulation of slow release NPK fertilizer (cellulose-graft-poly (acrylamide)/nano-hydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer) composite and evaluating its N mineralization potential." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2018;63(2):163-172. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Abstract

Polymer nano-composite fertilizer formulation has the potential to enhance nutrient use efficiency. Slow release fertilizer (SRF) composite was formulated by incorporating nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) and water soluble fertilizers (urea, (NH4)2HPO4 and K2SO4) into water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide) polymer hydrogel. Fourier Transform Infra-red spectra revealed existence of chemical interaction between the monomer, cellulose, urea and nano-HA. The release of nutrients was assessed using laboratory incubation experiment. Significantly higher content of mineral nitrogen (MN) was observed in the first 4 weeks in conventional fertilizer (CF) compared to SRF treatments and the control. MN content in SRF treatments increased considerably between the 8th and 12th week, and declined in the 16th week. The values of potentially mineralizable N estimated using first order kinetics model related well to the observed cumulative MN at 16th week. No significant difference was observed between CF and SRF treatments for available P content in the 2nd week. Significantly higher P content was observed in CF compared to SRF treatment in the 4th week, whereas in the 8th week, some SRFs released significantly higher content than CF. Available P peaked in the 8th week in all the treatments and remained constant at 12th and 16th week. Availability of P in SRFs increased with increased content of soluble P and decreased content of nano-HA. Exchangeable K showed less variation during the incubation period, suggesting short release time. The data revealed reduced chances of leaching losses and toxic effect to the plant roots, as well as synchronized nutrient release and requirement by crops.

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of Formulated Nano-NPK Slow Release Fertilizer Composite on the Perfomance and Yeild of Maize, Kale and Capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;05:10.
Rop KV, KONDITI DBO, H.A. O, Musyoki S. "Parameter Optimization in Design of a Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Technique." International Journal of Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE). 2012;4(12):16-23. Abstract

Modern wireless systems are placing greater
emphasis on antenna designs for future development in
communication technology because the antenna is a key
element in the overall communication system. A
Microstrip Antenna is well suited for wireless
communication due to its light weight, low volume and
low profile planar configuration which can be easily
conformed to the host surface. In this paper, an
optimization method based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy
inference system (ANFIS) for determining the parameters
used in the design of a rectangular microstrip patch
antenna is presented. The ANFIS has the advantages of
expert knowledge of fuzzy inference system (FIS) and the
learning capability of artificial neural network (ANN). By
calculating and optimizing the patch dimensions and the
feed point of a rectangular microstrip antenna, this paper
shows that ANFIS produces good results that are in
agreement with Ansoft HFSS 13.0 simulation results.

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