Bio

PROF. MBATIA OLIVER OLE

Professor Mbatia has a PhD in Agricutural Economics and Economics from Oregon State University Corvallis, USA, and a Minor in Political Science and College and University Teaching.  He obtained his MSc in Agricultural Economics and Economics from the same university in 1966 and a BSc in Agricultural Technology and Mathematics from Wisconsin State University, USA.  He specialized in Economic Theory, International Trade/Development Economics and Marketing.

Publications


2013

Okello, JJ;, Ofwona-Adera, Edith; Mbatia, L.E; O, Okello RM.  2013.  Using ICT to Integrate Smallholder Farmers into Agricultural Value Chain: The Case of DrumNet Project in Kenya. AbstractWebsite

This article examines an ICT-based intervention (known as the DrumNet project) that has succeeded in integrating smallholder-resource and poor farmers into a higher value agricultural chain. The article assesses the design of the project, and how it resolves the smallholder farmers’ idiosyncratic market failures and examines member-farmers’ marketing margins. The article finds that the design of the DrumNet project resolves smallholder farmers’ credit, insurance and information market failures and enables them to overcome organizational failure. The article concludes that successful ICT-based interventions for integrating farmers into higher value agricultural value chains require an integrated approach to tackling smallholder farmers’ constraints. The findings have implications for the design of future ICT-based interventions in agriculture.

2012

Mogaka, VM;, Mbatia OLE;, Nzuma J.  2012.  Feasibility of Biofuel Production in Kenya: The Case of Jatropha. Abstract

This paper evaluates the potential of Jatropha curcas Linnaeus (Jatropha) as an alternative source of energy for rural households. The plant is said to have potential to diversify rural incomes, reclaim unproductive lands, reduce importation of fossil fuels, and consequently accumulation of green house gases in the atmosphere. A cost benefit analysis was employed to evaluate the feasibility of producing Jatropha as a biodiesel feedstock in relation to other crops in Kwale district. An IRR of 11 percent, BCR of 0.62 and a NPV of (28267.56) showed that production of Jatropha is not feasible at the moment. However we conclude that the plant has a potential to achieve its intended purpose if there is coordination in research and development along the Jatropha value chain and if technical and financial support is accorded to actors at the production level of the chain.

2010

Mogaka, VM;, Iiyama M;, Mbatia OLE;, Jonathan N.  2010.  Reality or romantism? Potential of Jatropha to solve energy crisis and improve livelihoods Abstract

This paper evaluates the potential of Jatropha curcas Linnaeus (Jatropha) as an alternative source of energy for rural households. The plant is said to have potential to diversify rural incomes, reclaim unproductive lands, reduce importation of fossil fuels, and consequently accumulation of green house gases in the atmosphere. A cost benefit analysis was employed to evaluate the feasibility of producing Jatropha as a biodiesel feedstock in relation to other crops in Kwale district. An IRR of 11 percent, BCR of 0.62 and a NPV of (28267.56) showed that production of Jatropha is not feasible at the moment. However we conclude that the plant has a potential to achieve its intended purpose if there is coordination in research and development along the Jatropha value chain and if technical and financial support is accorded to actors at the production level of the chain.

2009

2008

  2008.  Analysis of Economic Efficiency in Smallholder Maize Production in Northwestern Kenya. Abstract

This study investigated the contribution of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) to economic efficiency in smallholder maize-based farming system of Northwestern Kenya. Farm-household data were used to: i) evaluate differences in economic efficiency, and ii) establish factors determining variations in economic efficiency. Stochastic production and cost frontier models were estimated using cross-sectional data from a stratified sample of 373 farmers in Trans Nzoia and Lugari districts. The results indicate that average economic efficiency was only 49%. Farmers who applied ISFM practices in maize production operated closer to their efficient frontiers than those who used inorganic fertilisers alone. Extrapolation of efficiency gains in the study area showed that enhanced technical efficiency had potential to improve maize yields by about 1.5 t/ha while better allocative efficiency could reduce production costs by KES 6,141 per hectare. It was established that in addition to ISFM, other significant factors included extension contacts, and access to credit and market. Policy interventions to improve upon economic efficiency should therefore consider these factors.

2000

OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  2000.  Mbatia, O.L.E. Development of Kenya. Unpublished. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.

1997

1996

1989

OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1989.  Mbatia, O.L.E. Rural Research Priorities: Agricultural Economics Perspective pp.103-111. Institute for Development Studies (IDS), University of Nairobi. Ocassional Paper No. 53, 1989.. Unpublished. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1989.  Mbatia, O.L.E. Food Production/Food Supply Consumption System.. Intercountry workshop for Food, Nutritition and Agriculture for Lecturers from Faculties and College of Agriculture in Eastern and Southern Africa. Egerton University, Njoro, April, 13-14, 1989.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.

1988

OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1988.  Mbatia, O.L.E. Rural Research Priorities.. Agricultural Economists Perspectives Seminar held at Naivasha, Kenya, April 28-30, 1988.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1988.  Kimenye, L.N. and Mbatia, O.L.E. Agricultural Growth and Productivity in Kenya 1960-1980.. 20th International Conference of Agricultural Economics Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 24-31, 1988.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1988.  Nyangito, H.Z.O. and Mbatai, O.L.E. A Socio-Economic Analysis of the Farmers Storages Practices and Decision-making at Farm Level. A Case of Potato Farming in Kenya.. 20th international Conference of Agricultural Economists Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 24-31, 1988.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1988.  Mbatia, O.L.E. and P.M. Kimani. Socio-economic Survey of Pigeonpeas Farmers in Machakos, Embu and Kitui, Kenya (Africa). IDRC, 1988.. Intercountry workshop for Food, Nutritition and Agriculture for Lecturers from Faculties and College of Agriculture in Eastern and Southern Africa. Egerton University, Njoro, April, 13-14, 1989.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.

1987

OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1987.  Development of Kenya. Development Trends and Prospects for 1985-2000. Kenya Economic Association, Nairobi,Kenya, September, 1987.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.

1985

OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1985.  Financial Analysis of Production of French Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) ACTA horticulture, 158, 1985, Addis Ababa.. Development Trends and Prospects for 1985-2000. Kenya Economic Association, Nairobi,Kenya, September, 1987.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.

1984

Mbatia, OLE.  1984.  Financial analysis of production of French beans in Kenya (Phaseolus vulgaris). Abstract

The purpose of this study was to analyze the production costs of French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and to assess the financial gain to farmers. The major growers in Kenya are small farmers. The French beans are grown mainly for export purpose and are produced largely near the city of Nairobi where the altitude is between 1 000 and 2 000 meters above sea level and where soil is well drained and rich in organic matter. French beans are among the major horticultural crops produced in Kenya for export. The export season of French beans is from November to April. The farmers visited used irrigation water for production. About 50 mm of water per week was applied using an overhead or furrow system of irrigation. The overhead system of irrigation, however, was comonly used. The farming of French beans is labor and capital intensive. The costing of the inputs such as fertilizers, seed, labor for land preparation and harvesting were estimated. Between 20 to 25 kg of seed per acre (49.4 – 61.8 kg/ha) was used, costing about Kshs 32 for 60 kgs; land preparation was about Kshs 500 per acre (Kshs 1 235.5/ ha). The price for fertilizer for one acre was Kshs 500 (Kshs 1 235.5/ha). The total variable cost was about Kshs 4 670 per acre (Kshs 11 539.6/ha). Gross margin per acre was 16 530 Kshs (Kshs 1 309.6/ha). The estimated labor input on large, mechanized farm for French beans amounts to 3 283 mh/ha. The harvesting, which include picking, selecting and packing approximately 1 300 cartons for export required the highest labor with 3 030 mh/ha; canning, 100 mh/ha; irrigation, 80 mh/ha with 20 applications; weeding, 35 mh/ha; spraying, 14 mh/ha; top dressing, 9 mh/ha and planting, 7 mh/ha. The average yield was between 600 to 1 000 cartons of 3 kg/acre (1 482.6 – 2 471.0 cartons/ha). The price at farm gate is Kshs 21 per carton of 3 kgs. Some of the small farmers had direct access to the export markets but the majority of them had to sell to the exporters. A good majority of the farmers estimated a profit of about 25 per cent but considered employment it provides for them and the rural people a very important benefit.

Mbatia, OLE.  1984.  The assessment of marketing of horticultural produce in Kenya. Abstract

The main concern of this paper is to assess the marketing of horticultural produce in Kenya. In 1950 the Horticultural Cooperative Union (HCU) was organized to help mostly European farmers to market fruit and vegetables. The HCU has been faced with some financial problems, mainly due to loss in customers and inactive members. The HCU shares about 15 to 20 % of the total Kenya exports. There are some producers-exporters specialized in exporting flowers and some commodities like French beans, pineapples and capsicum. The climatical conditions and ecological zones are good, enabling many fruit and vegetables to be produced in Kenya. The major export products are flowers, pineapples, French beans, capsicum and fresh fruits. The trade channels are mainly directed to the British market, which is dominant with a share of 50.64 % in 1982 and European markets (mainly West Germany, having a market share of 15.5 % in 1982 and France with a market share of 12.20 % for the same year 1982). In 1974 the main export to West Germany was pineapple which amounted to 24.9 % of all fresh produce imported from Kenya, second was capsicums with 10.8 %. Kenya fresh fruit and vegetables show a high demand on European markets. This market is a very competitive one. The countries in the Mediterranean region and in the tropical equatorial part of the African Continent pose a challenging position to this market. There is free entry and free exit to this market. When Kenya wants to have a sizable share of this market also in the future, it has to maintain a high quality at a reasonable price. This means that quality control, proper packaging and efficient transportation to the market have to be improved. The smallholders need to be supported when entering the market and need close advisory in order to supply high quality produce. Kenya should be willing to invest in areas like market research, market intelligence and export promotion. In addition the local consumption of fruit and vegetables should be encouraged as a part of the National Food Policy Program.

OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1984.  The Potential Market Opportunities for Agricultural By-products in Kenya.. Kenya National Academy of SCIENCES. Sirikwa Hotel, Eldoret, 1984.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.

1983

OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1983.  Keya, S.O., Gathuru, E.M., Onim, J.F.M., Mbatia, O.L.E. Evaluation of Coast Agricultural Research (Kenya); National Council for Science and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya, 1983.. Kenya National Academy of SCIENCES. Sirikwa Hotel, Eldoret, 1984.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.

1981

Mbatia, OLE.  1981.  The marketing system for horticultural crops in Kenya. Abstract

The basic problem of farming in developing countries is the lack of proper incentives for farmers. Prices paid for farmers' produce are too low, even to cover operational costs. The horticultural crops are much affected due to an unstructured market, and the Horticultural Crops Development Authority (HCDA) has not effectively assisted small-scale farmers. This paper evaluates the marketing systems for horticultural crops in relation to major ingredients affecting marketing. These variables are: the products to be marketed such as french beans, avocados, pineapples, mangoes; the place of the market and the prices to be paid. Some policies which could be adopted to improve the marketing of horticultural crops are considered.

1980

OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1980.  Uriyo, P. Nsereko, J. Mbatia, O.L.E. Overview of Selected Crop Research Institutes in Eastern Africa, FAO, 1980.. First World Conference on Food Storage, Pasco Washington, U.S.A., October, 11-22, 1982.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.

1978

OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1978.  Discussant, Session on Urban Economics W.E.A. 53 Annual Western Economic Association Conference, June 22-26, 1978, Honolulu. Aloha, Hawa 11 islands.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.

1977

OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1977.  Chairperson: Session on Urban Economics: Municipal Issues W.E.A.. 52nd Annual Western Economic Association Conference, June 20-23, 1977, Anaheim, California.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1977.  Discussant: Session on Urban Economics: Municipal Issues W.E.A.. 52nd Annual Western Economic Association Conference, June 20-23, 1977, Anaheim, California.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.

1976

OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1976.  Discussant: Session on Urban Economics,. 51st Annual Western Economic Association Conference, June 24-27, 1976. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1976.  Economic Contribution of Tourist Industry to Economic Development and Growth in Kenya.. Presented at 51st Annual Conference of Western Economic Association, June, 24-27, 1976, Hyatt Regency Hotel, San Francisco, California.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.

1975

OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1975.  The Drought in Africa:. Read at Africa Week at the University of California, Los Angeles, May 20, 1975.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1975.  The Economics of Rural Development: The Case of Kenya.. Read at The 50th Annual Conference of Western Economic Association, June, 1975, Shelton-Harbor Hotel, San Diego, California.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1975.  Chairperson: Session on Urban Economic Development,. 50th Annual Conference of Western Economic Association, June 25, 26, 27, 29, 1975.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.

1974

OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1974.  The Application of Information Theory to Evaluate the Economic Effects of Fair Employment Laws on Occupations Progress of Black Americans, 1954-1972.. Read at the Forty-Ninth Annual Conference of Western Economic Association Meeting at Sahara Hotel, Las Vegas, Nevada, June 9-11, 1974.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.

1972

OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1972.  Economic of Discrimination and Exploitation of Black Americans, European Meeting of Econometric Society, Budapest, Hungary, August, 1972.. Presented at the American Economic Association Meeting, Atlanta City, New Jersey, September, 16-18, 1976.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1972.  The Economic Effect of Fair Employment Laws in Occupation . Presented at the American Economic Association Meeting, Atlanta City, New Jersey, September, 16-18, 1976.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
OLE, PROFMBATIAOLIVER.  1972.  The profile of Black Studies (Black Culture) at the University of California at Irvine, 1972.. Presented at Black Studies Consortium of the University of California, Santa Barbara in Spring, 1972.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.

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