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Haines SL, Imana CA, Opondo M, Ouma G, Rayner S. "Weather and climate knowledge for water security: Institutional roles and relationships in Turkana." Oxford University Research Archive. 2017;(5).

Lodwar town in Turkana County faces water security issues relating to its strategic location, (semi-)arid climate, hydroclimatic variability, high poverty rates, low piped water service and a rapidly growing population – challenges that are also relevant to many Kenyan and African small towns in fragile environments. Political, economic and environmental changes affecting Lodwar, including devolution, climate variation and change, demographic shifts, and the exploration of subterranean resources (both water and oil), make this an important time to examine the challenges and prospects for inclusive water security. This working paper discusses findings from a 2016 study of the institutions involved in water decision-making in Lodwar, focusing on their access to and use (or non-use) of weather and climate information. What organisations are involved in water decisions affecting Lodwar town; how do they negotiate information access, accountability and uncertainty; and what is at stake? Drawing on qualitative material collected during a 10-week study of institutional arrangements and decision-making, this paper explores connections and mismatches between weather/climate knowledge and water decisions in Lodwar town and the wider Turkwel basin.

Langer L, Erasmus Y, Tannous N, Obuku E, Ravat Z, Chisoro C, OM, Nduku P, Tripney J, van Rooyen C, Stewart R. "Women in wage labour: A systematic review of the Effectiveness and Design Features of Interventions Supporting Women’s Participation in Wage Labour in Higher-growth and/or Male …." ucl discovery. 2018.

In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), women’s participation in wage labour is significantly lower than that of men. In addition, women’s participation is often clustered in particular sectors of the economy that are not well-remunerated and have lower prestige. Higher growth economic sectors such as ICT and finance are dominated by men, excluding women from lucrative opportunities for social and economic development. Even where women have equal access to wage labour opportunities, they often suffer from vertical occupational segregation, earning significantly less than men and being less likely to be promoted. This horizontal and vertical occupational segregation of wage labour markets in LMICs for women hinders both economic and social development. In response to this challenging gendered nature of wage labour markets in LMICs, a range of interventions and policies have been proposed to increase women’s employment. These interventions aim to overcome a range of barriers to women’s wage labour employment in highergrowth/male-dominated sectors, such as discrimination against women by markets and work institutions, or a lack of access to credit and assets and of technical and soft skills. However, these labour market programmes to increase women’s wage employment vary greatly, as do the barriers to women’s wage labour participation. Different programme designs assume different pathways to support women’s employment and it is not clear what programme approaches and design features are most effective.

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