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Wandiga, S. OM, others. "Climate, Malaria and Cholera in the Lake Victoria Region." Leary, N. et. al. (eds.) Climate Change and Adaptation, Earthscan: London and Sterling,VA, pp.109-130; 2008. Abstract
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Tallontire A, Opondo M, Nelson V. "Contingent spaces for smallholder participation in GlobalGAP: insights from K enyan horticulture value chains." The Geographical Journal. 2014;180(4):353-364. Abstractrgs-ibg.onlinelibrary.wiley.com

Private standards initiatives (PSIs ) in agri‐food value chains raise questions of democratic governance and accountability relating to the voice and agency of those whom the standards are designed to benefit or whom they most affect. We employ the concept of ‘spaces for participation’ to analyze participation in a particular PSI, GlobalGAP, and assess how, and to what extent, it opens up a space for debate about what constitutes good practice in agri‐food chains and for whom. We draw on focus groups with smallholders, together with semi‐structured interviews and workshops held with actors at the national and international scales to examine PSIs operating in K enyan export horticulture to examine good agricultural practice (GAP ) standards. Our analysis suggests that despite public announcements that these initiatives promote the voice of the farmer, the direct participation of farmers is largely absent from these policy spaces at present. This is related to the way in which invitations to the spaces for participation are constructed, what is deemed to be appropriate subjects for discussion in PSIs as well as the practical challenges associated with the organization of farmers across spatial scales. The spaces for participation are located largely at the international and national scales with few connections to the local scale. This paper contributes to an extension of value chain analysis that re‐asserts the importance of institutional context and how value chains are embedded in particular socio‐economic and political systems.

Hope R, Olago D, Opondo M, Mumma A, Ouma G, Dulo S, A Trevett. "Country diagnostic report, Kenya." Oxford University Research Archive. 2015. Abstractora.ox.ac.uk

Kenya is one of Africa’s most dynamic and entrepreneurial economies, but one with increasing water security risks. These risks are of growing concern to the poor; where it is clear current poverty metrics do not capture the impact and implications of water shocks or long-term human exposure to water risks. This report highlights 4 significant but uncertain developments that will interact to determine Kenya’s progress in its quest to reach middle-income status by 2030 and improve water security for over 17 million poor people: the impacts of decentralisation resilience to climate shocks reducing inequality harnessing mobile ecosystems. The report presents potential locations to establish Water Security Observatories that address these key issues and developments. Through a risk-based approach and science-practitioner partnerships, the observatories are proposed to examine ‘small towns in fragile lands’ and ‘build water secure institutions’ with the goal of reducing water security risks for the poor. This paper is an output from the REACH Improving Water Security for the Poor programme

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