Bio

Profile

Dr. Maggie Opondo is the Socio-Economic & Cultural Studies Coordinator in the Institute for Climate
Change & Adaptation at the University of Nairobi. She has been teaching at the University for well over
20 years at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. She is also one of the founding members of
the recently (2011) established Institute for Climate Change and Adaptation (ICCA) at the University of
Nairobi. As a lecturer and researcher her responsibilities include both academic and administrative

Publications


2019

Ouma, S, Hughes A, Murphy JT, Opondo M.  2019.  Envisioning African futures: Perspectives from economic geography. Geoforum. Abstractdoi.org

Abstract
The commentaries and reviews in the section that follow take up the recently popularized notion of 'African futures' in order to explore the geographies, modes, potentialities, politics, and practices of epistemic, socio-economic, political and socio-ecological transformations that may be complementary or antagonistic to the global capitalist project.

Keywords
FuturesDevelopmentEconomic geographyAfricaDecolonialitySouthern theory

2018

Langer, L, Erasmus Y, Tannous N, Obuku E, Ravat Z, Chisoro C, OM, Nduku P, Tripney J, van Rooyen C, Stewart R.  2018.  Women in wage labour: A systematic review of the Effectiveness and Design Features of Interventions Supporting Women’s Participation in Wage Labour in Higher-growth and/or Male …. ucl discovery. Abstracteppi.ioe.ac.uk

In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), women’s participation in wage labour is significantly lower than that of men. In addition, women’s participation is often clustered in particular sectors of the economy that are not well-remunerated and have lower prestige. Higher growth economic sectors such as ICT and finance are dominated by men, excluding women from lucrative opportunities for social and economic development. Even where women have equal access to wage labour opportunities, they often suffer from vertical occupational segregation, earning significantly less than men and being less likely to be promoted. This horizontal and vertical occupational segregation of wage labour markets in LMICs for women hinders both economic and social development. In response to this challenging gendered nature of wage labour markets in LMICs, a range of interventions and policies have been proposed to increase women’s employment. These interventions aim to overcome a range of barriers to women’s wage labour employment in highergrowth/male-dominated sectors, such as discrimination against women by markets and work institutions, or a lack of access to credit and assets and of technical and soft skills. However, these labour market programmes to increase women’s wage employment vary greatly, as do the barriers to women’s wage labour participation. Different programme designs assume different pathways to support women’s employment and it is not clear what programme approaches and design features are most effective.

2017

Haines, SL, Imana CA, Opondo M, Ouma G, Rayner S.  2017.  Weather and climate knowledge for water security: Institutional roles and relationships in Turkana. Oxford University Research Archive. (5) Abstractora.ox.ac.uk

Lodwar town in Turkana County faces water security issues relating to its strategic location, (semi-)arid climate, hydroclimatic variability, high poverty rates, low piped water service and a rapidly growing population – challenges that are also relevant to many Kenyan and African small towns in fragile environments. Political, economic and environmental changes affecting Lodwar, including devolution, climate variation and change, demographic shifts, and the exploration of subterranean resources (both water and oil), make this an important time to examine the challenges and prospects for inclusive water security. This working paper discusses findings from a 2016 study of the institutions involved in water decision-making in Lodwar, focusing on their access to and use (or non-use) of weather and climate information. What organisations are involved in water decisions affecting Lodwar town; how do they negotiate information access, accountability and uncertainty; and what is at stake? Drawing on qualitative material collected during a 10-week study of institutional arrangements and decision-making, this paper explores connections and mismatches between weather/climate knowledge and water decisions in Lodwar town and the wider Turkwel basin.

Mungai, C, Opondo M, Outa G, Nelson V, Nyasimi M, Kimeli P.  2017.  Uptake of climate-smart agriculture through a gendered intersectionality lens: experiences from Western Kenya. springer link. :587-601. Abstractlink.springer.com

This study conducted in western Kenya demonstrates how a gendered intersectionality lens can be used to explore how and the extent to which farming communities are coping with climate change. Results from a quantitative survey undertaken with 51 farmers and from 4 focused group discussions held with 33 farmers (19 males and 14 females) indicate that 85% of the respondents are willing to adopt climate-smart agriculture (CSA) interventions if constraining factors are resolved.This study reveals that farmers, regardless of whether they are male or female, are willing to adopt climate smart technologies and practices. However, factors such as ethnicity, education, age and marital status determine the levels of uptake of CSA technologies and practices. Looking at crops for instance, we find a high uptake (62.7%) of improved high yielding varieties (HYVs) amongst farmers with primary level education, meaning literacy levels influence adoption of practices. Analysis using age as a lens reveals that there is a high uptake among the youth and adults. Interestingly, the study site comprises of both the Luo and Kalenjin ethnic communities and even though they neighbor each other, we find a high rate of uptake among the Luo community due to existing social and cultural norms and practices related to farming. In conclusion, using a gendered intersectionality lens strengthens the argument for targeted interventions which focus on local needs and priorities while recognizing local contexts as informed by social, cultural and economic factors.

Keywords
Climate-smart agriculture Uptake Gender Intersectionality Kenya

2016

Nelson, V, Tallontire A, Opondo M, Martin A.  2016.  Pathways of Transformation or transgression? Power relations, ethical space and labour rights in Kenyan agri-food value chains Food Transgressions: Making Sense of Contemporary Food Policies; Goodman, M., Sage, C., Eds. :15-38. Abstractbooks.google.co.ke

In the widespread trend for more participatory governance in public policy and planning (Cornwall and Coelho 2007; Nelson 2008; Gaventa and Mayo 2009), novel forms of engagement between private authority and civil society are also emerging, for example, in the development of private standards and monitoring systems (Giovannucci and Ponte 2005; Busch and Bain 2004). This chapter focuses on participation in private sector and value chain governance. In the late 1990s international NGOs and trade unions engaged with large retailers and brands to improve the content and implementation of labour codes, which had been initially written by companies in response to media, NGO and trade union pressure (Barrientos 2000, Hughes et al. 2007). The participation of private sector, trade unions, and NGO representatives and government observers in multistakeholder initiatives theoretically represents a new opportunity for improving the development and implementation of labour standards in global value chains (Tallontire 2007).

Barrientos, S, Knorringa P, Evers B, Visser M, Opondo M.  2016.  Shifting regional dynamics of global value chains: Implications for economic and social upgrading in African horticulture. Sage Journal. 48(7):1266-1283. Abstractjournals.sagepub.com

Global value chain and global production network analyses have largely focused on dominance of Northern retailers over suppliers in the global South. The expansion of retailers within the global South sourcing from and supplying consumer end-markets within their own geographic regions is reconfiguring value chain dynamics. This paper draws on GVC and GPN approaches and the concepts of multi-polar governance to analyse changing dynamics of global and regional retail supply networks. Drawing on a case study of supermarket expansion within South and East Africa, it analyses how ‘waves of diffusion’ by global and regional supermarkets provide new opportunities for ‘strategic diversification’ by some horticultural producers and workers. It examines the implications for economic and social upgrading and downgrading, finding mixed outcomes. Strategic diversification provides opportunities for economic and social upgrading by more capable suppliers and skilled workers, but economic downgrading pressures persist and some are excluded from both global and regional value chains.

Keywords Global value chains, global production networks, supermarkets, economic and social upgrading, horticulture, producers, workers

Yanda, PZ, Wandiga SO, Kangalawe RYM, Opondo M.  2016.  Adaptation to climate change/variabilityinduced highland malaria and cholera in the Lake Victoria Region. COSTECH Integrated Repository. AbstractWebsite

Global climate change and its interactive components, such as water availability, related vulnerability of natural and socio-economic systems and health, changes in land use, as well as availability, quality, quantity of water and related policies, affects human wellbeing. The apparent correlation between disease outbreaks, such as malaria, cholera, rift valley fever, and meningitis—all of which are sensitive to climate variability (McCarthy et al., 2001)—and the strong El Niño years, e.g., 1982–1983 and the 1997–1998 events indicates a causal link between climate and health. Integrated climate-disease models show that rates of infections can be affected by climatic anomalies.

Nelson, V, Martin A, Ewert J, Hasan AA, Opondo M, Flint M, Hartog M, Priebe J.  2016.  Trade and Global Value Chains Initiative: Mid-Term Evaluation Report. Abstractgala.gre.ac.uk

The Trade and Global Value Chains Initiative seeks to test whether investments in social upgrading (better working conditions and access to better work) can lead to business and development gains, and also ensure that better skilled, younger workers enter the sector and work more productively. Previous research indicated that companies do not invest in social upgrading because they lack both sufficient incentive to act on their own and convincing evidence of the benefits. Investment with other stakeholders in social upgrading could deliver business benefits and help to ensure the longer-term profitability and sustainability of corporate supply chains. A catalytic fund is the delivery mechanism (a modified challenge fund with technical advice provided to grantees), making public funds available to successful coalition applicants and leveraging private sector investment. The aim is to facilitate corporate behavioural change, benefitting workers/smallholders (social upgrading) and suppliers and retailers (economic upgrading). The TGVCI focuses on Ready Made Garments, Bangladesh, and horticulture in South Africa and Kenya.
This report presents the Mid-Term Evaluation (MTE) of the TGVCI conducted by the Evaluation Management Unit (EMU). Twenty projects have been funded in two rounds. The Round 1 projects are nearing completion and Round 2 projects are still on-going. This slightly delayed implementation means that the evidence available and the analysis feasible at this stage are necessarily limited. The projects do nevertheless allow reasonable conclusions to be drawn on relevance, effectiveness and plausible impacts, provide initial findings on cost-effectiveness and indications on sustainability.

Opondo, M, Abdi U, Nangiro P.  2016.  Assessing gender in resilience programming: Uganda. BRACED Resilience Intel. 2(2) Abstractassets.publishing.service.gov.uk

There are a number of opportunities that the project can harness to increase its gender-related impact and drive resilience in the region, including a committed team with strong technical capabilities, a strong legal and policy framework on gender equality and Mercy Corps’ own experience from the field of gender and resilience in the Sahel and Somalia.

2015

Hope, R, Olago D, Opondo M, Mumma A, Ouma G, Dulo S, A Trevett.  2015.  Country diagnostic report, Kenya. Oxford University Research Archive. Abstractora.ox.ac.uk

Kenya is one of Africa’s most dynamic and entrepreneurial economies, but one with increasing water security risks. These risks are of growing concern to the poor; where it is clear current poverty metrics do not capture the impact and implications of water shocks or long-term human exposure to water risks. This report highlights 4 significant but uncertain developments that will interact to determine Kenya’s progress in its quest to reach middle-income status by 2030 and improve water security for over 17 million poor people: the impacts of decentralisation resilience to climate shocks reducing inequality harnessing mobile ecosystems. The report presents potential locations to establish Water Security Observatories that address these key issues and developments. Through a risk-based approach and science-practitioner partnerships, the observatories are proposed to examine ‘small towns in fragile lands’ and ‘build water secure institutions’ with the goal of reducing water security risks for the poor. This paper is an output from the REACH Improving Water Security for the Poor programme

2014

Field, CB, Aalst MV, Aalst MV, Opondo M, Poloczanska E, Pörtner H-O, Redsteer MH.  2014.  Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects: Volume 1, Global and Sectoral Aspects: Working Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. , USA: IPCC Abstractresearch-repository.uwa.edu.au/en/publications

Human interference with the climate system is occurring. [WGI AR5 2.2, 6.3, 10.3-6, 10.9] Climate change poses risks for human and natural systems (Figure TS.1). The assessment of impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability in the Working Group II contribution to the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report (WGII AR5) evaluates how patterns of risks and potential benefits are shifting due to climate change and how risks can be reduced through mitigation and adaptation. It recognizes that risks of climate change will vary across regions and populations, through space and time, dependent on myriad factors including the extent of mitigation and adaptation. [INSERT FIGURE TS.1 HERE Figure TS.1: Climate-related hazards, exposure, and vulnerability interact to produce risk. Changes in both the climate system (left) and development processes including adaptation and mitigation (right) are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability. [19.2, Figure 19-1]] Section A of this summary characterizes observed impacts, vulnerability and exposure, and responses to date. Section B examines the range of future risks and potential benefits across sectors and regions, highlighting where choices matter for reducing risks through mitigation and adaptation. Section C considers principles for effective adaptation and the broader interactions among adaptation, mitigation, and sustainable development. Box TS.1 introduces the context of the WGII AR5, and Box TS.2 defines central concepts. To accurately convey the degree of certainty in key findings, the report relies on the consistent use of calibrated uncertainty language, introduced in Box TS.3. Chapter references in square brackets indicate support for findings, paragraphs of findings, figures, and tables in this summary.

Field, CB, Barros VR, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Opondo M, Poloczanska ES, Pörtner HO.  2014.  Technical summary Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment …. :35-94. Abstractpure.iiasa.ac.at

Human interference with the climate system is occurring. Climate change poses risks for human and natural systems. The assessment of impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability in the Working Group II contribution to the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (WGII AR5) evaluates how patterns of risks and potential benefits are shifting due to climate change and how risks can be reduced through mitigation and adaptation. It recognizes that risks of climate change will vary across regions and populations, through space and time, dependent on myriad factors including the extent of mitigation and adaptation.

Tallontire, A, Opondo M, Nelson V.  2014.  Contingent spaces for smallholder participation in GlobalGAP: insights from K enyan horticulture value chains. The Geographical Journal. 180(4):353-364. Abstractrgs-ibg.onlinelibrary.wiley.com

Private standards initiatives (PSIs ) in agri‐food value chains raise questions of democratic governance and accountability relating to the voice and agency of those whom the standards are designed to benefit or whom they most affect. We employ the concept of ‘spaces for participation’ to analyze participation in a particular PSI, GlobalGAP, and assess how, and to what extent, it opens up a space for debate about what constitutes good practice in agri‐food chains and for whom. We draw on focus groups with smallholders, together with semi‐structured interviews and workshops held with actors at the national and international scales to examine PSIs operating in K enyan export horticulture to examine good agricultural practice (GAP ) standards. Our analysis suggests that despite public announcements that these initiatives promote the voice of the farmer, the direct participation of farmers is largely absent from these policy spaces at present. This is related to the way in which invitations to the spaces for participation are constructed, what is deemed to be appropriate subjects for discussion in PSIs as well as the practical challenges associated with the organization of farmers across spatial scales. The spaces for participation are located largely at the international and national scales with few connections to the local scale. This paper contributes to an extension of value chain analysis that re‐asserts the importance of institutional context and how value chains are embedded in particular socio‐economic and political systems.

2013

and Nelson, V., TOMAMA.  2013.  Pathways of transformation or transgression? Power relations, ethical space and labour rights in Kenyan agri-food value chains : Food Transgressions: Making Sense of Contemporary Food Politics. Critical Food Studies. Ashgate Publishing, Farnham, Surrey, UK. ISBN 9780754699279 Abstract
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2012

Opondo, M.  2012.  A bottom -up approach to climate change adaptation policy: a case study of a community drought resilience project in Sakai sub-location, Makueni District, Kenya. : (eds.) Musyoki, A. and Khayesi, M. Environment and Development: Selected Themes from Eastern and Southern Africa, Bay Publishers: Botswana Abstract
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2009

Cross, P., EONRTMP, Edwards-Jones G.  2009.  Does farm worker health vary between localised and globalised food supply systems? : Environment International, Vol. 37, Issue 7, pp. 1004-1014 Abstract
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Tallontire, A. M., ONMMVA.  2009.  Beyond the vertical? Using value chains and governance as a framework to analyse private standards initiatives in Agri-food chains : Agriculture and Human Values, Vol. 28, Issue 3, pp 427-441 Abstract
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2008

Wandiga, S., OM, others.  2008.  For whom the Bell Tolls: Vulnerabilities in a Changing Climate,East Africa. : Leary, N. et. al. (eds.) Climate Change and Vulnerability, Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA, pp.1-30 Abstract
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Wandiga, S., OM, others.  2008.  Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East Africa. : Leary, N. et. al. (eds.) Climate Change and Adaptation, Earthscan: London and Sterling,VA, pp.375-397 Abstract
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Wandiga, S., OM, others.  2008.  Climate, Malaria and Cholera in the Lake Victoria Region. : Leary, N. et. al. (eds.) Climate Change and Adaptation, Earthscan: London and Sterling,VA, pp.109-130 Abstract
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2007

Opondo, M; Dolan, WKCS; S;.  2007.  Gender and Employment . Website
OPONDO, MARY.  2007.  Opondo, M., Dolan, C.S., Wendoh, S., and Kathuri, J.. (EAMJ 82: 592-597). : University of Nairobi. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

2006

OPONDO, MARY.  2006.  Opondo, M., and Wendoh, S., (2006). (EAMJ 82: 592-597). : University of Nairobi. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

2005

Barrientos, S; Opondo, SM; S.  2005.  Gender Work and Vulnerability in African Horticulture. Website
MAGDALENE, DROPONDOMARY.  2005.  Barrientos, S., Opondo, M. and Smith, S., (2005), . The Journal of Corporate Citizenship - Special Issue of on Corporate Citizenship in Africa, Issue 18, Summer 2005, pp. 87-92.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

MAGDALENE, DROPONDOMARY.  2005.  Barrientos, S., Opondo, M. and Smith, S., (2005), . Participation in the Kenya Cut Flower Industry. : University of Nairobi. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

MAGDALENE, DROPONDOMARY.  2005.  Dolan, C.S. and Opondo, M., (2005), . The Journal of Corporate Citizenship - Special Issue of on Corporate Citizenship in Africa, Issue 18, Summer 2005, pp. 87-92.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

MAGDALENE, DROPONDOMARY.  2005.  Dolan, C.S. and Opondo, M., (2005), . The Journal of Corporate Citizenship - Special Issue of on Corporate Citizenship in Africa, Issue 18, Summer 2005, pp. 87-92.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

MAGDALENE, DROPONDOMARY.  2005.  Barrientos, S., Opondo, M. and Smith, S., (2005), . The Journal of Corporate Citizenship - Special Issue of on Corporate Citizenship in Africa, Issue 18, Summer 2005, pp. 87-92.. : University of Nairobi. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

2000

1999

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