Water management dynamics and pastoral livelihoods in the lower Ewaso Ng

MARANI DRMARTIN. "Water management dynamics and pastoral livelihoods in the lower Ewaso Ng." HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2008.


In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.




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