Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya
Samuel Kimani, BScN, MSc, Stephen Kainga, BScN, lV1argaret Chege, MPH, PhD, Miriam Wagoro, BScN,
MScN, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In a sub Saharan Africa cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases including diabetes are increasingly causing significant socio-economic and health burden. The increase has severely affected our health care systems already struggling with the burden of tropical and communicable diseases. Patients with diabetes are 2--4 times likely to develop cardiovascular disease and/or stroke. Although the risk factors for cardiovascular disease among type 2 diabetes may be known, there is inadequate information concerning diabetic patients attending Kenyarta National Hospital (KNH).
Objective: To determine risk for cardiovascular disease among patients with type 2 diabetes at KNH.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 147 participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
Participants were recruited consecutively after provision of written consent. The socio-demographics and
relevant clinical data were obtained. Cardiovascular assessment, heart rate, blood pressures, lipid profile,
and anthropometric parameters were obtained using standard clinical methods.
Results: Majority (63.3%) of the participants were hypertensive and suffered diabetes for more than 10 years. Additionally, they had higher (p < 0.05) total cholesterols; however, only 26.5% were on anti-lipidernia
therapy. The use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors was associated with reduced (P < 0.05) risk of
hypertension. Further, a significant number (69.2%) of participants added salt to food regularly and exhibited
significantly (p < 0.05) higher anthropometric parameters and psychological stress.
Conclusion: Our study underscores the role of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, psychological stress, higher
anthropometric parameters and high dietary salt intake as risk factors for cardiovascular disease among