Publications

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2019
Karthik S, Djukic T, Kim J-D, Zuber B, Makanya A, Odriozola A, Hlushchuk R, Filipovic N, Jin SW, Djonov V. "Publisher Correction: Synergistic interaction of sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis during zebrafish caudal vein plexus development." Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):4152. Abstract

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

Dimova I, Karthik S, Makanya A, Hlushchuk R, Semela D, Volarevic V, Djonov V. "SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling is involved in blood vessel growth and remodelling by intussusception." J. Cell. Mol. Med.. 2019;23(6):3916-3926. Abstract

The precise mechanisms of SDF-1 (CXCL12) in angiogenesis are not fully elucidated. Recently, we showed that Notch inhibition induces extensive intussusceptive angiogenesis by recruitment of mononuclear cells and it was associated with increased levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4. In the current study, we demonstrated SDF-1 expression in liver sinusoidal vessels of Notch1 knockout mice with regenerative hyperplasia by means of intussusception, but we did not detect any SDF-1 expression in wild-type mice with normal liver vessel structure. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling by AMD3100 perturbs intussusceptive vascular growth and abolishes mononuclear cell recruitment in the chicken area vasculosa. In contrast, treatment with recombinant SDF-1 protein increased microvascular density by 34% through augmentation of pillar number compared to controls. The number of extravasating mononuclear cells was four times higher after SDF-1 application and two times less after blocking this pathway. Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMDC) were recruited to vessels in response to elevated expression of SDF-1 in endothelial cells. They participated in formation and stabilization of pillars. The current study is the first report to implicate SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling in intussusceptive angiogenesis and further highlights the stabilizing role of BMDC in the formation of pillars during vascular remodelling.

2018
Karthik S, Djukic T, Kim J-D, Zuber B, Makanya A, Odriozola A, Hlushchuk R, Filipovic N, Jin SW, Djonov V. "Synergistic interaction of sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis during zebrafish caudal vein plexus development." Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):9840. Abstract

Intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) is a complementary method to sprouting angiogenesis (SA). The hallmark of IA is formation of trans-capillary tissue pillars, their fusion and remodeling of the vascular plexus. In this study, we investigate the formation of the zebrafish caudal vein plexus (CVP) in Tg(fli1a:eGFP) and the synergistic interaction of IA and SA in crafting the archetypical angio-architecture of the CVP. Dynamic in vivo observations and quantitative analyses revealed that the primitive CVP during development was initiated through SA. Further vascular growth and remodeling occurred by IA. Intussusception contributed to the expansion of the CVP by formation of new pillars. Those pillars arose in front of the already existing ones; and in a subsequent step the serried pillars elongated and fused together. This resulted in segregation of larger vascular segments and remodelling of the disorganized vascular meshwork into hierarchical tree-like arrangement. Blood flow was the main driving force for IA, particularly shear stress geometry at the site of pillar formation and fusion. Computational simulations based on hemodynamics showed drop in shear stress levels at locations of new pillar formation, pillar elongation and fusion. Correlative 3D serial block face scanning electron microscopy confirmed the morphological substrate of the phenomena of the pillar formation observed in vivo. The data obtained demonstrates that after the sprouting phase and formation of the primitive capillary meshwork, the hemodynamic conditions enhance intussusceptive segregation of hierarchical vascular tree i.e. intussusceptive arborization resulting in complex vascular structures with specific angio-architecture.

2017
Onyono PN, Kavoi BM, Kiama SG, Makanya AN. "Functional Morphology of the Olfactory Mucosa and Olfactory Bulb in Fossorial Rodents: The East African Root Rat (Tachyoryctes splendens) and the Naked Mole Rat (Heterocephalus glaber)." Tissue Cell. 2017;49(5):612-621. Abstract

Optimal functioning of the olfactory system is critical for survival of fossorial rodents in their subterranean lifestyle. This study examines the structure of the olfactory mucosa and olfactory bulb of two fossorial rodents exhibiting distinct social behaviors, the East African root rat and the naked mole rat. The social naked mole rat displayed simpler ethmoturbinates consisting of dorsomedial and broad discoid/flaplike parts that projected rostrally from the ethmoid bone. In the solitary root rat however, the ethmoturbinates were highly complex and exhibited elaborate branching which greatly increased the olfactory surface area. In addition, when correlated with the whole brain, the volume of the olfactory bulbs was greater in the root rat (4.24×10) than in the naked mole rat (3.92×10). Results of this study suggest that the olfactory system of the root rat is better specialized than that of the naked mole rat indicating a higher level of dependence on this system since it leads a solitary life. The naked mole rat to the contrary may have compensated for its relatively inferior olfactory system by living in groups in a social system. These findings demonstrate that structure of the olfactory system of fossorial mammals is dictated by both behavior and habitat.

Hlushchuk R, Styp-Rekowska B, Dzambazi J, Wnuk M, Huynh-Do U, Makanya A, Djonov V. "Endoglin inhibition leads to intussusceptive angiogenesis via activation of factors related to COUP-TFII signaling pathway." PLoS ONE. 2017;12(8):e0182813. Abstract

Angiogenesis is a highly coordinated, extremely complex process orchestrated by multiple signaling molecules and blood flow conditions. While sprouting mode of angiogenesis is very well investigated, the molecular mechanisms underlying intussusception, the second mode of angiogenesis, remain largely unclear. In the current study two molecules involved in vascular growth and differentiation, namely endoglin (ENG/CD105) and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) were examined to unravel their specific roles in angiogenesis. Down- respectively up-regulation of both molecules tightly correlates with intussusceptive microvascular growth. Upon ENG inhibition in chicken embryo model, formation of irregular capillary meshwork accompanied by increased expression of COUP-TFII could be observed. This dynamic expression pattern of ENG and COUP-TFII during vascular development and remodeling correlated with formation of pillars and progression of intussusceptive angiogenesis. Similar findings could be observed in mammalian model of acute rat Thy1.1 glomerulonephritis, which was induced by intravenous injection of anti-Thy1 antibody and has shown upregulation of COUP-TFII in initial phase of intussusception, while ENG expression was not disturbed compared to the controls but decreased over the time of pillar formation. In this study, we have shown that ENG inhibition and at the same time up-regulation of COUP-TFII expression promotes intussusceptive angiogenesis.

Makanya AN. "Development of the Airways and the Vasculature in the Lungs of Birds.". In: The Biology of the Avian Respiratory System.; 2017.
2016
Makanya AN. "Membrane mediated development of the vertebrate blood-gas-barrier." Birth Defects Res. C Embryo Today. 2016;108(1):85-97. Abstract

During embryonic lung development, establishment of the gas-exchanging units is guided by epithelial tubes lined by columnar cells. Ultimately, a thin blood-gas barrier (BGB) is established and forms the interface for efficient gas exchange. This thin BGB is achieved through processes, which entail lowering of tight junctions, stretching, and thinning in mammals. In birds the processes are termed peremerecytosis, if they involve cell squeezing and constriction, or secarecytosis, if they entail cutting cells to size. In peremerecytosis, cells constrict at a point below the protruding apical part, resulting in fusion of the opposing membranes and discharge of the aposome, or the cell may be squeezed by the more endowed cognate neighbors. Secarecytosis may entail formation of double membranes below the aposome, subsequent unzipping and discharge of the aposome, or vesicles form below the aposome, fuse in a bilateral manner, and release the aposome. These processes occur within limited developmental windows, and are mediated through cell membranes that appear to be of intracellular in origin. In addition, basement membranes (BM) play pivotal roles in differentiation of the epithelial and endothelial layers of the BGB. Laminins found in the BM are particularly important in the signaling pathways that result in formation of squamous pneumocytes and pulmonary capillaries, the two major components of the BGB. Some information exists on the contribution by BM to BGB formation, but little is known regarding the molecules that drive peremerecytosis, or even the origins and composition of the double and vesicular membranes involved in secarecytosis.

Makanya AN, Dimova I, Koller T, Styp-Rekowska B, Djonov V. "Dynamics of the Developing Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Assessed by Stereology, Allometry, Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Analysis." PLoS ONE. 2016;11(4):e0152821. Abstract

The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a widely used model for the study of angiogenesis, tumour growth, as well as drug efficacy. In spite of this, little is known about the developmental alteration from its appearance to the time of hatching. In the current study the CAM has been studied by classical stereology and allometry. Expression levels of selected angiogenesis-related molecules were estimated by RT-PCR and cell dynamics assessed by proliferation and apoptosis assays. Absolute CAM volume increased from a low of 0.47 ± 0.11 cm3 at embryonic day 8 (E8) to a high of 2.05 ± 0.27 cm3 at E18, and then decreased to 1.6 ± 0.47 cm3 at E20. On allometric analysis, three growth phases were identifiable. Between E8-13 (phase I), the CAM grew fastest; moderately in phase II (E13-18) but was regressing in phase III (E18-20). The chorion, the mesenchyme and the allantoic layers grew fastest in phase I, but moderately in phase II. The mesenchyme grew slowly in phase III while the chorion and allantois were regressing. Chorionic cell volume increased fastest in phase I and was regressing in phase III. Chorionic capillaries grew steadily in phase I and II but regressed in phase III. Both the chorion and the allantois grew by intrinsic cell proliferation as well as recruitment of cells from the mesenchyme. Cell proliferation was prominent in the allantois and chorion early during development, declined after E17 and apoptosis started mainly in the chorion from E14. VEGFR2 expression peaked at E11 and declined steadily towards E20, VEGF peaked at E13 and E20 while HIF 1α had a peak at E11 and E20. Studies targeting CAM growth and angiogenesis need to take these growth phases into consideration.

2015
Makanya AN, Styp_Rekowska B, Dimova I, Djonov V. "Avian Area Vasculosa and CAM as Rapid in Vivo Pro-Angiogenic and Antiangiogenic Models." Methods Mol Biol.. 2015;2015;1214:185-96.
Dimova I, Hlushchuk R, Makanya A, Karthik S, Nikolova D, Djonov V. Notch signaling in normal and tumor angiogenesis. Metropolitan Hotel, Athens, Greece; 2015.
Makanya AN, Djonov V. "Prenatal and Postnatal Development of the Blood-gas Barrier.". In: The Vertebrate Blood-Gas Barrier in Health and Disease: Structure, Development and Remodeling. New York: Springer; 2015:.
2014
Nasimolo J, Kiama SG, Gathumbi PK, Makanya AN, Kagira JM. "Erythrina abyssinica prevents meningoencephalitis in chronic Trypanosoma brucei brucei mouse model." Metab Brain Dis. 2014;29(2):509-19. Abstract

Human African trypanosomiasis is prevalent in Sub-sahara African countries that lie between 14° North and 29° south of the equator. Sixty million people are at risk of infection. Trypanosoma brucei gambesience occurs in West and Central Africa while Trypanosoma brucei rhodesience occurs in East and Southern Africa. The neurological stage of the disease is characterized by neuroinflammation. About 10% of patients treated with the recommended drug, melarsoprol develop post treatment reactive encephalopathy, which is fatal in 50% of these patients, thus melarsoprol is fatal in 5% of all treated patients. This study was aimed at establishing the potential activity of Erythrina abyssinica in reducing neuroinflammation following infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Swiss white mice were divided into ten groups, two control groups and eight infected groups. Infected mice received either methanol or water extract of Erythrina abyssinica at 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight. Parasite counts were monitored in peripheral circulation from the third day post infection up to the end of the study. Brains were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Following infection, trypanosomes were observed in circulation 3 days post-infection, with the parasitaemia occurring in waves. In the cerebrum, typical brain pathology of chronic trypanosomiasis was reproduced. This was exhibited as astrocytosis, perivascular cuffing and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the neuropil. However, mice treated with Erythrina abyssinica water extract exhibited significant reduction in perivascular cuffing, lymphocytic infiltration and astrocytosis in the cerebrum. The methanol extract did not have a significant difference compared to the non-treated group. This study provides evidence of anti-inflammatory properties of Erythrina abyssinica and may support its wide use as a medicinal plant by various communities in Kenya.

Haenssgen K, Makanya AN, Djonov V. "Casting materials and their application in research and teaching." Microsc. Microanal.. 2014;20(2):493-513. Abstract

From a biological point of view, casting refers to filling of anatomical and/or pathological spaces with extraneous material that reproduces a three-dimensional replica of the space. Casting may be accompanied by additional procedures such as corrosion, in which the soft tissue is digested out, leaving a clean cast, or the material may be mixed with radiopaque substances to allow x-ray photography or micro computed topography (µCT) scanning. Alternatively, clearing of the surrounding soft tissue increases transparency and allows visualization of the casted cavities. Combination of casting with tissue fixation allows anatomical dissection and didactic surgical procedures on the tissue. Casting materials fall into three categories namely, aqueous substances (India ink, Prussian blue ink), pliable materials (gelatins, latex, and silicone rubber), or hard materials (methyl methacrylates, polyurethanes, polyesters, and epoxy resins). Casting has proved invaluable in both teaching and research and many phenomenal biological processes have been discovered through casting. The choice of a particular material depends inter alia on the targeted use and the intended subsequent investigative procedures, such as dissection, microscopy, or µCT. The casting material needs to be pliable where anatomical and surgical manipulations are intended, and capillary-passable for ultrastructural investigations.

Makanya AN, Kavoi BM, Djonov V. "Three-Dimensional Structure and Disposition of the Air Conducting and Gas Exchange Conduits of the Avian Lung: The Domestic Duck (Cairina moschata)." ISRN Anat. 2014;2014:621982. Abstract

The anatomy of the domestic duck lung was studied macroscopically, by casting and by light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. The lung had four categories of secondary bronchi (SB), namely, the medioventral (MV, 4-5), laterodorsal (LD, 6-10), lateroventral (LV, 2-4), and posterior secondary bronchi (PO, 36-44). The neopulmonic parabronchi formed an intricate feltwork on the ventral third of the lung and inosculated those from the other SB. The lung parenchyma was organized into cylindrical parabronchi separated by thin septa containing blood vessels. Atria were shallow and well-fortified by epithelial ridges reinforced by smooth muscle bundles and gave rise to 2-6 elongate infundibulae. Air capillaries arose either directly from the atria or from infundibulae and were tubular or globular in shape with thin interconnecting branches. The newly described spatial disposition of the conducting air conduits closely resembles that of the chicken. This remarkable similarity between the categories, numbers, and 3D arrangement of the SB in the duck and chicken points to a convergence in function-oriented design. To illuminate airflow dynamics in the avian lung, precise directions of airflow in the various categories of SB and parabronchi need to be characterized.

Kisipan ML, Oduor-Okelo D, Makanya AN, Onyango DW. "The structure, morphometry and vascular perfusion of the testis in the rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens)." Journal of Morphological Sciences . 2014;31:146-155.
2013
Dimova I, Hlushchuk R, Makanya A, Styp-Rekowska B, Ceausu A, Flueckiger S, Lang S, Semela D, Le Noble F, Chatterjee S, Djonov V. "Inhibition of Notch signaling induces extensive intussusceptive neo-angiogenesis by recruitment of mononuclear cells." Angiogenesis. 2013;16(4):921-37. Abstract

Notch is an intercellular signaling pathway related mainly to sprouting neo-angiogenesis. The objective of our study was to evaluate the angiogenic mechanisms involved in the vascular augmentation (sprouting/intussusception) after Notch inhibition within perfused vascular beds using the chick area vasculosa and MxCreNotch1(lox/lox) mice. In vivo monitoring combined with morphological investigations demonstrated that inhibition of Notch signaling within perfused vascular beds remarkably induced intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) with resultant dense immature capillary plexuses. The latter were characterized by 40 % increase in vascular density, pericyte detachment, enhanced vessel permeability, as well as recruitment and extravasation of mononuclear cells into the incipient transluminal pillars (quintessence of IA). Combination of Notch inhibition with injection of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells dramatically enhanced IA with 80 % increase in vascular density and pillar number augmentation by 420 %. Additionally, there was down-regulation of ephrinB2 mRNA levels consequent to Notch inhibition. Inhibition of ephrinB2 or EphB4 signaling induced some pericyte detachment and resulted in up-regulation of VEGFRs but with neither an angiogenic response nor recruitment of mononuclear cells. Notably, Tie-2 receptor was down-regulated, and the chemotactic factors SDF-1/CXCR4 were up-regulated only due to the Notch inhibition. Disruption of Notch signaling at the fronts of developing vessels generally results in massive sprouting. On the contrary, in the already existing vascular beds, down-regulation of Notch signaling triggered rapid augmentation of the vasculature predominantly by IA. Notch inhibition disturbed vessel stability and led to pericyte detachment followed by extravasation of mononuclear cells. The mononuclear cells contributed to formation of transluminal pillars with sustained IA resulting in a dense vascular plexus without concomitant vascular remodeling and maturation.

Papah MB, Kisia SM, Ojoo RO, Makanya AN, Wood CM, Kavembe GD, Maina JN, Johannsson OE, Bergman HL, Laurent P, Chevalier C, Bianchini A, Bianchini LF, Onyango DW. "Morphological evaluation of spermatogenesis in Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami): a fish living on the edge." Tissue Cell. 2013;45(6):371-82. Abstract

Spermatogenesis in Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami), a cichlid fish endemic to the highly alkaline and saline Lake Magadi in Kenya, was evaluated using light and transmission electron microscopy. Spermatogenesis, typified by its three major phases (spermatocytogenesis, meiosis and spermiogenesis), was demonstrated by the presence of maturational spermatogenic cells namely spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. Primary spermatogonia, the largest of all the germ cells, underwent a series of mitotic divisions producing primary spermatocytes, which then entered two consecutive meiotic divisions to produce secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. Spermatids, in turn, passed through three structurally distinct developmental stages typical of type-I spermiogenesis to yield typical primitive anacrosomal spermatozoa of the externally fertilizing type (aquasperm). The spermatozoon of this fish exhibited a spheroidal head with the nucleus containing highly electron-dense chromatin globules, a midpiece containing ten ovoid mitochondria arranged in two rows and a flagellum formed by the typical 9 + 2 microtubule axoneme. In addition, the midpiece, with no cytoplasmic sheath, appeared to end blindly distally in a lobe-like pattern around the flagellum; a feature that was unique and considered adaptive for the spermatozoon of this species to the harsh external environment. These observations show that the testis of A. grahami often undergoes active spermatogenesis despite the harsh environmental conditions to which it is exposed on a daily basis within the lake. Further, the spermiogenic features and spermatozoal ultrastructure appear to be characteristic of Cichlidae and, therefore, may be of phylogenetic significance.

Makanya A, Anagnostopoulou A, Djonov V. "Development and remodeling of the vertebrate blood-gas barrier." Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:101597. Abstract

During vertebrate development, the lung inaugurates as an endodermal bud from the primitive foregut. Dichotomous subdivision of the bud results in arborizing airways that form the prospective gas exchanging chambers, where a thin blood-gas barrier (BGB) is established. In the mammalian lung, this proceeds through conversion of type II cells to type I cells, thinning, and elongation of the cells as well as extrusion of the lamellar bodies. Subsequent diminution of interstitial tissue and apposition of capillaries to the alveolar epithelium establish a thin BGB. In the noncompliant avian lung, attenuation proceeds through cell-cutting processes that result in remarkable thinning of the epithelial layer. A host of morphoregulatory molecules, including transcription factors such as Nkx2.1, GATA, HNF-3, and WNT5a; signaling molecules including FGF, BMP-4, Shh, and TFG- β and extracellular proteins and their receptors have been implicated. During normal physiological function, the BGB may be remodeled in response to alterations in transmural pressures in both blood capillaries and airspaces. Such changes are mitigated through rapid expression of the relevant genes for extracellular matrix proteins and growth factors. While an appreciable amount of information regarding molecular control has been documented in the mammalian lung, very little is available on the avian lung.

2012
Kavoi BM, Makanya AN, Kiama SG. "Anticancer drug vinblastine sulphate induces transient morphological changes on the olfactory mucosa of the rabbit." Anat Histol Embryol. 2012;41(5):374-87. Abstract

Vinblastine sulphate (VBS) is an anticancer drug that acts by disrupting microtubule dynamics of highly mitotic tissue cells. The consequences of VBS on the olfactory mucosa (OM), a tissue with high mitotic numbers, are not clearly understood. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to determine the structural changes that may be produced on the rabbit OM by VBS. Following a single dose (0.31 mg/kg) of this drug, the structure of the mucosa was greatly altered on the first 3-5 days. The alteration was characterized by disarrangement of the normal layering of nuclei of the epithelia, degeneration of axonal bundles, occurrence of blood vessels within the bundles, localized death of cells of Bowman's glands and glandular degeneration. Surprisingly on or after day 7 and progressively to day 15 post-exposure, the OM was observed to regenerate and acquire normal morphology, and the vessels disappeared from the bundles. Relative to control values, bundle diameters, olfactory cell densities and cilia numbers decreased to as low as 53.1, 75.2 and 71.4%, respectively, on day 5. Volume density for the bundles, which was 28.6% in controls, decreased to a lowest value of 16.8% on day 5. In contrast, the volume density for the blood vessels was significantly lower in controls (19.9%) than in treated animals at day 2 (25.8%), day 3 (34.3%) and day 5 (31.5%). These findings suggest that the changes induced on the rabbit OM by VBS are transient and that regenerative recovery leads to the restoration of the normal structure of the mucosa.

Makanya AN, Koller T, Hlushchuk R, Djonov V. "Pre-hatch lung development in the ostrich." Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2012;180(2-3):183-92. Abstract

We studied development of the ostrich lung using light microscopy as well as electron microscopy techniques. At E24, the lung comprised a few epithelial tubes, interspersed with abundant mesenchyme with scattered profiles of incipient blood vessels. Between E24 and E39, the epithelial thickness was reduced by 90% from 13.5 ± 0.41 μm to 1.33 ± 0.014 μm (mean ± SD, respectively). Atria were evident at E32, and by E35, the first portions of the blood-gas barrier (BGB) measuring 3.41 ± 1.12 μm were encountered. Gas exchange tissue was well formed by E39 with atria, infundibulae, air capillaries and a mature blood-gas barrier (BGB). BGB formation proceeded through the complex processes of secarecytosis and peremerecytosis, which entailed decapitation of epithelial cells by cutting or pinching off respectively and by E39, the BGB was thin at 2.21 ± 1.21 μm. Vascular remodeling by intussusceptive angiogenesis was a late stage process mediated by intraluminal pillars in the pulmonary vasculature.

Kavoi BM, Makanya AN, Plendl J, Johanna P, Kiama SG. "Morphofunctional adaptations of the olfactory mucosa in postnatally developing rabbits." Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2012;295(8):1352-63. Abstract

Rabbits are born blind and deaf and receive unusually limited maternal care. Consequently, their suckling young heavily rely on the olfactory cue for nipple attachment. However, the postnatal morphofunctional adaptations of olfactory mucosa (OM) are not fully elucidated. To clarify on the extent and the pattern of refinement of the OM following birth in the rabbit, morphologic and morphometric analysis of the mucosa were done at neonatal (0-1 days), suckling (2 weeks), weanling (4 weeks), and adult (6-8 months) stages of postnatal development. In all the age groups, the basic components of the OM were present. However, proliferative activity of cells of the mucosal epithelium decreased with increasing age as revealed by Ki-67 immunostaining. Diameters of axon bundles, packing densities of olfactory cells, and cilia numbers per olfactory cell knob increased progressively with age being 5.5, 2.1, and 2.6 times, respectively, in the adult as compared with the neonate. Volume fraction values for the bundles increased by 5.3% from birth to suckling age and by 7.4% from weaning to adulthood and the bundle cores were infiltrated with blood capillaries in all ages except in the adult where such vessels were lacking. The pattern of cilia projection from olfactory cell knobs also showed age-related variations, that is, arose as a tuft from the tips of the knobs in neonates and sucklings and in a radial pattern from the knob bases in weanlings and adults. These morphological changes may be attributed to the high olfactory functional demand associated with postnatal development in the rabbit.

Papah MB, Marande KS, Omondi OR, Onyango DW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae.". 2012. Abstractabstract-spermiogenesis_and_sperm_ultrastructure_of_lake_magadi_tilapia.pdfWebsite

Papah, et al. 2012. . Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae)., 25-27 April. Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference. , Safari Park Hotel Nairobi.

2011
Makanya AN, El-Darawish Y, Kavoi BM, Djonov V. "Spatial and functional relationships between air conduits and blood capillaries in the pulmonary gas exchange tissue of adult and developing chickens." Microsc. Res. Tech.. 2011;74(2):159-69. Abstract

The documented data regarding the three-dimensional structure of the air capillaries (ACs), the ultimate sites of gas exchange in the avian lung is contradictory. Further, the mode of gas exchange, described as cross-current has not been clearly elucidated. We studied the temporal and spatial arrangement of the terminal air conduits of the chicken lung and their relationship with the blood capillaries (BCs) in embryos as well as the definitive architecture in adults. Several visualization techniques that included corrosion casting, light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used. Two to six infundibulae extend from each atrium and give rise to numerous ACs that spread centrifugally. Majority of the ACs are tubular structures that give off branches, which anastomose with their neighboring cognates. Some ACs have globular shapes and a few are blind-ending tapering tubes. During inauguration, the luminal aspects of the ACs are characterized by numerous microvillus-like microplicae, which are formed during the complex processes of cell attenuation and canalization of the ACs. The parabronchial exchange BCs, initially inaugurated as disorganized meshworks, are reoriented via pillar formation to lie predominantly orthogonal to the long axes of the ACs. The remodeling of the retiform meshworks by intussusceptive angiogenesis essentially accomplishes a cross-current system at the gas exchange interface in the adults, where BCs form ring-like patterns around the ACs, thus establishing a cross-current system. Our findings clarify the mode of gas exchange in the parabronchial mantle and illuminate the basis for the functional efficiency of the avian lung.

Hlushchuk R, Ehrbar M, Reichmuth P, Heinimann N, Styp-Rekowska B, Escher R, Baum O, Lienemann P, Makanya A, Keshet E, Djonov V. "Decrease in VEGF expression induces intussusceptive vascular pruning." Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.. 2011;31(12):2836-44. Abstract

The concept of vascular pruning, the "cuting-off" of vessels, is gaining importance due to expansion of angio-modulating therapies. The proangiogenic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are broadly described, but the mechanisms of structural alterations by its downregulation are not known.

Makanya AN, Hlushchuk R, Djonov V. "The pulmonary blood-gas barrier in the avian embryo: inauguration, development and refinement." Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011;178(1):30-8. Abstract

In vertebrates, efficient gas exchange depends primarily on establishment of a thin blood-gas barrier (BGB). The primordial air conduits of the developing avian lung are lined with a cuboidal epithelium that is ultimately converted to a squamous one that participates in the formation of the BGB. In the early stages, cells form intraluminal protrusions (aposomes) then transcellular double membranes separating the aposome from the basal part of the cell establish, unzip and sever the aposome from the cell. Additionally, better endowed cells squeeze out adjacent cells or such cells constrict spontaneously thus extruding the squeezed out aposome. Formation of vesicles or vacuoles below the aposome and fusion of such cavities with their neighboring cognates results in severing of the aposome. Augmentation of cavities and their subsequent fusion with the apical plasma membranes results in formation of numerous microfolds separating concavities on the apical part of the cell. Abscission of such microfolds results in a smooth squamous epithelium just before hatching.

Hlushchuk R, Makanya AN, Djonov V. "Escape mechanisms after antiangiogenic treatment, or why are the tumors growing again?" Int. J. Dev. Biol.. 2011;55(4-5):563-7. Abstract

Inhibitors of angiogenesis and radiation induce compensatory changes in the tumor vasculature both during and after cessation of treatment. In numerous preclinical studies, angiogenesis inhibitors were shown to be efficient in the treatment of many pathological conditions, including solid cancers. In most clinical trials, however, this approach turned out to have no significant effect, especially if applied as monotherapy. Recovery of tumors after therapy is a major problem in the management of cancer patients. The mechanisms underlying tumor recovery (or therapy resistance) have not yet been explicitly elucidated. This review deals with the transient switch from sprouting to intussusceptive angiogenesis, which may be an adaptive response of tumor vasculature to cancer therapy that allows the vasculature to maintain its functional properties. Potential candidates for molecular targeting of this angioadaptive mechanism are yet to be elucidated in order to improve the currently poor efficacy of contemporary antiangiogenic therapies.

Mutua PM, Gicheru MM, Makanya AN, Kiama SG. "Comparative Quantitative and Qualitative Attributes of the Surface Respiratory Macrophages in the Domestic Duck and the Rabbit." International Journal of Morphology. 2011;29(2):353-362.
Kisipan ML, Makanya AN, Oduor-Okelo D, Onyango DW. "The Functional Morphology and Adaptations of the Epididymis in a Testicndid Mammal, The Rufous Sengi (Elephantulus rufescens). ." Keny Veterinarian. 2011;35(1):52-58.
2010
Kavoi BM, Makanya AN, Hassanali J, Carlsson HE, Kiama S. "Comparative functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in the domestic dog and sheep." Ann. Anat.. 2010;192(5):329-37. Abstract

Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman's glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob were more numerous in the dog (19 ± 3) compared to the sheep (7 ± 2) (p<0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3 ± 10.3 μm) than those of the sheep (50.6 ± 6.8 μm), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5 ± 2.9 μm in the dog and 56.8 ± 3.1 μm in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.

2009
Makanya AN, Djonov V. "Parabronchial angioarchitecture in developing and adult chickens." J. Appl. Physiol.. 2009;106(6):1959-69. Abstract

The avian lung has a highly sophisticated morphology with a complex vascular system. Extant data regarding avian pulmonary angioarchitecture are few and contradictory. We used corrosion casting techniques, light microscopy, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy to study the development, topography, and distribution of the parabronchial vasculature in the chicken lung. The arterial system was divisible into three hierarchical generations, all formed external to the parabronchial capillary meshwork. These included the interparabronchial arteries (A1) that ran parallel to the long axes of parabronchi and gave rise to orthogonal parabronchial arteries (A2) that formed arterioles (A3). The arterioles formed capillaries that participated in the formation of the parabronchial mantle. The venous system comprised six hierarchical generations originating from the luminal aspect of the parabronchi, where capillaries converged to form occasional tiny infundibular venules (V6) around infundibulae, or septal venules (V5) between conterminous atria. The confluence of the latter venules formed atrial veins (V4), which gave rise to intraparabronchial veins (V3) that traversed the capillary meshwork to join the interparabronchial veins (V1) directly or via parabronchial veins (V2). The primitive networks inaugurated through sprouting, migration, and fusion of vessels and the basic vascular pattern was already established by the 20th embryonic day, with the arterial system preceding the venous system. Segregation and remodeling of the fine vascular entities occurred through intussusceptive angiogenesis, a process that probably progressed well into the posthatch period. Apposition of endothelial cells to the attenuating epithelial cells of the air capillaries resulted in establishment of the thin blood-gas barrier. Fusion of blood capillaries proceeded through apposition of the anastomosing sprouts, with subsequent thinning of the abutting boundaries and ultimate communication of the lumens. Orthogonal reorientation of the blood capillaries at the air capillary level resulted in a cross-current system at the gas exchange interface.

Makanya AN, Hlushchuk R, Djonov VG. "Intussusceptive angiogenesis and its role in vascular morphogenesis, patterning, and remodeling." Angiogenesis. 2009;12(2):113-23. Abstract

New blood vessels arise initially as blood islands in the process known as vasculogenesis or as new capillary segments produced through angiogenesis. Angiogenesis itself encompasses two broad processes, namely sprouting (SA) and intussusceptive (IA) angiogenesis. Primordial capillary plexuses expand through both SA and IA, but subsequent growth and remodeling are achieved through IA. The latter process proceeds through transluminal tissue pillar formation and subsequent vascular splitting, and the direction taken by the pillars delineates IA into overt phases, namely: intussusceptive microvascular growth, intussusceptive arborization, and intussusceptive branching remodeling. Intussusceptive microvascular growth circumscribes the process of initiation of pillar formation and their subsequent expansion with the result that the capillary surface area is greatly enhanced. In contrast, intussusceptive arborization entails formation of serried pillars that remodel the disorganized vascular meshwork into the typical tree-like arrangement. Optimization of local vascular branching geometry occurs through intussusceptive branching remodeling so that the vasculature is remodeled to meet the local demand. In addition, IA is important in creation of the local organ-specific angioarchitecture. While hemodynamic forces have proven direct effects on IA, with increase in blood flow resulting in initiation of pillars, the preponderant mechanisms are unclear. Molecular control of IA has so far not been unequivocally elucidated but interplay among several factors is probably involved. Future investigations are strongly encouraged to focus on interactions among angiogenic growth factors, angiopoetins, and related receptors.

Dimova I, Hlushchuk R, A M, Buergy R, Le Noble F, Djonov V. Modulation of angiogenesis by Notch-signalling inhibition in the chick area vasculosa.. Interlaken, Switzerland; 2009.
2008
Makanya AN, Djonov V. "Development and spatial organization of the air conduits in the lung of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus variant domesticus." Microsc. Res. Tech.. 2008;71(9):689-702. Abstract

We employed macroscopic and ultrastructural techniques as well as intratracheal casting methods to investigate the pattern of development, categories, and arrangement of the air conduits in the chicken lung. The secondary bronchi included four medioventral (MVSB), 7-10 laterodorsal (LDSB), 1-3 lateroventral (LVSB), several sacobronchi, and 20-60 posterior secondary bronchi (POSB). The latter category has not been described before and is best discerned from the internal aspect of the mesobronchus. The secondary bronchi emerged directly from the mesobronchus, except for the sacobronchi, which sprouted from the air sacs. Parabronchi from the first MVSB coursed craniodorsally and inosculated their cognates from the first two LDSB. The parabronchi from the rest of the LDSB curved dorsomedially to join those from the rest of the MVSB at the dorsal border. Sprouting, migration, and anastomoses of the paleopulmonic parabronchi resulted in two groups of these air conduits; a cranial group oriented rostrocaudally and a dorsal group oriented dorsoventrally. The neopulmonic parabronchial network formed through profuse branching and anastomoses and occupied the ventrocaudal quarter of the lung. There were no differences in the number of secondary bronchi between the left and right lungs. Notably, a combination of several visualization techniques is requisite to adequately identify and enumerate all the categories of secondary bronchi present. The 3D arrangement of the air conduits ensures a sophisticated system, suitable for efficient gas exchange. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

2007
Makanya AN, Tschanz SA, Haenni B, Burri PH. "Functional respiratory morphology in the newborn quokka wallaby (Setonix brachyurus)." J. Anat.. 2007;211(1):26-36. Abstract

A morphological and morphometric study of the lung of the newborn quokka wallaby (Setonix brachyurus) was undertaken to assess its morphofunctional status at birth. Additionally, skin structure and morphometry were investigated to assess the possibility of cutaneous gas exchange. The lung was at canalicular stage and comprised a few conducting airways and a parenchyma of thick-walled tubules lined by stretches of cuboidal pneumocytes alternating with squamous epithelium, with occasional portions of thin blood-gas barrier. The tubules were separated by abundant intertubular mesenchyme, aggregations of developing capillaries and mesenchymal cells. Conversion of the cuboidal pneumocytes to type I cells occurred through cell broadening and lamellar body extrusion. Superfluous cuboidal cells were lost through apoptosis and subsequent clearance by alveolar macrophages. The establishment of the thin blood-gas barrier was established through apposition of the incipient capillaries to the formative thin squamous epithelium. The absolute volume of the lung was 0.02 +/- 0.001 cm(3) with an air space surface area of 4.85 +/- 0.43 cm(2). Differentiated type I pneumocytes covered 78% of the tubular surface, the rest 22% going to long stretches of type II cells, their precursors or low cuboidal transitory cells with sparse lamellar bodies. The body weight-related diffusion capacity was 2.52 +/- 0.56 mL O(2) min(-1) kg(-1). The epidermis was poorly developed, and measured 29.97 +/- 4.88 microm in thickness, 13% of which was taken by a thin layer of stratum corneum, measuring 4.87 +/- 0.98 microm thick. Superficial capillaries were closely associated with the epidermis, showing the possibility that the skin also participated in some gaseous exchange. Qualitatively, the neonate quokka lung had the basic constituents for gas exchange but was quantitatively inadequate, implying the significance of percutaneous gas exchange.

Djonov V, Makanya A, Hlushchuk R, Baum O. Microvascular growth and remodeling: the interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenic mechanisms.. American Association of Anatomists; 2007.
2006
Makanya AN, Hlushchuk R, Duncker H-R, Draeger A, Djonov V. "Epithelial transformations in the establishment of the blood-gas barrier in the developing chick embryo lung." Dev. Dyn.. 2006;235(1):68-81. Abstract

The tall epithelium of the developing chick embryo lung is converted to a squamous one, which participates in formation of the thin blood-gas barrier. We show that this conversion occurred through processes resembling exocrine secretion. Initially, cells formed intraluminal protrusions (aposomes), and then transcellular double membranes were established. Gaps between the membranes opened, thus, severing the aposome from the cell. Alternatively, aposomes were squeezed out by adjacent cells or were spontaneously constricted and extruded. As a third mechanism, formation and fusion of severed vesicles or vacuoles below the aposome and their fusion with the apicolateral plasma membrane resulted in severing of the aposome. The atria started to form by progressive epithelial attenuation and subsequent invasion of the surrounding mesenchyme at regions delineated by subepithelial alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. Further epithelial attenuation was achieved by vacuolation; rupture of such vacuoles with resultant numerous microfolds and microvilli, which were abscised to accomplish a smooth squamous epithelium just before hatching.

2005
Makanya AN, Stauffer D, Ribatti D, Burri PH, Djonov V. "Microvascular growth, development, and remodeling in the embryonic avian kidney: the interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenic mechanisms." Microsc. Res. Tech.. 2005;66(6):275-88. Abstract

Embryonic development is associated with extensive vascular growth and remodeling. We used immunohistochemical, light and electron microscopical techniques, as well as vascular casting methods to study the developing chick embryo kidney with special attention to the interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive vascular growth modes. During inauguration at embryonic day 5 (E5), the early mesonephros was characterised by extensive microvascular sprouting. By E7, the vascular growth mode switched to intussusception, which contributed to rapid kidney vasculature growth up to E11, when the first obvious signs of vascular degeneration were evident. The metanephros underwent similar phases of vascular development inaugurating at E8 with numerous capillary sprouts and changing at E13 to intussusceptive growth, which was responsible for vascular amplification and remodeling. A phenomenal finding was that future renal lobules arose as large glomerular tufts, supplied by large vessels, which were split into smaller intralobular feeding and draining vessels with subsequent formation of solitary glomeruli. This glomerular duplication was achieved by intussusception, i.e., by formation of pillars in rows and their successive merging to delineate the vascular entities. Ultimately, the maturation of the vasculature was achieved by intussusceptive pruning and branching remodeling. An interesting finding was that strong VEGF expression was associated with the sprouting phase of angiogenesis while bFGF was upregulated during the phase of intussusceptive microvascular growth. We conclude that microvascular growth and remodeling in avian kidney follows an adroitly crafted pattern, which entails a precise spaciotemporal interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenic growth modes supported partly by VEGF and bFGF.

Djonov V, Makanya AN. "New insights into intussusceptive angiogenesis." EXS. 2005;(94):17-33.
Djonov V, Makanya AN. "New insights into intussusceptive angiogenesis. In: Mechanisms of Angiogenesis.". In: Mechanisms of Angiogenesis . Vol. XIV.; 2005:.
2004
Makanya, A. N, Warui CN, Karlsson, L. M. "Current stereological methods for simple quantification of biological structures,: a short review." The Kenya Veterinarian . 2004;27:113-117.
Makanya AN, Stauffer D, Ribatti D, Burri PH, Djonov V. Microvascular growth, development and remodeling in the embryonic avian kidney. Bern, Switzerland: USGEB; 2004.
2003
Burri PH, Haenni B, Tschanz SA, Makanya AN. "Morphometry and allometry of the postnatal marsupial lung development: an ultrastructural study." Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2003;138(2-3):309-24. Abstract

An utrastructural morphometric study of the postnatally remodelling lungs of the quokka wallaby (Setonix brachyurus) was undertaken. Allometric scaling of the volumes of the parenchymal components against body mass was performed. Most parameters showed a positive correlation with body mass in all the developmental stages, except the volume of type II pneumocytes during the alveolar stage. The interstitial tissue and type II cell volumes increased slightly faster than body mass in the saccular stage, their growth rates declining in the alveolar stage. Conversely, type I pneumocyte volumes increased markedly in both the saccular and alveolar stages. Both capillary and endothelial volumes as well as the capillary and airspace surface areas showed highest rates of increase during the alveolar stage, at which time the rate was notably higher than that of the body mass. The pulmonary diffusion capacity increased gradually, the rate being highest in the alveolar stage and the adult values attained were comparable to those of eutherians.

Tschanz SA, Makanya AN, Haenni B, Burri PH. "Effects of neonatal high-dose short-term glucocorticoid treatment on the lung: a morphologic and morphometric study in the rat." Pediatr. Res.. 2003;53(1):72-80. Abstract

Glucocorticoids are often applied in neonatology and perinatology to fight the problems of respiratory distress and chronic lung disease. There are, however, many controversies regarding the adverse side effects and long-term clinical benefits of this therapeutic approach. In rats, glucocorticoids are known to seriously impair the formation of alveoli when applied during the first two postnatal weeks even at very low dosage. The current study investigates short-term and long-term glucocorticoid effects on the rat lung by means of morphologic and morphometric observations at light and electron microscopic levels. Application of a high-dosage protocol for only few days resulted in a marked acceleration of lung development with a precocious microvascular maturation resulting in single capillary network septa in the first 4 postnatal days. By postnatal d 10, the lung morphologic phenotype showed a step back in the maturational state, with an increased number of septa with double capillary layer, followed by an exceptional second round of the alveolarization process. As a result of this process, there was an almost complete recovery in the parenchymal lung structure by postnatal d 36, and by d 60, there were virtually no qualitative or quantitative differences between experimental and control rats. These findings indicate that both dosage and duration of glucocorticoid therapy in the early postnatal period are very critical with respect to lung development and maturation and that a careful therapeutic strategy can minimize late sequelae of treatment.

Makanya AN, Haenni B, Burri PH. "Morphometry and allometry of the postnatal lung development in the quokka wallaby (Setonix brachyurus): a light microscopic study." Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2003;134(1):43-55. Abstract

The postnatally developing lungs of the quokka wallaby, Setonix brachyurus, were investigated macroscopically and by light microscopic morphometry. Lung, parenchymal and non-parenchymal volumes as well as the components of the latter two were analysed by regression analysis. The lungs comprised a single undivided left lung and a right lung with an adherent accessory lobe. Septal tissue growth was most remarkable in the canalicular and saccular stages. Between mid-canalicular stage and the saccular stage, the lung volume increased 2-fold, mainly due to airspace expansion, coupled with septal tissue thinning. The non-parenchymal vascular volume increase accelerated in the successive developmental stages while the airway and connective tissue volumes progressed in a decreasing order, being highest in the canalicular and saccular stages and lowest in the alveolar stage. Growth and remodelling of the alveolar septa occurred simultaneously with airspace subdivision. Airspace expansion accelerated during the stage of microvascular maturation, when most other parameters showed the least rate of increase.

2001
Makanya AN, Sparrow MP, Warui CN, Mwangi DK, Burri PH. "Morphological analysis of the postnatally developing marsupial lung: The quokka wallaby." Anat. Rec.. 2001;262(3):253-65. Abstract

We investigated the events that take place during the postnatal morphogenesis of the lung of the quokka wallaby, Setonix brachyurus, using the light microscope and both the scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The lung of term, newborn babies (joeys) at 3-days of postnatal life was at late canalicular stage and comprised large airways and tubules separated by thick mesenchymal interstitium. The tubules were lined by a low cuboidal epithelium but had few portions with true gas exchange barrier where capillaries came into close contact with squamous type of epithelium. By the fifth day postpartum, the lung entered the early saccular stage characterised by large air sacs, thinner septa, a better developed double capillary system and conversion of the cuboidal epithelium into a squamous one of type I cells interrupted by groups of cuboidal type II cells with lamellar bodies. Transitory respiratory bronchioles were recognisable toward the end of this stage. Formation of secondary septa started by Day 15, dividing the saccules into several generations of smaller air spaces. There were alternating and concurrent periods of tissue proliferation and air space expansion, followed by septal thinning. Alveolization started from about 125 days postpartum when the first burst of small sized air spaces bounded by septa with a single capillary layer were encountered. By Day 180 the process of alveolization was completed with only occasional septa showing a double capillary system and by Day 210 postnatally, the lung resembled that of an adult. For the first time in a mammal, the canalicular stage was encountered postnatally during lung development.

Makanya AN, Sparrow MP, Warui CN, Mwangi DK, Burri PH. "Morphological analysis of the postnatally developing marsupial lung: The quokka wallaby." Anat. Rec.. 2001;262(3):253-65. Abstract

We investigated the events that take place during the postnatal morphogenesis of the lung of the quokka wallaby, Setonix brachyurus, using the light microscope and both the scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The lung of term, newborn babies (joeys) at 3-days of postnatal life was at late canalicular stage and comprised large airways and tubules separated by thick mesenchymal interstitium. The tubules were lined by a low cuboidal epithelium but had few portions with true gas exchange barrier where capillaries came into close contact with squamous type of epithelium. By the fifth day postpartum, the lung entered the early saccular stage characterised by large air sacs, thinner septa, a better developed double capillary system and conversion of the cuboidal epithelium into a squamous one of type I cells interrupted by groups of cuboidal type II cells with lamellar bodies. Transitory respiratory bronchioles were recognisable toward the end of this stage. Formation of secondary septa started by Day 15, dividing the saccules into several generations of smaller air spaces. There were alternating and concurrent periods of tissue proliferation and air space expansion, followed by septal thinning. Alveolization started from about 125 days postpartum when the first burst of small sized air spaces bounded by septa with a single capillary layer were encountered. By Day 180 the process of alveolization was completed with only occasional septa showing a double capillary system and by Day 210 postnatally, the lung resembled that of an adult. For the first time in a mammal, the canalicular stage was encountered postnatally during lung development.

Makanya AN, Self TJ, Warui CN, Mwangi DK. "Gut morphology and morphometry in the epauletted Wahlberg's fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi, Sundevall, 1846)." Acta. Biol. Hung.. 2001;52(1):75-89. Abstract

The morphological adaptations of the fruit bat small intestine to which the high functional efficiency could be related and the possible landmarks delineating the various parts of the gut were examined. The stomach was the carnivorous type with large rugae spanning the entire luminal aspect down to the pyloric sphincter, which was reflected internally as a prominent fold. Externally, the intestine was a continuous tube uninterrupted by any structures. The cranial fifth of the small gut had long, branching and anastomosing villi, which caudally turned to finger-like discrete structures that became rather short and stumpy and diminished at the beginning of the colon. The colon had longitudinal folds that were macroscopically discernible from the mucosal aspect of the opened intestine and that continued into the rectum. The small gut formed 94% of the whole intestinal length, the colon and the rectum taking 4 and 2%, respectively. Ultrastructurally, the enterocyte showed a prominent brush border and the lateral membranes were modified into numerous tortuous interdigitating processes. Adjacent enterocytes were joined by these processes through desmosomes. The processes also participated in pinocytotic fluid uptake from the intercellular spaces with resultant numerous intracellular vacuoles of varied sizes. Solutes absorbed into the cells were probably first passed into the intercellular compartment to create a concentration gradient thus enhancing further absorption into the cell. We conclude that the uniquely elaborate ultrastructure of the enteric epithelium coupled with the vast microvillous surface areas reported elsewhere are partly responsible for the very high absorption rates reported in the fruit bat small intestine.

2000
1999
Karlsson, L. M, Makanya AN. "Stereological estimation of the mean size-weighted enterocyte size in the bat intestine." Acta Stereologica . 1999;18:39-47.
Karlsson LM, AN M, Tschanz SA, Burri PH. The surface weighted mean volume: a useful local estimator in Biology?. Melbourne, Australia: International Society for Stereology; 1999.
1998
Karlsson LM, AN M. Estimation of the mean epithelial cell size in the bat intestine.. Amsterdam, Netherlands: International Society for stereology; 1998.
1997
Makanya AN, Maina JN, Mayhew TM, Tschanz SA, Burri PH. "A stereological comparison of villous and microvillous surfaces in small intestines of frugivorous and entomophagous bats: species, inter-individual and craniocaudal differences." J. Exp. Biol.. 1997;200(Pt 18):2415-23. Abstract

The extents of functional surfaces (villi, microvilli) have been estimated at different longitudinal sites, and in the entire small intestine, for three species of bats belonging to two feeding groups: insect- and fruit-eaters. In all species, surface areas and other structural quantities tended to be greatest at more cranial sites and to decline caudally. The entomophagous bat (Miniopterus inflatus) had a mean body mass (coefficient of variation) of 8.9 g (5%) and a mean intestinal length of 20 cm (6%). The surface area of the basic intestinal tube (primary mucosa) was 9.1 cm2 (10%) but this was amplified to 48 cm2 (13%) by villi and to 0.13 m2 (20%) by microvilli. The total number of microvilli per intestine was 4 x 10(11) (20%). The average microvillus had a diameter of 8 nm (10%), a length of 1.1 microns (22%) and a membrane surface area of 0.32 micron 2 (31%). In two species of fruit bats (Epomophorus wahlbergi and Lisonycteris angolensis), body masses were greater and intestines longer, the values being 76.0 g (18%) and 76.9 g (4%), and 73 cm (16%) and 72 cm (7%), respectively. Surface areas were also greater, amounting to 76 cm2 (26%) and 45 cm2 (8%) for the primary mucosa, 547 cm2 (29%) and 314 cm2 (16%) for villi and 2.7 m2 (23%) and 1.5 m2 (18%) for microvilli. An increase in the number of microvilli, 33 x 10(11) (19%) and 15 x 10(11) (24%) per intestine, contributed to the more extensive surface area but there were concomitant changes in the dimensions of microvilli. Mean diameters were 94 nm (8%) and 111 nm (4%), and mean lengths were 2.8 microns (12%) and 2.9 microns (10%), respectively. Thus, an increase in the surface area of the average microvillus to 0.83 micron 2 (12%) and 1.02 microns 2 (11%) also contributed to the greater total surface area of microvilli. The lifestyle-related differences in total microvillous surface areas persisted when structural quantities were normalised for the differences in body masses. The values for total microvillous surface area were 148 cm2g-1 (20%) in the entomophagous bat, 355 cm2g-1 (20%) in E. wahlbergi and 192 cm2g-1 (17%) in L. angolensis. This was true despite the fact that the insecteater possessed a greater length of intestine per unit of body mass: 22 mm g-1 (8%) versus 9-10 mm g-1 (9-10%) for the fruit-eaters.

"A stereological comparison of villous and microvillous surfaces in small intestines of frugivorous and entomophagous bats: species, inter-individual and craniocaudal differences." J. Exp. Biol.. 1997;200(Pt 18):2415-23. Abstract

The extents of functional surfaces (villi, microvilli) have been estimated at different longitudinal sites, and in the entire small intestine, for three species of bats belonging to two feeding groups: insect- and fruit-eaters. In all species, surface areas and other structural quantities tended to be greatest at more cranial sites and to decline caudally. The entomophagous bat (Miniopterus inflatus) had a mean body mass (coefficient of variation) of 8.9 g (5%) and a mean intestinal length of 20 cm (6%). The surface area of the basic intestinal tube (primary mucosa) was 9.1 cm2 (10%) but this was amplified to 48 cm2 (13%) by villi and to 0.13 m2 (20%) by microvilli. The total number of microvilli per intestine was 4 x 10(11) (20%). The average microvillus had a diameter of 8 nm (10%), a length of 1.1 microns (22%) and a membrane surface area of 0.32 micron 2 (31%). In two species of fruit bats (Epomophorus wahlbergi and Lisonycteris angolensis), body masses were greater and intestines longer, the values being 76.0 g (18%) and 76.9 g (4%), and 73 cm (16%) and 72 cm (7%), respectively. Surface areas were also greater, amounting to 76 cm2 (26%) and 45 cm2 (8%) for the primary mucosa, 547 cm2 (29%) and 314 cm2 (16%) for villi and 2.7 m2 (23%) and 1.5 m2 (18%) for microvilli. An increase in the number of microvilli, 33 x 10(11) (19%) and 15 x 10(11) (24%) per intestine, contributed to the more extensive surface area but there were concomitant changes in the dimensions of microvilli. Mean diameters were 94 nm (8%) and 111 nm (4%), and mean lengths were 2.8 microns (12%) and 2.9 microns (10%), respectively. Thus, an increase in the surface area of the average microvillus to 0.83 micron 2 (12%) and 1.02 microns 2 (11%) also contributed to the greater total surface area of microvilli. The lifestyle-related differences in total microvillous surface areas persisted when structural quantities were normalised for the differences in body masses. The values for total microvillous surface area were 148 cm2g-1 (20%) in the entomophagous bat, 355 cm2g-1 (20%) in E. wahlbergi and 192 cm2g-1 (17%) in L. angolensis. This was true despite the fact that the insecteater possessed a greater length of intestine per unit of body mass: 22 mm g-1 (8%) versus 9-10 mm g-1 (9-10%) for the fruit-eaters.

Makanya AN. "The morphology of the intestine of the entomophagous longfingered bat, Miniopterus inflatus: mucosal topography and possible landmarks." Acta. Biol. Hung.. 1997;48(1):15-27. Abstract

The intestinal tract of the longfingered bat, Miniopterus inflatus, was studied macroscopically, with the light microscope and the scanning electron microscope. The intestine comprised a small mass of coiled loops contained in a rather small abdominal cavity. Macroscopically, the stomach was of the simple type and the intestine was a short convoluted tube whose diameter decreased craniocaudally. A caecum, an appendix and a colon were absent and the only portion of the large intestine observed was a short rectum grossly identifiable only on the account of its greater diameter. Microscopically, a small initial part of the intestine bordering the pylorus was characterized by numerous pits of variable sizes and shapes. This segment preceeded the ridge-like, transversely oriented villi that occupied the rest of the foregut. These villi were tallest in the proximal parts of the foregut and decreased in height caudally, ceasing completely at the junction between the small intestine and the rectum. Goblet cells were few in the cranial part of the intestine and increased caudally, reaching a maximum in the rectum. Intestinal glands were abundant in the region between the villi but Brunner's glands were absent in the submucosa. Generally the intestine of Miniopterus resembles that of the other bats which have been studied but showed structural details suggestive of an increased digestive and absorptive efficiency.

1995
Makanya AN, Mayhew TM, Maina JN. "Stereological methods for estimating the functional surfaces of the chiropteran small intestine." J. Anat.. 1995;187 ( Pt 2):361-8. Abstract

A tissue sampling protocol has been devised for studying the functional surfaces of chiropteran small intestine and drawing comparisons within and between species. The goal was to obtain minimally biased stereological estimates of villous and microvillous surface areas and the numbers of microvilli. The approach is illustrated using the intestines of 3 bats (from frugivorous and entomophagous groups) and is based on the use of vertical sections and cycloid test arcs. A sampling scheme with 3 levels was employed. At level 1 (macroscopy), primary mucosal area was estimated from intestinal length and perimeter. Amplification factors due to villi were estimated at level 2 (light microscopy, LM) whilst microvillous amplifications were estimated at level 3 (transmission electron microscopy, TEM). The absolute surfaces, lengths and diameters of microvilli were used to calculate packing densities and absolute numbers. Estimated villous surface areas of the entire small intestine were 44.4 cm2 (Miniopterus inflatus, entomophagous), 410 cm2 (Epomophorus wahlbergi, frugivorous) and 237 cm2 (Lisonycteris angolensis, frugivorous). Corresponding microvillous surface areas were 0.11, 1.69 and 1.01 m2 whilst the numbers of microvilli per intestine were 4.5, 23.4 and 8.8 x 10(11). When normalised for body weights, microvillous surfaces were 122, 246 and 133 cm2/g respectively. The functional surfaces of the fruit bat appear to be more extensive than those of the entomophagous bat.

1994
1992

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