Bio

Prof. Andrew Makanya

My name is Andrew Makanya. I grew up in Nyeri County (then Nyeri District) where I attended Kagumo Primary School between 1971 and 1977, graduating top of the class with Certificate of Primary Education (CPE) in 1977. My hobbies in primary school included handicraft and drawing. I later joined Chinga Boys High School for my O-level education in 1978 during which time I was a member and leader in the Young Farmers Club, the Catholic Action Association and Drama Club.

Publications


2014

2013

Makanya A, Anagnostopoulou A, DV.  2013.  Development and remodeling of the vertebrate blood-gas barrier. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:101597. :2013;2013:101597.doi:10.1155/2013/101597.
Dimova I, Hlushchuk R, MS-RCFLSLNCDABAS.  2013.  Inhibition of Notch signaling induces extensive intussusceptive neo-angiogenesis by recruitment of mononuclear cells. Angiogenesis. (in press)

2012

Papah, MB, Marande KS, Omondi OR, Onyango DW.  2012.  Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae. Abstractabstract-spermiogenesis_and_sperm_ultrastructure_of_lake_magadi_tilapia.pdfWebsite

Papah, et al. 2012. . Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae)., 25-27 April. Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference. , Safari Park Hotel Nairobi.

NDEGWA, DRMAKANYAANDREW.  2012.  Makanya AN, Koller T, Hlushchuk R, Djonov V. Pre-hatch lung development in the ostrich. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2012 Mar 15;180(2-3):183-92.. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. : HRDU, University of Nairobi Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.

2011

Makanya, AN, Hlushchuk R, Djonov V.  2011.  The pulmonary blood-gas barrier in the avian embryo: inauguration, development and refinement. Abstract

In vertebrates, efficient gas exchange depends primarily on establishment of a thin blood-gas barrier (BGB). The primordial air conduits of the developing avian lung are lined with a cuboidal epithelium that is ultimately converted to a squamous one that participates in the formation of the BGB. In the early stages, cells form intraluminal protrusions (aposomes) then transcellular double membranes separating the aposome from the basal part of the cell establish, unzip and sever the aposome from the cell. Additionally, better endowed cells squeeze out adjacent cells or such cells constrict spontaneously thus extruding the squeezed out aposome. Formation of vesicles or vacuoles below the aposome and fusion of such cavities with their neighboring cognates results in severing of the aposome. Augmentation of cavities and their subsequent fusion with the apical plasma membranes results in formation of numerous microfolds separating concavities on the apical part of the cell. Abscission of such microfolds results in a smooth squamous epithelium just before hatching.

Mutua PM, Gicheru MM, MANKSG.  2011.  Comparative Quantitative and Qualitative Attributes of the Surface Respiratory Macrophages in the Domestic Duck and the Rabbit.. International Journal of Morphology. 29(2):353-362.
Kisipan ML. Makanya AN, Oduor-Okelo D, ODWDW.  2011.  . The functional morphology and adaptations of the epididymis in a testicondid mammal, the rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens).. Kenya veterinarian. 35:57-63.
NDEGWA, DRMAKANYAANDREW.  2011.  Hlushchuk R, Ehrbar M, Reichmuth P, Heinimann N, Styp-Rekowska B, Escher R, Baum O, Lienemann P, Makanya A, Keshet E, Djonov V. Decrease in VEGF expression induces intussusceptive vascular pruning. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011 Dec;31(12):2836-44. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.. : HRDU, University of Nairobi Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
NDEGWA, DRMAKANYAANDREW.  2011.  Makanya AN, El-Darawish Y, Kavoi BM, Djonov V. Spatial and functional relationships between air conduits and blood capillaries in the pulmonary gas exchange tissue of adult and developing chickens. Microsc Res Tech. 2011 Feb;74(2):159-69. Microsc Res Tech. : HRDU, University of Nairobi Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
NDEGWA, DRMAKANYAANDREW.  2011.  Makanya AN, Hlushchuk R, Djonov V The pulmonary blood-gas barrier in the avian embryo: inauguration, development and refinement. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011 Aug 31;178(1):30-8.. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. : HRDU, University of Nairobi Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
NDEGWA, DRMAKANYAANDREW.  2011.  Hlushchuk R, Makanya AN, Djonov V. Escape mechanisms after antiangiogenic treatment, or why are the tumors growing again? Int J Dev Biol. 2011;55(4-5):563-7 Int J Dev Biol. : HRDU, University of Nairobi Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.

2010

NDEGWA, DRMAKANYAANDREW.  2010.  Kavoi B, Makanya A, Hassanali J, Carlsson HE, Kiama S. Comparative functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in the domestic dog and sheep. Ann Anat. 2010 Sep 20;192(5):329-37. Ann Anat. : HRDU, University of Nairobi Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.

2009

Dimova I, Hlushchuk R, MBLNDARFV.  2009.   Modulation of angiogenesis by Notch-signalling inhibition in the chick area vasculosa.. USGEB meeting . , Interlaken, Switzerland
NDEGWA, DRMAKANYAANDREW.  2009.  Intussusceptive angiogenesis and its role in vascular morphogenesis, patterning, and remodeling.. International Course Of Organized Self-Help Housing Planning & Development. : HRDU, University of Nairobi Abstract
New blood vessels arise initially as blood islands in the process known as vasculogenesis or as new capillary segments produced through angiogenesis. Angiogenesis itself encompasses two broad processes, namely sprouting (SA) and intussusceptive (IA) angiogenesis. Primordial capillary plexuses expand through both SA and IA, but subsequent growth and remodeling are achieved through IA. The latter process proceeds through transluminal tissue pillar formation and subsequent vascular splitting, and the direction taken by the pillars delineates IA into overt phases, namely: intussusceptive microvascular growth, intussusceptive arborization, and intussusceptive branching remodeling. Intussusceptive microvascular growth circumscribes the process of initiation of pillar formation and their subsequent expansion with the result that the capillary surface area is greatly enhanced. In contrast, intussusceptive arborization entails formation of serried pillars that remodel the disorganized vascular meshwork into the typical tree-like arrangement. Optimization of local vascular branching geometry occurs through intussusceptive branching remodeling so that the vasculature is remodeled to meet the local demand. In addition, IA is important in creation of the local organ-specific angioarchitecture. While hemodynamic forces have proven direct effects on IA, with increase in blood flow resulting in initiation of pillars, the preponderant mechanisms are unclear. Molecular control of IA has so far not been unequivocally elucidated but interplay among several factors is probably involved. Future investigations are strongly encouraged to focus on interactions among angiogenic growth factors, angiopoetins, and related receptors.
NDEGWA, DRMAKANYAANDREW.  2009.  Parabronchial angioarchitecture in developing and adult chickens.. J Appl Physiol. 2009 Jun;106(6):1959-69. Epub 2009. : HRDU, University of Nairobi Abstract
The avian lung has a highly sophisticated morphology with a complex vascular system. Extant data regarding avian pulmonary angioarchitecture are few and contradictory. We used corrosion casting techniques, light microscopy, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy to study the development, topography, and distribution of the parabronchial vasculature in the chicken lung. The arterial system was divisible into three hierarchical generations, all formed external to the parabronchial capillary meshwork. These included the interparabronchial arteries (A1) that ran parallel to the long axes of parabronchi and gave rise to orthogonal parabronchial arteries (A2) that formed arterioles (A3). The arterioles formed capillaries that participated in the formation of the parabronchial mantle. The venous system comprised six hierarchical generations originating from the luminal aspect of the parabronchi, where capillaries converged to form occasional tiny infundibular venules (V6) around infundibulae, or septal venules (V5) between conterminous atria. The confluence of the latter venules formed atrial veins (V4), which gave rise to intraparabronchial veins (V3) that traversed the capillary meshwork to join the interparabronchial veins (V1) directly or via parabronchial veins (V2). The primitive networks inaugurated through sprouting, migration, and fusion of vessels and the basic vascular pattern was already established by the 20th embryonic day, with the arterial system preceding the venous system. Segregation and remodeling of the fine vascular entities occurred through intussusceptive angiogenesis, a process that probably progressed well into the posthatch period. Apposition of endothelial cells to the attenuating epithelial cells of the air capillaries resulted in establishment of the thin blood-gas barrier. Fusion of blood capillaries proceeded through apposition of the anastomosing sprouts, with subsequent thinning of the abutting boundaries and ultimate communication of the lumens. Orthogonal reorientation of the blood capillaries at the air capillary level resulted in a cross-current system at the gas exchange interface.

2008

NDEGWA, DRMAKANYAANDREW.  2008.  Development and spatial organization of the air conduits in the lung of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus variant domesticus. Microsc Res Tech. 2008 Sep;71(9):689-702. : HRDU, University of Nairobi Abstract
We employed macroscopic and ultrastructural techniques as well as intratracheal casting methods to investigate the pattern of development, categories, and arrangement of the air conduits in the chicken lung. The secondary bronchi included four medioventral (MVSB), 7-10 laterodorsal (LDSB), 1-3 lateroventral (LVSB), several sacobronchi, and 20-60 posterior secondary bronchi (POSB). The latter category has not been described before and is best discerned from the internal aspect of the mesobronchus. The secondary bronchi emerged directly from the mesobronchus, except for the sacobronchi, which sprouted from the air sacs. Parabronchi from the first MVSB coursed craniodorsally and inosculated their cognates from the first two LDSB. The parabronchi from the rest of the LDSB curved dorsomedially to join those from the rest of the MVSB at the dorsal border. Sprouting, migration, and anastomoses of the paleopulmonic parabronchi resulted in two groups of these air conduits; a cranial group oriented rostrocaudally and a dorsal group oriented dorsoventrally. The neopulmonic parabronchial network formed through profuse branching and anastomoses and occupied the ventrocaudal quarter of the lung. There were no differences in the number of secondary bronchi between the left and right lungs. Notably, a combination of several visualization techniques is requisite to adequately identify and enumerate all the categories of secondary bronchi present. The 3D arrangement of the air conduits ensures a sophisticated system, suitable for efficient gas exchange. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

2007

Makanya, AN, Tschanz SA, Burri PH, Haenni B.  2007.  Functional respiratory morphology in the newborn quokka wallaby (Setonix brachyurus). Abstract

A morphological and morphometric study of the lung of the newborn quokka wallaby ( Setonix brachyurus ) was undertaken to assess its morphofunctional status at birth. Additionally, skin structure and morphometry were investigated to assess the possibility of cutaneous gas exchange. The lung was at canalicular stage and comprised a few conducting airways and a parenchyma of thick-walled tubules lined by stretches of cuboidal pneumocytes alternating with squamous epithelium, with occasional portions of thin blood–gas barrier. The tubules were separated by abundant intertubular mesenchyme, aggregations of developing capillaries and mesenchymal cells. Conversion of the cuboidal pneumocytes to type I cells occurred through cell broadening and lamellar body extrusion. Superfluous cuboidal cells were lost through apoptosis and subsequent clearance by alveolar macrophages. The establishment of the thin blood–gas barrier was established through apposition of the incipient capillaries to the formative thin squamous epithelium. The absolute volume of the lung was 0.02 ± 0.001 cm 3 with an air space surface area of 4.85 ± 0.43 cm 2 . Differentiated type I pneumocytes covered 78% of the tubular surface, the rest 22% going to long stretches of type II cells, their precursors or low cuboidal transitory cells with sparse lamellar bodies. The body weight-related diffusion capacity was 2.52 ± 0.56 mL O 2 min –1 kg –1 . The epidermis was poorly developed, and measured 29.97 ± 4.88 μ m in thickness, 13% of which was taken by a thin layer of stratum corneum, measuring 4.87 ± 0.98 μ m thick. Superficial capillaries were closely associated with the epidermis, showing the possibility that the skin also participated in some gaseous exchange. Qualitatively, the neonate quokka lung had the basic constituents for gas exchange but was quantitatively inadequate, implying the significance of percutaneous gas exchange.

NDEGWA, DRMAKANYAANDREW.  2007.  The structural design of the bat wing web and its possible role in gas exchange.. J Anat. 2007 Dec;211(6):687-97.. : HRDU, University of Nairobi Abstract
The structure of the skin in the epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) wing and body trunk was studied with a view to understanding possible adaptations for gas metabolism and thermoregulation. In addition, gas exchange measurements were performed using a respirometer designed for the purpose. The body skin had an epidermis, a dermis with hair follicles and sweat glands and a fat-laden hypodermis. In contrast, the wing web skin was made up of a thin bilayered epidermis separated by a connective tissue core with collagen and elastic fibres and was devoid of hair follicles and sweat glands. The wings spanned 18-24 cm each, with about 753 cm2 of surface exposed to air. The body skin epidermis was thick (61 +/- 3 microm, SEM), the stratum corneum alone taking a third of it (21 +/- 3 microm). In contrast, the wing web skin epidermis was thinner at 9.8 +/- 0.7 microm, with a stratum corneum measuring 4.1 +/- 0.3 microm (41%). The wing capillaries in the wing web skin ran in the middle of the connective tissue core, with a resultant surface-capillary diffusion distance of 26.8 +/- 3.2 microm. The rate of oxygen consumption (VO2) of the wings alone and of the whole animal measured under light anaesthesia at ambient temperatures of 24 masculineC and 33 masculineC, averaged 6% and 10% of the total, respectively. Rate of carbon dioxide production had similar values. The membrane diffusing capacity for the wing web was estimated to be 0.019 ml O2 min(-1) mmHg(-1). We conclude that in Epomophorus wahlbergi, the wing web has structural modifications that permit a substantial contribution to the total gas exchange.
NDEGWA, DRMAKANYAANDREW.  2007.  Microvascular endowment in the developing chicken embryo lung.. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007 May;292(5):L1136-46. : HRDU, University of Nairobi Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.

2005

Makanya, AN;, Djonov V.  2005.  New insights into intussusceptive angiogenesis. Website
Djonov V, MAN.  2005.  New insights into intussusceptive angiogenesis. In: Mechanisms of Angiogenesis. Mechanisms of Angiogenesis . XIV:17-33.

2004

Makanya AN, Warui CN, KLM.  2004.  Current stereological methods for simple quantification of biological structures,: a short review. . The Kenya Veterinarian . 27:113-117.
Makanya AN, Stauffer D, RBPHDDV.  2004.  Microvascular growth, development and remodeling in the embryonic avian kidney. The 66th Annual Meeting of the Swiss Society for Anatomy Histology and Embryology. :p22., Switzerland
Makanya AN, Stauffer D, RBPHDDV.  2004.  Microvascular growth, development and remodeling in the embryonic avian kidney. The 66th Annual Meeting of the Swiss Society for Anatomy Histology and Embryology. :p22., Switzerland

2003

Makanya, AN, Haenni B, Burri PH.  2003.  Morphometry and allometry of the postnatal lung development in the quokka wallaby (< i> Setonix brachyurus): a light microscopic study. Abstract

The postnatally developing lungs of the quokka wallaby, Setonix brachyurus, were investigated macroscopically and by light microscopic morphometry. Lung, parenchymal and non-parenchymal volumes as well as the components of the latter two were analysed by regression analysis. The lungs comprised a single undivided left lung and a right lung with an adherent accessory lobe. Septal tissue growth was most remarkable in the canalicular and saccular stages. Between mid-canalicular stage and the saccular stage, the lung volume increased 2-fold, mainly due to airspace expansion, coupled with septal tissue thinning. The non-parenchymal vascular volume increase accelerated in the successive developmental stages while the airway and connective tissue volumes progressed in a decreasing order, being highest in the canalicular and saccular stages and lowest in the alveolar stage. Growth and remodelling of the alveolar septa occurred simultaneously with airspace subdivision. Airspace expansion accelerated during the stage of microvascular maturation, when most other parameters showed the least rate of increase.

Lubec, G, Lubec B, Makanya AN, Tschanz SA.  2003.  Take the Nature Publishing Group survey for the chance to win a MacBook Air.
Makanya AN, Haenni B, BPH.  2003.  Morphometry and allometry of the postnatal lung development in the Quokka wallaby (Setonix brachyurus): a light microscopic study. . Respiration Physiology & Neurobiology . 134:43-55.
urri PH, Haenni B, TSAMAN.  2003.   Morphometry and allometry of the postnatal marsupial lung development: an ultrastructural study. . Respiration Physiology & Neurobiology . 138:309-324.
Burri PH, Haenni B, TSAMAN.  2003.  Morphometry and allometry of the postnatal marsupial lung development: an ultrastructural study.. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 53(1):72-80..

2001

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