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OdongoMahacla, BeboraLillyCaroline, KagunyaDavid, KarabaW, MbuthisPG. Bacteriology and Mycology Handbook for Veterinary students.. Mauritius: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
BeboraLillyCaroline, OdongoMahacla. Practical Bacteriology and Mycology Manual for Veterinary Students. Mauritius: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
OdongoMahacla, KatanaPK. "Evaluation of the effectiveness of solar radiation for the disinfection of enteropathogenic E.coli contaminated water." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2012;36 (1):18-25. Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of solar radiation as a disinfection agent for EPEC contaminated water. Effectiveness of SODIS was determined using viable coliform counts on VRBA medium and inactivation was determined by a reduction in growth of the organisms. The results show that it is possible to achieve complete decontamination of EPEC contaminated water without any danger of bacterial regrowth if the disinfected water is properly stored for up to one week. In this study, SODIS of EPEC contaminated water was successfully achieved to World Health Organization (WHO) recommended levels foe safe drinking water after 8 hours of exposure to direct sunlight. Furthermore, the SODIS water remained safe for drinking without any signs of bacterial re-growth for more than 4 days.

OdongoMahacla, LangatD.P., JD M, A KJM, WasikePR, CM M. "Prevalence of ringworm (dermatophytosis) in dogs and cats submitted to the small animal clinic of the University of Nairobi between 2001 and 2010." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2012;36 (1):26-35. Abstract

A retrospective study was carried out to detrmine the prevalence of ringworm in 15,176 dogs and 405 cats submitted to the Small Animal Clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Nairobi between 2001 and 2010. Male dogs were 7177 (47.3%) and females were 7999 (52.7%), whereas those less than one year were 8662 (57.1%) and those above one year were 6514 (42.9%). Of the total 405 cats presented to the clinic, 331 (81.7%) were under one year of age and 74 (18.3%) were over one year old, respectively.This study reports a low prevalence of ringworm in urban dogs and cats of Kenya. Of the total number of dogs (15, 176) and cats (405) submitted to the clinic, only 72 (0.5%) dogs and 17 (4.2%) cats were diagnosed with ringworm, respectively. Of the dogs with ringworm, 44 (61.1%) were under one year of age, and 28 (38.9) were more than one year old; 38 (52.8%) were females, and 34 (47.2%) were males, respectively. Of the total 17 cats diagnosed with ringworm, 13 (76.5%) were females and 4 (23.5%) were males, whereas 14 (82.4%) were under one year of age and 3 (17.6%) were over one year of age, respectively.Ten different types of dog breeds were submitted to the clinic during the study period. Of these, 52% of those with ringworm were German Sheperds, 20% were of mixed breeds, 11% were Ridgebacks, 7% were Rotweillers, 3% were Golden Retrievers, 2% were Jack Russels and Daschounds, and 1% were Rodrigues, Boxers, and Husky breeds, respectively.

OdongoMahacla, Ndung'uTabitha, MuleiCharlesMatuku. "Prevalence rates of microbial causes of bovine mastitis in Kabete region of Kiambu county and its environs (2001-2010)." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2012;36(1):6-15. Abstract

A total of 2880 milk samples collected from the Kabete region of Kiambu county and its environs between 2001 and 2010 were submitted to the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Kabete, and Clinical Studies Department Bacteriology laboratory of the University of Nairobi for isolation and identification of mastitis causing microorganisms. Of these, 2678 (93%) yielded microorganisms, whereas 202 (7%) has no demonstrable microbial growth. Staphylococcus species (31.7%), Escherichia coli (17.2%), Streptococcus species (10.3%), Klebsiella species (9.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.6%), Bacillus species (4.8%), and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (4.1%), were the most prevalent bacterial isolates, whereas the yeast, Candida albicans (6.3%) was the main cause of mycotic mastitis in this region.

OdongoMahacla, MerekajeGraceIgbatala. "A biotyping Scheme for Salmonella typhi." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2008;32(1):18-25.
OdongoMahacla, KilonzoEM. "Detection and enumeration of Coliforms and Escherichia coli in water." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2008;32(1):7-17.
O DRODONGOMAHACLA. "Cloning and Functional Characterization of an Endoglucanase Gene, cel A From Clostridium Chartatabidum M O Odongo, J D Brooker, C Bottema, H Ward." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2006;30 (2):37-52. AbstractWebsite


An endoglucanase gene (celA) was isolated from a genomic library of the ruminal bacterium Clostridium chartatabidum. DNA sequence analysis of celA revealed 3 open reading frames (ORFs). ORF 1 and ORF 3 showed homology with xylanase II and xylanase, xynZ from Thermomyces lanuginosus and Clostridium thermocellum, respectively. ORF 2 showed homology with the catalytic domains of endoglucanase, celA (family A) of Clostridium cellulolyticum and endoglucanase, celD of Clostridium thermocellum. Endoglucanase gene, celA of Clostridium chartatabidum was successfully expressed in E. coli and cell extracts of E. coli cells harboring the recombinant plasmid, pcel 1 exhibited both endoglucanase and xylanase activities. Endoglucanase and xylanase activities were optimum at pH 6.0 and 7.2, respectively. Specific endoglucanase and endoxylanase activities were 8.3 and 5.9 μmoles of glucose or xylose equivalent / mg, respectively. Deletion analysis showed that the catalytic domain of endoglucanase gene, celA was located on the HincII (1.1kb) fragment of clone pCel 1. A pUC19 subclone containing the HincII (1.1 kb) fragment was successfully expressed in E.coli, and the levels of its endoglucanase and xylanase activities were equal to those of the entire pcel 1 clone. Xylanase activity was located on the HindIII-HincII fragment of pcel 1. These results show that celA gene encodes a bifunctional enzyme with separate endoglucanase and xylanase domains.
Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 30 (2) 2006: pp. 37-52

OdongoMahacla, BeboraLillyCaroline, NjorogeGS. "Comparative evaluation of five Widal test kits in Kenya for the serological diagnosis of typhoid fever." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2005;29:94-98.
OdongoMahacla, JDBrooker. "Can waste paper be used as feed supplement for ruminant livestock?" The Kenya Veterinarian. 2004;27:36-44.
OdongoMahacla, McLarenIM, JESmith, CWray. "A biotyping Scheme for Salmonella livingstone." British Veterinary Journal. 1990;146:175-179.
WanyanguSamuel, AngolioA, MachariaS, LitamoiJK, OdongoMahacla. "A preliminary serological survey for leptospiral agglutinins in sheep and goats in Kenya." The East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 1990;56 (1):15-19.
OdongoMahacla, AmbaniAIA. "Bacteriological analysis of bovine milk samples submitted to the Veterinary Research laboratory, Kabete, Kenya between 1981 and 1985." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1989;37:195-196.
OdongoMahacla, D'SouzaCollins. "Prevalence and treatment of Bovine Parasitic Otitis in Olkarkar Group ranch of Kajiado district, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1989;37:191-194.

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