Publications

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2019
Kovacic Z, Musango JK, Ambole LA, Buyana K, Smit S, Anditi C, Mwau B, Ogot M, Lwasa S, Brent AC, others. "Interrogating differences: A comparative analysis of Africa’s informal settlements." World Development. 2019;122:614-627. Abstract

Urban development in Africa is a very diverse and ambivalent phenomenon with aspects that do not fall neatly into global standards. Informal settlements therefore challenge governance by standards. We argue that quantifying and interrogating differences offers a better basis for governance. By drawing on a comparative analysis of three different informal settlements in Sub-Saharan Africa, this paper explores what differences reveal about the governance of informal settlements. The paper uses an urban societal metabolism approach, focussed on gender, energy and health, based on questionnaires and focus group discussions in Enkanini (Stellenbosch, South Africa), Mathare (Nairobi, Kenya), and Kasubi-Kawaala (Kampala, Uganda). The contribution of the paper is both empirical and theoretical. Empirically, we provide new evidence about the metabolism of urban informality at multiple levels of analysis: the individual, the household and the settlement. Findings show the gender asymmetries in urban poverty and the intricate links between energy choices, health and economic status. Theoretically, we argue that different levels of analysis produce different understandings of urban informality, and that analyzing informal settlements only by population aggregates means missing information. We conclude by arguing that understanding differences leads to the formulation of modest and localised goals, which are better able to take into account the complexity of urban informality.

Ambole A, Musango JK, Buyana K, Ogot M, Anditi C, Mwau B, Kovacic Z, Smit S, Lwasa S, Nsangi G, others. "Mediating household energy transitions through co-design in urban Kenya, Uganda and South Africa." Energy Research & Social Science. 2019;55:208-217. Abstract

Approaches to providing sustainable energy in cities have generated considerable interest in academic and policy circles. The development of this body of work, however, has not shed much light on the modes of intermediation that are needed to reconfigure urban energy systems towards sustainability in energy-poor countries. This paper focuses on the role of academics as knowledge intermediaries who can trigger cross-sector collaborations around innovations for a sustainable energy transition in African cities. The research presented here was generated by an interdisciplinary research team made up of partners in Kenya, Uganda and South Africa. The research partners set out to better understand how sustainable energy transitions can be achieved through collaborative efforts between community members, experts and policy actors in the three countries. This paper provides evidence-based reflections on how the research partners used participatory methods to facilitate solution co-design and knowledge co-production over a period of two years under the Leading Integrated Research for Agenda 2030 in Africa (LIRA 2030) program. A key knowledge outcome of the research partnership is an improved understanding of how transdisciplinary research across the sub-region can be used to unearth the socio-spatial, cultural and political dimensions of energy in relation to other urban services such as health and housing. Based on this understanding, the paper proposes transdisciplinary co-design as a promising approach to providing sustainable energy in urban informal settlements in Sub-Saharan Africa.

2018
Ogot M. "Innovation Research Symposium.". 2018. Abstract

The overarching argument in this paper is two-pronged. First, it is asserted that Kenya
has a lot of potential for innovation, technology development, and the creation of intellectual
property intensive goods, services, and works. However, there are serious weaknesses or
limitations in the legal and regulatory frameworks on intellectual property and innovation
valuation, and commercialisation as well as general corporate and constitutional governance.
The second argument is to the effect that scholarship and practice in business and law in
Kenya need to urgently focus on intellectual property audit, valuation, commercialization,
securitization and taxation. This will enable innovators and all key stakeholders to benefit
from the copyright, trade mark, patent, trade secret, utility model, industrial design, plant
or animal breeder’s rights and other forms of intellectual property and innovation that have
been developed and that need to be nurtured.

Key Words. Intellectual property, innovation valuation, commericalisation

Muriuki BK, Ogot M. "Online food ordering among food outlets in Nairobi." AJBUMA JOURNAL. 2018;4. Abstract

Internet is the prototype of the global information infrastructure. Firms are using the Internet primarily for sales and service by advertising and providing customers with relevant information about a product or service. This paper describes the emerging implications of Internet technology as an evolving medium that offers restaurants limitless opportunities for e-commerce and for creating lasting relationships with customers. It dampens the bargaining power of channels by providing companies with new and more direct avenues to customers .The Internet provides an efficient means to order products. Online ordering being one of the e-commerce initiatives has emerged as an alternative avenue for food outlets to grow their sales. It offers more opportunities for interactive and personalised marketing as well as ease, speed and precision for the consumer. Food-outlets are able to offer the service through their own websites, multi-restaurant sites, mobile applications, and text ordering. Studies have shown that online food ordering can result in an increase in revenue, average check value, volume of sales, frequency of sales, order accuracy, productivity, improved convenience and customer relationship management. On line food ordering is new in Kenya. Few studies have been done in Kenya to determine the extent and distribution of online ordering by food outlets, and preference for distribution channels. From a population of 408 middle to upscale food outlets in Nairobi, this study sought answers to these questions. The results show that 23.7% of the outlets currently offer online ordering. The offerings were found to be independent of the restaurant type, but dependent on the type of cuisine offered. The characterization provided by this study lays the ground work for future work on the impact adoption has had on business performance.

2017
Ogot M, Okudan Gül E. "Educating for Complex Problem Solving Using Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ).". In: Learning to Solve Complex Scientific Problems. Routledge; 2017:. Abstract

This chapter focuses on a potential remedy for the situation: adoption of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), a systematic problem-solving methodology that provides a structured process during the initial stages of design and supports the problem-solving process by providing design information that novice designers may not possess. It provides steps that allow design teams to explore nontraditional solutions and not restrict themselves to common, comfortable ones. The latter problem can be addressed by introducing a small subset of the TRIZ toolset as part of existing design courses. The case study presents a brief summary of results from a formal ideation assessment of two cohorts of first-year students in the same introductory engineering design course. Although it provides a vast and powerful set of tools, this chapter has presented a reduced toolset that is easy to learn and can be incorporated into …

Ogot MM. "Feasibility on the Use of Pre-Compressed Scrap Tire Strips as Components of Laminated Building Structures.". In: International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa. Vol. 28. Trans Tech Publ; 2017:. Abstract

This study developed the necessary underlying experimental data and models to demonstrate the feasibility of using pre-compression of scrap tire strips as components of laminates within building structures. The approach presents an economical alternative for the reuse of scrap tires, while accounting for the tire material properties that may not be directly suitable for use in building structures. The proposed approach exploits the elasticity of the tire material as the basis for creating adhesion between the strip tire laminates. Pre-compression of the tire laminates creates frictional forces that prevent layer separation, and able to withstand winds up to 140 mph. Both experimental and theoretical approaches are presented to show the approaches potential.

Mungai E, Ogot M. "Generic strategies and firm performance: An investigation of informal sector micro-enterprises in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Management. 2017;12:148. Abstract

Micro-enterprises (MEs) have been shown to collectively be the largest employer in most developing countries
thus playing a significant role in the countries economies. Using informal sector micro-enterprise furniture
makers (wood and metal) in Nairobi, Kenya and based on Porter's competitive business strategies typology, this
study sought to determine if the strategies employed by the informal sector MEs fit within the typology
framework, and if membership within the strategic groups in the typology are a predictor of better business
business performance. From the study, although membership within the two focus strategic groups of
differentiation and low cost was confirmed, unlike studies done with medium and large enterprises, membership
was not found to be a predictor of better business performance. Porter's typology may therefore not adequately
capture the competitive business activities relevant to and directly by MEs, presenting an opportunity for
research into the development of competitive business strategy typologies directly derived from their activities
and therefore applicable to them.

Keywords: competitive business typology, micro-enterprises, business performance, informal sector

2014
Ogot M. "Evidence on Challenges Faced by Manufacturing Informal Sector Micro-Enterprises in Nairobi and Their Relationship with Strategic Choice." International Business Research. 2014;7:119. Abstract

The study sought to determine the challenges faced by Informal Sector Micro-Enterprises in the manufacturing sector as well as establish what influences, if any, they have on their strategic choice. Porter's competitive business strategy model formed the theoretical framework for strategic choice. A total of 135 enterprises were sampled from six regions in Nairobi, Kenya. From the study, 30 main challenges were identified and ranked. The top three challenges for the sector were Competition, High Cost of Production and Lack of Adequate Capital. A cross-reference with strategic choice found that, enterprises experiencing challenges of High Cost of Production,

2013
Nyasetia OTACHIBARNABAS. "The Influence of Entreprenuarial Personality, Human Capital and Entry Barriers on Performance of Entreprenuers in The Informal Transport Business In Nairobi, Kenya." Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, school of business, University of Nairobi). 2013. Abstract

Entrepreneurship is believed to be the driving force behind economic and social development of nations. In today‘s capitalistic system, entrepreneurs make an accelerated contribution to the economic growth and development of countries through the creation of small enterprises. In major world economies, these enterprises are associated to their overall economic growth and employment, hence the reason why research on this area is very critical. In carrying out the above study, the researcher was guided by five theories of entrepreneurship; the resourced-based, the social cultural, the psychological approach, the ecological and the institutional theory. Due to the nature and requirement of the study, the researcher was biased towards the use of two of the five theories mentioned above; the resourced-based and the psychological approach theory. The study was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya and the target was the Matatu entrepreneurs, operating the fourteen sitter public vehicles. Since its inception in Nairobi, the Matatu business has grown both in size and volume. This is assumed to indicate good business performance. However, despite the growth, it is only a few entrepreneurs who have succeeded. This is the problem this study attempted to investigate. The overall objective of this study was to determine the factors influencing performance of Matatu business in Nairobi, Kenya. This was a cross-sectional study and stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Based on the routes and regions, a sample of 364 registered Matatu owners was picked and questionnaires given out giving a response rate of 95%. Results from respondents were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics which indicated that performance in Matatu business was a function of but not limited to, personality traits, human capital, government policies, entry barriers and the management of registered Matatu welfare bodies. The findings from the study revealed that vital information touching on this business were missing in government records. One of the major findings of the study was the positive contribution of the registered industry welfare bodies towards the success of the Matatu business. Another major finding from the study touched on the human capital. That though education is important, the same was not a major performance factor in Matatu business.

2012
Ogot M, Nganga W. "Anchoring and Weighting Knowledge Economy and Knowledge Indices as Improved Measures of a Country's Readiness for the Knowledge Economy: A Case Study of Kenya." OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development. 2012;4:25-40. Abstract

This study sought to develop a set of indices better able to track a country's readiness for the knowledge economy. The new indices, the Anchored Knowledge Index and the Anchored Knowledge Economy Index are based on the World Bank (WB) knowledge economy framework. The rationale for the introduction, and the procedures to calculate the new indices are presented. The WB indices provide for rank-ordered normalization based on the latest data available for a benchmarking group of countries. The proposed anchored set of indices, however, provides for a relative ordering of the data. Relative-order (weighting) determines by how much each country, along a particular indicator, is better (or worse) than the others. The new indices address the short-coming of rank-order where as long as the relative positions of the benchmarking countries remain the same, the indices do not change even though the gaps between countries could be decreasing (desired) or increasing (cause for alarm). Further, the subject country now appears twice, based on both the latest data available, and a baseline (anchor) from the World Bank Knowledge Assessment Methodology 2009 data. Using Kenya as a case study, a basic scorecard for Kenya is proposed and used for the calculation of the indices for Kenya and five benchmark countries, Singapore, South Africa, Japan, South Korea. The results clearly illustrate the efficacy of the proposed approach in tracking a countries readiness for the knowledge economy.

Mungai EN, Ogot M. "Gender, culture and entrepreneurship in Kenya." International Business Research. 2012;5:175. Abstract

n/a

Ogot MM. "A generic competitive business strategies typology for micro-enterprises." European Journal of Business and Management. 2012;4. Abstract

The important role of the micro enterprises (ME) sector in generating growth, creating jobs and reducing poverty,
especially in developing countries is widely acknowledged. Literature on competitive business strategy typology
development and validation, however, reveals a significant focus on small, medium and large enterprises, with virtual absence of any discourse on MEs. Although several competitive business strategies (CBS) typologies can be found in the literature, they have mainly been developed from and validated on medium to large enterprise data. These
typologies, therefore, may not be fully applicable to MEs. The new typology of generic competitive business
strategies for MEs described in this paper is built on two dimensions of Collaboration and Competency, yielding
four generic types, representing four broad types of strategic groups better suited than current models, in providing avenues for MEs seeking competitive advantage. The new typology provides a concise model relevant to MEs, providing a structured set of consistent and well understood guidelines for choice of adaptation by owner/managers who are typically involved, whether formally or informally, in an incremental process of strategic formulation and implementation.

Keywords: Generic Strategy Typology, Informal Sector, Micro Enterprises, Competitive Advantage

2011
Ogot M. "Conceptual design using axiomatic design in a TRIZ framework." Procedia Engineering. 2011;9:736-744. Abstract

This paper explores the symbiotic relationship that can be established between axiomatic design and TRIZ, capitalizing on each method‘s strengths and simultaneously minimizing their weaknesses. Through a contextual example the paper illustrates how axiomatic independence axiom principles can be utilized to select appropriate standard solutions once a physical contradiction has been identified. It concludes by showing ways to use the same AD principles to qualitatively evaluate generated designs.

Ogot MM. "Game Theory in Strategic Management.". 2011. Abstract

Game theory provides a formal language for describing conscious, goal-oriented, decision-making processes involving one or more players, where there is an interdependence of outcomes. This paper seeks to explore the potential of using game theory in strategic management. From the presented review of the current literature, the paper illustrates that the strength of game theory in strategic management lies in its ability to provide insights into competitive environments and strategies.

2009
Mungai EN, Ogot M. Ethnicity, culture and entrepreneurship in Kenya.; 2009. Abstract

This study presents a preliminary investigation into the differences amongst four ethnic communities in Kenya–Kamba, Kalenjin, Kikuyu and Luo–on their perceptions on entrepreneurship, as well as the cultural influences on their members motivational and core self-evaluation psychological factors. Two such factors known to be closely linked to one’s propensity to entrepreneurship were investigated: risk aversion and locus of control. The study found significant differences between communities, suggesting that certain cultures may foster an entrepreneurial spirit within its members more than others. In addition, the levels of risk aversion and locus of control within members of the different ethnic communities were found to be positively correlated to the perception those communities have on entrepreneurship.

2008
Pradeep G, Ogot MM. "A compromise experimental design method for parametric polynomial response surface approximations." Quality control and applied statistics. 2008;53:69-74. Abstract

Información del artículo A compromise experimental design method for parametric polynomial response surface approximations.

Ogot MM, Okudan GE, Simpson TW, Lamancusa JS. "A framework for classifying disassemble/analyse/assemble activities in engineering design education." Journal of Design Research. 2008;7:120-135. Abstract

Disassemble/analyse/assemble (DAA) activities of an artifact pervade many undergraduate engineering courses in the USA as they provide useful ‘hands-on’learning components. DAA activities are central to product dissection and reverse engineering activities used by many engineering practitioners as part of their industry’s benchmarking and competitive analysis processes. Although the two terms are used interchangeably in the literature and as part of course titles, we argue that they are different activities based on their roles, objectives and outcomes when used in engineering education. This paper presents a classification framework for DAA activities in engineering education that differentiates between product dissection and reverse engineering in the context of the desired educational goals. Relevant examples from existing classes and the literature are presented, and implementation challenges are discussed.

2007
Ogot M, Okudan Gül E. "The Needs Problem Matrix: Providing Some Order to the Chaotic Ideation Fuzzy Front End." age. 2007;12:1. Abstract

The fuzzy front end of the ideation process can often be chaotic, disorganized and seemingly haphazard, especially to student novice designers. Presented with a large array of pre-ideation tools and methods that are supposed to assist them in generating concepts that solve the correct problem, and take into account all aspects of the problem, students are often overwhelmed with information, or simply unable to see the connections or relevance of the data generated from the tools, students begin to view these pre-ideation design process steps as ‘busy work’. The Needs-Problem Matrix (NPM) aims to tie seemingly disparate data from several pre-ideation tools together, presenting student designers with clear connections and a path forward in the ideation process. Use of the NPM ensures that relevant information is not omitted or ignored during concept generation. The NPM incorporates information garnered from patent analyses, black-box models, detailed customer needs analyses, and a design structure matrix used to establish design functional hierarchy. The NPM provides a flow of information from one tool to the next, clearly showing how they are all related, and illustrating what role each plays in the ideation process. Finally, the NPM also serves as a means to clearly document collected pre-ideation information and to aid in the decision making process.

Ogot M, Okudan G. "A student-centred approach to improving course quality using quality function deployment." International Journal of Engineering Education. 2007;23:916. Abstract

The aim of this study was to develop an approach based on the QFD method to use appropriate pedagogies found in the literature, that will lead to an increase in student satisfaction with their education experience in a redesigned course. The key elements of the approach are to obtain and categorize in the students’ own words, attributes that would constitute a good course, and a good instructor. Mapping these attributes to established pedagogies, coupled with continuous assessment and refinement ensures that there is not a mismatch between the student and faculty expectations. The approach was successfully implemented in a first-year engineering design course that had previously undergone a major revision in course content and delivery, resulting in very poor student evaluations at semester’s end and general student dissatisfaction. Maintaining the new content, the QFD-based approach was able to significantly increase student satisfaction.

Ogot M, Okudan Gül E. "Systematic creativity methods in engineering education: a learning styles perspective." International Journal of Engineering Education. 2007;22:566. Abstract

The traditional approach to creativity (using methods such as brainstorming, C-sketch, morphological charts, scamper, etc.) calls upon the designer to look inward for inspiration. TRIZ, on other hand, invites the designer to use a ready pool of knowledge for inspiration. TRIZ does not discount the use of the traditional approaches. On the contrary, TRIZ ensures that design teams use these traditional methods in a systematically directed manner by carrying out intelligent idea generation in areas where other people have solved a similar general design problem. The main focus of this paper is to look at systematic creativity methods, such as TRIZ, from a learning styles perspective. Three learning styles dominant in the engineering education literature are explored: MBTI, Kolb and Felder-Silverman. For each it was found that the tasks required of each of the TRIZ steps matches a broader range of engineering student learning styles, than the sole use of brainstorming.

2006
George P, Ogot MM. "A compromise experimental design method for parametric polynomial response surface approximations." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2006;33:1037-1050. Abstract

This study presents a compromise approach to augmentation of experimental designs, necessitated by the expense of performing each experiment (computational or physical), that yields higher quality parametric polynomial response surface approximations than traditional augmentation. Based on the D-optimality criterion as a measure of experimental design quality, the method simultaneously considers several polynomial models during the experimental design, resulting in good quality designs for all models under consideration, as opposed to good quality designs only for lower-order models, as in the case of traditional augmentation. Several numerical examples and an engineering example are presented to illustrate the efficacy of the approach.

Keywords: Response surface method, surrogate models

Ogot M, Okudan Gül E. "The five-factor model personality assessment for improved student design team performance." European Journal of Engineering Education. 2006;31:517-529. Abstract

Researchers have long noted the correlation of various personality traits and team performance. Studies relating aggregate team personality traits to team performance are scattered in the literature and may not always be relevant to engineering design teams. This paper synthesizes the results from applicable Five-Factor Model (FFM)-based personality studies related to engineering design team performance, into a form that can be readily used by non-experts—engineering faculty and students. In addition, an approach is presented where aggregate data is visually presented to recognize patterns that correspond to strength and existence of personality traits within the team as measured by the FFM model while maintaining student confidentiality. With this approach, identification of team strengths and weaknesses stemming from the personality trait distribution is simplified. An assessment of the usability of the approach—completed in two first-year engineering courses—is presented to demonstrate its potential.

Keywords: Team performance, Five-Factor Model, Design teams

Ogot M, Okudan GE. "Integrating systematic creativity into first-year engineering design curriculum." International Journal of Engineering Education. 2006;22:109. Abstract

Since the lack of creative potential in graduating engineers has been and continues to be a concern
for industry leaders, most educators have added a common ideation approachÐbrainstormingÐto
engineering design curricula. However, because brainstorming requires the designer to look inward
for inspiration, it can be a daunting task, which is not always fruitful. Some systematic creativity
methods, on the other hand, use solution patterns derived from problems similar to the one being
solved. These methods have typically been introduced in senior or graduate elective courses, if at all.
This paper presents the rationale for, and our experience with introducing one of these methods, the
theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) in a first-year engineering design course. In addition, a
study, comparing the ideation quantity in course sections that used TRIZ against control sections
that did not, is presented. Results indicate that student teams from sections, where TRIZ was
taught, generated substantially more feasible design concepts for an industry-sponsored design
problem that was common to all sections.

Keywords: creativity; inventive problems; TRIZ

Okudan Gül E, Ogot M, Rao G. "An Investigation On Design Effectiveness And Efficiency Of Teams Equipped With Design Information Support Tool (Dist)." age. 2006;11:1. Abstract

Design ideation continues to be one of the mysterious and yet a very important part of the design process. In the past, there have been studies related to how people generate ideas, why some are more productive in idea generation than others, etc. However, the mystery remains because not being able to directly reach designer’s mind limits our comprehension of the process. Despite this fact however, by studying the use of various idea generation methods, we can better support the idea generation process. As such, this paper presents a study on the effectiveness of TRIZ, a systematic ideation technique, in comparison to most widely used brainstorming. Results indicate that design teams that apply TRIZ during the idea generation are more productive.

Okudan Gül E, Mohammed S, Ogot M. "An investigation on industry-sponsored design projects' effectiveness at the first-year level: potential issues and preliminary results." European Journal of Engineering Education. 2006;31:693-704. Abstract

This paper presents the preliminary work for developing guidelines to ensure that industry-sponsored projects in first-year courses aid, not hamper, retention of students. Specifically, the overall research plan includes the following steps: (1) investigating the appropriateness of industry projects in a required introduction to engineering design course (approximately 1000 students per year), (2) assessing the impact of industry-sponsored projects on first-year students' learning and retention, and (3) promoting an awareness of issues involved in successfully introducing industry projects in the first year. It is expected that the outcomes of this work will result in guidelines widely applicable by other institutions looking into or currently using industry projects in the first year, thereby addressing the recognized national need of increasing retention rates, especially amongst women and minorities.

This paper covers a review of potential factors affecting industry-sponsored projects' appropriateness at the first year, and related preliminary data.

Keywords: Engineering design, Industry-sponsored projects

Okudan G, Ogot M, Shirwaiker R, others. "An investigation on the effectiveness of design ideation using TRIZ.". In: ASME 2006 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers Digital Collection; 2006:. Abstract

Design ideation continues to be one of the mysterious and yet a very important part of the design process. In the past, there have been studies related to how people generate ideas, why some are more productive in idea generation than others, etc. However, the mystery remains because not being able to directly reach designer’s mind limits our comprehension of the process. Despite this fact however, by studying the use of various idea generation methods, we can better support the idea generation process. As such, this paper presents a study on the effectiveness of TRIZ, a systematic ideation technique, in comparison to most widely used brainstorming. Results indicate that design teams that apply TRIZ during the idea generation are more productive.

Ogot M, Kelly B. "Simulated Annealing Computational Requirements Reduction for Reliability-Based High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Design.". In: 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.; 2006:. Abstract

Recent research efforts in Multi-disciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) have concentrated
on the development of optimization methods that incorporate uncertainty present in design
variables and/or from noise variables to perform robust or reliability-based design. This work
presents a simulated annealing (SA) approach within the framework of highfidelity 'black-
box'analysis codes for aerodynamic shape design. The analysis codes are restricted to
inexpensive (seconds per analysis iteration) or moderately expensive (minutes per analysis …

Mohammed S, Okudan Gül E, Ogot M. "Tolerance for Ambiguity: An Investigation on Its Effect on Student Design Performance?" age. 2006;11:1. Abstract

Design is a common activity for most disciplines in engineering. Therefore, introductory
engineering courses are developed to include design activities as the main driver for the
curriculum. Despite this fact, however, it can not be concluded that the implementation of
design teaching is done in a way conducive to student learning. While there could be several
reasons for this, this paper specifically investigates the effect of tolerance for ambiguity on
student design performance. An analysis of the data collected for this investigation reveals the
beneficial effects of higher tolerance for ambiguity on increased efficacy, satisfaction, and
conflict resolution in the context of an open-ended, team-based, industry-sponsored engineering
design project.

Keywords: Design teams, tolerance for ambiguity, efficacy, design performance.

Okudan G, Ogot M, Rao G, others. "Design Information Support Tool (DIST): Its Development and Effectiveness Investigation.". In: ASME 2006 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers Digital Collection; 2006:. Abstract
n/a
2005
Okudan Gül E, Mohammed S, Ogot M, Wu X. "A Comprehensive Investigation on Industry-Sponsored Design Projects’ Effectiveness at the First-Year Level: Phase I." age. 2005;10:1. Abstract

This paper presents the preliminary work for developing guidelines to ensure that the
industry sponsored projects in first-year courses aid, not hamper retention of students.
Specifically, the overall research includes the following steps: (1) investigating the
appropriateness of industry projects in a required introduction to engineering design course
(~1,000 students/year), (2) assessing the impact of industry- sponsored projects on first-year
students’ learning and retention, and (3) promoting an awareness of issues involved in
successfully introducing industry projects at the first year. It is expected that the outcomes of
this work will result in guidelines widely applicable by other institutions looking into or
currently using industry projects at the first year, thereby addressing the recognized national
need of increasing retention rates, especially amongst women and minorities.

This paper covers a review of potential factors affecting industry-sponsored projects’
appropriateness at the first year, and related preliminary data.

George P, Ogot M. "A compromise method for the design of parametric polynomial surrogate models.". In: ASME 2005 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers Digital Collection; 2005:. Abstract

This study presents a compromise approach to augmentation of response surface (RS) designs to achieve the desired level of accuracy. RS are frequently used as surrogate models in multidisciplinary design optimization of complex mechanical systems. Augmentation is necessitated by the high computational expense typically associated with each function evaluation. As a result previous results from lower fidelity models are incorporated into the higher fidelity RS designs. The compromise approach yields higher quality parametric polynomial response surface approximations than traditional augmentation. Based on the D-optimality criterion as a measure of RS design quality, the method simultaneously considers several polynomial models during the RS design, resulting in good quality designs for all models under consideration, as opposed to good quality designs only for lower order models as in the case of traditional augmentation. Several numerical and an engineering example are presented to illustrate the efficacy of the approach.

Okudan GE, Ogot MM, Mohammed S, Wu X. "Effective Design Project Management with a Spreadsheet Based Approach.". 2005. Abstract

The use of team projects as a way to teach engineering design is pervasive across all
engineering disciplines and throughout the curriculum. The success of any design team--
both in learning design concepts and performing well--requires that students have a good
grasp of technical and management aspects of the design process. Accordingly, poor
management or lack of communication within a team and between teams and their faculty
advisor/instructor will typically result in a mediocre project, no matter how technically …

Kankey A, Ogot M. "Improving the acoustics in a historic building using axiomatic design and TRIZ." The TRIZ Journal. 2005. Abstract

This article investigates the use of TRIZ and Axiomatic Design to solve the problem of poor acoustics in
the historic Schwab Auditorium on the Penn State University Park campus. The problem is dissected to its
functional requirements and the design parameters which govern the requirements. TRIZ and Axiomatic
Design are then used to create an uncoupled design which solves all the functional requirements with one
design parameter each. Finally there is a suggestion on how to combine all of the solutions to solve the
poor acoustic problem in Schwab Auditorium.

Keywords: Axiomatic Design, Acoustics, Physical Contradictions

Madara O. "Improving the acoustics in a historic building using axiomatic design and TRIZ.". In: Proceedings of the TRIZ Conference, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, State University, Pennsylvania.; 2005. Abstract

This article investigates the use of TRIZ and Axiomatic Design to solve the problem of poor acoustics in
the historic Schwab Auditorium on the Penn State University Park campus. The problem is dissected to its
functional requirements and the design parameters which govern the requirements. TRIZ and Axiomatic
Design are then used to create an uncoupled design which solves all the functional requirements with one
design parameter each. Finally there is a suggestion on how to combine all of the solutions to solve the
poor acoustic problem in Schwab Auditorium.

Keywords: Axiomatic Design, Acoustics, Physical Contradictions

Okudan Gül E, Ogot M. "A Student Centered Approach to Improving Course Quality Using Quality Function Deployment (QFD)." age. 2005;10:1. Abstract

The aim of this study was to develop an approach based on the QFD method to use appropriate
pedagogies found in the literature, that will lead to an increase in student satisfaction with their
education experience in a redesigned course. The key elements of the approach are to obtain and
categorize in the students’ own words, attributes that would constitute a good course, and a good
instructor. Mapping these attributes to established pedagogies, coupled with continuous
assessment and refinement ensures that there is not a mismatch between the student and faculty
expectations. The approach was successfully implemented in a first-year engineering design
course that had previously undergone a major revision in course content and delivery, resulting
in very poor student evaluations at semester’s end and general student dissatisfaction.
Maintaining the new content, the QFD-based approach was able to significantly increase student
satisfaction.

Rutkowski R, Okudan Gül E, Ogot M. "Transfer of Learning Between Solid Modelers: An Investigation of Icon Recognition." age. 2005;10:1. Abstract

Selecting the right solid modeling software is a complex, multi-criteria decision making problem.
There are many issues a decision-maker needs to take into account, such as ease of learning,
educational materials built into the software, learning curve issues, performance of the software
for different solid modeling functions, operations and utilities, and cost. Beyond selecting the
right software, the decision-maker should also be concerned about (1) conceptual learning of the
solid modeling topics while “the right software” is being used, and (2) transfer of conceptual
learning between solid modelers. This is because a sound conceptual learning might increase the
probability of learning another solid modeling software in less time.

Accordingly this paper investigates the impact of icon recognition as an aid to transfer
conceptual learning between solid modelers. The investigation includes a review of the literature
on icon design and usage as it relates to solid modeling, in addition to an experiment in which
the icon recognition correctness and duration for over 20 operation icons were compared across
two modelers. The results shed light into the impact of icon designs on the transfer of learning
between solid modelers using the correct recognition counts as the transfer measure.

2004
Ogot M. "5. Development and Implementations of TRIZ Theory-5.4 EMS Models: Adaptation of Engineering Design Black-Box Modeling for Use in TRIZ." 5. Development and Implementations of TRIZ Theory-5.4 EMS Models. 2004:1000-1013. Abstract

The Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) has been widely recognized as a
powerful systematic innovation technique that can be applied to a wide arrange of
disciplines. This paper focuses on engineering design and illustrates how modeling
methods already familiar to engineering designers can be adapted for use in TRIZ.
Specifically, the'black-box'modeling technique, common in problem formulation and
clarification in engineering design, is modified for use in TRIZ. The new technique, referred …

Ogot M. "EMS models: adaptation of engineering design black-box models for use in TRIZ.". In: Proceedings of ETRIA TRIZ Futures 2004 Conference, Flor ence.; 2004. Abstract

The Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) has been widely recognized as a powerful systematic innovation
technique that can be applied to a wide arrange of disciplines. This paper focuses on engineering design and
illustrates how modeling methods already familiar to engineering designers can be adapted for use in TRIZ.
Specifically, the 'black-box' modeling technique, common in problem formulation and clarification in engineering
design, is modified for use in TRIZ. The new technique, referred to as Energy, Material, System modeling, can
not only serve as a substitute for substance-field modeling, but as it builds on existing knowledge in the
engineering design community, removes one of the barriers to wider TRIZ adoption by not requiring designers to
learn new and radically different modeling techniques. The efficacy of the technique is illustrated via several
examples.
Keywords: Problem formulation, problem clarification, TRIZ standard solutions.

Ogot M, Kremer G. "Engineering Design." British Columbia: Trafford. 2004. Abstract

Successful engineering design requires a strong understanding of fundamentalconcepts in
the basic sciences and engineering combined with mathematics. This text provides an
introduction to the design tools used in engineeringdesign. It focuses on the first two steps of …

Ogot M, Kremer G. Engineering design: a practical guide. Trafford Publishing; 2004. Abstract

Successful engineering design requires a strong understanding of fundamentalconcepts in
the basic sciences and engineering combined with mathematics. This text provides an
introduction to the design tools used in engineeringdesign. It focuses on the first two steps of
the design process: determination of need/problem clarification and conceptualization. In
addition, an overview of materials and manufacturing methods ispresented. The use of Excel
has been incorporated throughout the text forperforming routine calculations, leaving more …

Okudan Gül E, Ogot M. "Incorporating Project Management Methods Into Engineering Design Projects: A Spreadsheet Based Approach." age. 2004;9:1. Abstract

This paper introduces a spreadsheet-based method of integrating project management techniques into project-based engineering courses. The use of a spreadsheet approach alleviates (1) the need for institutions to purchase additional commercial project management software and (2) additional training of faculty and students on how to use the software. Spreadsheet programs, for example Microsoft Excel, are already entrenched in college computer laboratories with students and faculty having familiarity with their use. We present our experiences in implementing this approach in one section (32 students) of a freshman introduction to engineering design course. A preliminary assessment is also presented

Ogot MM, Okudan Gül E. "School of Engineering Design and Professional Programs The Pennsylvania State University." age. 2004;9:1. Abstract

This paper introduces a spreadsheet-based method of integrating project management
techniques into project-based engineering courses. The use of a spreadsheet approach
alleviates (1) the need for institutions to purchase additional commercial project
management software and (2) additional training of faculty and students on how to use
the software. Spreadsheet programs, for example Microsoft Excel, are already
entrenched in college computer laboratories with students and faculty having familiarity
with their use. We present our experiences in implementing this approach in one section
(32 students) of a freshman introduction to engineering design course. A preliminary
assessment is also presented.

Okudan-Kremer G, Ogot M. Engineering Design: A Practical Guide.; 2004. Abstract
n/a
Ogot M, Okudan-Kremer G. "Engineering Design: A Project-Based Introduction." Grand Rapids: Trafford. 2004. Abstract
n/a
2003
Ogot M, Elliott G, Glumac N. "An assessment of in-person and remotely operated laboratories." Journal of Engineering education. 2003;92:57-64. Abstract

Increasingly mechanical engineering departments are beginning to incorporate remotely operated laboratories into their laboratory curriculums. Yet very few studies exist detailing the extent to which this new medium for laboratory delivery fulfills the educational goals of traditional in‐person laboratories. This paper describes a comparison of educational outcomes between in‐person and remotely operated laboratories in the mechanical engineering curriculum. The study carried out in the 2001 Fall semester was performed using a remotely operated and an in‐person jet thrust laboratory. The laboratories illustrate the fundamentals of compressible fluid mechanics as part of an undergraduate mechanical engineering curriculum. The results from this study indicated no significant difference in the educational outcomes between students who performed the in‐person or the remote experiment.

Ogot M, Aly S. "Discretizing Continuous Problems for Faster Global Convergence.". In: ASME 2003 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers Digital Collection; 2003:. Abstract

Global optimization of mechanical design problems using heuristic methods such as Simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithms (GAs) have been able to find global or near-global minima where prior methods have failed. The use of these nongradient based methods allow the broad efficient exploration of multimodal design spaces that could be continuous, discrete or mixed. From a survey of articles in the ASME Journal of Mechanical Design over the last 10 years, we have observed that researchers will typically run these algorithms in continuous mode for problems that contain continuous design variables. What we suggest in this paper is that computational efficiencies can be significantly increased by discretizing all continuous variables, perform a global optimization on the discretized design space, and then conduct a local search in the continuous space from the global minimum discrete state. The level of discretization will depend on the complexity of the problem, and becomes an additional parameter that needs to be tuned. The rational behind this assertion is presented, along with results from four test problems.

Ogot M. "Integration of Instruction on the use of Multimedia Tools into a Mechanical Engineering Curriculum." age. 2003;8:1. Abstract

Mechanical engineering curriculums do not offer formal instruction in the use of
multimedia tools in the areas of computer illustration, animation, and image manipulation
nor the creation and editing of digital video, despite their prevalent use in industry for
technical communication – written reports and oral presentations. In addition to knowing
how to use these tools, it is important for mechanical engineering students to understand
the terminology associated with their use. For example, at the beginning of the class,
most of our mechanical engineering students did not know the difference between a .jpeg
or a .gif graphical file, or an .mpeg or a .ram video file. Others could not associate .jpeg
or .mpeg with either file type. This paper presents our experience with incorporating
formal instruction in the use of multimedia tools into a reverse engineering course. The
main aim of the multimedia initiative was for the students to not only learn how to use
the tools, but for them to actually use them in other academic activities beyond the
reverse engineering class. Evaluations performed indicate that the majority of students
did use the tools (especially illustration and image manipulation) in other classes.

2002
Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Siclari M. "Jig-shape static aeroelastic wing design problem: a decoupled approach." Journal of aircraft. 2002;39:1061-1066. Abstract

THE design of modern, high-speed performance aerospace vehicles is characterized by
unprecedented levels of multidisciplinary interactions of a number of technical disciplines
such as structures, aerodynamics, controls engineering, and manufacturing. These
disciplines, among others, can impose considerable constraints on the dynamic stability and
controls performance margins required for ight safety. One of the many phenomenathat
exists in complex aircraft design is aeroelasticity: the study of the mutual interaction among …

Ogot MM, Muller MR, Kasten DJ. "Optimizing Student Use and Experiences in Industrial Assessments.". In: NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE. Vol. 24. [Texas A&M University]; 1999; 2002:. Abstract

Using students in the performance of industrial assessments is a cost-effective way to staff a team and is likely to increase in popularity. Students have always been an integral part of the process in DOE's Industrial Assessment Center program. In recent years, however, that process has been greatly enhanced, as the program developed from a simple energy audit to an integrated assessment, focusing on the "Industries of the Future" as defined by the Department of Energy. This paper investigates the nature of the student experience, and further looks to define what it can be in the future both from the aspect of improving the assessment product and the education of the student.

2001
Zhou Z, Ogot M, Schwartz L. "A finite element analysis of the effects of an increasing angle on the tower of Pisa." Finite elements in analysis and design. 2001;37:901-911. Abstract

The Leaning Tower of Pisa has aroused admiration and curiosity throughout the
world for its beauty and unusual lean. This study investigates the effects of increasing lean
on the structural integrity of the tower. Employing a three dimensional finite element model,
two failure modes are investigated and discussed.

1998
Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Siclari M. "A decoupled stochastic approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem.". In: 36th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.; 1998:. Abstract

A novel approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem is presented
in this paper. Unlike previous design efforts were the aerodynamic analyses where coupled
to the structural analyses throughout the optimization process, this work presents a truly
decoupled approach. The developed twolevel methodology performs aerodynamic shape
optimization at Level I to determine an optimal configuration, followed by structural shape
optimization at Level n to find the corresponding jig-shape. During Level n optimization, no …

Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Siclari M. "A decoupled stochastic approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem.". In: 36th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.; 1998:. Abstract

A novel approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem is presented
in this paper. Unlike previous design efforts were the aerodynamic analyses where coupled
to the structural analyses throughout the optimization process, this work presents a truly
decoupled approach. The developed twolevel methodology performs aerodynamic shape
optimization at Level I to determine an optimal configuration, followed by structural shape
optimization at Level n to find the corresponding jig-shape. During Level n optimization, no …

Price B, Elliott G, Ogot M. "Experimental optimization of transverse jet injector geometries for mixing into a supersonic flow.". In: 29th AIAA, Fluid Dynamics Conference.; 1998:. Abstract

Preliminary experiments were performed in a supersonic wind tunnel at a Mach number of
3.0 in which transverse injection into a crossflow was optimized. The method is used to find
the locations of circular cross section holes which provide optimum mixing. The holes were
located on injector disks which could be fabricated on a rapid prototyping stereolithography
system. The injected gas, seeded with ethanol vapor, is illuminated at various locations
downstream using an ND: YAG pulsed laser providing spanwise images of the injected …

Pelz RB, Ogot M. "Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design.". 1998. Abstract

The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

1997
Pelz R, Ogot M, Aly S, Cantelmi F, Burke B, Pelz R, Ogot M, Aly S, Cantelmi F, Burke B. "Global stochastic methods in MDO/CFD.". In: 35th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.; 1997:. Abstract

The purpose of this paper is three-fold. We present two multidisciplinary applications of
global (stochastic) optimization problems in aerospace design which range from preliminary
to advanced design. One application involves the preliminary sizing code FLOPS, and the
other, high-fidelity aerodynamics and structural mechanics analyses codes. We look at the
viability of the stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA) for these
applications. In the high-fidelity application, we use a proof-of-concept problem to …

Sharma S, Ogot MM. "An inverse dynamic model of a spherical electrohydraulic actuator for use in a dexterous mechanical hand." The International Journal of Robotics Research. 1997;16:557-566. Abstract

The purpose of this article is to develop an inverse dynamic model of a two-degree-of-freedom electrohydraulic actuator. The actuator is to be incorporated at the base of each of three fingers of a nine-degree-of-freedom mechanical hand, currently under development. Motion in the proposed actuator is fa cilitated about intersecting pitch and yaw axes, thus creating spherical actuation. The dynamic model incorporates frictional and hydraulic losses, which are commonly overlooked sources of energy dissipation. The model is to be used in the control scheme of the mechanical hand and in the optimal synthesis procedure of the actuator. The latter application, briefly de scribed here, takes into account specified motion and torque requirements, pressure, peak-input force, and size constraints. Particular attention is paid to traditional performance indices, such as mechanical advantage.

1996
Aly S, Ogot M, Peltz R. "Stochastic approach to optimal aerodynamic shape design." Journal of Aircraft. 1996;33:956-961. Abstract

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) has be-gun to play an increasingly important
role in the aircraft industry because of its ability to produce detailed insights into complex
flow phenomena and its ease of parameterization, which can help identify the cause of weak
aerodynamic performance. Some of the earlier uses of CFD in the design process were
based on the cut-and-try approach. Here the designer iteratively modifies and evaluates a
design. 1 While considerable gains in aerodynamic performance can be achieved by this …

Ogot M, Aly S, Pelz R, Marconi F, Siclari M. "Stochastic versus gradient-based optimizers for CFD design.". In: 34th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.; 1996:. Abstract

Page 1. Copyright ©1996, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. AIAA Meeting
Papers on Disc, January 1996 A9618295, NAG1-1559, AIAA Paper 96-0332 Stochastic versus
gradient-based optimizers for CFD design Madara Ogot Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ Sherif
Aly Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ Richard B. Pelz Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ Frank Marconi
Northrop Grumman Advanced Technology and Development Center, Bethpage, NY Michael
Siclari Northrop Grumman Advanced Technology and Development Center, Bethpage, NY …

1995
Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Marconi F, Siclari M. "Stochastic optimization applied to CFD shape design.". In: 12th Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference.; 1995:. Abstract

Simulated Annealing (SA), a stochastic optimization method, is applied to aerodynamic
shape design in which at least one CFD solve is required for each evaluation of the
objective function. A simple, short algorithm, SA is used as an outer loop and calls the CFD
solvers. It is found that objective functions which involve CFD in shape design, have small-
scale roughness due to discretization errors and incomplete convergence. SA is more robust
than the gradient-based methods, in the sense that the roughness creates difficulties for …

1994
Dhandapani S, Ogot MM, others. "Modeling of a leg system to illustrate the feasibility of energy recovery in walking machines.". In: Proc. of 1994 ASME Design Technical Conference.; 1994:. Abstract
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1993
Ogot M, ALAG SATNAM. "An effective Mixed Annealing/Heuristic Algorithm for problems in kinematic mechanical design.". In: 34th Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference.; 1993:. Abstract
n/a
Ogot MM, ALAG SATNAM. "A STOCHASTIC METHODOLOGY FOR THE OPTIMAL ANALYTICAL SYNTHESIS OF PLANAR MECHANISMS.". In: Advances in Design Automation, 1993: Presented at the 1993 ASME Design Technical Conferences, 19th Design Automation Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico, September 19-22, 1993. Vol. 1. American Society of Mechanical Engineers; 1993:. Abstract
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