Tonya R. Thurman, Kidman R, Nice J, Ikamari L.  2014.  Family Functioning and child behavioural problems in HIV/AIDs affected households in Kenya. AIDS and Behaviour . D01 10.1007/S10461-014-0897-9


Ikamari, LD;, Izugbara C;, Ochako R.  2013.  Prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in Nairobi, Kenya. AbstractWebsite


The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in Kenya continues to be high. The 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) showed that nearly 50% of unmarried women aged 15–19 and 45% of the married women reported their current pregnancies as mistimed or unwanted. The 2008–09 KDHS showed that 43% of married women in Kenya reported their current pregnancies were unintended. Unintended pregnancy is one of the most critical factors contributing to schoolgirl drop out in Kenya. Up to 13,000 Kenyan girls drop out of school every year as a result of unintended pregnancy. Unsafe pregnancy termination contributes immensely to maternal mortality which currently estimated at 488 deaths per 100 000 live births. In Kenya, the determinants of prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in diverse social and economic situations, particularly in urban areas, are poorly understood due to lack of data. This paper addresses the prevalence and the determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in slum and non-slum settlements of Nairobi.

This study used the data that was collected among a random sample of 1262 slum and non-slum women aged 15–49 years in Nairobi. The data was analyzed using simple percentages and logistic regression.

The study found that 24 percent of all the women had unintended pregnancy. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 21 per cent among women in slum settlements compared to 27 per cent among those in non-slum settlements. Marital status, employment status, ethnicity and type of settlement were significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Logistic analysis results indicate that age, marital status and type of settlement had statistically significantly effects on unintended pregnancy. Young women aged 15–19 were significantly more likely than older women to experience unintended pregnancy. Similarly, unmarried women showed elevated risk for unintended pregnancy than ever-married women. Women in non-slum settlements were significantly more likely to experience unintended pregnancy than their counterparts in slum settlements.

The determinants of unintended pregnancy differed between women in each type of settlement. Among slum women, age, parity and marital status each had significant net effect on unintended pregnancy. But for non-slum women, it was marital status and ethnicity that had significant net effects.

The study found a high prevalence of unintended pregnancy among the study population and indicated that young and unmarried women, irrespective of their educational attainment and household wealth status, have a higher likelihood of experiencing unintended pregnancy. Except for the results on educational attainments and household wealth, these results compared well with the results reported in the literature.

The results indicate the need for effective programs and strategies to increase access to contraceptive services and related education, information and communication among the study population, particularly among the young and unmarried women. Increased access to family planning services is key to reducing unintended pregnancy among the study population. This calls for concerted efforts by all the stakeholders to improve access to family planning services among the study population. Increased access should be accompanied with improvement in the quality of care and availability of information about effective utilization of family planning methods.

Ikamari, LDE.  2013.  Regional variation in neonatal and post-neonatal motality in Kenya.. Journal of African Population Studies. Vol 27(1)


Ikamari, LDE.  2012.  ‘African ontology and its implications for public health research’, 5-30 March. Second Cohort of Carta PhD Fellows Training Workshop. , The Oak Place, Nairobi, Kenya
L.D.E., I.  2012.  Analysis of Census Data taking into consideration Gender Dimensions’., 19-22, March. Kenya National Seminar on Census Data Analysis,. , Panafric Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya
W.Wafula, S, Ikamari L, K’Oyugi B.  2012.  ‘In search for an explanation to the upsurge in infant mortality in Kenya during the 1988-2003 period’. BMC Public Health . 12(441)


Ikamari, LDE.  2011.  ‘An Innovative and Integrated Initiative to Reposition Intrauterine Devices in the National Family Planning Programme-Kenya’. Sharing Innovative Experiences: Experiences in Addressing Population and Reproductive Health Challenges. , New York: UNDP
Ikamari, LDE.  2011.  IUCD re-introduction in Kenya: A Case of Best Practice. In PP Documentation of Best Practices in Family planning and Reproductive Health: Partners in Population and Development Secretariat. , Dhaka Bangladesh
Ikamari, LDE.  2011.  ‘State of Maternal Health in Rural Kenya’, 12-13 July . Maternal Health Challenges in Kenya-What Evidence Shows Workshop. , Serena Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya
Ochako, R, Saliku T, Ikamari L, Izugbara C.  2011.  ‘Contraceptive Use among Women in Nairobi, Kenya’, 29 Nov - 2 Dec. 2011 International Conference on Family Planning. , Dakar, Senegal
Ochako, R, Fotso J-C, Ikamari L, Khasakhala A.  2011.  Utilization of maternal health services among young women in Kenya: Insights from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003. . BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. Volume 11(1)


Ikamari, LDE, Odwe G.  2010.  Socioeconomic and demographic determinants of modern contraceptive use among women in selected settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. , Nairobi: African Population and Health Centre
Ikamari, LDE, Odwe G.  2010.  Socio-economic determinants of unwanted pregnancy among women in slum and non-slum settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. , Nairobi: African Population and Health Centre
Ikamari, LDE, Odwe G.  2010.  Analysis of Unintended Pregnancy and pregnancy termination among women in selected urban settlements in Nairobi. , Nairobi: African Population and Health Centre
Ikamari, LDE.  2010.  ‘A Status report on the implementation of the KeFA Project’, May 9-14. , Hanoi, Vietnam: National Institutes for Health (NIH) Partnership for HIV/AIDS Research Meeting
Njiru, B, Ikamari L, Gachigua J.  2010.  ‘Climate Change, Resource Competition and Conflict Among Pastoral Communities in Kenya’. Conference on’ Social Stress, and Violent Conflicts- State of the Art and Research Needs. , University of Hamburg, Germany
Ikamari, LDE.  2010.  ‘A status report on the integration of the PPD generic models in the PSRI training programmes’, 17-18 December. Partners Meeting on Networking among Partner Institutions: Progress and Challenges. , Taicang, China
Wafula, SW, Ikamari L, K’Oyug B.  2010.  What accounts for the upturn in infant mortality in Kenya during the 1989-2003 period?, 24-26th November Quertelet Seminar on Stalls, Resistances and Reversals in Demographic Transitions, Research Centre in Population and Societies. , Universite’, Catholic De Louvain,Belgium



Ikamari, LDE.  2008.  ‘Our (PSRI) experiences on integrating the PPD Generic Models in the training programmes’, 28 July. The PPD Consultative Partners Meeting. , Washington Hotel, Dhaka Bangladesh
Ikamari, LDE.  2008.  Regional variation in the timing of childbearing in Kenya. Journal of Population Studies. 12:1-25.


Nyangara, F, Charterji M, Thurman T, Akikabi T, Katangwa Z, Ikamari L, Korani N, Buek K.  2007.  Evaluating Four Approahes to Community based programmes for Orphans and Vulnerable Children', December. 5th African Population Conference. , Arusha International Conference Centre
Wafula, S, Ikamari L.  2007.  ‘Patterns, levels and trends in unmet need for contraception in Kenya’, 10-14 December. 5th African Population Conference. , Arusha International Conference Centre
Ikamari, LDE.  2007.  Re-positioning of the Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCDs) initiative in Kenya, 2001-2007, 25-26 February. Consultative meeting on Documenting Best /Promising Practices in Population & Reproductive health. , Dhaka Bangladesh
Ikamari, LDE, Towett R.  2007.  ‘Sexual Initiation and Contraceptive Use Among Female Adolescents in Kenya’. African Journal of Health Sciences. Volume 14:1-13.


Ikamari, LDE.  2006.  Trends and Changes in Non-Use of Contraceptives in Kenya. In A closer look at KDHS 2003’: Further Analysis of Contraceptive Prevalence and Fertility Stalls. Summaries of Selected NCAPD Working Papers. MEASURE Evaluation Publication.


Ikamari, LDE.  2005.  Constraints to Data Use in Kenya. , USA: MEASURE Evaluation/Future Group Project
Ikamari, LDE.  2005.  The effect of education on timing of marriage in Kenya. Demographic Research Journal. 12:1-20.: ISCTRCWebsite


Ikamari, LDE.  2004.  Health Systems Research: A Training Manual. A manual developed for African Medical and Research Foundation. , Headquarters, Nairobi
Ikamari, LDE.  2004.  ‘Maternal Care Utilisation in Teso District’. African Journal of Health Sciences. Volume 11(1 & 2):9-20.: ISCTRC AbstractWebsite

This study seeks to document recent trends in early childhood mortality in the country and to offer some plausible explanations for the upsurge in the trends. Data and information from various sources are used in this paper to achieve this purpose. The results obtained show that infant, child and under-five mortality rates had declined in the 1960s and 1970s but were taking un upward trend since early 1990s. This situation is attributable to a combination of factors, including increased poverty, adverse effects of economic hardships and cost recovery programs associated with structural adjustment programs, increased childhood malnutrition, decreased use of certain maternity care services, decline in the coverage of child immunisations, inability of the public health system to provide services, and the HIV/ AIDS epidemic and the recent ethnic clashes that rocked some parts of the Rift Valley, Coast, Nyanza and Western province. In order to reverse the upward trend in mortality, there is an urgent need to intensify efforts to reduce poverty, to enable most people to have adequate food supply, improve the public health sector so that it can deliver health care to all people; to make greater efforts to raise the living standards of rural populations and improve the quality of housing, sanitary and sewerage conditions in urban slums. In addition, concerted efforts must continue to be made to contain the spread of HIV/AIDS, to assist AIDs orphans and to eliminate completely and to avoid recurrence of ethnic clashes and cattle rustling.

D.E., DRIKAMARILAWRENCE.  2004.  Covariates of age at first marriage and birth in Kenya: a hazard model analysis. A paper submitted to the Editor, Journal of Health and Population in Developing Countries. CB# 7411, 1107 McGavran-Greenberg, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Cha. Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). : ISCTRC Abstract
Journal of African Health Sciences (11) 1&2: 21-32
D.E., DRIKAMARILAWRENCE.  2004.  Maternal Health Care Utilization in Teso. Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). : ISCTRC Abstract
Journal of African Health Sciences (11) 1&2: 21-32

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