Bio

Associate Professor

An Associate Professor (Range Management), former Head of Department and Acting Dean, University of Nairobi (UON). Holder of PhD (Range Management), University of Wyoming, USA (1990); MSc (Range Management), Texas A&M University (1982); and Bachelor of Science (Agriculture), UON.

Publications


2014

and R. K. Ngugi, J. M. Kilonzo, KMJMSM.  2014.  Seasonal botanical characteristics of the diets of Grant’s (Gazella granti Brooke) and Thompson’s (Gazella ThompsoniGuenther) in the dry land habitats of south-central Kenya.. R. K. Ngugi1, J. M. Kilonzo , J. M. Kimeu1 and S. M. Mureithi. 6(8)(1):581-588.
Mureithi., KOK; RKN; GK; RW;SM.  2014.  Water Use Efficiency of Six Range Grasses under Varied Soil Water Content in Kenyan Semi-arid Rangeland.. Semi-arid Rangeland. 2(7)(1):261–271.
Kipchirchir, KO, Ngugi RK, Karuku G, Wanjogu R, Mureithi SM.  2014.  Effect of varied soil moisture content on seed yield of six range grasses in the rangelands of Kenya.. Universal Journal of Agricultural Research . 2(5)(1):174-179.
Kipchirchir, KO, Ngugi RK, Karuku G, Wanjogu R, Mureithi SM.  2014.  Effect of different soil water content and seed storage on quality of six range grasses in the semi-arid ecosystems of Kenya.. Environment and Ecology Research . 2(2)(1):261-271.

2011

Kipchirchir, Koech, O, Wahome RG.  2011.  Use of Dry Land Tree Species (Prosopis juliflora) Seed Pods as Supplement Feed for Goats in the Arid and Semi Arid Lands of Kenya. Abstract

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the potential of incorporating Prosopis juliflora seed pods into typical dry land livestock production systems to minimize feed scarcity during the dry seasons and avoiding weight losses and poor performance. The study evaluated supplementation of weaner Galla goats with increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpods that is widely distributed in arid and semi arid areas of Kenya. This species is drought tolerant and with high productivity of seed pods whole year round. The overall aim of this study was therefore, to assess the feasibility of incorporating P. juliflora seedpods into a typical dry land livestock production system. The study further sought to find out the optimum supplementation level for improved performance. The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) which were randomly assigned to four treatments of 5 weaners each. The treatments were No P. juliflora (PJP0), 100 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP100), 200 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP200), 400 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP400). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective diets in the morning before mixed species range grass hay was offered as basal diet. The animals were weighed on weekly basis and weight gains calculated as difference in previous week’s weight and current week’s weight. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control group throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, this was not statistically significant (p<0.05). From the 5th week up to the 10th week, there was significant difference (p<0.05) in the growth rates for the treatments except for the control group. Overall, treatment PJP200 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.960c) followed by PJP400 (2.700 kg). Group PJP0 had the lowest weight gain by the end of the experiment. The supplemented groups showed good weight gains, body condition and retained nitrogen levels compared to the un-supplemented groups

Wasonga, VO;, Nyariki DM, Ngugi RK.  2011.  Assessing Socio-Ecological Change Dynamics Using Local Knowledge in the Semi-Arid Lowlands of Baringo District, Kenya. Abstract

A clear understanding of the social and ecological change dynamics in pastoral ecosystems is imperative for formulation of appropriate policies that ensure sustainable resource use and livelihood security of pastoral households. Spatial and temporal ecological knowledge expressed by those with long familiarity with the ecology has been shown to be more superior in quality and resolution than those gathered remotely and modelled digitally. This study adopted a local-perceptions approach in assessing the social and ecological change dynamics in the Njemps Flats of Baringo district over a period of four decades. The results reveal a changing vegetation structure, declining diversity and increasing soil erosion that are attributed to the rise in both human and livestock populations. The results also show a rising trend in diversification of asset portfolios in response to impoverishment as a result of the declining pasture and livestock productivity. These findings suggest that pastoralism in Baringo is a system in transition, attempting to maintain itself while at the same time trying to adapt progressively to a continuously shrinking resource base.

Ngugi, RK, Mureithi SM, Kamande PN.  2011.  CLIMATE FORECAST INFORMATION: THE STATUS, NEEDS AND EXPECTATIONS AMONG SMALLHOLDER AGRO-PASTORALISTS IN MACHAKOS DISTRICT, KENYA. International Journal of Current Research. Vol. 3(Issue:11):006-012. Abstract

The potential use of seasonal climate forecasts in farm and resource management has been studied
in a number of cultural contexts around the world. Many of these studies reveal difficulties that
smallholders encounter in accessing, interpreting and applying forecasts for their own benefit. This
study looked at the awareness of and usage of climate forecast information in central Kenya in the
aftermath of the 1997/98 El Niño event. Household surveys were conducted in Machakos District,
Kenya, in January 2001. Retrospective and concurrent awareness and application of seasonal
forecast information was assessed for 240 households across a range of agro ecological zones. The
results show high degree of awareness and use of forecasts. Farmers discussed both actual and
potential application of forecasts for both above-normal and below-normal rainfall. The influence of
the El Niño tendency to increase the rainfall as in the case of 1997/98 El Niño was clear from their
emphasis on strategies to mitigate the impacts of above-or below-normal rainfall. Applications of
information in both crop and livestock management are documented. Constraints still exist, such as
interpretation of information, relevance of the variables forecast to the management decisions of
concern, confidence in the forecasts, and timely and affordable access to resources such as seeds.
We suggest that collaborative efforts between the forecast providers and the users of information
may be directed towards addressing these constraints. For instance in case of abnormal
phenomenon such as droughts or floods, forecasts can be closely followed by early warning
campaigns with clear guidelines of how to prepare, distributed through the FM radio in local
languages order to abate human suffering

Keywords: Climate forecast, Smallholders, Agro-pastoralists, El Niño, Kenya.

2010

Koech, OK;, Kinuthia RN;, Wahome RG;, Choge SK;, Ekaya NW.  2010.  The importance of trees and shrubs as livestock feed in the arid and semi arid rangelands of Kenya: Case of Prosopis juliflora in Baringo district. Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the potential of integrating Prosopis juliflora in drylands livestock production where the tree is abundant and has been reported by the community to be a menace to their livelihoods. Despite these allegations, the tree has great potential as a source of livestock feed among other many uses that has not been fully exploited. The overall aim of this study was therefore, to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis juliflora seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. The study further sought to evaluate the economic viability of supplementing the goats with Prosopis juliflora through cost benefit analysis and find out the optimum supplementation level for improved performance. The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) which were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were; No P. juliflora (0PJP), 100 g/goat/day P. juliflora (100PJP), 200 g/goat/day P. juliflora (200PJP), 400g/goat/day P. juliflora (400PJP). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective diets in the morning before mixed species range grass hay was offered as basal diet. The animals were weighed on weekly basis and weight gains calculated as previous week’s weight and current week’s weight. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control group throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, this was not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week up to the tenth week, there was significant difference (P<0.05) in the growth rates for the treatments except for the control group. Overall, treatment 200Pjp exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96kg), followed by 400Pjp (2.70kg). Group 0Pjp lost weight by the end of the experiment (-0.009kgs). The cost benefit analysis indicated that it is profitable to supplement the goats with 200g/ goat/day, which was the most cost effective with a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.50. The 100PJP was also cost effective but at a lower level BCR 0f 1.47. Treatment 400Pjp was not cost effective with BCR of 0.57, which is less than 1. It is therefore recommended that supplementation at optimum improves productivity.

Koech, OK;, Kinuthia RN;, Wahome RG;, Ekaya W.  2010.  Effects of supplementing mesquit (Prosopis juliflora) seedpod meal on the performance of weaner Galla goats in the drylands of Kenya. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4 (400g /goat /day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% dry matter (DM), 18.5% crude protein (CP), 83.2% organic matter (OM), 51.8% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg), followed by T4 (2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

Koech, OK, Kinuthia RN, Wahome RG, Choge SK.  2010.  Effects of Prosopis juliflora Seedpod Meal Supplement on Weight Gain of Weaner Galla Goats in Kenya. Research Journal of Animal Sciences. 4(2):58-62. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100g/goat/day Prosopis), T3 (200 g/goat/day Prosopis) and T4 (400 g/goat/day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% Dry Matter (DM), 18.5% Crude Protein (CP), 83.2% Organic Matter (OM), 51.8% Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However for the first 3 weeks these differences were not statistically significant (p<0.05). From the 5th week on wards however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (p<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg) followed by T4 (2.70 kg). Group T1 had lowest weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200 g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

Korir, BK, Nyariki DM, Nyariki DM.  2010.  Effects of Selected Routine Husbandry Practices on Growth Rate of Weaned Small East African Goats. Research Journal of Animal Sciences. 4(Issue: 2 ):66-71. Abstract

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the effects of overnight housing, helminthes control, supplementation and their combinations on average weight gain of weaned Small East African Goats (SEAG) in the semi-arid southeastern rangelands of Kenya. The study also evaluated the economic viability of these goat husbandry practices. About 40 weaned Small East African Goats of similar age (7±1 months) and weights (21±3 kg) were randomly assigned to the following eight treatments: housing (Th); helminthes control (Td); supplementation (Ts); housing+supplementation (Ths); housing+helminthes control (Thd); supplementation+ helminthes control (Tsd); housing+supplementation+helminthes control (Thsd) and control (Tc-traditional husbandry). All the animals were weighed every week and weight gains calculated as the difference between the current and previous weight. The experiment lasted for 18 weeks. All treatment groups consistently exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control over the entire trial period. However, the enhanced weight gains were not statistically significant (p<0.05) up to the end of 3rd week. On the 4th week, however all treatment groups except housing, registered significantly (p<0.05) higher weight gains than the control. Overall a combination of all the three treatments (Thsd) had the highest impact on the goats weight gain (6.95 kg) followed by Tsd (6.65 kg). The cost-benefit analysis indicated that the most cost-effective treatment was helminthes control with a Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) of 9.45. Supplementation and supplementation combined with helminthes control with 2.35 and 2.75 RBCs, respectively were also cost-effective. The results of this study support the conclusion that housing; control of internal parasites; enhancement of nutrition or a combination of any of these practices has the potential of substantially improving the weight gain rate of weaned Small East African Goats which would translate into increased off-take and ultimately, income.

2009

Hansen, JW, Mishra A, Rao KPC, Indeje M, Ngugi RK.  2009.  Potential value of GCM-based seasonal rainfall forecasts for maize management in semi-arid Kenya. Abstract

We estimate the potential value of general circulation model (GCM)-based seasonal precipitation forecasts for maize planting and fertilizer management decisions at two semi-arid locations (Katumani and Makindu) in Southern Kenya. Analyses combine downscaled rainfall forecasts, crop yield simulation, stochastic enterprise budgeting and identification of profit-maximizing fertilizer N rates and stand densities. October–February rainfall predictions were downscaled from a GCM, run with both observed and forecast sea surface temperature boundary conditions – representing upper and lower bounds of predictability – and stochastically disaggregated into daily crop model inputs. Simulated interactive effects of rainfall, N supply and stand density on yield and profit are consistent with literature. Perfect foreknowledge of daily weather for the growing season would be worth an estimated 15–30% of the average gross value of production and 24–69% of average gross margin, depending on location and on whether household labor is included in cost calculations. GCM predictions based on observed sea surface temperatures increased average gross margins 24% at Katumani and 9% at Makindu when labor cost was included. At the lead time used, forecasts using forecast sea surface temperatures are not skillful and showed near-zero value. Forecast value was much more sensitive to grain price than to input costs. Stochastic dominance analysis shows that farmers at any level of risk aversion would prefer the forecast-based management strategy over management optimized for climatology under the study’s assumptions, despite high probability (25% at Katumani, 34% at Makindu) of lower returns in individual years. Results contribute to knowledge of seasonal forecast value in a relatively high-risk, high-predictability context; utility and value of forecasts derived from a GCM; and risk implications of smallholder farmers responding to forecasts.

Kinuthia, RK, Mureithi SM, Young TP, Njoka TJ, Otieno SG.  2009.  Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in Grazed and Ungrazed pastures: Grazing Optimisation Hypothesis or Local Extinction of Vegetation Species. Abstract

The controversy that has surrounded herbivory studi es in the last few decades prompted our investigati on to establish the extent to which herbivore optimisatio n hypothesis or compensatory growth evidence is rea l. We used the traditional movable cage method to collect primary productivity data on herbage, functional g roups and key individual grass species in various controlled large herbivore treatments in an east African savan na. The herbivore treatments in triplicate blocks included cattle, wild herbivores with and without mega herbi vores and combinations of cattle and wild herbivores also wit h and without mega herbivores. The findings reveale d that at herbage level, most grazed treatments (four out of five) had higher productivity than the ungrazed con trol and three showed grazing optimisation curve at sixth po lynomial degree between monthly productivity and gr azing intensity (1-g/ng). At functional group level forbs productivity was higher in the ungrazed control th an in any of the grazed treatments while at individual grass spe cies level Themeda triandra productivity was higher in all grazed treatments than in ungrazed control. We conc lude against presence of herbivore optimisation hyp othesis at herbage, functional group and species level beca use of lack of attributable grazing effect in graze d treatments that matches complex ecological effects in the ungr azed treatment.

2008

2005

Ngugi, RK, Nyariki DM.  2005.  Rural livelihoods in the arid and semi-arid environments of Kenya: Sustainable alternatives and challenges. Abstract

Abstract The improvement of the welfare of inhabitants of arid and semi-arid lands, either through the enhancement of existing livelihoods or the promotion of alternative ones, and their potential constraints are discussed. Alternative livelihoods are discussed under regenerative and extractive themes with respect to environmental stability. Regenerative (i.e., non-extractive) livelihoods include activities like apiculture, poultry keeping, pisciculture, silkworm production, drought tolerant cash cropping, horticulture, community wildlife tourism, processing of livestock and crop products, agro-forestry for tree products, and micro-enterprises in the informal sector. Examples of livelihoods that are extractive or potentially so include timber production, woodcarving, basketry, brick making, sand scooping, and charcoal making. Suggestions to improve these livelihoods in a sustainable manner are offered.

2004

Farah, KO, Nyariki DM, Noor IM, Guliye AY.  2004.  The Somali and the Camel: Ecology, Management and Economics. Abstractabstract7.pdfWebsite

The Somali are one of the multi-state communities of Eastern Africa. Somalia is their main state, but they also occupy a large part of Djibuoti, northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia rangelands, loosely referred to as arid and semiarid lands (ASAL). Unpredictable rainfall, long periods of drought, limited water, and inadequate knowledge and technology of water resource management characterize the ASAL. There is also rapid population growth, coupled with low or declining real incomes, low nutritional levels, serious environmental degradation, and the externalities of modernization and economic development (Darkoh, 1996). Somali pastoralists are a camel community mainly because of the dry and harsh environment they live in; pastoralists, by definition, being those who primarily derive their living from the management of livestock on rangelands (Prior, 1994). There is no other community in the world where the camel plays such a pivotal role in the local economy and culture as in the Somali community. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 1979) estimates, there are approximately 15 million dromedary camels in the world, of which 65% are found in the northeast African states of Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Kenya. The Somali community (in Kenya, Somalia and Ethiopia) has the largest population and highest density of camels in the world, and to the same extent this animal also pervades the Somali culture. Historically, the geographical area that is now Somalia may have been a focal point in the introduction and dispersal of the domesticated dromedary (Abokor, 1993). The possession of a certain amount of livestock and of physical strength are the primary requirements for survival and success in the demanding environment of Somali pastoral nomads. The climatic and geographic conditions prompt the Somali pastoral nomads to pursue animal husbandry with constant movement from place to place in search of better pasture and water. This economic system in part determines social relations and institutions and creates a division of labour whereby tasks essential for survival are allocated to particular groups of people. The camel is an important livestock species uniquely adapted to hot and arid environments (Schwartz, 1992) and therefore contributes significantly to the food security of the nomadic pastoral households. This unique adaptability makes it ideal for exploitation under the ASAL conditions. The contribution of camels to the human welfare of developing countries, including Kenya, is generally obscured by a combination of several factors, which tend to underestimate their true value. Firstly, the estimates of camel populations are usually inaccurate due to lack of regular census. Secondly, their products seldom enter a formal marketing system; thus their contribution to subsistence and the national economy tends to be grossly underestimated. As a consequence, less attention has been given to camel improvements for many years when planning national development. For example, the major livestock development effort in Kenya between 1969 and 1982 (funded by the European Community) aimed at developing range areas completely ignored the camel (Njiru, 1993). In Somali occupied northern Kenya, camels are raised under traditional management systems. However, the changing socio-economic and environmental conditions are leading to a change in pastoral production systems from mainly subsistence towards market orientation. Generally, there are few practical, result-oriented studies on camel production. Wilson and Bourzat (1988) stated that the vast amount of research in the last two decades has contributed little to increased productivity. This has been attributed to the fact that most studies have had little general application to the practical aspects of camel production under pastoral production systems. Pastoral camel production is under pressure because of multiple changes in the production environment. Increasing human population pressure on pastoral grazing areas and the economic implications resulting from diseases and lack of veterinary services are some of the factors that adversely affect traditional camel production. Additionally, reproductive performance is low in camels due to late first parturition, long parturition intervals, and high calf mortality. Improvement of the reproductive performance and reduction of animal losses by management measures that are applicable to a mobile system appear to offer possibilities of increasing camel productivity and capacity to support the increasing human population. An adequate understanding of traditional camel production practices forms the foundation upon which improvement and innovations could be based. Using Moyale District as a case, this study was carried out in order to understand the status of traditional camel production systems of the Somali camel keeping pastoralists.

Ngugi, RK, Ndung'u JN, Nyariki DM;, Musimba NKR.  2004.  Seasonal botanical and chemical composition of sheep and goat diets on a common range in eastern Africa. Abstract

The botanical and chemical composition, intake and digestibility of local sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hirtus) diets were evaluated over the wet (growing) and dry (dormant) seasons. Diet botanical composition was related to the vegetation composition on the range. Commiphora riperia and Acacia tortilis were the most dominant tree species, while Duosperma kilimandscharicum and Premna hildebrandtii were the most dominant shrub species. Enteropogon macrostachyus, Cenchrus ciliaris and Chloris roxburghiana were the most abundant grass species, while Brepharis integriifolia, Commelina benghalensis and Macrotylomma axillare were the most dominant forb species. Grasses increased towards the end of the wet season and the beginning of the dry season, while the forbs decreased. Eragrostis caespitosa, Cenchrus ciliaris, Eragrostis superba, Enteropogon macrostachyus and Themeda triandra were the most dominant grass species in sheep diets during both seasons, accounting for over 82% of the diet. Acalypha fruticosa, Grewia similis and G. bicolor were the most important browse species in goat diets in both seasons, while Eragrostis caespitosa and E. superba were the most common grass species during both seasons. Overall, goat diets comprised 81% browse, 17% grass and 2% forbs during the wet season; and 82% browse, 15% grass and 3% forbs during the dry season. Whilst the goat diets had higher (P < 0.05) Crude Protein (CP) content than sheep diets during both seasons, the sheep diets were lower in lignin content than goat diets during the wet season. Overall, the goat diets were lower in Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) and Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF) than sheep diets during both seasons. There was no difference (P < 0.05) in digestibility between the two animal species. However, it was higher (P < 0.05) during the dry than the wet season. Although sheep and goats are commonly herded together in east African rangelands, they have differing abilities to utilise forages. These differences must be taken into consideration in grazing management decisions, and selected grazing areas should be able to cater for the forage requirements of both species.

2003

Karimi, SK;, McDermott JJ;, Gitau GK;, Gathuma JM;, Kinuthia RN.  2003.  Risk factors for sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases of calves in Maasai pastoral herds in Kajiado District, Kenya. Abstract

Risk factors for sero-prevalence of Theileria parva, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina were investigated in 729 calves from Maasai herds in Kajiado District, Kenya. Study herds were selected using a multistage sampling method. Serum antibodies were estimated using an indirect Enzyme- Linked Immunosorbent Assay and expressed as a percent positivity. The objective was to identify risk factors associated with sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases in Maasai pastoral systems in Kajiado District. Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors varied between and within agro-climatic zones, group ranches and farms. Thus, targeted rather than blanket immunization of calves and other tick control should be conducted, with targeting being done at agro-climatic, group ranch and farm levels

2002

KINUTHIA, DRNGUGIROBINSON.  2002.  Nyariki, D.M. Kironchi, G. & Ngugi, R.K. (2002). Dryland farming economies in Kenya: Environmental, technical and policy aspects. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute: 585-591.. : East African Orthopaedic Journal
KINUTHIA, DRNGUGIROBINSON.  2002.  Nyariki, D.M. & Ngugi, R.K. (2002). A review of African pastoral production systems: Approaches to their understanding and development. Journal of Human Ecology. 13(6):237-250. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute: 585-591.. : East African Orthopaedic Journal
KINUTHIA, DRNGUGIROBINSON.  2002.  Mengistu, R.A., Ngugi, K.R. Musimba, N.K.R. & Nyariki, D.M. (2002). Feeding value of Acacia tortilis pods in goats. Indian Journal of Animal. Science. 73(7):826-828. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute: 585-591.. : East African Orthopaedic Journal

1999

1998

1995

1992

1990

digestibility and nutritive quality of sheep diets Influence of big sagebrush(Artemisia tridentata) browse on intake.  1990.  Influence of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) browse on intake, digestibility and nutritive quality of sheep diets. Website

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