Bio

Publications


2015

Kipyator, I, Ongeti K, Butt F, Ogeng’o JA.  2015.  Regional Topography of the Internal Carotid Artery. Anatomy Journal of Africa. 4(1):444–449.
P, L, K O, P M, P O.  2015.  Functional Adaptability of the Tunica Media of the Atriopulmonary Junction. Austin Anatomy Journal . 2(1):1034.

2014

Ogeng’o, J, Misiani M, Adel M, Kevin O, Martin I, Acleus M.  2014.  Variant Termination of the Common Carotid Artery in a Black Kenyan Population. :386-392..
Ogeng'o, J, Ongeti K, phillip mwachaka.  2014.  Non-muscle cells in the tunica media of the aorta. . Anatomy Journal of Africa. 3(1):250-254.
Ogeng'o, J, Ongeti K, Obimbo M, Olabu B, phillip mwachaka.  2014.  Features of Atherosclerosis in the Tunica Adventitia of Coronary and Carotid Arteries in a Black Kenyan Population. Anatomical Research International . 1(1)456741.pdf

2013

Ogeng'o, J, Ongeti K, Malek A, Were F, Misiani M.  2013.  Anatomical Risk factors for atherosclerosis of left common carotid artery in a black Kenyan population. . Res Open J Anat. 1(1):1-7.
Ongeti, K, Ogeng'o J, Pulei A, Olabu B, Gakara C.  2013.  Blood pressure characteristics among slum dwellers in Kenya. Global Advanced Research. 2(4):80-85. Abstract

Objectives: To assess the blood pressure characteristics of dwellers of Kibera slum. Design:
Descriptive crossectional study Setting: Kibera slum, Nairobi, Kenya. Patients and Methods: The
blood pressure, resting pulse rate and BMI was assessed among 400 dwellers of Kibera slum in
Nairobi, Kenya. The data collected was analysed for frequency and means using a statistical
program SPSS. Results: The mean blood pressure was 122/71mmHg. Systolic blood pressure was
higher in males than in females (p=0.001). Fifty two (13%) participants, 17.8% of males and 11.1%
of the females were hypertensive. Outstanding factors associated with hypertension included
male gender (p=0.001), a body mass index (BMI) > 25 and increasing age. Seven of the patients
knew they were hypertensive and 5 were on antihypertensive therapy. Conclusions: Prevalence of
hypertension in these urban slum dwellers is comparable to that reported in rural settings
elsewhere in Africa. There is need for public education concerning management of BMI and
hypertension starting early in life and regular screening of people at risk in the urban slum
dwellings.

Wangai, L, Mandela P, Butt F, Ongeti K.  2013.  Morphology Of The Mandibular Condyle In A Kenyan Population. Anatomy Journal of Africa 2. Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2(1):70–79. Abstract

Use of condylar prostheses in mandibular reconstructive surgery is increasing in Kenya. To retain functional capability, condylar prostheses have to preserve the form of the condyle. Although condylar shape and size have been shown to vary between populations, few studies of these have been done in Africans. This study aimed to describe the morphology of the mandibular condyle in a Kenyan population. Sixty three mandibles of African origin were used. Condylar shape was assessed from the anterior, superior and lateral aspects as per a scheme used by Wedel et al (1978). Data collected were analyzed using SPSS v.17 for frequencies and represented using tables, charts and photographs. The commonest shapes were: slightly convex anteriorly (71.43%); oblong superiorly (73.02%); and convex laterally (80.16%). Only the lateral shape displayed sexual dimorphism, with 100% of females but 88.33% of males having the C1 (convex) shape. Asymmetry was found in 12 (19.05%) of the mandibles. Right and left condyles are similar in shape in most cases but the frequency of the convex lateral shape displayed sexual variation. The mandibular condyles of Kenyans were different in frequency of convex lateral and anterior shapes from condyles of other populations recorded in literature. These differences in morphology imply that condylar measurements cannot be generalized in the manufacture of condylar prostheses and have to be customized for the local population as well as for male and female condyles.

Ongeti, K, Ogeng'o J, Saidi H.  2013.  Structural Organization Of The Human Common Carotid Artery.. Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2(1):100-105.
Ogeng'o, J, Ongeti K.  2013.  Maintaining excellence in departments of Human Anatomy: University of Nairobi experience. Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2(1):117-129. Abstract

Experience in maintaining excellence in teaching of human anatomy is important in informing strategies to mitigate worldwide decline in the level of knowledge of human anatomy among medical students and qualifying doctors. Factors responsible for the decline include reduction in teaching time, inadequate teachers and undermining of cadaver dissection. Measures to address these challenges have resulted in wide disparities in curriculum design, teaching methods, number and composition of instructors. Despite the challenges of rising student numbers and staff shortages, the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi has maintained excellence in teaching for over 40yrs. This article describes the teaching of anatomy at the University with a view of elucidating the practices from which other departments can learn. Analysis reveals that human anatomy is allocated 630hrs per year of which 350hrs are assigned to gross anatomy with 270hrs devoted to dissection. Although dissection has remained the cornerstone of instruction, it is combined with problem based learning, use of prosections, diagnostic imaging, computer aided and small group teaching. Teaching of gross anatomy is integrated with microscopic, developmental and neuroanatomy. The department runs an intercalated Bachelor of Science degree program, which is a reliable source of members of staff. Over 70% of the staff are surgeons. They are assisted by demonstrators drawn from trainee surgeons and B.Sc. Anatomy graduates. Excellence in teaching anatomy can be maintained by reclaiming sufficient teaching time, combining dissection with other contemporary methods of instruction, integrating gross, microscopic, developmental anatomy, neuroanatomy, involvement of clinicians in teaching, commencing training anatomy early and engagement of demonstrators.

Ogeng'o, J, Mwachaka P, Ongeti K, Olabu B.  2013.  Aging Changes In The Tunica Intima Of Aorta In Goat (Capra Hircus). Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2(2):161–167.
Awori, K, Ongeti K, Martin Inyimili.  2013.  Does The Pattern Of Innervation Of Brachialis By The Musculocutaneous Nerve Influence The Presence Or Absence Of The Radial Nerve Contribution? Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2(2):142-144. Abstract

The innervation of brachialis muscle by the musculocutaneous nerve has been described as either type I or type II and the main trunk to this muscle is rarely absent. The contribution by the radial nerve however ranges from 30 to 100%. It is not clear if the presence or patterns of supply to this muscle by either nerve are interdependent. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of innervation of brachialis by the nusculocutaneous nerve and relate it to the presence and contribution from the radial nerve. Fifty seven arms (25 male and 4 female); 29 right and 28 left from formalin-fixed adult cadavers were used. The pattern of musculocutaneous branch to brachialis was recorded based on the classification by Yang et al. into either type I or II. The presence and number of branches by the radial nerve to the same muscle were determined and related to the pattern from brachialis. The musculocutaneous nerve supplied brachialis in all (100%) of the cases while the radial nerve did so in 33 arms (57.9%). Type I was the predominant pattern in both left and right arms (91.2%) with no correlation between the type of innervation by musculocutaneous nerve and the radial nerve contribution.

Poonamjeet, L, Ongeti K, Pulei A, Ogengo J, Mandela P.  2013.  Gender Related Patterns In The Shape And Dimensions Of The Foramen Magnum In An Adult Kenyan Population. Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2(2):138–141. Abstract

Foramen magnum is a useful landmark in the base of the skull. Its shape and dimensions show ethnic and gender differences. This data is useful in forensic medicine and anthropology but are unknown among Kenyans. Two hundred and two dry adult skulls from the Osteology Department at the National Museums of Kenya, were studied. The shape of the foramen magnum was oval, circular and polygonal in 13%, 24% and 63% of the cases respectively. The foramen magnum does not show sexual dimorphism in shape among Africans. The shape of foramen magnum cannot be used in solitude to ascertain the gender of skulls.

2012

Pulei, A, Obimbo M, ONGETI K, Kitunguu P, Inyimili M, Ogeng’o J.  2012.  Surgical significance of brachial arterial variants in a Kenyan population. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant anatomy of the brachial artery is important in radial arterial grafts for coronary bypass, percutaneous trans-radial approach to coronary angiography, angioplasty and flap surgery. These variations show ethnic differences but data from black populations are scarce. This study therefore describes the course in relation with median nerve, level and pattern of termination of brachial artery in a black Kenyan population. Methods: This was a cadaveric dissection study of 162 upper limbs at the Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya. The brachial artery was exposed entirely from the lower border of teres major to its point of termination. The course in relation to the median nerve and the level of termination were recorded. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 for Windows. Results: 72.2% of the brachial arteries followed the classical pattern described in Gray’s Anatomy. Superfi cial brachioradial and superficial brachial arteries were present in 12.3% and 6.1% of the cases respectively. Brachial artery terminated at the radial neck in 79% of the cases, radial tuberosity (8.6%), and proximal arm (11.1%), mid arm (1.2%). Pattern of termination was either a bifurcation into the radial and ulnar arteries (90.1%) or trifurcation into radial, ulnar and common interosseous arteries (9.3%). We also report a case of trifurcation of the brachial artery into the profunda brachii, radial and ulnar arteries (0.6%). Conclusion: Variations of the brachial artery in its relationship with the median nerve, level and pattern of termination are common. These may complicate arm surgical exposures, fl ap and vascular surgery. Pre-operative angiographic evaluation is recommended.

Ogeng'o, JA, Ongeti KW.  2012.  Variant origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Abstract

Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13%, and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended

Ongeti, KW.  2012.  Abdominal Tuberculosis Mimicking Annular Pancreas in an Adult . AbstractWebsite

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is rampant in Africa and can mimic other gastrointestinal diseases. Isolated duodenal involvement is rare. We report a patient who succumbed to an isolated mid duodenal tuberculosis whose clinical presentation, endoscopy and computerised tomography scans resembled annular pancreas, only to be diagnosed at laparotomy. The limitations of clinical evaluation, endoscopy and radiology are highlighted as the importance of diagnostic laparoscopy is emphasized.

Ongeti, K, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J.  2012.  Non expression of androgen receptors in the human carotid artery. Journal of Morphology. 29(3):1-4.: Journal of Morphological Sciences AbstractWebsite

Androgens and oestrogens have been implicated in the noted gender differences in the increasing intimal medial thickness. Oestrogens are protective in females while the role of androgens as male disadvantage remains in conflict. There have been reports that androgens are protective while other reports suggest they are bane. The distribution of androgen receptors in the carotid intimal medial thickness may help explain this propensity. Thirty six samples from the proximal, middle and distal carotid artery segments and three sections of prostate gland from three different men were collected within 48 hours of demise were processed for routine light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The prostate samples were mounted next to the carotid artery samples on the same slide for immunohistochemical staining. They were stained using anti-human mouse androgen receptor monoclonal antibody (AR318) for androgen receptors. All prostate control samples stained for androgen receptors. Androgen receptors were not expressed in any of the carotid arterial walls. The carotid intimomedial thickness is not influenced by the presence of androgen receptors.

ONGETI, DRKEVINWANGWE, A. DROGENGOJULIUS.  2012.  A spontaneous massive pleural effusion. Anatomy Journal of Africa. : African Journal of respiratory medicine Abstract
A 62 year-old male presented with a progressing three week history of respiratory distress, tachypnoea, right sided chest stony dullness and mediastinal shift to the left. He had no clinical, laboratory or radiological evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis or malignancy and could not remember any history of chest trauma. Chest X ray revealed massive right side pleural effusion. A Computerised Tomography (CT) scan showed six consecutive rib (rib 5- 10) fractures with no callus formation. Chest tube insertion drained 4.7L of straw coloured effusion that did not recur subsequently. We suspect that multiple rib fractures irritated the pleura, resulting in a massive pleural effusion. A review of the literature indicates this to be a rare finding.
Pulei, A, Ongeti K, Martin Inyimili, Ogeng'o J.  2012.  Surgical anatomy of the profunda brachii artery. Anatomy Journal of Africa. 1(1):26-29.: Anatomy Journal of Africa AbstractWebsite

Variations in the origin and termination of the profunda brachii artery (PBA) are rarely described in literature. Knowledge of this unusual anatomy is important during brachial artery catheterization and harvesting of lateral arm flaps. One hundred and forty four arms from 72 cadavers of black Kenyans were dissected and examined for the origin and termination of PBA at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The patterns of origin and termination of the PBA were observed and recorded. The PBA was present in all the cases. It arose from the brachial, axillary and a common stem with the superior ulnar collateral arteries in 96.9%, 1.4% and 1.7% of the cases respectively. It displayed duplication and early branching in 11.1% and 16.7% of the cases respectively. The high incidence of duplication and early branching makes it vulnerable to inadvertent injury during fractures of the humerus, brachial artery catheterization and may complicate lateral arm flaps. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is therefore recommended.

Ongeti, KW.  2012.  Anomalous origin of left testicular artery from inferior polar renal artery.. Anatomy Journal of Africa. 1(1): Anatomy Journal of Africa AbstractWebsite

Gonadal arteries arising from additional renal arteries present an important variation that should be noted in order to avoid inadvertent injury to these vessels in renal hilar dissection and retroperitoneal surgery. During routine dissection, we observed the unusual origin of the left testicular artery from an additional renal artery in a middle-aged male cadaver. The prevalence of variations in the origin and course of the testicular artery displays population differences. Though additional renal arteries have been reported in literature, cases of such vessels giving rise to gonadal vessels are scarce. The possible embryologic basis for this variation as well as its clinical significance are discussed.

ONGETI, DRKEVINWANGWE.  2012.  Reappraisal of the dimensions of the diaphragma sellae. Anatomy Journal of Africa. : Anatomy Journal of Africa Abstract
{ Morphometric dimensions of diaghragma sellae influence the extent of instrumentation and tumour exposure in the hypophyseal fossa, and the degree of compression of visual fibres from an expanding pituitary tumor. The dimensions show inter-population variations but data from Africans is scarcely available in literature. We aimed to investigate the morphometric dimensions of diaghragma sellae in an adult Kenyan population. One hundred and forty wet open crania (96 males, 44 females) obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi were studied. The shape of diaphragma sellae was classified as round or elliptical (elliptical was further classified as coronal elliptical or sagittal elliptical). The sagittal and coronal dimensions of the sellae were also determined. The diaphragma sellae was round in 60% of cases, coronal elliptical in 34% and sagittal elliptical in 6%. It was significantly wider in females than males (10.26+2.61mm vs 8.37+1.82mm respectively)
ONGETI, DRKEVINWANGWE.  2012.  Split Thickness Skin Grafting in an Immunocompomised Patient at Kenyatta National Hospital. Webmedcentral. : Webmedcentral Abstract
Partial thickness skin grafts have been reported to take poorly in the immunocompromised patients. We however present a 30 year old immunocompromised female patient with a chronic skin ulcer after surgical debridement for pyomyositis with subsequent loss of skin and subcutaneous tissue. The ulcer was contaminated with E. coli. The ulcer was severally debrided and was successfully skin grafted. Immunocompromised patients with cutaneous ulcers may recover and return to their pre-morbid level of function if they receive care that is carefully coordinated and aggressively delivered.
ONGETI, DRKEVINWANGWE, HASSAN PROFSAIDI, A. DROGENGOJULIUS.  2012.  Unusual formation of the median nerve associated with the third head of biceps brachii. Clinical anatomy. : Clinical anatomy Abstract
Unilateral variations in the formation of the median nerve, with the presence of the third head of the biceps brachii entrapping the nerve are very rare. These variations were observed on the right side, of a 30 year old male cadaver during routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The median nerve was formed by the union of three contributions; two from the lateral cord and one from the medial cord. An additional head of the biceps brachii looped over the formed median nerve. On the left side the median nerve was formed classically by single contributions from the medial and the lateral cords. These variations are clinically important because symptoms of high median nerve compression arising from similar formations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.
Ongeti, K, Pulei A, Mandela P, Kimpiatu P.  2012.  Periduodenal Tuberculosis Masquerading As Annular Pancreas. Annals of African Surgery. 9:64-65.: Annals of African Surgery Abstract

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is rampant in Africa. Nonetheless, isolated duodenal involvement is rare, and is more likely to mimic other causes of duodenal obstruction. We report a patient who succumbed to an isolated mid duodenal tuberculosis, diagnosed at laparatomy, whose clinical presentation, endoscopy and computerised tomography scans resembled annular pancreas. The limitations of clinical evaluation, endoscopy and radiology are highlighted as the importance of diagnostic laparoscopy is emphasized.

2011

ONGETI, DRKEVINWANGWE.  2011.  Blood Pressure and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Young Black Adults. Heart Mirror Journal. : Heart Mirror Journal Abstract
Background: High blood pressure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide including Africa. The age of onset of this condition among young adult black urban dwellers is largely unknown. The economic burden occasioned by this condition calls for early detection to facilitate effective management. We determined the blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors among urban dwelling young adults at the school of medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Objective To determined the blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors among urban dwelling young adults at the school of medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Three hundred and fifty one medical students were included in the study and grouped by level of study, physical activity and smoking status. The blood pressure, weight, height, hip and waist circumference were measured. Results The mean blood pressure, BMI and Waist hip ratio were 121/73 mmhg, 21.8 and 0.81 respectively. Seventy six students (26%) had a BMI below 20, while 28 students (9.6%) had a BMI greater than 25. A quarter of the students had prehypertension while 35(10%) students had stage 1 hypertension. Conclusions Almost half of the young black adults have early non-obesity related hypertension. Elevated blood pressure in the young adults should be controlled to prevent cardiovascular disease related death later in life.
ONGETI, DRKEVINWANGWE.  2011.  A horseshoe kidney with partial duplex systems. Heart Mirror Journal. : IJAV Abstract
During routine dissection, we identified a horseshoe kidney arrested inferior to the inferior mesenteric artery in a middle-aged male cadaver. On further dissection, the kidneys were fused inferiorly, both hila were wide and the kidneys had bilateral duplicated renal arteries and ureters. Horseshoe kidneys could be associated with bilateral duplex systems.
ONGETI, DRKEVINWANGWE, A. DROGENGOJULIUS.  2011.  Evaluating Low Back Pain Patients for Prolapsed Interverbral Disc in a Kenyan Teaching Hospital. Annals of African Surgery. : Surgical Society of Kenya Abstract
Background: Accurate evaluation of low back pain is essential for its rational management. The extent of use of clinical and imaging findings in identificationof prolapsed intervertebral disk varies between centers. In Kenya, thediagnostic procedure is obscure.Objective: To assess the evaluation of low back pain patients for prolapsed intervertebral disk at a Kenyatta National Hospital, a teaching and referralhospital in Kenya.Study Design: A retrospective chart studyPatients and Methods: Historical, physical and imaging findings of patients who presented with low back pain and subsequently diagnosed with prolapsed inter-vertebral disk between Jan 1997 and December 2007 were evaluated.Results: Of the six hundred and three patients (267 males, 336 females) whowere evaluated, risk factors were recorded in 39.5% patients, 35.3%patients had sciatica while straight leg raising test was performed in52.2% patients. Investigations performed in these patients included plainroentograms (38.5%), CT scan (9.1%) and MRI (44.1%).Conclusion: The evaluation of low back pain for prolapsed inter-vertebral disk was incomplete. History of sciatica, SLRT, crossed SLRT and MRI use arerecommended for routine evaluation of low back pain for PID.
ONGETI, DRKEVINWANGWE, HASSAN PROFSAIDI, A. DROGENGOJULIUS.  2011.  Variant origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Clinical Anatomy. : Wiley Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.

2010

ONGETI, DRKEVINWANGWE.  2010.  Morphology of human myocardial bridges and association with coronary artery disease. Heart Mirror Journal. : African Health Sciences

2009

ONGETI, DRKEVINWANGWE.  2009.  Experience with Hirschsprung. Annals of African Surgery. : Surgical Society of Kenya
ONGETI, DRKEVINWANGWE, A. DROGENGOJULIUS.  2009.  Treatment and Outcome of Herniated intervertebral Disk in A Referral Hospital in Kenya. East African Orthopaedic Journal. : Kenya Orthopaedic Association Abstract
Background: Prolapsed intervertebral disk (PID) disease can be managed conservatively or surgically with different reported outcomes.Objective: The present study aimed at assessing the management and outcomes of slipped intervertebral disk disease at the Kenyatta National hospital.Study Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study.Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) a referral and teaching Hospital in Kenya.Patients and Methods: Consecutive files of all cases of slipped intervertebral disk disease from January1997 to December 2007 were retrieved from the Medical records at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The biodata, management methods and the outcomes of the procedures were recorded. The collecteddata was analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 for Windows.Results: Six hundred and three cases were reviewed. All patients received analgesics and bed rest.Five percent of the patients were put on bilateral traction for two weeks while 4% of the patients had corsets. Thirty five per cent of the patients were surgically managed. Over a third of the surgically managed patients had laminectomies. Microdiscectomy was increasingly popular in the latter half ofthe study period. Of the managed patients 95% reported improvement while 92% were complication free. The rate of reherniation and reoperation was 1.5% and 1.2% respectively.Conclusion: The management of PID at Kenyatta National Hospital is largely successful with few cases of complications. In selected patients both conservative and surgical care are used in tandem. Microdiscectomy is an increasingly popular surgical procedure at the KNH.

2008

ONGETI, DRKEVINWANGWE.  2008.  Biometric features of facial foramina in adult Kenyan skulls. European Journal of Anatomy. : Spanish Society of Anatomy

2007

ONGETI, DRKEVINWANGWE.  2007.  A situational analysis on heart disease in urban and rural Kenya. European Journal of Anatomy. : Health Africa.info
ONGETI, DRKEVINWANGWE, ONGETI DRKEVINWANGWE.  2007.  Anatomical Variation of Position and Location of the Fibula Nutrient Foramen in Adult Kenyans. European Journal of Anatomy. : East African Orthopaedic Journal

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