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Ngumo PM, Abuga KO, Njogu PM, Ongarora DSB. "A Stability Indicating Liquid Chromatography Method for the Assay of Rufinamide Bulk Material and Tablets." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2016;19(1-3):16-21. Abstract

A simple, rapid, isocratic stability indicating reverse phase liquid chromatography method was developed for the assay of rufinamide bulk drug and tablets. The method achieved adequate resolution of rufinamide, related substances A and B as well as laboratory generated degradation products. The method uses a Phenomenex® Hyperclone BDS C-18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μ) maintained at 35 °C and a mobile phase composed of methanol-0.1 M octane sulfonic acid-0.1 M KH2PO4, pH 6.5-water (30:10:5:55, % v/v/v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The eluents were monitored by means of ultraviolet detection at 210 nm. During validation, the method satisfied the International Conference on Harmonization acceptance criteria for linearity sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and robustness. The developed method may be applied in the routine analysis of rufinamide bulk material and tablets as well as stability studies.

Abuga K, Ongarora D, Karumbi J, Olulo M, Minnaard W, Kibwage I. "Sub-Standard Pharmaceutical Services in Private Healthcare Facilities Serving Low-Income Settlements in Nairobi County, Kenya." Pharmacy. 2019;7(4):167. Abstract

Background: Quality pharmaceutical services are an integral part of primary healthcare and a key determinant of patient outcomes. The study focuses on pharmaceutical service delivery among private healthcare facilities serving informal settlements within Nairobi County, Kenya and aims at understanding the drug procurement practices, task-shifting and ethical issues associated with drug brand preference, competition and disposal of expired drugs. Methods: Forty-five private facilities comprising of hospitals, nursing homes, health centres, medical centres, clinics and pharmacies were recruited through purposive sampling. Structured electronic questionnaires were administered to 45 respondents working within the study facilities over an 8-week period.
Results: About 50% of personnel carrying out drug procurement belonged to non-pharmaceutical cadres namely; doctors, clinical officers, nurses and pharmacy assistants. Drug brand preferences among healthcare facilities and patients were mainly pegged on perceived quality and price. Unethical business competition practices were recorded, including poor professional demeanour and waiver of consultation fees veiled to undercut colleagues. Government subsidized drugs were sold at 100% profit in fifty percent of the facilities stocking them. In 44% of the facilities, the disposal of expired drugs was not in conformity to existing government regulatory guidelines. Conclusions: There is extensive task-shifting and delegation of pharmaceutical services to non-pharmaceutical cadres and poor observance of ethical guidelines in private facilities. Strict enforcement of regulations is required for optimal practices.

Nyamweya NN, Abuga KO. "A Survey of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers in Nairobi: Packaging, Labelling and Regulatory Compliance." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 23 (2020). 2020;23(2):72-76. Abstract

Alcohol based hand sanitizers are currently recommended for routine use in curbing the spread of the COVID-19 global pandemic. The present survey examined hand sanitizers marketed in Nairobi County with regards to product appearance, packaging, labelling and declared composition. Seventy-six samples were collected from five sites within the Nairobi metropolis - Central Business District, Kibera, Kilimani/Karen, Ngong and Thika. A wide range of non-conformities were observed for the criteria applied. Many samples had incomplete or missing label information, ingredient lists, cautionary warnings, Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) standardization marks and permit numbers. Glycerin, fragrances and carbomers were the most common added ingredients. Poor formulation indicators such as haziness and phase separation were encountered in some products. The median price of the products was KES 250 (USD 2.36) per 100 ml although there was considerable variation in pricing of samples. None of the samples evaluated fully met all the standards for the parameters evaluated. Strict adherence to regulatory standards by producers of hand sanitizers is required to ensure that only compliant products are available on the market.

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