Bio

PROF. KIAMA STEPHEN GITAHI

BIODATA

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Publications


2014

Onzago, RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, D.W Gakuya, C.G. Githiji, Rukenya ZM.  2014.  Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich) a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya for toothache. The Journal of Phytopharmacology 2013; 2(6): 41-45. Abstractanalgesic_activity_of_aqueous_extract_of_vernonia_hymenolepis.pdf

The main aim of the study was to ascertain the analgesic properties of Vernonia hymenolepis leaves to validate its use for the treatment of toothache. The plant is widely used as a traditional herb by communities in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya for treatment of various infections including toothache. However its efficacy has not been established. Leaves of the plant were collected from Trans Nzoia County, Kenya and identified at University of Nairobi Herbarium. An aqueous extraction of leaves was prepared. Formalin test was carried out using 30 male albino wister mice to determine antinociceptive effect and the painful response at 0 – 10 min (Early) and 15 – 60 min (late phase). Acetylsalicylate at dose of 100 mg/Kg was used as a positive control. The dose significantly (p<0.05) reduced the time spent in pain behavior in both phases hence indicating that the plant posses antinociceptive activity. It’s concluded that Vernonia hymenolepis possesses analgesic property.

Keywords: Vernonia hymenolepis, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antinociceptive.

Onzago, RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Nduhiu JG.  2014.  Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and toxicity of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich) traditionally used for toothache in Kenya. The Journal of Phytopharmacology 2014; 3(1): 22-28. Abstractevaluation_of_antimicrobial_activity_and_toxicity_of_vernonia_hymenolepis.pdfevaluation_of_antimicrobial_activity_and_toxicity_of_vernonia_hymenolepis.pdf

Aim: The main aim of the study was to ascertain the antimicrobial properties and safety of Vernonia hymenolepis leaves to validate its use in treatment of toothache. Materials and Methods: The Leaves were collected from Trans Nzoia County, shade dried, ground and both organic and water extraction done. Minimum inhibitory concentration against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans was done. Cytotoxicity was done using Brine Shrimp lethality test and lethal concentration (LC50) determined using Finney computer program. The Oral Acute Toxicity Testing (ATC method) was performed as per Organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD) guideline. Result and Discussion: The results showed that the aqueous extract had an inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus and had no significant effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans at concentration of 400 mg/ml. The organic extract had inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus at a dose of 100 mg/ml and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli both at a dose of 400 mg/ ml, Bacillus cereus at a dose of 200 mg/ml and Candida albicans at 50 mg/ml. This study has shown that the plant extracts has a moderate Cytotoxicity with the LC50 (μg /ml) of 491.8 (μg /ml) and 481.7 (μg /ml) for water and organic extract respectively. Acute oral toxicity ATC method showed that the plant extracts in both preparations were not toxic even at a high dose of 2000 mg/kg. Conclusion: It’s concluded that Vernonia hymenolepis possesses antimicrobial activity and is not toxic.
Keywords: Vernonia hymenolepis, Antimicrobial activity, Cytotoxicity, In-vitro.

Kavoi, BM, Plendl J, Makanya AN, Ochieng’ S, Kiama SG.  2014.  Effects of anticancer drug docetaxel on the structure and functionof the rabbit olfactory mucosa. Tissue and Cell. Abstract

Docetaxel (DCT) is an anticancer drug which acts by disrupting microtubule dynamics in the highly mitoticcancer cells. Thus, this drug has a potential to affect function and organization of tissues exhibiting highcellular turnover. We investigated, in the rabbit, the effects of a single human equivalent dose (6.26 mg/kg,i.v.) of DCT on the olfactory mucosa (OM) through light and electron microscopy, morphometry, Ki-67immunostaining, TUNEL assay and the buried food test for olfactory sensitivity. On post-exposure days(PED) 5 and 10, there was disarrangement of the normal cell layering in the olfactory epithelium (OE),apoptotic death of cells of the OE, Bowman’s glands and axon bundles, and the presence (including onPED 3) of blood vessels in the bundle cores. A decrease in bundle diameters, olfactory cell densitiesand cilia numbers, which was most significant on PED 10 (49.3%, 63.4% and 50%, respectively), was alsoevident. Surprisingly by PED 15, the OM regained normal morphology. Furthermore, olfactory sensitivitydecreased progressively until PED 10 when olfaction was markedly impaired, and with recovery from theimpairment by PED 15. These observations show that DCT transiently alters the structure and functionof the OM suggesting a high regenerative potential for this tissue.
© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

D.W., G, Mbugua PN, B. K, Kiama SG.  2014.  Effect of Supplementation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal in Broiler Chicken Feed. International Journal of Poultry Science . 13 (4): 208-213, 2014 Abstracteffect_of_supplementation_of_moringa_oleifera_leaf_mela_in_broiler_chicken_feed.pdf

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing Moringa oleifera leaf meal
(MOLM) at different levels in broiler chicken. Broiler starter and finisher diets were formulated using raw
materials obtained from local feed manufacturers. MOLM was first analyzed for crude protein and then added
to diets at levels of 0% (T1), 7.5% (T2), 7.5% (T3) (without Methionine and lysine), 15 (T4) and 30% (T5). Two
hundred (200) day old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into the 5 treatment groups with 4 replicates
of 10 birds each and the diets introduced. The feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), weight gain, lipid
profile, abdominal fat pad and feed digestibility were determined. The MOLM crude protein level was 23.33%.
The weight gain was significantly different between the various diets with the highest weight gain being in
T1 at 1464 and the lowest in diet T5 at 500. MOLM supplementation at levels above 7.5% decreased the feed
intake and dry matter digestibility. The abdominal fat pad (AFP) was significantly higher in T1 compared to
T2, T4 and T5. The males had a significantly high levels of High density lipids (HDL) than females in T2, T3
and T4 (p<0.05). The yellow colour of the carcass increased with the increased levels of MOLM. It was
concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) was well tolerated and can only be included in the feed
to levels of up to 7.5% as higher levels affected weight gain, feed intake and digestibility. Further studies on
the yellowing of the carcass, its quality and acceptability by consumers is needed.
Key words: Moringa oleifera leaf meal, broiler chicken, feed intake, weight gain, abdominal fat pad, feed
digestibility

Ochwang’i, DO, Kimwele CN, Oduma JA, Gathumbi PK, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG.  2014.  Medicinal plants used in treatment and management of cancer in Kakamega County, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 151(3, 12 February 2014):1040–1055. Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance

Traditional medicine plays a critical role in treatment of chronic debilitating and life threatening conditions and diseases. Cancer is one such condition whose therapeutic intervention is commonly through inexpensive traditional herbal remedies. Increasingly industrialised societies are developing drugs and chemotherapeutics from these traditional herbal plants. Plant biogeography determines the abundance and availability of medicinal plants which in turn determine their use by local communities. The present study was carried out in Kakamega County of Kenya to identify and document medicinal plants used for treatment and management of cancer states by communities living adjacent to Kakamega Tropical rainforest of Kakamega County, Kenya.

Materials and methods

An ethnobotanical survey was done using semi-structured questionnaires administered to 32 randomly selected herbalists from Kakamega County.

Results and discussion

Sixty five (65) plants of 59 genera and 32 families were identified as candidates in therapeutic intervention against cancer states. Most commonly cited plant species were Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. ssp. nilotica (Seem), Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze, Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex poir, Prunus africana (Hook. f.) kalkman, Cyphostemma serpens (A. Rich), Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don and Aloe volkensii Engl. The following were documented for the first time; Aeschynomene abyssinica (A. Rich.) Vatke, Synsepalum cerasiferum (welw.) T. D penn., Albizia coriaria Welw. ex Oliv., Aloe volkensii Engl. Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill, Croton macrostachyus Delile, Cyphostemma serpens (A. Rich), Dicliptera laxata C.B. Clarke, Ekebergia capensis Sparrm., Gardenia volkensii K. schum. ssp. volkensii, Glycine wightii (wight & Arn.), Ocimum gratissimum Suave, Olea hotcsh spp. hochstetteri, Pavetta abyssinica Fresen., Phyllanthus fischeri Pax, Psydrax schimperiana (A. Rich), Rhus vulgaris Meikle, Senna didymobotyra (Fresen.) Irwin and Barneby, Solanecio nandensis (S. Moore) C. Jeffrey, Solanum mauritianum Scop, Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. ssp. nilotica (Seem), Spermacoce princea (K. Schum.) Verdc., Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten, Tragia brevipes Pax and Zanthoxylum gilletii (De Wild.) P.G.Waterman. The most frequently used plant parts were fresh or dried leaves and stem barks. Administration to patients was almost exclusively oral, with the exceptions being topical application especially for breast cancer and skin sarcomas.

Conclusions

This study identified diverse medicinal plants used in therapeutic and management intervention against cancer by communities living adjacent to Kakamega Tropical Rainforest. The primary mode of administration was oral.

Kaingu, CK, Mbaria J, Oduma JA, Kiama SG.  2014.  Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants traditionally used in Tana River County for management of illnesses.. Asian Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine 0 2 (0 2 ); 201 4 ; 0 1 - 05. Abstract

Aim of the study: The objective of the study was to identify and document medicinal plants traditionally used by people of Tana River County, Kenya for the management of various ailments. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in March 2012. Information was gathered from 80 traditional practitioners who lived and practiced in Garsen, Itsowe and Ngao Subdivisions of Tana River using semi-structured questionnaires and focused group discussion. Voucher specimen of cited plants were collected and deposited at the university of Nairobi herbarium. Results: A total of 31 plants distributed in 25 families were identified. The most popular plant species were eleven and were used for the management of pneumonia, arthritis, kidney problems, fibroids, typhoid, breast cancer, tooth ache, malaria, diabetis, convulsions, stomach ache, constipation, poisoning, cholera, diarrhea, mastitis, migraine, tonsilitis, ulcers, asthma, high blood pressure, urinary incontinence, body warts, milk letdown and as immune boosters. Conclusion: The use of herbs is still very common amongst Tana River inhabitants and the healers still rely largely on naturally growing plant species in their locality. Furthermore, the documented medicinal plants can be used as a basis for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Keywords: medicinal plants, indigenous management of illnesses Tana River.

Nasimolo, J, Kiama SG, Gathumbi PK, Makanya AN, Kagira JM.  2014.  Erythrina abyssinica prevents meningoencephalitis in chronic Trypanosoma brucei brucei mouse model. Metabolic Brain Disease . Abstracterythrina_abyssinica_prevents_meningoe.pdfWebsite

Human African trypanosomiasis is prevalent in Sub-sahara African countries that lie between 14° North and 29° south of the equator. Sixty million people are at risk of infection. Trypanosoma brucei gambesience occurs in West and Central Africa while Trypanosoma brucei rhodesience occurs in East and Southern Africa. The neurological stage of the disease is characterized by neuroinflammation. About 10 % of patients treated with the recommended drug, melarsoprol develop post treatment reactive encephalopathy, which is fatal in 50 % of these patients, thus melarsoprol is fatal in 5 % of all treated patients. This study was aimed at establishing the potential activity of Erythrina abyssinica in reducing neuroinflammation following infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Swiss white mice were divided into ten groups, two control groups and eight infected groups. Infected mice received either methanol or water extract of Erythrina abyssinica at 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight. Parasite counts were monitored in peripheral circulation from the third day post infection up to the end of the study. Brains were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Following infection, trypanosomes were observed in circulation 3 days post-infection, with the parasitaemia occurring in waves. In the cerebrum, typical brain pathology of chronic trypanosomiasis was reproduced. This was exhibited as astrocytosis, perivascular cuffing and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the neuropil. However, mice treated with Erythrina abyssinica water extract exhibited significant reduction in perivascular cuffing, lymphocytic infiltration and astrocytosis in the cerebrum. The methanol extract did not have a significant difference compared to the non-treated group. This study provides evidence of anti-inflammatory properties of Erythrina abyssinica and may support its wide use as a medicinal plant by various communities in Kenya.

2013

Ochwang’i, D, Kimwele C, Kiama SG, Rice N.  2013.  Transcriptional regulation of Rat Endothelial Nitric Oxide Promoter in Pulmonary. Abstract

Nitric oxide levels may exert control on the persistence of pulmonary myofibroblasts cells in pulmonary fibrosis. This study examined the regulation of NO levels by transcription factors that influence the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS3) gene expression. Using a pGL3-Basic vector plasmid DNA, rat and human eNOS3 gene promoters were inserted upstream of a luciferase reporter gene and cloned in competent E. coli cells (DH5α). Transfection assays were performed and the cells treated with potential regulators of eNOS3 gene. Promoter activity of eNOS3 gene was assayed using the Dual Luciferase reporter gene assay. The results indicated that the rat NOS3 promoter was active in the cells with the human NOS3 promoter showing little or no activity.The results demonstrated that transforming growth factor-β ,EGTA and lipopolysaccharide up regulated transcriptional activity while Phorbol 12-myristate 13- acetate, 23187 and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, suppressed eNOS3 transcriptional activity. Treatment with Nw-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, had no effect on the gene expression. The results of this study demonstrates that high concentrations of Nitric Oxide (NO) inhibit NOS3 gene activity hence an enhanced expression of eNOS in response to pharmacological interventions using some transcriptional factors from these study could provide protection against interstitial pulmonary.

Kaingu, CK, Oduma JA, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG.  2013.  Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants Used For the Management of Male Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility in Tana River County, Kenya. Abstract

Sexual dysfunction afflicts 10% of men of all ages, ethnicities and cultural background. In Tana River County a large percentage of reproductive health ailments are managed by traditional healers. Unfortunately, in traditional medicine practice, there is no documentation and information is passed on verbally from generation to generation. The aim of this study therefore was to identify and document plants that are used for the management of male sexual dysfunctions and infertility in Tana River County. An ethno botanical survey was carried out using structured questionnaires. Nineteen plants belonging to 15 genera and 13 families were reportedly used to treat hypoactive sex drive, manage erectile dysfunction/ impotence and treat male infertility. The plant remedies described and documented in this study represent valuable baseline data on indigenous knowledge, upon which further research can be based. Future scientific research into the efficacy and safe use of the herbs could then prove very useful to herbal medicine practitioners and researchers and will contribute immensely towards future conservation efforts of both the plants and the indigenous knowledge.

Kaluwa, CK, Oduma JA, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG.  2013.  Medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of female reproductive health dysfunction in Tana River County, Kenya. Abstract

Abstract
Reproductive dysfunction is a major health concern amongst the inhabitants of Tana River County. An ethno botanical study was conducted in Garsen, Itsowe and Ngao sub divisions of Tana River County to document the utilization of medicinal plants for the management of female reproductive ailments. The target population was practicing herbalists from Pokomo, Ormo and Giryama communities in the study area. Structured questionnaires and focused group discussions were used to collect data. Forty eight plant species distributed in 40 genera and 29 families were documented as being important for the management of pregnancy related complications, menstrual disorders, infertility, fibroids and as contraceptives. The species most frequently cited by the herbalists were fourteen. Fifty two percent of the plant species were probably being mentioned for the first time as being useful in reproductive health management. In conclusion, Tana River has a pool of TMPs with a wealth of indigenous knowledge that needs to be exploited. The plants used to treat dysmenorrhea for example may be important analgesic agents that need further investigation while those with anti-fertility properties may contain steroidal phyto chemical compounds. Such species therefore need further investigation to establish their efficacy and mechanism of action.

Keywords medicinal plants, female reproductive ailments, Tana River, Kenya

Ochwang’i, D, Kimwele C, Kiama SG, Rice N.  2013.  Transcriptional regulation of Rat Endothelial Nitric Oxide Promoter in Pulmonary Myofibroblasts cells and its implications in Pulmonary Fibrosis. Abstract

Background: Nitric oxide (NO) levels may exert control on the persistence of pulmonary myofibroblast cells in
pulmonary fibrosis.
Objective: This study set out to examine the regulation of NO levels by transcription factors that influence the
expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS3) gene.
Methods: Using a pGL3-Basic vector plasmid DNA, rat and human eNOS3 gene promoters were inserted upstream of a luciferase reporter gene and cloned in competent E. coli cells (DH5α). Transfection assays were performed and the cells treated with potential regulators of eNOS3 gene. Promoter activity of eNOS3 gene was assayed using the Dual Luciferase reporter gene assay.
Results: The results indicated that the rat NOS3 promoter was active in the cells, with the human NOS3 promoter showing little or no activity. The results demonstrated that transforming growth factor-β, EGTA and
lipopolysaccharide up-regulated transcriptional activity while Phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate, 23187 and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, suppressed eNOS3 transcriptional activity. Treatment with Nw-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester had no effect on the gene expression.
Discussion: The results of this study demonstrates that high concentrations of NO inhibit NOS3 gene activity, hence an enhanced expression of eNOS in response to pharmacological interventions using some transcriptional factors from these study could provide protection against interstitial pulmonary.
Key words: Nitric oxide, transcription, NOS3 gene promoter, pulmonary fibrosis

A KeSoBAP Publication ©2013.
All rights reserved. ISSN 2303-9841

2012

Gakuya, DW;, Kiama SG;, Mbaria JM;, Mbugua PN;, Gathumbi PK;, Mathiu M.  2012.  The Potential Use Of Moringa Oleifera As Poultry Feed Supplement In Kenya..
Kavoi, BM, Makanya AN, Kiama SG.  2012.  Anticancer drug vinblastine sulphate induces transient morphological changes on the olfactory mucosa of the rabbit.. Abstract2012.anticancer_drug_vinblastine_sulphate_induces_transient_morphological_changes_on_the_olfactory_mucosa_of_the_rabbit..pdf

Vinblastine sulphate (VBS) is an anticancer drug that acts by disrupting microtubule dynamics of highly mitotic tissue cells. The consequences of VBS on the olfactory mucosa (OM), a tissue with high mitotic numbers, are not clearly understood. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to determine the structural changes that may be produced on the rabbit OM by VBS. Following a single dose (0.31 mg/kg) of this drug, the structure of the mucosa was greatly altered on the first 3-5 days. The alteration was characterized by disarrangement of the normal layering of nuclei of the epithelia, degeneration of axonal bundles, occurrence of blood vessels within the bundles, localized death of cells of Bowman's glands and glandular degeneration. Surprisingly on or after day 7 and progressively to day 15 post-exposure, the OM was observed to regenerate and acquire normal morphology, and the vessels disappeared from the bundles. Relative to control values, bundle diameters, olfactory cell densities and cilia numbers decreased to as low as 53.1, 75.2 and 71.4%, respectively, on day 5. Volume density for the bundles, which was 28.6% in controls, decreased to a lowest value of 16.8% on day 5. In contrast, the volume density for the blood vessels was significantly lower in controls (19.9%) than in treated animals at day 2 (25.8%), day 3 (34.3%) and day 5 (31.5%). These findings suggest that the changes induced on the rabbit OM by VBS are transient and that regenerative recovery leads to the restoration of the normal structure of the mucosa.

© 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
PMID:
22443492
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Kavoi, BM, Makanya AN, Plendl J, Kiama SG.  2012.  Morphofunctional adaptations of the olfactory mucosa in postnatally developing rabbits.. Abstract2012_.morphofunctional_adaptations_of_the_olfactory_mucosa_in_postnatally_developing_rabbits..pdf

Rabbits are born blind and deaf and receive unusually limited maternal care. Consequently, their suckling young heavily rely on the olfactory cue for nipple attachment. However, the postnatal morphofunctional adaptations of olfactory mucosa (OM) are not fully elucidated. To clarify on the extent and the pattern of refinement of the OM following birth in the rabbit, morphologic and morphometric analysis of the mucosa were done at neonatal (0-1 days), suckling (2 weeks), weanling (4 weeks), and adult (6-8 months) stages of postnatal development. In all the age groups, the basic components of the OM were present. However, proliferative activity of cells of the mucosal epithelium decreased with increasing age as revealed by Ki-67 immunostaining. Diameters of axon bundles, packing densities of olfactory cells, and cilia numbers per olfactory cell knob increased progressively with age being 5.5, 2.1, and 2.6 times, respectively, in the adult as compared with the neonate. Volume fraction values for the bundles increased by 5.3% from birth to suckling age and by 7.4% from weaning to adulthood and the bundle cores were infiltrated with blood capillaries in all ages except in the adult where such vessels were lacking. The pattern of cilia projection from olfactory cell knobs also showed age-related variations, that is, arose as a tuft from the tips of the knobs in neonates and sucklings and in a radial pattern from the knob bases in weanlings and adults. These morphological changes may be attributed to the high olfactory functional demand associated with postnatal development in the rabbit.

Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Seifert, AW, Kiama SG, Seifert MG, Goheen JR, Palmer TM, Maden M.  2012.  Skin shedding and tissue regeneration in African spiny mice (Acomys).. Abstract2012.skin_hedding_and_tissue_regeneration_in_african_spiny_mice_acomys..pdf

Abstract
Evolutionary modification has produced a spectrum of animal defence traits to escape predation, including the ability to autotomize body parts to elude capture. After autotomy, the missing part is either replaced through regeneration (for example, in urodeles, lizards, arthropods and crustaceans) or permanently lost (such as in mammals). Although most autotomy involves the loss of appendages (legs, chelipeds, antennae or tails, for example), skin autotomy can occur in certain taxa of scincid and gekkonid lizards. Here we report the first demonstration of skin autotomy in Mammalia (African spiny mice, Acomys). Mechanical testing showed a propensity for skin to tear under very low tension and the absence of a fracture plane. After skin loss, rapid wound contraction was followed by hair follicle regeneration in dorsal skin wounds. Notably, we found that regenerative capacity in Acomys was extended to ear holes, where the mice exhibited complete regeneration of hair follicles, sebaceous glands, dermis and cartilage. Salamanders capable of limb regeneration form a blastema (a mass of lineage-restricted progenitor cells) after limb loss, and our findings suggest that ear tissue regeneration in Acomys may proceed through the assembly of a similar structure. This study underscores the importance of investigating regenerative phenomena outside of conventional model organisms, and suggests that mammals may retain a higher capacity for regeneration than was previously believed. As re-emergent interest in regenerative medicine seeks to isolate molecular pathways controlling tissue regeneration in mammals, Acomys may prove useful in identifying mechanisms to promote regeneration in lieu of fibrosis and scarring.

2011

Wambugu, SN, Mathiu PM, Gakuya DW, Kanui TI, Kabasa JD, Kiama SG.  2011.  Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya.. Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage hronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal medical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains.
CONCLUSIONS:
The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID:
21782014
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Nguta, JM, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Gakuya D, Kabasa JD, Kiama SG.  2011.  Ethnodiagnostic skills of the digo community for malaria: a lead to traditional bioprospecting.. Abstract

Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and
ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques.

PMID:
21738507

[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3125516

Wambugu, SN, MBAABU MP, Gakuya DW, Kanui TI, SG K.  2011.  Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 137, (2011) 945. Journal of Etnopharmacology. : Elsevier Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya

2010

Nguta, JM, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG.  2010.  Traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the South Coast community, Kenya.. Abstract

AIM OF THE STUDY:
This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.

METHODS:
Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey.

RESULTS:
The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae),
Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria.

CONCLUSIONS:
The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID:20600756
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ogeng'o, JA, Malek AA, Kiama SG.  2010.  Structural organisation of tunica intima in the aorta of the goat.. Abstract

The structural organisation of tunica intima in the aorta is important for its integrity, prediction, and diagnosis of atherosclerosis. The goat is a suitable model for cardiovascular studies, but the structure of its tunica intima is scarcely reported. This study, therefore, aimed to describe features of the goat aortic tunica intima by light and transmission electron microscopy. Sixteen healthy male domestic goats (capra hircus) aged between 6 and 24 months were used: 8 for light and 8 for electron microscopy. The animals were euthanised with sodium pentabarbitone 20mg/mL and fixed with 3% phosphate buffered glutaraldehyde. For light microscopy, specimens from various regions of the aorta were routinely processed for paraffin embedding and 7 mm sections stained with Mason's trichrome. Those for transmission electron microscopy were post fixed in osmium tetroxide, embedded in Durcupan, and ultrathin sections stained with uranyl acetate and counter stained with lead citrate. Endothelium comprises round and squamous cells,
linked to the subendothelial material by a simple and sometimes lamellated basement membrane. In the subendothelial zone, a heterogenous population of cells are connected with interlinked collagen and elastic fibres. Both cells and fibres are connected to the internal elastic lamina. The composite structure and interlinkages in the tunica intima permit unitary function and increase mechanical strength, thus enabling it to withstand haemodynamic stress.

PMID:
21154287
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ogeng'o, JA, Malek AK, Kiama SG.  2010.  Regional differences in aorta of goat (capra hircus).. Abstract

Regional differences in the aortic wall are important in explaining the physicomechanical properties and disease distribution in this artery. The goat is a suitable model for studying cardiovascular disease, but the regional features of its aorta are scarcely reported. The purpose of the study was therefore to describe the regional differences in the wall of its aorta. Sixteen healthy adult male domestic goats (capra hircus) were euthanised with intravenous sodium pentabarbitone and specimens obtained from the ascending, arch, each vertebral level of descending thoracic, and various segments of abdominal aorta. The specimens were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution and routinely processed for paraffin embedding. Seven micron thick sections were stained with Mason's Trichrome and Weigert Resorcin Fuchsin stains. Light microscopic examination revealed that the aortic wall consists of tunica intima comprising endothelium, subendothelial zone and internal elastic lamina, media, and adventitia. Endothelium comprises flat and round endotheliocytes. The population of round cells declines as the internal elastic lamina increases in prominence caudally. Tunica media in ascending, arch, and proximal thoracic aorta comprises two zones: namely a luminal elastic and adventitial musculo-elastic zone, in which muscle islands interrupt some elastic lamellae. These islands progressively diminish caudally until by the eleventh thoracic vertebra they are only patchy. Beyond this point and in the abdominal aorta they are absent and tunica media consists of regular concentric elastic lamellae. Tunica adventitia, on the other hand, increases in thickness and elastic fibre content caudally. Regional variations exist in all three layers of goat aorta. The nature of these differences suggests that they are related to haemodynamic factors. Furthermore, the variations may form the basis for regional differences in physicomechanical strength and disease distribution along the aorta.

PMID:
21120813
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Maina, JN, West JB, Orgeig S, Foot NJ, Daniels CB, Kiama SG, Gehr P, Mühlfeld C, Blank F, Müller L, Lehmann A, Brandenberger C, Rothen-Rutishauser B.  2010.  Recent advances into understanding some aspects of the structure and function of mammalian and avian lungs.. Abstract

Recent findings are reported about certain aspects of the structure and function of the mammalian and avian lungs that include (a) the architecture of the air capillaries (ACs) and the blood capillaries (BCs); (b) the pulmonary blood capillary circulatory dynamics; (c) the adaptive molecular, cellular, biochemical, compositional, and developmental characteristics of the surfactant system; (d) the mechanisms of the translocation of fine and ultrafine particles across the airway epithelial barrier; and (e) the particle-cell interactions in the pulmonary airways. In the lung of the Muscovy duck Cairina moschata, at least, the ACs are rotund structures that are interconnected by narrow cylindrical sections, while the BCs comprise segments that are almost as long as they are wide. In contrast to the mammalian pulmonary BCs, which are highly compliant, those of birds practically behave like rigid tubes. Diving pressure has been a very powerful directional selection force that has influenced phenotypic changes in surfactant composition and function in lungs of marine mammals. After nanosized particulates are deposited on the respiratory tract of healthy human subjects, some reach organs such as the brain with potentially serious health implications. Finally, in the mammalian lung, dendritic cells of the pulmonary airways are powerful agents in engulfing deposited particles, and in birds, macrophages and erythrocytes are ardent phagocytizing cellular agents. The morphology of the lung that allows it to perform different functions-including gas exchange, ventilation of the lung by being compliant, defense, and secretion of important pharmacological factors-is reflected in
its "compromise design."

PMID:
20687843
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Wambugu, SN, Towett PK, Kiama SG, Abelson KS, Kanui TI.  2010.  Effects of opioids in the formalin test in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy's spekii).. Abstract

Little is known about analgesia in lower vertebrates such as the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy'sspekii), yet of late they are increasingly being adopted as pets. The effects of morphine (5, 7.5,10 and 20 mg/kg), pethidine (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and naloxone (5 mg/kg) on nociception induced by the formalin test (12.5%, 100 microL) were studied in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Formalin induced a monophasic limb retraction behavioural response and its duration was recorded. The behaviour lasted for 16.4 +/- 0.8 min. Morphine (7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and pethidine (20 and 50 mg/kg) induced significant decrease in the duration of limb retraction in the formalin test. The anti-nociceptive effects were naloxone (5 mg/kg) reversible. The data suggest that the formalin test is a good test for studying nociception and anti-nociception in tortoises and
that the opioidergic system plays a role in the control of nociception in these animals.

PMID:
20646195
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Kavoi, B, Makanya A, Hassanali J, Carlsson HE, Kiama S.  2010.  Comparative functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in the domestic dog and sheep.. Abstract

Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman's glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob were more numerous in the dog (19 ± 3) compared to the sheep (7 ± 2)
(p<0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3 ± 10.3 μm) than those of the sheep (50.6 ± 6.8 μm), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5 ± 2.9 μm in the dog and 56.8 ± 3.1 μm in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
PMID: 20801626
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Nguta, JM, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG.  2010.  Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni, Kenya.. Abstract

Malaria is a serious cause of mortality globally. The disease is of regional concern in Africa and of national interest in Kenya due to its high morbidity and mortality as a result of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to many existing drugs such as chloroquine. Alternative medicine using herbal remedies are commonly used to treat malaria in Kenya. However, plants used in some rural areas in Kenya are not documented. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from plants. This study was conducted to document medicinal plants that are traditionally used by the Msambweni community of Kenyan South Coast to treat malaria, where the disease is endemic. Herbalists were interviewed by administration of semistructured questionnaires in order to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for the
treatment of malaria. Focused group discussions held with the herbalists supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Twenty-seven species of plants in 24 genera distributed in 20 families were reported to be used in this region for the treatment of malaria. Labiatae, Rutaceae and Liliaceae families had each eleven percent of the plant species reported and represented the species that are most commonly used. Thirteen plant species, namely; Aloe deserti Berger (Liliaceae), Launea cornuta (Oliv and Hiern) C. Jeffrey (Compositae), Ocimum bacilicum L. (Labiatae), Teclea simplicifolia (Eng) Verdoon (Rutaceae), Gerranthus lobatus (Cogn.) Jeffrey (Cucurbitaceae), Grewia hexaminta Burret. (Tiliaceae), Canthium glaucum Hiern. (Rubiaceae), Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae), Combretum padoides Engl and Diels (Combretaceae), Senecio syringitolius O. Hoffman. (Compositae), Ocimum suave Willd (Labiatae), Aloe macrosiphon Bak. (Liliaceae) and Laudolphia buchananii (Hall.f) Stapf. (Apocynaceae) are documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. These results become a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plant based antimalarial drugs.

Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID: 20096761
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2009

Ogeng’o, JA;, Malek AAK;, Kiama SG;, Olabu BO.  2009.  Muscle “islands” in the tunica media of the goat thoracic aorta.

2008

Wambugu, SN;, Kanui TI;, Towett PK;, Kiama SG;, Abelson K.  2008.  Nociception In Tortoises: The Formalin, Hot-plate And Acetic Acid Instillation Tests.
Wambugu, SN;, Towett, P.K.;, Kiama SG;, Abelson KSP;, Kanui TI.  2008.  Composition Of Nociceptive Afferents In The Trigeminal Nerve In The Marsh Terrapin (pelomedusa Subrufa)..
Kiama, SG, Adekunle JS, Maina JN.  2008.  Comparative in vitro study of interactions between particles and respiratory surface macrophages, erythrocytes, and epithelial cells of the chicken and the rat. . Journal of Anatomy 213:452-63. : Elsevier Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya

2007

Kipkemoi, TP;, Wambugu SN;, Joakim D;, Kiama SG;, Kanui TI.  2007.  Laboratory management of captive hingeback tortoises.

2006

Kiama, SG, Maina JN, Bhattacharjee, Weyrauch KD.  2006.  Functional morphology of the pecten oculi in the nocturnal spotted eagle owl (Bubo bubo africanus), and the diurnal black kite (Milvus migrans) and domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus. Abstract

the pecten oculi is a highly vascularized and pigmented organ that overlies the optic disc and projects into the vitreous body in the avian eye. First reported over 300 years ago, its function(s) remains a puzzle to ornithologists, ophthalmologists and anatomists. Morphometric study of this unique organ was undertaken in birds exhibiting apparently different visual acuities, namely two species of diurnal birds (the ground-dwelling domestic fowl Gallus gallus var. domesticus and a highly active predator bird, the black kite (Milvus migrans) and a nocturnal bird (the spotted-eagle owl Bubo bubo africanus). The volume of the owl's eye was 4.8 and 2.2 times larger than that of the fowl and the kite, respectively. However, the pecten of the fowl consisted of more pleats (16–18) compared to the kite (12–13) and the owl (5–6). The volume of the pecten of the kite was 1.4 and 2.7 times larger than that of the fowl and the owl, respectively (P < 0.05). Similarly, the surface area of the pecten of the kite was 2.6 and 4 times larger than that of the fowl and owl, respectively (P < 0.05). The volume density of blood vessels (lumen and wall) in the pecten of the kite, fowl and owl comprised 67.7%, 66.9% and 62.6%, respectively, the pigmented tissue constituting the rest. Both the volume density and the volume of the blood in the pecten were higher in the diurnal birds (kite, fowl) than the owl (P < 0.05). The surface area of the capillary luminal surface was 1.7 and 5.3 times higher in the kite than in the fowl and the owl, respectively (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the functional morphology of the pecten correlates with the life-style of the bird and with functional need, and lends further support to the nutritive role of the pecten.

GITAHI, DRKIAMASTEPHEN.  2006.  Kiama S. G. (2006). Evolving trends in veterinary education. .. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 6th to 8th September 2006.. : Elsevier Abstract
Formal veterinary education began in the Western world in the 1763 in Lyon, 1767 in Vienna and 1791 in London. These institutions were established in an effort to reduce the severe economic impact of animal diseases, particularly, rinderpest. However over time the profession has evolved in line with emerging issues such as animal welfare, food safety, the environment and advancement in information computer technology. Furthermore, consumers and clients are increasingly well informed, and the professionals no longer have a monopoly of knowledge in their area. Moreover, the hitherto assumption that an initial degree would confers one unlimited, life-long license to practice without any need for continuing education is being questioned. Furthermore, there is continued pressure on university resources, as well as problems in attracting competent clinical staff to teach in areas of specialization and, the universities are being expected to achieve more and more with fewer resources. The structure of the profession is also gradually changing with a move towards more specialist practices, but with mixed practice still an important employer of veterinary surgeons in rural areas. In addition, there is growing awareness that the amount of veterinary knowledge is expanding all the time and it is not possible anymore, for undergraduates to achieve high levels of expertise in all areas of the veterinary profession during the 4 to 6 years available for training. These issues have continued to model the evolution of the veterinary education. The evolution has mainly focused on 6 main areas namely, review on admission criteria and curriculum review, adoption of new teaching methods, collaboration with private clinicians, introduction of apprenticeship and mandatory continuing veterinary education. This paper will elaborate on the evolving trends in veterinary education as defined by each of
GITAHI, DRKIAMASTEPHEN.  2006.  Obregon C., Rothen-Rutishauser B., Kiama S.G., Gehr P., Nicod L. P.(2006). Exovesicles from human activated dendritic cells (DCS) fuse with resting DCS allowing them to present allo-antigens.American Journal of Pathology 169:2127-2136. Journal of Anatomy 213:452-63. : Elsevier Abstract

Dendritic cells (DCs) can release microvesicles, but the latter's numbers, size, and fate are unclear. Fluorescently labeled DCs were visualized by laser-scanning microscopy. Using a Surpass algorithm, we were able to identify and quantify per cell several hundred microvesicles released from the surface of stimulated DCs. We show that most of these microvesicles are not of endocytic origin but result from budding of the plasma membrane, hence their name, exovesicle. Using a double vital staining, we show that exovesicles isolated from activated DCs can fuse with the membrane of resting DCs, thereby allowing them to present alloantigens to lymphocytes. We concluded that, within a few hours from their release, exovesicles may amplify local or distant adaptive immunological response.

GITAHI, DRKIAMASTEPHEN.  2006.  Kiama S. G., Dreher D., Cochand L., Kok M., Obregon C., Nicod L. P.,Gehr P. (2006). Host cell responces of Salmonella typhimurium infected human dendritic cells. Immunology and Cell Biology 84:475-481.. Journal of Anatomy 213:452-63. : Elsevier Abstract

Live attenuated Salmonella are attractive vaccine candidates for mucosal application because they induce both mucosal immune responses and systematic immune responses. After breaking the epithelium barrier, Salmonella typhimurium is found within dendritic cells (DC) in the Peyer's patches. Although there are abundant data on the interaction of S. typhimurium with murine epithelial cells, macrophages and DC, little is known about its interaction with human DC. Live attenuated S. typhimurium have recently been shown to efficiently infect human DC in vitro and induce production of cytokines. In this study, we have analysed the morphological consequences of infection of human DC by the attenuated S. typhimurium mutant strains designated PhoPc, AroA and SipB and the wild-type strains of the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA), ATCC 14028 and ATCC C53, by electron microscopy at 30 min, 3 h and 24 h after exposure. Our results show that genetic background of the strains profoundly influence DC morphology following infection. The changes included (i) membrane ruffling; (ii) formation of tight or spacious phagosomes; (iii) apoptosis; and (iv) spherical, pedunculated membrane-bound microvesicles that project from the plasma membrane. Despite the fact that membrane ruffling was much more pronounced with the two virulent strains, all mutants were taken up by the DC. The microvesicles were induced by all the attenuated strains, including SipB, which did not induce apoptosis in the host cell. These results suggest that Salmonella is internalized by human DC, inducing morphological changes in the DC that could explain immunogenicity of the attenuated strains.

GITAHI, DRKIAMASTEPHEN.  2006.  Kiama S. G., Maina J. N., Bhattacharjee J., Mwangi D. K., Macharia R. G., Weyrauch K. D. (2006). The Morphology of the pectin oculi of the ostrich, Struthio camelus. Annals of Anatomy 188:516-528. Journal of Anatomy 213:452-63. : Elsevier Abstract
The pecten oculi is a structure peculiar to the avian eye. Three morphological types of pecten oculi are recognized: conical type, vaned type and pleated type. The pleated type has been well studied. However, there exists only scanty data on the morphology of the latter two types of pectens. The structure of the vaned type of pecten of the ostrich, Struthio camelus was investigated with light and electron microscope. The pecten of this species consists of a vertical primary lamella that arises from the optic disc and supports 16-19 laterally located secondary lamellae, which run from the base and confluence at the apex. Some of the secondary lamellae give rise to 2 or 3 tertiary lamellae. The lamellae provide a wide surface, which supports 2-3 Layers of blood capillaries. Pigmentation is highest at the distal ends of the secondary and tertiary Lamella where blood capillaries are concentrated and very scanty on the primary and the proximal ends of the secondary lamella where the presence of capillaries is much reduced. In contrast to the capillaries of the pleated pecten, the endothelium of the capillaries in the pecten of the ostrich exhibits very few microvilli. These observations suggest that the morphology of the pecten of the ostrich, a flightless ratite bird is unique to the pleated pecten and is designed to meet the balance between optimal vision and large surface area for blood supply and yet ensuring it is kept firmly erect within the vitreous.

2005

GITAHI, DRKIAMASTEPHEN.  2005.  Mwangi D. K., Kiama S. G. (2005). Stereological methods for estimation of total number of particles in an organ. The Kenya Veterinarian 29: 33-36. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 6th to 8th September 2006.. : Elsevier

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