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ADUDA JO. "Test for Investor Rationality for Companies Listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, Vol 7, No. 8, 827-840. David Publishing Company; 2011.test_for_investor_rationality_for_companies_listed_at_the_nse.pdf
Aduda J, Weke P, Ngare P, Mwaniki J. "Financial time series modeling of trends and patterns in the energy markets." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2016;7(2):64-68. AbstractWebsite

Precise recognition of a time series path is important to policymakers, statisticians, economists, traders, hedgers and speculators alike. The correct time series path is also a key ingredient in pricing models. This study uses daily futures prices of crude oil and other distillate fuels. This paper considers the statistical properties of energy futures and spot prices and investigates the trends that underlie the price dynamics in order to gain further insights into possible nuances of price discovery and energy market dynamics. The family of ARMA-GARCH models was explored.
The trends depict time-varying variability and persistence of oil price shocks. The return series conform to a constant mean model with GARCH variance.

Aduda BOC, Egbe PDDDAM, Musembi RJ, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Kaduki KA, Simiyu J, Agacho A, Nyongesa F. "ANSOLE Mini-Symposium in Kenya (AMSK 2013).". Submitted. Abstract
Aduda BO. "ENERGY DEMAND, USAGE AND CONSEQUENCES: THE KENYAN CASE.". In: Conclave of Afro Asia Young Scientists. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research; Jakukur, Bangalore-560 64, India; 2010. Abstract

Kenya is a developing country aspiring to gain the status of an industrialized country by the year 2030. In pursuit of this political goal various policies and targets are being proposed and pursued. It has thus become very apparent that the stated goal would not be achieved unless there is sufficient exploitable energy available to meet the anticipated demand. To this end various options such as nuclear energy, exploration of oil, exploitation of the geothermal energy reservoirs, building of windmills for energy generation, solar energy, and biofuels are proposed. We discuss Kenya’s present situation and preparedness with respect to the stated goal and how these present and proposed sources of energy have impacted/will impact on the environment and climate and development.

ADUDA JO. "Corporate Governance Practices, and the Relationship between Corporate Governance and Financial Performance among Broadcasting Stations in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Business and Management. Nairobi: AJBUMA publishing; 2012.
Aduda J, Kiragu P, Ndwiga JM. "The Relationship between Agency Banking and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2014;2(4):97-117. Abstractthe_relationship_between_agency_banking_and_financial__performance_of_commercial_banks_in_kenya.pdf

Banking agents are usually equipped with a combination of point-of-sale (POS)card reader, mobile phone, barcode scanner to scan bills for bill payment transactions, Personal Identification Number(PIN) pads, and sometimes personal computers (PCs) that connect with the bank’s server using a personal dial-up or other data connection. This research used the descriptive design method using secondary data gathered from the commercial banks in Kenya that had adopted agency banking in Kenya. The population of the study was the 10 commercial banks in Kenya that had adopted agency banking by the end of 2012 namely Equity Bank, Co-operative Bank, KCB Bank, Post Bank, Family Bank, Chase Bank ,Consolidated Bank, Diamond Trust Bank, Citibank and NIC Bank. Annual reports on individual banks’ financial performance were used to extract financial performance indicators. CBK’s annual report and supervisory reports were also used to establish the number of agents registered and the total transactional value conducted through the agents. The variable of interests were the cash withdrawal and deposit transactions done through agents, number of active agents, return on assets, cost to income ratio and staff cost to revenue ratio. JEL classification numbers: G24
Keywords: Agency Banking, Financial Performance and Kenya.

Aduda BO. "Material Science." Promotion of Science and Technology . 2006;XII(1):19-22. Abstract

In this short article we discuss what Material Science is, its scope, relevance to technological development, its present status in Kenya, and finally propose a way forward. Materials science has been defined as that study that focuses on the material property-structure relationship. It is concerned with how the nano- or micro- or macrostructure determines the various functional properties of the materials desired or of interest. Materials science thus deals with, in an interactive manner, processing, structure, properties, and performance of materials, a relationship which has been summarized as the Materials Science Tetrahedron. It is a multi-and transdisciplinary subject as it is intimately related to basic science subjects like applied physics, chemistry, biology and to various engineering disciplines such as mechanical, electrical, or civil, engineering.

ADUDA JO. "Foreign Exchange Reserves Risks and Management Strategies adopted by the Central Bank of Kenya.". In: African Journal of Business and Management. AJBUMA publishing; 2012.
Aduda BO. Nanotechnologies for Kenya’s Development. Silversprings Hotel, Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

The study, manipulation and design of materials and devices at level approaching atomic sizes has given rise to nanoscience and nanotechnology, with the former being concerned more with the new properties whereas the latter - nanotechnology focuses on new devices. The nanoscale science and technology involves and cuts across different disciplines. It is now recognized that science founded on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale is the new basis for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration, and therefore receiving heightened attention world over.

Arising from the current and potential impacts of nanoscience and nanotechnology in all facets of humanity – way of life, health and the environment, it is imperative that any country takes stock of the status of the two intertwined disciplines. For example, it is known that nanotechnology can improve efficiency in manufacturing, energy resources and utilization, reduce environmental impacts of industry and transportation, enhance healthcare, produce better pharmaceuticals, improve agriculture and food production, and expand the capabilities of information technologies. The level of preparedness of a country to create new knowledge, exploit it or absorb such, it will be seen depends on the synergistic relationships amongst all the stakeholders right from the beginning of the research, product development processes, and policy and legislative frameworks that protect the workers producing and consumers of such products.

A study of the Kenya’s situation reveals that so far there minimal understanding or appreciation of what nanoscience and nanotechnology are amongst the key stakeholders, and what their potential benefits are or would be. The teaching of and research in these areas and the accompanying infrastructure are weak and uncoordinated. The regulatory frameworks and policies governing, particularly the manufacturing processes of or nanoscale products are either nonexistent or very weak/inadequate.

Key words: Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, Research, Policies, Kenya

ADUDA JO. "MARKET REACTION TO STOCK SPLITS Empirical Evidence from the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2010.market_reaction_to_stock_split.pdf
Aduda BO, Opiyo N(ed.). "African Journal of Science and Technology.". 2000.Website
ADUDA JO. "The Relationship between Credit Risk Management and Profitability among the Commercial Banks in Kenya.". In: Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing. David Publishing Company; 2011.
Aduda B. O., S.M W, Ogacho A. A., J.M. M, R.J. M, Simiyu J. "Columnar and passivated nanoporous TiO2 based excitonic solar cell.". In: Paper presented at the US/Africa workshop on frontiers in Material Science. Abuja, Nigeria; 2007. Abstract

Excitonic solar cells which include organic, hybrid organic–inorganic and dye-sensitized cells (DSSCs) promise inexpensive, large-scale solar energy conversion devices. We report on the charge transport (electron drift mobility) sputter deposited TiO2 and surface photovoltage and photocurrent transients of alumina-passivated TiO2, and on the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized cells whose photoelectrodes are sputtered.

Aduma MM, Ouma G, Said MY, Wayumba GO, Omondi PA, Njino LW. "Potential Impacts of Temperature Projections on Selected Large Herbivores in Savanna Ecosystem of Kenya." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(1):5-26. Abstractpotential_impacts_of_temperature_projections_on_selected_large_herbivores_in_savanna_ecosystem_of_kenya.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Due to global land surface warming, severe temperature events are expected to occur more frequently and more extremely causing changes in biodiversity and altering movement and survival of large herbivores. There are increasing observations of escalating wildlife range losses worldwide. In this study, we investigated 15 large wild herbivores (4 migratory, 1 dispersing and 10 residents) and their potential range changes in relation to projected temperatures changes based on three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Previous studies of Kenyan savannah have shown that increases in temperature can reduce the densities of wildlife significantly and after certain thresholds the species can be lost in those landscapes. The range maps of the 15 species were developed from aerial censuses that have been conducted in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. We analysed temperature changes for the three RCPs for the periods 2030s, 2050s and 2070s. And based on the temperature threshold for each of the 15 species we analysed which wildlife range areas will be lost. Our results project that for the RCP 2.6, 3 out of the 15 species are projected to lose more than 50% of their range by the year 2030s, and 5 out 15 by 2050s and 4 of 15 by 2070s. The second climate scenario of RCP 4.5 projects that by 2030s, 3 species will lose more than 50% of their range, and in 2050s and 2070s 5 species. The RCP 8.5 which is the extreme scenario of temperature changes projects 5 species to lose their range by 50% in 2030s, 7 species by 2050s and 10 species by 2070s. The extent of range loss was different among species but was severe for buffalo, Thomson’s gazelle, waterbuck, and wildebeest which are also water dependent species.
However, the elephant, gerenuk, hartebeest, lesser kudu, and oryx are expected to retain most of their range in all the RCPs scenarios. These range contractions raise serious concerns about the future of wildlife in Kenyan savannah based on projected climate changes. And therefore, it is imperative the wildlife sector develops climate policies and plans that take into account the projected climate scenarios.

Adungo NI, Mahadevan S, Situbi AP, Khamala CPM, Mwangi RW, Oloo AJ. The importance of anopheles funestus in the transmission of malaria in Western Kenya.; 1992.
Adwet WM, Pant HJ, MANGALA MJ,... "Evaluation of hydraulic performance of an anaerobic pond using radiotracer technique." Applied Radiation and …. 2019. AbstractWebsite

A radiotracer investigation was carried out in a wastewater stabilization pond using radiotracer technique. Residence time distribution (RTD) of wastewater was measured using Iodine-131 as a radiotracer. The measured RTD was treated and mean residence time …

Adwok J;, Wolskee P. "Health psychology and health care interventions in sub-Saharan African countries.". 2012. Abstract

This paper examines the specialty of health psychology which is concerned with individual behaviours and lifestyles affecting physical health. The beneficial role of health psychology interventions in ameliorating the impact of emerging health care issues, in particular, the increasing prevalence of 'Western' diseases in Africans, is presented. The effect of behaviour and lifestyle on chronic illnesses such as cancer and hypertension, and the benefits of health psychology interventions on these illnesses, are discussed.

Adwok JA, Githaiga JW. "Wandering spleen presenting as a right hypochondrial mass and intestinal obstruction.". Submitted. Abstract

This is a case report of a 23 year old multiparous woman who presented with intestinal obstruction and a right hypochondrial mass. Laparatomy revealed an infarcted 1.4 Kg spleen in the right lumbar region compressing the ascending colon. There was also ileal volvulus around the splenic pedicle. This is probably the first documented case of wandering spleen in the right hypochondrium, presenting as right large bowel obstruction, to be reported in our region. Wandering spleen is a rare condition, often asymptomatic, but may present as an acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and rarely made. Laboratory tests are seldom useful, but imaging studies do assist. Up to 1971 only 350 cases had been reported in the western literature. Review of English literature from 1900 to 1991 reported only 51 cases in children. In our region 11 cases were reported in Uganda between 1968 and 1971. No other literature is available from our region. Clinical presentation, aetiology, investigation, and management of wandering spleen is discussed

Adwok J, Gichangi P, Otieno H. "Appendectomy at the Nairobi Hospital." Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. 1998;2:135-147.
Adwok JA. Stricture Of The Urethra. The Disease As Seen At The Kenyatta National Hospital Over A One Year Period, 1982 - 1983.; 1984. Abstract

A prospective study of seventy seven patients with urethral
strictures treated at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a period
of twelve months (1982-1983) was done. The age, tribal, and
aetiological incidencies were investigated. Various aspects of the
clinical presentation, investigation and treatment were also looked
Post-inflammatory strictures were significantly more than
post-traumatic and iatrogenic strictures. However, post-prostatectomy
strictures were not included with the later.
The lapse period following post-inflammatory strictures was,
about 5years on the avereqe , Orno-Dore quotes 18 years for a
Nigerian study done two decades ago for post-gonococcal strictures.
It was not possible to determine the initial cause of urethritis in this
study due to the fact that most patients had no cultures for the
organisms done at the time of infection. Some were treated at
dispensaries and previous medical records were unobtainable.
Data on tribal incidence could not be critically analysed
without bias due to the uneven distribution of the tribes around the
Nairobi area. Others live a few kilometers away and others hundreds

of kilometers.
Half of the urine cultures done were negative. The rest grew
gram negative organisms, mainly E. coli. No gonococci were isolated.
B.U.N. was elevated above normal in about one third of the patients;
Intravenous pyelograms were normal in four-fifths of the patients
investigated. Micturatingure throqrcmcdone in eleven patients showed
the majority of strictures to be in the posterior urethra.
Seventy-three percent of the patients were managed with
intermittent dilatations with good results. Urethroplasty was done in
23% and urethrotomy in 4% of the patients - urethroplasty was offered
more to the younger age group.
The need for proper health education to the public about this
'disease and its causes is emphasized. Suggestions for better management
of these patients are forwarded. Special stress on the benefits of
urethrotomy under vision for suitable patients is made. A critical review
of the various types of urethroplasty is also presented.

Adwok JA. "Treatment of thyroid cancer.". 1994. Abstract

The management of differentiated thyroid cancer remains controversial. A consecutive series of 234 thyroidectomies done by one surgeon in various Nairobi Hospitals from July 1990 to June 1993 were studied. 18 patients were operated on for thyroid cancer. The procedures ranged from lobectomy to total thyroidectomy. Young adults from 20-40 years of age were mainly affected, with a male/female sex ratio of 8:1. The immediate and subsequent morbidity of the operation of total thyroidectomy, in our opinion, overweighs its advantages of improved disease control. This is particularly so when low socio-economic standards lead to lack of compliance with replacement therapy.

AE Kurth, I Inwani WNONACOKCKARMF. "The Gender Context of HIV Risk and Pregnancy Goals in Western Kenya.". 2015.
AEO Otedo, GO Oyoo JOOCFOEOO. "Pyomyositis in HIV: A Series of 12 Cases." East African Medical Journal Vol.. 2013;90(12). AbstractWebsite

Background: Pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of the large skeletal muscles presenting with muscle pain and swelling. It is commonly seen in the tropics but is being recognised more in end-stage HIV/AIDS. In HIV-associated pyomyositis, leukocytosis and bacteraemia is rare due to deranged immune response. Surgical drainage, antibiotic treatment and HAART are the mainstay of treatment.
Objective: To describe pyomyositis in HIV positive patients, their CD4+ cell counts, clinical stages of pyomyositis and anatomical sites affected.
Design: Cross sectional, prospective, descriptive, consecutive entry study.
Setting: Kisumu District Hospital and Nairobi Rheumatology Clinic between January 2002 to December 2007.
Subjects: Twelve patients with HIV infection and pyomyositis.
Main Outcome Measures: CD4+ cell counts, clinical stage and site of pyomyositis.
Results: Twelve patients (six males and six females) were enrolled with mean age of 39.3 years (24-52). Pyomyositis was localised in the following regions:two each in gluteal and calf, six in the thigh and one each in the right arm and abdominal wall. CD4+ cell counts were low with a mean of 166.8 cells/µl (1.0-433) (normal range is 355-1600 cells/µl), indicating severe immunosuppression. They also had leucocytopaenia with a mean white blood cell count of 3.67 ~ 103/µl (1.5-7.1 ~ 103/µl) with a mean neutrophil count of 62.7% (43-78). Random blood sugar and creatine kinase levels were all normal. The co-morbidities comprised one case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and five of oral candidiasis. Pus swab grew Staphylococcous aureus in eight instances and Streptococcous pyogenes in four.
Conclusion: Pyomyositis in HIV positive patients tends to occur at low CD4+ cell counts. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative organism.

Affokpon A, Coosemans J, Kimenju JW. "Suppression of root-knot nematodes in tomato and cucumber using biological control agents.". 2010. Abstract

Antagonistic fungi are continuously attracting a lot of attention as alternatives to chemical control of root-knot nematodes. The egg-pathogenic fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus, particularly strain 251 has shown promising potential as a biological control agent against various plant-parasitic nematodes. Strain 251 of P. lilacinus (PL251) and Arthrobotrys conoides (Melodogone) were tested for their efficacy against Meloidogyne spp. in tomato and cucumber under greenhouse conditions. The study aimed at determining the application rates and timing of application of the fungi. Both pre-planting and at planting application of PL251 were found to reduce nematode populations and root galling in both tomato and cucumber. Pre-planting soil treatment (0.4g/10 L of soil) reduced final nematode populations by 69% and 73% in the roots and soil, respectively, compared to the non-inoculated control in tomato. However, soil treatment at planting recorded reduction level of 54% and 74% in the roots and soil, respectively. Use of A. conoides showed lower nematode control in cucumber. Only 28% and 21% reduction levels were recorded in the roots and soil when the fungus was applied at planting, respectively. This study has demonstrated that PL251 has a promising potential that could be exploited in the management of Meloidogyne spp. in vegetable production systems.

Afran L, Garcia Knight M, Nduati E, Urban BC, Heyderman RS, Rowland-Jones SL. "HIV-exposed uninfected children: a growing population with a vulnerable immune system?" Clin. Exp. Immunol.. 2014;176(1):11-22. Abstract

Through the successful implementation of policies to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 infection, children born to HIV-1-infected mothers are now much less likely to acquire HIV-1 infection than previously. Nevertheless, HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU) children have substantially increased morbidity and mortality compared with children born to uninfected mothers (unexposed uninfected, UU), predominantly from infectious causes. Moreover, a range of phenotypical and functional immunological differences between HEU and UU children has been reported. As the number of HEU children continues to increase worldwide, two questions with clear public health importance need to be addressed: first, does exposure to HIV-1 and/or ART in utero or during infancy have direct immunological consequences, or are these poor outcomes simply attributable to the obvious disadvantages of being born into an HIV-affected household? Secondly, can we expect improved maternal care and ART regimens during and after pregnancy, together with optimized infant immunization schedules, to reduce the excess morbidity and mortality of HEU children?

Aftab Z, Wladis A. "Skandalakis' {Surgical} {Anatomy}." Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal. 2008;8:97-98. AbstractWebsite
Aganda AA. Temperature profiles in a wood packed bed heated by hot combustion gases .; 2001. Abstract

Axial and radial temperature profiles are presented for the initial sensible heating stage of wood carbonisation process in a packed bed. These profiles are important in promoting greater understanding of the heat transfer processes during the sensible heating stage and the mechanics of the gas flow through the bed. These data are also useful as an aid to the design of wood carbonisation retorts. Gas temperatures were measured in a cylindrical retort within which a randomly packed bed of green wood was heated by hot inert combustion gases. The bed dimensions were 0.62m in diameter and 1.28m in height. The temperatures were measured by thermocouples mounted at 0.46m, 0.8Sm and 1.28m heights and transversed across the bed diameter. The bed was heated by combustion gases fed from a charcoal combustion chamber. It was discovered that gas temperature drops through the bed were as much as 86% of the inlet temperature, and that the most significant temperature gradients occurred in the first one third of the bed; this has significant implications in the retort design. Other interesting features observed were that there was a strong local variation in temperature throughout a given horizontal section of the bed and a symmetrical radial temperature profiles across the bed. Furthermore, gas temperatures were significantly lower close to the retort wall than the centre. These phenomena were explained in terms of gas channelling and a wall effect which increased the resistance to flow there. A two-phase mathematical model was used to predict axial temperature variation, while an empirical equation was fitted to the radial temperatures. This same model although a one-dimensional axial one, was used with a number of simplifying assumptions, to estimate the radial temperature profiles. In general there was good agreement between the predicted and the experimental results. The maximum deviation was -20% but 90% of the predictions were within t7.SX. This good agreement implies that the mathematical nodel is physically sound, a significant finding since there is no evidence in the literature to suggest that a two-phase model exists that can predict both axial and radial temperature profiles simultaneously in a packed bed.

Agandaa AA, Coneyb JER, Sheppard CGW. "Airflow maldistribution and the performance of a packaged air conditioning unit evaporator.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

The performance of an evaporator for a packaged air conditioning unit has been investigated. A heat transfer program ACOL5 validated in an earlier study, was used to predict the performance. Non-uniform velocity distribution measurements taken in a typical air conditioning unit were employed in the prediction of the evaporator performance. It was found that this maldistribution reduced the performance of an evaporator circuit, as compared to uniform flow. Circuits at the edges of the evaporator, where the velocity was low, did not perform well. With the refrigerants controlled by one thermostatic valve, the worst performing circuit affected the performance of the whole evaporator, the evaporator performance being reduced by as much as 35%. The performance of the evaporator, where the circuits had different numbers of passes, depended on the position of the circuit in the evaporator.

Agathocleous M, Harris WA. "From progenitors to differentiated cells in the vertebrate retina." Annual review of cell and developmental biology. 2009;25:45-69. Abstract

Multipotent retinal progenitors undergo a varied number of divisions to produce clones of heterogeneous sizes and cell types. We describe the transition from a proliferating progenitor to a differentiated postmitotic cell and discuss how controls of proliferation operate within individual cells as well as in the whole tissue. We discuss how extracellular and intracellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, cell cycle kinetics, interkinetic nuclear migration, orientation of cell division, and epigenetic modifications all interact to regulate a progenitor's transition from division to differentiation. We also propose some directions for future research.

Agathocleous M, Harris WA. "From {Progenitors} to {Differentiated} {Cells} in the {Vertebrate} {Retina}." Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 2009;25:45-69. AbstractWebsite
Agathocleous M, Harris WA. "From progenitors to differentiated cells in the vertebrate retina." Annual review of cell and developmental biology. 2009;25:45-69. Abstract

Multipotent retinal progenitors undergo a varied number of divisions to produce clones of heterogeneous sizes and cell types. We describe the transition from a proliferating progenitor to a differentiated postmitotic cell and discuss how controls of proliferation operate within individual cells as well as in the whole tissue. We discuss how extracellular and intracellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, cell cycle kinetics, interkinetic nuclear migration, orientation of cell division, and epigenetic modifications all interact to regulate a progenitor's transition from division to differentiation. We also propose some directions for future research.

Agesa BL, Onyango CM, M KV, Onwonga RN, GN K. "Climate Change Effects on Crop Production in Yatta sub-County: Farmer Perceptions and Adaptation Strategies." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2019;19(1):14010-14042.
Aggarwal NK, Lam P, Castillo EG, Weiss MG, Diaz E, Alarcón RD, van Dijk R, Rohlof H, Ndetei DM, Scalco M, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Bassiri K, Deshpande S, Groen S, Jadhav S, Kirmayer LJ, Paralikar V, Westermeyer J, Santos F, Vega-Dienstmaier J, Anez L, Boiler M, Nicasio AV, Lewis-Fernández R. "How Do Clinicians Prefer Cultural Competence Training? Findings from the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview Field Trial." Acad Psychiatry. 2016;40(4):584-91. Abstract

This study's objective is to analyze training methods clinicians reported as most and least helpful during the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview field trial, reasons why, and associations between demographic characteristics and method preferences.

Aghov T, Sumbera R, Pialek Lır, Mikula Orej, McDonough MM, Lavrenchenko LA, Meheretu Y, Mbau JS, Bryja J. "Multilocus phylogeny of East African gerbils (Rodentia, Gerbilliscus) illuminates the history of the Somali-Masai savanna." Journal of Biogeography. 2017:1-13.aghov-_et_al-2017-journal_of_biogeography.pdf
Agnes Njoki Mwaura, Betty Nyambura Mbatia EKMPWO. "Screening and Characterization of Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria Isolated from Oil-contaminated Soils from Auto Garages." International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2018;3:11-24. Abstract
Agot KE, Kiarie JN, Nguyen HQ, Odhiambo JO, Onyango TM, Weiss NS. "Male circumcision in Siaya and Bondo Districts, Kenya: prospective cohort study to assess behavioral disinhibition following circumcision." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2007;44(1):66-70. Abstract

Evidence for efficacy of male circumcision as an HIV prevention measure is increasing, but there is serious concern that men who are circumcised may subsequently adopt more risky sexual behaviors.

Agoya-Wotsuna C. "The Role of Indigenous Languages in Kenya. A Case for Using them as Languages of Instruction throughout Primary School”. ." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2012;Vol. 2: 89-105.
Agullo JO, Marenya MO. "Resistance to airflow of bulk clean parchment Arabica coffee.". In: Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers (KSAE), Annual International Conference. Nairobi; 2000.
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Agullo JO, Marenya MO. "Airflow resistance of parchment Arabica coffee." Biosystems Engineering. 2005;91(2):149-156.
Aguttu, J.M KNJM & LM. "Principals’ Support of Peer Education and Prevalence of Drug and Substance Abuse in Public Secondary Schools in Busia County, Kenya. ." Journal of African Interdisciplinary Studies . 2019;2(11):79-95.

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ii DECLARATION This research project is my original work and has not been presented for examination in any other University Signature……………………………. Date……………………………….. PATRICK OBONYO AGUTU D61/75210/2009 This research project has been submitted for examination with my approval as University Supervisor. Signature……………………………. Date……………………………….. DR. JOHN YABS DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SCHOOL OF BUSINESS UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI
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iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Research Project has been made possible through the collective efforts of all my Lecturers at the University of Nairobi and my classmates with whom we have travelled in the continuing search for knowledge. I hereby acknowledge all their contributions. Special acknowledgement goes to my Supervisor Dr. John Yabs for his guidance and commitment for the completion of this project. I also acknowledge the Moderator Mr. E. Mududa and all the project Evaluators. I also acknowledge members of the University staff who provided valuable input to make the study possible. Special mention goes to Professor A. Mitema, Director, Centre for International Programs and Links, University of Nairobi.
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iv DEDICATION To my entire family for support and encouragement even when their social time had to be invested in this study.
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v ABSTRACT This study looks at the contribution of ISO 9000 in the Internalization process of the University of Nairobi. A case study approach was employed to gather data and provide the required information. ISO 9000 Certification continues to gain worldwide acceptance with over one million certifications to date. It has been described as representing a world consensus on standards with international participation of member bodies from countries all over the world. Implementation requires the commitment of resources in terms of personnel, finances and materials required to implement and sustain the quality management system. As resources are scarce with competing demands it is important to establish the accruing gains from implementing the system. The University of Nairobi obtained ISO Certification in the year 2008 and was subsequently recertified in July 2011 on completion of the initial three year certification period. As an institution that continues to undergo internationalization process as is the case with higher education institutions internationally, the contribution of quality standards to this process is important. In this study it was found that ISO 9000 is important especially with respect to Quality control, Corporate branding and image, International Grants funding, International programs and linkages and international student enrolment.

Agwanda A. Youth Dialogue Tool submitted to Ministry of Youth Affairs . Kenya Country Office: UNFPA ; 2011.
Agwanda A, and BP, Kahasakhala A, Owuor S. "The effect of economic crisis on youth precariousness in Nairobi: An analysis of itinerary to adulthood of three generations of men and women in Nairobi .". In: at Union of African Population Studies Conference. Tunis, Tunisia: E Afr Med J; 2003. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda A. Determinants of Unmet Need for Contraception in Kenya. Dakar: Union of African Population Studies; 2000.
Agwanda A. Kenya Country Needs Assessment of Progress Towards the Achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and the International Conference on Population and Development Goals . Partners In Development – South to South Initiative to be used for preparing the 2005-2015 Strategic Plan; 2004.
Agwanda AO. "Determinants of transitions to first sex, marriage and pregnancy: Evidence from South Nyanza, Kenya.". In: Under review, International Family Planning Perspectives. E Afr Med J; 2004. Abstract

African Population Studies 19 (2): 42-62

Agwanda A. "Available Options for Estimating Basic Fertility Indicators for the 2010 Round of Censuses.". In: The conference on Needs assessment on census analysis. Dakar Senegal; 2010.
Agwanda A. Maternal health and well being in Kenya. 8-10th December 2004: Society for International Development (SID). Round table meeting on Maternal Health and Well being in Eastern Africa. Strategies for Meeting the Millennium Development Goals; 2005.
Agwanda A. Population Dynamics of Kenya. 2009 census analytical volume. Kenya national Bureau of Statistics; 2011.
Agwanda A, and MM, Omollo D. "Early Teenage Pregnancy in South Nyanza.". In: Population of Association of America Annual Meeting . Minneopolis USA: E Afr Med J; 2003. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda A, Akoya KA. Improving Adolescent Reproductive Health Programmes in Africa: Lessons from Kenya.. Regal Press (K) Ltd: Centre for the study of Adolescence; 2003. AbstractWebsite

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda A. "Status of Urbanization Research in Kenya.". In: Panel Discussion paper at launch of the State of World Population report. Kenyatta International Conference Centre (KICC) Nairobi, Kenya; 2007.
Agwanda, A; Bocquier KOP; A; S. "A Socio-Demographic Survey Of Nairobi."; 2009.
Agwanda A. Research Methodology and Communication: Participants Course book and Trainers Manual. Kenya Institute for Research and Policy Analysis; 2004.
Agwanda A, Owino W, Obunga C, Okundi B. "Access to Family Planning among the poor: What are the policy options?". In: Third EQUINET Regional Conference on equity in health in East and Central Africa. Speke Conference Center, Munyonyo, Kampala Uganda; 2009.
Agwanda A. : Kenya Country Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Needs Assessment Report on Child health, Maternal health and Health Systems. . Ministry of Planning and National Development, Government of Kenya and UNDP; 2004.
Agwanda AO. "The effect of economic crisis on youth precariousness in Nairobi: An analysis of itinerary to adulthood of three generations of men and women.". In: Document De Travail DT/2004/04 Development et insertion Internationale (DIAL) . E Afr Med J; 2004. Abstract

African Population Studies 19 (2): 42-62

Agwanda A. Household Dynamics of Kenya 2009 census analytical volume. Kenya national Bureau of Statistics; 2011.
Agwanda A, A K. "Age schedules of Out Migrants and their implications for County development.". In: Rural Urban Migration and Urban Rural Linkages: The case of Western Kenya. Nairobi: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung ; 2016.
Agwanda A. "Household and Family Demography in Kenya: An exploratory Essay.". In: Population Association of Kenya. Garden Hotel Machakos Kenya: E Afr Med J; 2002. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda A, Bocquier. "To What Extent did Economic Downturn in Kenya influence Entry into Parenthood in Nairobi City? .". In: at Union of African Population Studies Conference . Tunis, Tunisia; 2003.
Agwanda A. "Status of Migration Research in Kenya.". In: State of World Population 2006 Panel Discussion. 6th Kenyatta International Conference Centre (KICC) Nairobi, Kenya ; 2006.
Agwanda A. Harmonization of Household and Family variables in the 1989 and 1999 Kenyan Censuses. . Minnesota University Population Center, International Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS). The report and spreadsheet prepared for the IPUMS project on Census Data Use. The report formed part of the meta- data; 2001.
Agwanda A. "Analysis of family building patterns when fertility has stalled in Kenya.". In: the 5th African Population Conference . Arusha International Conference centre ; 2007.
Agwanda AO, Magadi M. " Determinants of transitions to first sex, marriage and pregnancy: Evidence from South Nyanza, Kenya.". In: Published African Population studies. E Afr Med J; 2005. Abstract

African Journal of Reproductive Health   (Accepted)

Agwanda A. Chapter 6: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey: Other Proximate Determinants of Fertility: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003 Report. Calverton, Maryland: . Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Ministry of Health (MOH) and ORC MACRO ; 2004.
Agwanda A, Odipo G. " The Issue of non-numeric Responses to Questions on Desired family Size.". In: Population Association of Kenya. Garden Hotel Machakos Kenya: E Afr Med J; 2002. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda" "A, Bocquier' "P, Khasakhala" "A, Owuor" "S. A Socio-Demographic Survey of Nairobi. Dakar, Senegal: CODESSRIA; 2009.
Agwanda" "A, Muganda" "R, Khasakhala" "AA, Rae" "G. Improving Adolescent Reproductive Health Programmes in Africa: Lessons from Kenya. Nairobi: Centre for the Study of Adolescence; 2003.
Agwata JF. "Spatial Characteristics of Drought Duration and Severity in the Upper Tana Basin, Kenya." International Research Journal of Environment Sciences. 2014;Vol. 3(4), 18-26. Abstract4.isca-irjevs-2014-37-spatial_characteristics_of_drought_duration_and_severity_in_the_upper_tana_basin_kenya.pdf

Drought is a recurring hazard in many countries of Africa, and Kenya is thus no exception. In the majority of the countries
in the continent, drought affects agriculture, since it is predominantly rain-fed and is the mainstay of the economies in
these countries. Various socioeconomic activities are highly prone to the impacts of drought. Since drought will always
occur, there is and will always be need for understanding its various manifestations to ensure that the effects associated
with its occurrence are managed in a sustainable manner. This study examined the spatial characteristics of drought
duration and severity in the Upper Tana Basin (UTB) of Kenya using discharge records from twenty two river gauge
stations (RGSs) in the basin. Drought duration and severity data were extracted from the discharge records using the runs
analysis technique and the data series subjected to principal components analysis (PCA) from which common factors for
the two drought events were examined. Results showed that drought duration and severity had distinct spatial patterns in
the basin. The two drought events were explained using four significant principal factors that cumulatively explained
nearly 59 percent variance for drought duration and 56 percent of variance for drought severity in the basin. The spatial
patterns of the factor loadings for drought duration showed large meridional patterns with anomalies confined to the
eastern and southeast parts of the basin. For drought severity, the spatial patterns of the factor loadings portrayed a zonal
pattern reflecting differences in the relief features between the western and eastern parts of the basin. The spatial
characteristics of the drought events may be used to plan for different land use activities in the basin.

Agwata JF. "Potential implications of climate change on the attainment of the millennium development goals in Kenya.". Proceedings of the 8th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop, Mombasa Beach Hotel, 11-14 September, 2007; 2007. Abstract
Agwata JF, Wamicha WN, Ondieki CM. "Modelling of Hydrological Drought Events in the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya." Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering. 2014;Volume 11, (Issue 1 Ver. III):41-48. Abstractmodelling_of_hydrological_drought_events.pdfWebsite

Drought is a recurring hazard which affects many parts of Kenya. In most countries in Sub-Saharan
Africa, agriculture which is predominantly rain-fed is the main stay of the economies is highly prone to the
impacts of drought which, whenever it occurs, leads to serious socioeconomic challenges at various levels. The
study of drought duration, magnitude and severity have relevance in many areas such as waste load allocations,
issuance of pollution discharge permits, location of treatment plants and sanitary landfills, determination of
allowable water transfers and withdrawals both within, between and outside the affected areas and
determination of minimum downstream release requirements for hydropower water supply, cooling plants and
other facilities. Knowledge of the frequency distribution of the drought events is useful as it contributes to the
assessment of drought risks which have implications on the long term ecological, economic and social well
being of the biological and human communities that make use of water from the various streams in a basin. In
this study five frequency distributions were fitted to drought duration and severity as determined from discharge
data from representative river gauge stations in the upper Tana Basin of Kenya. The frequency distributions
fitted to the two drought events were the Generalized Normal (GN) or 3-parameter Lognormal, Generalized
Extreme Value (GEV) or the Extreme Value Type III, Generalized Pareto (GPA), Pearson Type III (P3) and
Generalized Logistic (GL). The distributions of best fit for the drought events were identified using the Z value
obtained from the average L-moment statistics of a particular candidate distribution and the average L-moment
statistics. The Z value for each homogenous region was determined from sample estimates of Lcv , Lcs and Lck that
were determined from probability weighted moment estimators and the weighted means of Lcv, Lcs and Lck using
records from the river gauging stations representing each hydrologically homogenous region. A frequency
distribution of best fit was selected if ׀ZDis׀ ≤ 1.64 and the one with the lowest ׀ZDis׀ value selected as the distribution
of best fit. Results showed that the frequency distribution of best fit for duration and severity was the Generalized
Normal while the Pearson Type III distribution was the distribution of worst fit for both duration and severity.
Key words: hydrological drought, drought events, frequency distribution, modeling

Agwata JF. "A Review of Some Indices used for Drought Studies." Civil and Environmental Research. 2014;Vol.6, No.2. Abstract10842-13144-1-pb.pdf

Droughts are serious extreme events that have adverse effects on the physical environment and water resource
systems in both developed and developing countries. Consequently, there is need for adequate measures for
responding to and mitigating various impacts arising from drought occurrence. The design and implementation
of drought mitigation and response strategies requires an understanding of the various indices that are used to
examine drought both at single site and in an area. In the case of water resources management during critical
drought periods for instance, a means of objectively identifying drought events in terms time and duration of
occurrence, magnitude and severity is required. This is possible only using various indices to characterize
drought. In this paper, some of the key drought indices are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses

Agwata JF. "Causes of Forest loss and Suggestions on Forest Conservation and Protection in Kenya." First Joint Environmental Research Seminar, Stanley Hotel, Nairobi, 12th June 2006; 2006. Abstract
Agwata JF. "Water Management in the Tana Basin of Kenya: Potential Conflicts and Interventions.". Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, Vol., 2(2): 69-74. ISSN 0972-9860; 2005. Abstract
Agwata JF. "Water Resources Utilization, Conflicts and Interventions in the Tana Basin of Kenya.". Forsch, G., Thiemann, S. & Winnege, R. (Editors), ; 2005. Abstract
Agwata JF. "Implications of Climate Change on Water Resources in Kenya and Adaptation Options.". Boga, H. I., Obudho, P. A., Agwata, J. F., et al., (Editors), The Principle of Sustainability: An Interdisciplinary View, Kenya DAAD Scholars Association, Nairobi. PP 196-201, ISBN 9966-923-41-1; 2007. Abstract
Agwata JF, Nyaoro W. "Drought Coping Strategies at the Local Level: The Case of Masinga Division of Machakos District, Kenya.". The KDSA Annual Conference Workshop, Egerton University, Njoro, 17th-19th Oct., 2007; 2007. Abstract
Agwata, J. F. WWN, Ondieki CM. "Regionalization of the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya using Stream flow Records.". Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice, Vol 4, No 2 (; 2007. Abstract
Agwata JF, Abwao P. "Socioeconomic and Environmental Concerns of Water Resources Management in Kenya with Particular focus on the Tana Basin.". Waswa, F., Otor, S., Olukoye, G. & Mugendi, D. (Editors), Environment and Sustainable Development: A Guide for Higher Education in Kenya, Volume II, School of Environmental Studies and Human Sciences, Kenyatta University. PP 209-223, ISBN 9966-776-34-6; 2007. Abstract
Agweyu A, Kibore M, Digolo L, Kosgei C, Maina V, Mugane S, Muma S, Wachira J, Waiyego M, Maleche-Obimbo E. "Prevalence and correlates of treatment failure among Kenyan children hospitalised with severe community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study of the clinical effectiveness of WHO pneumonia case management guidelines." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2014;19(11):1310-20. Abstract

To determine the extent and pattern of treatment failure (TF) among children hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia at a large tertiary hospital in Kenya.

Ahangar S, Zaz M, Shah M, Wani SN. "Perforated subhepatic appendix presenting as gas under diaphragm." Indian Journal of Surgery. 2010;72:273-274. AbstractWebsite
Ahmad J, Thomson S, Taylor M, Scoffield J. "A reminder of the classical biochemical sequelae of adult gastric outlet obstruction." BMJ Case Reports. 2011;2011. AbstractWebsite

The commonest cause of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is pyloric stenosis secondary to peptic ulcer disease or gastric carcinoma. Patients with GOO have unique metabolic sequelae, namely hypochloraemic, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis with paradoxical aciduria and hypocalcaemia. A case of a patient presenting as GOO is discussed. The aim of this report is to highlight the metabolic abnormalities and management in patients with GOO.

Ahmed I, Asgeirsson KS, Beckingham IJ, Lobo DN. "The position of the vermiform appendix at laparoscopy." Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2007;29:165-168. AbstractWebsite

Background The vermiform appendix has no constant position and the data on the variations in its position are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the various positions of the appendix at laparoscopy. Methods Patients undergoing emergency or elective laparoscopy at a university teaching hospital between April and September 2004 were studied prospectively. The positions of the appendix and the caecum were determined after insertion of the laparoscope, prior to any other procedure and the relative frequencies calculated. Results A total of 303 (102 males and 201 females) patients with a median age of 52 years (range 18–93 years) were studied. An emergency appendicectomy was performed in 67 patients, 49 had a diagnostic laparoscopy, 179 underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and eight had other procedures. The caecum was at McBurney’s point in 245 (80.9%) patients, pelvic in 45 (14.9%) and high lying in 13 (4.3%). The appendix was pelvic in 155 (51.2%) patients, pre-ileal in 9 (3.0%), para-caecal in 11 (3.6%), post-ileal in 67 (22.1%) and retrocaecal in 61 (20.1%) patients. Conclusion Contrary to the common belief the appendix is more often found in the pelvic rather than the retrocaecal position. There is also considerable variation in the position of the caecum.

Ahoya CO, Ogollah K. "Influence of Information Technology Innovations on Performance of Kenya Commercial Banks ltd." International journal of innovative Reaserch & studies. 2014;3(4).ahoya_and_ogollah_2014.pdf
Ahramjian L, Carson A, Collins P, Kirloss R, Lang J, Makunda C, Moses Z, Oh SJ, Reinhardt J, Service E, Smith M, Styger K, Vagen K. The Philadelphia Public Space Project. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania; 2008.
Ahuya CO;, Okeyo, A.M; Hendy. C, Hendy. C. "Community-based Livestock Improvement: A Case Study Of The Farm-africa."; 2001.
Ahuya CO;, Okeyo AM;, Peacock C. "Development of dairy goat industry in Kenya: A case study."; 2004.
Ahuya, CO; Okeyo AM; MFM. Productivity of cross-bred goats under smallholder production systems in the Eastern highlands of Kenya1.; 2005. Abstract

Dairy goats have become increasingly popular among smallholder mixed crop-livestock farmers. Their profitability will determine their growth within smallholder production systems. A survey was carried out in 114 farmer groups, representing 435 goat herds and 1676 goats. Data on reproductive and growth performance, milk production and flock dynamics (deaths, births, and sales) were collected between October 2001 and September 2003. The genotypes involved were the local East African goat, pure Toggenburg (T) and their crosses (F1) and 3/4T. Using the Livestock Productivity Efficiency Calculator (LPEC) as an input framework, herd structure, gross margins and herd growth were calculated based on feed efficiency. The parameter used was the annual total value of off- take per carrying capacity unit (CCU), which was defined as a standard livestock unit consuming 100 Mega joules of metabolisable energy (ME) per day. The goat enterprise proved to be profitable Annual gross margins of over US $259 were recorded indicating that dairy goat enterprises under smallholder production systems can be profitable,(the USD exchange rate at March 2005 was 77 Kenya shillings to US $1)

Ahuya CO;, Cartwright TC;, Ruvuna F;, Okeyo AM. "Additive and heterotic effects from crossbreeding goats in Kenya."; 1987.
AI K, Gachago MM, LO N, JM N. The Quality Of Life Of Primary Caregivers Of Children With Retinoblastoma At Kenyatta National Hospital. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Aila FO, Nyangara CA, Ojera PB, Owaga EE, Odera O, Ogutu M. "The Future Of Organizations: Musings Of A Manager." ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES AND EDUCATION. 2013;2(2). Abstractthe_future_of_organizations_musings_of_a_manager.pdf

Dominant forces of the last century, developments in science and technology, the presence of ideological rigidities and the complexity of organizational environment will continually shape the future. Developments in human skills can readily catapult organizations to their future. Four views of the future highlighted include: the future is an extension of the past; the future is new; the future is now; and the future is somewhat “past”. In our attempt to (re)invent the future, we need a leadership skill that will propel the organization to its future.
Keywords: Future organizations, leadership, environment

AJ W, C S, JL A. "Oral herpes simplex virus type 1 infection following cadaveric renal transplantation in a young type 1 diabetic female. The role of acyclovir: a case report." East Afr Med J. 1992;69(12):709-11. Abstract

Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.

AJ O’o, Z Q, M O. "Infection in pregnancy; understanding impact on placental microenvironment and preterm birth: a review." JOGECA . 2018;29(1). Abstract

Background: Pregnancy increases susceptibility to and severity of infections caused by certain microbes and
parasites. The presence of these infectious agents at the maternofetal interface may lead to adverse pregnancy
outcomes including preterm birth either via direct action of the microbes or indirectly via alteration of the placental
Objective: To summarize the literature regarding the role of various infectious agents in alteration of placental
microenvironment and predisposition to preterm birth.
Method: A review search using Google scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Trip database was conducted at the
University of California San Francisco. A total of 880 abstracts were reviewed and a total of 95 studies were included.
Studies were included if they reported any information on infection during pregnancy, effect on placenta or fetal
membranes or risk of preterm birth.
Results: The current evidence indicates that various infectious agents affect pregnancy and alter placental
microenvironment at the maternofetal interface. Severity of these infections increases with gestation. Additionally,
these infections are associated with the risk of adverse obstetric outcomes including preterm birth.
Conclusion: Prevention, early detection and treatment of these infections including those that are asymptomatic is
important in maintaining integrity of the placenta and in reducing the burden of preterm births.

AJ W, A M, A T, R R, CD M, R G. "Netilmycin and vancomycin in the treatment of peritonitis in CAPD patients." Clin Nephrol.. 1992;37(4):209-13. Abstract

This study was undertaken to evaluate: 1. The efficacy of netilmycin and vancomycin as combined first line antimicrobial regime, compared to cefuroxime, in the treatment of peritonitis. 2. To measure the levels of netilmycin and vancomycin in the serum and dialysate. 3. To report on the use of this combination over a one year period and compare it with that of cefuroxime used during the previous one year.

AJ H, AJ W, HF B, EB M, I L, R. G. "Hypercalcaemia, hypermagnesaemia, hyperphosphataemia and hyperaluminaemia in CAPD: improvement in serum biochemistry by reduction in dialysate calcium and magnesium concentrations." Nephron. . 1996;72(1):52-8. Abstract

Phosphate binders are necessary to control hyperphosphataemia in the majority of dialysis patients. Whilst aluminium salts are efficient phosphate binders, their use is associated with toxic side effects. Calcium salts are a widely used alternative, but hypercalcaemia is a common side effect, limiting their use and raising concern about metastatic calcification. Reduction of the dialysis fluid calcium concentration has been shown to reduce hypercalcaemia in haemodialysis patients, with an associated decrease in serum PTH. We analysed the effect of reduced calcium/magnesium (1.25/0.25 mmol/l), 40 mmol/l lactate, PD fluid (PD4) on 11 CAPD patients with uncontrollable hypercalcaemia (> 2.65 mmol/l) and hyperphosphataemia (> 1.80 mmol/l). Only 1 patient remained hypercalcaemic, while phosphate fell in 6 patients (2.23 +/- 0.16 on no binder, to 1.68 +/- 0.08 mmol/l at 6 months (p < 0.05), but was unchanged in 5 (2.10 +/- 0.15 to 2.48 +/- 0.14 mmol/l [p = NS]). Overall mean calcium x phosphate product changed little. However, in a subgroup it fell significantly (p < 0.05). Geometric mean iPTH rose, but not significantly. The subgroup of patients whose calcium x phosphate product fell, exhibited a much smaller rise in iPTH than the others (57.3-73.2 vs. 52.8-167.1 pg/ml). 1.25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 was subnormal in all patients. Mean serum magnesium fell from 1.24 +/- 0.06 to 0.89 +/- 0.04 mmol/l (p < 0.001), whilst mean serum bicarbonate rose significantly (25.2 +/- 0.4 to 28.9 +/- 1.2 mmol/l; p < 0.01). Withdrawal of aluminium-containing phosphate binders resulted in mean serum aluminium falling significantly from 31.1 +/- 5.7 at start of PD4 to 15.4 +/- 2.7 mu g/l at 6 months (p < 0.05). In summary, in around 50% of CAPD patients with persistent hypercalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia, reduction in PD fluid calcium can produce significant improvement in phosphate, reduction of calcium x phosphate product, and enable avoidance of aluminium-containing phosphate binders. Patients whose calcium and phosphate control remains poor, still benefit from the reduction, or cessation, of oral aluminium intake.

AJ RODRIGUES, CA MOTURI. Training of information analysts at the Institute of Computer Science, University of Nairobi. New Delhi, India : Tata McGraw Publishing Company ; 1992. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

AJ W, LS O. "Acute renal failure as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital." East Afr Med J. 1992;69(2):110-3. Abstract

Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.

AJ W, SO ML. "Cost consideration in renal replacement therapy in Kenya." East Afr Med J. 1995;72(1):69-71. Abstract

End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.

AJ RODRIGUES, GP P, CA MOTURI. Reviews of Logistic Type Models in Plant Pathogen Epidemiology. University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; 1994.
Ajmani ML, Ajmani K. "The position, length and arterial supply of vermiform appendix." Anatomischer Anzeiger. 1983;153:369-374. Abstract

The arterial blood supply, position and length of appendix were studied in 100 Indian (Uttar Pradesh region) cadavers. In 39% more than one appendicular artery was demonstrated. The retrocaecal and retrocolic positions of the appendix were by far the commonest (58%). Incidence of postilial position was also fairly common (10%). The average length of the appendix was found to be 9.5 cm in the male and 8.7 cm in the female. The prevalence of the retrocaecal and retrocolic positions may partly explain the incidences of appendicitis.

Ajuoga, P. O, A., Mwabora JM, Aduda BO. "Effects of concentration of dopant states on photoactivity in niobium-doped TiO2.". In: 7th College on Thin Film Technology. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2006. Abstract

Various studies have revealed that incorporation of cations of valence higher than that of the parent cations e.g., W6+, Ta5+, Nb5+ into the crystal matrix of TiO2 enhances its rate of photoactivity. In the present study, we propose incorporation of Nb5+, pentavalent dopant into TiO2 matrix in order to attempt to establish its optimal concentration for maximum photoactivity. The niobium-doped TiO2 was prepared by high temperature diffusion of the doping cations into the crystal matrix of the parent oxide. The doped samples were found to change from white to light yellow/brown. XRD analysis for anatase-rutile content of the doped samples was performed. At low mol% Nb (0.1197 – 0.2360) in TiO2, the crystalline structure was predominantly rutile at calcinations temperature of 650 oC, but at high mol% Nb (> 1.0000), a relatively higher anatase content was observed at the same calcinations temperature for a period of 2.5 hours.

Ajuoga P, Ogacho A, Aduda B, Mwabora JM. Niobium Doped Effects of Doping Concentration on the Optical Properties of. United Kenya Club; 2013. Abstract

The optical band gaps and crystal structure were investigated on niobium doped TiO2 (for atomic niobium concentrations ranging from 0.02 –0.06 at. % in the composite) prepared by high temperature diffusion method. The Nb:TiO2 films displayed an enhanced visible light absorption with a red shift of 18.2 nm of the optical absorption edge from 394 nm for pure TiO2 film to 412.2 nm for 0.04 at. % niobium concentration representing a band gap lowering of 0.181eV due to the donor–type behavior of niobium. As the niobium concentration increased, the enhancement in light absorption at the investigated concentration range goes through a maximum at 0.04 at. % of Nb5+ with minimum band gap of 3.017eV. Despite higher rutilization, at the doping temperature of 850oC used, crystal sizes (39–43 nm) obtained from X-ray diffraction spectra depicted a significant increase in surface areas which is attributed to retardation of anatase - rutile phase transformation caused by Nb:TiO2 matrix.

Ajuoga P, Ogacho A, Aduda B, Mwabora JM. Alex Ogacho Alex Ogacho Niobium Doped TiO2 (Nb:TiO2) : Effects of Doping Concentration on the Optical Properties of TiO2. United Nairobi Club, Nairobi, Kenya: MSSEESA; 2013.
Ajwang BO, Ngugi K, Ogollah K, Orwa G. "Influence of Product Value on the performance of the Insurance Industry in Kenya ." Journal Of Business Management Science . 2016;2(1).ajwang_ogollah_karanja_and_orwa_2016_.pdf
Ajwang BO, Ngugi K, Ogollah K, Orwa G. "Influence of Financial Prudence on the Performance of the Insurance Industry in Kenya ." Journal Of Business Management Science. 2016;2(1):4.ajwang_karanja_ogollah_and_orwa_2016_2.pdf
Akach JA, Osanjo L, Mwituria SM. "Co-Designing Eco-community Based Tourism." Design for All. 2021;16(3):3-33.
Akach JA, Michael K, Soderenko S, Mijthab M, Nicole F. DWSI Kenya Workshop Report.; 2017.
Akach JA. "Unearth tourism assets through co-design: Creative methods to engage the youth .". In: 2nd Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference. University of Nairobi; 2019.
Akah NP, Kunyanga CN, Okoth MW, Njue1 LG. "Pulse Production, Consumption and Utilization in Nigeria within Regional and Global Context." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2021;10(2).60b6dcf18a312.pdf
Akala, H.M. "The white architects of black education:Ideology and power inAmerica, 1865-1954." New york teachers College Press,. 2005;2001(37(6)):733-735.
Akala J, Maithya PM. "Effects of Teacher Recruitment and Utilization Policy on Quality of Secondary School Education in Kenya." IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME) . 2014;Vol.4(No.1 Ver.III):10-17.
Akala, H.M. "Modernization versus culture resilience in education in east africa." Journal of curriculum studies. 2006;38(3):365-372.
Akala, W. J. C& PK. "Status of Technical and Vocational Education and Training TVET) in Post-secondary Education in Kenya." Journal of Popular Education in Africa. 2018;2(7):15-25.
Akale J.E., Maina C.W., Nduhiu. G., Mainga.A., J.K. M, Kang'ethe E. K. "Prevalence of Cryptosporidia in Dogs and cats from selected kernels and veterinary clinics in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference. U.o.N CAVS; 2014.04-3_abstract-cryptosporidia_in_dogs_2.pdf
Akali T, Sakaja Y. "Influence of Contractors’ Financial Capacity on Performance of Road Construction in Kakamega County." American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS). 2018;46(1):34-50. Abstract
Akama MK, W GS, Chindia ML. "Pierre Robin Syndrome: case report.". 2000. Abstract

A case of a female neonate with Pierre Robin Syndrome with frequent cyanotic episodes and feeding difficulties which could not be adequately managed by positioning and oral airway placement is presented. Tongue-anterior mandible fusion procedure was performed with satisfactory results

Akama MK, F.G. M, chindia ML, Muriithi JM, Malupi E, Sang LK. "temporomandibular joint dislocation in Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Despite the diverse conservative and surgical modalities for the management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation and the controversy that surrounds them, very little has been done within the East-African setup in terms of highlighting and provoking greater interest in the epidemiology and management of TMJ dislocation. OBJECTIVE: To audit the pattern of occurrence, demographics, aetiology and enumerate the treatment modalities of TMJ dislocation at the oral and maxillofacial surgery division (OMFS) of the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) from January 1995 to July 2005. RESULTS: Twenty nine patients had been diagnosed and managed for TMJ dislocation. Twenty (69%) were females and nine (31%) were males. Their ages ranged from 10-95 years with a mean of 42 years. The cases managed were primarily chronic in nature. The most common form being anterior TMJ dislocation, accounting for twenty-five (86.2%) cases. Trauma was implicated as an aetiology in only five (17%) of the cases while the remaining majority of twenty four (83%) cases were spontaneous. Amongst the causes of spontaneous TMJ dislocation, yawning was the most common accounting for fourteen cases (48.3%). Dislocations caused by trauma were found to be 12.6 times more likely to be associated with other injuries than spontaneous dislocations. Anterior TMJ dislocations were found to be 1.3 times more likely to be associated with absence of molars than posterior TMJ dislocations. Anatomical aberrations, as predisposing factors, were not a significant finding in this research. Eight (28%) of the cases were managed conservatively. Twenty one (72%) of the cases were managed surgically. The eminectomy was the most common technique with a 75% success rate. The highest incidence of TMJ dislocation occurs in the 3rd-5th decade with a female preponderance with bilateral anterior TMJ dislocation being the most common. Most of the cases were managed surgically with eminectomy being the preferred technique with the highest success rate. A study needs to be undertaken to determine reasons' why conservative modalities are least employed in the management of TMJ dislocation in our setup and what can be done about it.

Akama MK. Current pattern of road traffic accidents, maxillofacial and associated injuries in Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract

Objective: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and concomitant injuries sustained in Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs).
Study Area: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Study Design: A descriptive cross sectional study including all patients involved in RTAs
brought to casualty and dental departments of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the
KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004.
Results: A total of 482 people involved in RTAs were included in the study. Four hundred and
thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries.
Nonfatal injuries. The 21-30-year-old age group was the most affected. The male to female ratio
was 4:1. Day time injuries were recorded among 60.3% of the participants. The incidence of
RTAs was highest on Fridays. There were 245 (59.5%) pedestrians and 139 (33.7%) passengers
involved. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatu) which were
responsible for 256 (62%) casualties whereas private saloon cars were involved in 150 (36.3%)
cases. Non- use of safety belts was reported in 90 (56.6%) cases whereas over-speeding was
reported by 120 (29.1 %) casualties. Alcohol use by drivers was reported in 26 (6.3%) cases
whereas vehicle defects accounted for 62 (15%) cases.Three hundred and seventy (89.6%)
casualties had soft tissue injuries (STls) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the
majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1 %) incidents of other STls than those of
the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the
casualties had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those
involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. The lower limbs were
more affected with 61 (43%) incidents followed by the upper limbs (24.6%). Pedestrians were
most involved in sustaining skeletal injuries than other categories of road users.
Fatal RTAs: Sixty nine (14.3%) of the 482 participants were fatally injured. The 21-30- year-old
age group was the most affected (20%). The male to female ratio was 3.3:1. Matatus and minibuses
were the leading cause of fatal accidents together having been responsible for 28 (40.6%) of
the accidents. Pedestrians (71.4%) were by far more involved than other categories of road users.
Most participants had multiple injuries with chest injuries having been the most common (50
cases). Fourty six (66.7%) victims had injuries to the head region with subdural haemorrhage
having been the commonest injury found at autopsy (47.8%). Injuries to the chest were found in
fifty (72.2%) victims whereas abdominal and limb injuries were recorded in 42 (60.9%) and 34
(49.3%) victims respectively. Head injury alone was the leading cause of death (37.7%) followed
by head and chest injuries combined (13.0%)
Conclusion: The majority of people involved in RTAs were in their third decade of life with
males having been the predominant group affected. Pedestrians were the leading casualties
amongst road users. Most of the accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles. The lower
limbs sustained most soft tissue and skeletal injuries compared to other anatomic sites other than
the craniofacial area. The leading cause of death was head injury.

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Akaranga SI, Simiyu PC. "Influence of selected learners' characteristics on their academic achievement in public day secondary schools in Trans Nzoia and West Pokot counties, Kenya." Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research. 2016;3(2):67-78.
Akaranga SI, Moywaywa CK. "The Contemporary challenge of Hindu-Christian relations in Kenya." Journal of Philosophy, Culture and Religion . 2016;16(1):26-33.
Akaranga SI, I.O.Otieno, Kayeli EC. "The Challenges of Christian Marriage in Africa." Impact Journal of Transformation. 2021;4(1):46-55.impact_journal_of_transforrmation_vol_4_no_1_46_55.pdf
Akaranga SI, Mwikamba CM. "Blessed are the rich and prosperous for theirs is the Kingdom of this world:The Kenyan Challenge." Research on Humanities and Soicial Sciences. 2015;Vol 5(14):138-141.
Akaranga SI, Moywaywa CK. "The Origins and Settlement of Hindus in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2015;4(8):115-121.
Akaranga SI, Ongong'a JJ. "The hermeneutics of the phenomenon of dialogue between Christians and Muslims in contemporary Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2016;6(5):157-162.
Akaranga SI, Ongong’a JJ. "The dynamics of religiosity and spirituality in Kenyan public Universities." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;Vol.1 No.6(6):63-80.ijern_vol_1_no.6_june_2013.pdf
Akaranga SI, Makau BK. "The hermeneutics of education management Information Systems for Kitinga primary school in Mwingi central, Kenya." Journal of Education and Practice. 2016;7(35):36-40.
Akaranga SI, Simiyu PC. "Determinants of Secondary school learners’ performance in Christian Religious Education in Lelan sub county, Kenya." Journal of Education and Practice. 2015;7(5):125-130.
Akaranga SI, Ongong’a JJ. "African traditional cultural conundrums which make women prone to HIV/ AIDS infections: A case of the Maasai of Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;Vol.1 No.8(8):153-156.ijern_vol.1_no.8_august_2013.pdf
Akaranga SI, Ongong'a JJ. "The Suppression of Women by Religion: A Kenyan Example." Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research. 2014;Vol1(No.4):48-60.
Akaranga SI, Makau BK. "Ethical considerations and their applications to Research: A case of the University of Nairobi." Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research. 2016;3(12):1-9.429-825-2-pb.pdf
Akaranga SI, Ongong JJ. "The Phenomenon of Examination Malpractice: An Example of Nairobi and Kenyatta Universities." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2013;Vol.2 No.8(8):83-86.jep_vol_4_no._18_2013.pdf
Akaranga SI, Makau BK. "Internet access and Security in Kitinga Primary school in Mwingi central, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2016;4(11):1-12.
Akaranga SI, Ongong'a JJ. "The Phenomenon of Intolerance and Its Impact on Christian - Muslim Relation in Kenya." Research on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2015;5(8):105-121. AbstractWebsite

One of the common euphemisms today is: “Religion is inherently violent, the cause of all major wars in history”. The interlocutors accuse religion without remembering that the last two world wars were fought not on account of religion, but, because of other interrelated social, material and ideological factors, the chief of which being competition for scarce resources. Yet, when the observers cite the Crusades, the Inquisition and wars of religion of the 16th and 17th centuries, not to mention the recent spate of terrorism committed in the name of religion, it is hard to belittle euphemism. Like religion, terrorism is difficult to define. Generally, however, it is a deliberate use of violence or threat of its use against innocent people, with the aim of intimidating them specifically or others into a course of action they could not otherwise take. Terrorism is fundamentally political, even when other motives-religious, economic or social are involved. It is about power, acquiring it or keeping it. This is probably why, the discussion of apparent tension between Christians and Muslims here in Kenya can hardly be discussed without due consideration of the role of Al Shabaab and Al Qaeda. The association of Islam with terrorism in the recent past first came to global attention with the assassination of Anwar Sadat in Cairo, the then president of Egypt. This wave of violence claiming religious justification became more rampant in the 1980’s finally culminating in the atrocity of September 11, 2001, in New York. Here in Kenya, there have been attacks against public institutions, bus stops and markets; an action of hostility which threatens amicable relationship between the two religions. This is why; critics of religion acknowledge that monotheism is prone to violence and intolerance. If however, there is one thing we can reliably predict about this century, it is that, an increasing share of Kenya’s people is going to identify with either Christianity or Islam. And, examples of disastrous accounts of conflict can hardly enhance amicable coherence even if done in the name of religion. To meet the challenges of our time and create a desirable Kenyan society, we need to accurately assess our religious affiliations. It is not enough to assume the nature of these two Abrahamic religious traditions and their roles in Kenya. The central question this paper asks and attempts to answer is: If religion can be used as an instrument of destruction, how come it has continued to survive as the most influential social phenomenon? To facilitate our discussion the paper adopts theories of Emile Durkheim and Myerson to explain the functional relationship between religion and violence; and cultural interpretation of violence. The paper therefore, examines the following three objectives:

Ambivalent nature of religion,
Existential justification for hermeneutic of suspicion and,
Abrahamic tradition: A basis for interfaith dialogue.
Keywords: terrorism, violence, religion, dialogue, suspicion, tradition and exegesis.

Akaranga SI. "Prosperity Gospel in Kenyan Urban Centres: Come, See, Pay and Receive Your Miracles and Healing." Research on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2015;5(10):199-208. AbstractWebsite

In this part of the 21st century, the impact of ‘New Age” religions created by secularization have exposed the western Christianity to several challenges which seem not only divergent to biblical doctrine but tend to give new image to God. Even here in Kenya, we are not foreign to these challenges. Some of which include; ordination of women, gender mainstreaming, marriage of the same sex, sex scandals of celibate clergy, leadership struggle, corruption and prosperity gospel, to mention but a few. This paper investigates the impact of prosperity gospel, an offshoot of neo-Pentecostalism in Kenyan urban centres with emphasis in Nairobi. This Christian social phenomenon teaches that true Christian faith results in material wealth and physical well-being. It claims that the Bible teaches that financial blessing is the will of God for Christians (vide Wikipedia, the free Encylopedia). That is, instead of the gospel of the forgiveness of sins, the centre is occupied by miracles and the improvement of the quality of life, along with temporal blessings from God (Anssi Simojoki, 2002: 272). This explains why the churches associated with prosperity gospel are popular in the eastern side of the city of Nairobi. The main question is whether the prosperity gospel is authentic Christian theology that satisfactorily improves the lives of the faithful? To facilitate our discussion, we have discussed the following four objectives: the origin and background of prosperity gospel, its teachings and impact, to make possible recommendations. The collection of data included both primary and secondary materials. We administered 250 oral interviews. Ninety members from the churches associated with the phenomenon, seventy students from both Kenyatta University and University of Nairobi and ninety adults outside the two categories.

Key words: Prosperity/gospel, Pentecostalism/charismatic, Miracle, Interlocutors, Hermeneutic

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