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2011
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "Karsenti, Collins, Harper, Gakuu, Barry, Hafkins (2011). Pedagogical Integration of ICT: Successes and Challeges from 87 African Countries. Ottawa, ON: IDRC.". In: Text Book.; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "KAVOI, B. & JAMEELA, H. comparative morphometry of the olfactory bulb, tract and stria in the human, dog and goat. Int. J. Morphol., 29(3):939-946, 2011.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. International Journal of Morphology; 2011. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
KIRITI DRNG'ANG'ATABITHAWAGITHI. "Kirori, G. N.. Mariara, J. W. and Kiriti-Nganga, T. (2011), .". In: Journal of International Business and Finance, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 1-27. Serials Publications; 2011. Abstract
This paper investigates the impact of social capital on consumption expenditure of households in rural
W. MSKIVUTI-BITOKLUCY. "Kivuti, L. and Chepchirchir, A. (February 2011). Computerization readiness. Online Journal of Nursing Informatics(OJNI), 15,Available at http://ojni.org/issues/?p=178.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol 38 No.1 June,. UoN; 2011. Abstract
This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among middle and functional level nurse managers at a National Referral Hospital with the aim of establishing their preparedness for computerization of nursing services, their attitudes towards computerization, their training needs, and their preferred mode of study. A purposive sample of all 112 nurse managers was obtained for this study. The response rate was 95.5 % (n=107). Data was collected using structured, selfadministered questionnaires. The study revealed that nurse managers had positive attitudes toward use of computers. Their attitudes toward use of computers were not significantly influenced by accessibility to computers or competence in computer use, but nursing experience and the age of the respondents had a negative influence on attitudes toward computerization of nursing services (p=0.05). Eighty-five percent of the respondents (n=91) did not have computer studies during their training in basic nursing; 51% (n=55) had sought training in computers after their basic training; 98% (n=105) desired to be trained in computer applications; and 69.1% (n
JAMES PROFODEK. "Knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous peoples and local communities which are often held collectively and inextricably linked to traditional resources and territories; including the diversity of genes, varieties, species and ecosystems; cultu.". In: Phytochemistry Reviews, 1,311-323 (2002). Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2011. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
OSAAJI DRMUMIAGEOFREY. ""Language, resistance and Identity formation in Ngugi wa Thiong.". In: Research In African Literatures, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Spring 2009). Rodopi; 2011. Abstract

 Eds. Ashcroft, Bill, Ranjini Mendis, Julie McGonegal, and Arun Mukherjee,

GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Lucy Wanjiru Njagi, Paul Gichohi Mbuthia , Phillip Njeru Nyaga, Lilly Caroline Bebora, Uswege M. Minga. 2011. Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.Trop Anim Health Prod DOI 10.1007/s11250-011-995.". In: Livestock research for Rural development. Kenya Veterinary association; 2011. Abstract
bstract Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Machoki MS, Saidi H, Ahmed M. Conservative management of a high output enterocutaneous fi stula in abdominal tuberculosis BMJ Case Reports.". In: BMJcases. BMJcases; 2011. Abstract
Unilateral variations in the formation of the median nerve, with the presence of the third head of the biceps brachii entrapping the nerve are very rare. These variations were observed on the right side, of a 30 year old male cadaver during routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The median nerve was formed by the union of three contributions; two from the lateral cord and one from the medial cord. An additional head of the biceps brachii looped over the formed median nerve. On the left side the median nerve was formed classically by single contributions from the medial and the lateral cords. These variations are clinically important because symptoms of high median nerve compression arising from similar formations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.
OLUOCH DRAMIMOJOSHUA. "Maciel, S, Amimo, J, Martins, M, Mwai, A, Scholtz, M and Neser, F Factors influencing reproductive performance of cows from different Nguni ecotypes in southern Mozambique.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production. Tropical Animal Health and Production; 2011.
NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW. "Makanya AN, El-Darawish Y, Kavoi BM, Djonov V. Spatial and functional relationships between air conduits and blood capillaries in the pulmonary gas exchange tissue of adult and developing chickens. Microsc Res Tech. 2011 Feb;74(2):159-69.". In: Microsc Res Tech. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW. "Makanya AN, Hlushchuk R, Djonov V The pulmonary blood-gas barrier in the avian embryo: inauguration, development and refinement. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011 Aug 31;178(1):30-8.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Maobe S.N, Mburu M.W.K, Akundabweni L. S, Ndufa J. K, Mureithi J. G, Gachene C. K. K, Okello J. J, Makini F. Economic Analysis of Mucuna Green Manure Nitrogen Application in Maize Production: I. with Green Manure Incorporation Cost.". In: J. of Sustainable Development in Agriculture & Environment Vol. 6(1):xx-xx: June. 2011. Paraclete Publishers; 2011. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
KIMANI DRWANJERIJOSEPH. "A massive abdominal wall desmoid tumor occurring in a laparotomy scar: A case report.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference of UoN CHS. UoN College of Health Sciences; 2011.
KIMANI DRWANJERIJOSEPH. "A massive abdominal wall desmoid tumor occurring in a laparotomy scar: A case report Joseph K Wanjeri* and Collins JO Opeya.". In: World Journal of Surgical Oncology. BioMed Central; 2011. Abstract
  Abstract Introduction Desmoid tumors are benign but locally aggressive tumors of mesenchymal origin which are poorly circumscribed, infiltrate the surrounding tissue, lack a true capsule and are composed of abundant collagen. History of trauma to the site of tumor origin is elicited in up to 1 in 4 cases and they most commonly develop in the anterior abdominal wall and shoulder girdle but they can arise in any skeletal muscle. The clinical behavior and natural history of desmoid tumors are unpredictable and management is difficult with many issues remaining controversial, mainly regarding early detection, the role, type and timing of surgery and the value of non-operative therapies. Case presentation We report a case of a 23 year old male referred from a district hospital to a national referral hospital in Kenya, after developing a huge abdominal wall desmoid tumor following laparotomy for a blunt abdominal injury fourteen months earlier. The tumor was successfully excised and the abdominal wall defect reconstructed using a vicryl/prolene mesh and a unilateral groin flap. The patient had a non-eventful recovery and was discharged through radiotherapy clinic. Conclusion Wide margin tumor excision alone is a reasonable option in the management of desmoid tumors.  
OGUTU MRJOSEPHONYANGO. "Master of Distance Education, ICT for Distance Education Module, University of Nairobi.". In: A paper presented at The Kim School of Management,3rd Annual International Conference on Industry and Higher Education, September, 28th -30th , 2011. Univeristy of Nairobi Press; 2011. Abstract
800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} This course explores the role of technology in the design, development and delivery of distance education. Students critically examine the relationship between technology and the goals of the educational/training organization. Various uses of technology are explored in the areas of course development, asynchronous and synchronous distance course delivery, and management/administration.     Computer is an important tool in data processing. Computers can process large volumes of data within a short time therefore making work easier. This book is organized as follows:   Lecture 1 discusses basic elements and use of computers. Learners are introduced to computing concepts mainly hardware, software, data and information. The lecture begins by defining technical terms, information system activities then discusses main computer components mainly hardware and software.   Lecture 2 introduces the basics concepts of internet applications. It is intended to give learners an opportunity to understand internet and web basics. Learners will interact with a variety of web technical terms used in internet applications.    Lecture 3 identifies various categories of computer application in distance education. It identifies advantages and limitations of computers in distance education, discusses capabilities of Internet and WWW in distance education and recommends factors to consider when using computers in distance education   Lecture 4 introduces the concept of e-Learning. The lecture aims at equipping learners with skills enable them understand e-Learning approaches and tools. The lecture discusses e-Learning concepts, approaches, communication technologies, learning management systems and electronic assessments   Lecture 5 discusses techniques used in delivering electronic learning materials. The main techniques are electronic mail, electronic learning platforms, Compact Discs (CDs) and Digital Versatile Discs (DVDs), and Video Technologies have been discussed. Technical, pedagogical and cost implication as well as advantages and disadvantages of each technique has been discussed in details Lecture 6 discusses measurement and evaluation Lecture 7 discusses legal and ethical issues in ICT Intergration          
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., L.W. Njagi, P.N. Nyaga, L.C. Bebora, U.Minga, J. P. Christensen and J.E.Olsen. 2011. Time course investigation of infection with a low virulent Pasteurella multocida strain in normal and immune-suppressed 12 week-old free range chickens. Av.". In: Avian pathology. Avian pathology; 2011. Abstract
Twelve-week-old indigenous chickens, either immune-suppressed using dexamethasone (IS) or non-immunesuppressed (NIS), were challenged with a low virulent strain, Pasteurella multocida strain NCTC 10322, and developed clinical signs and pathological lesions typical of chronic fowl cholera. NIS birds demonstrated much more severe signs of fowl cholera than IS birds. With few exceptions, signs recorded in IS and NIS birds were of the same types, but significantly milder in the IS birds, indicating that immune suppression does not change the course of infection but rather the severity of signs in fowl cholera. P. multocida signals by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were observed between 1 h and 14 days in the lungs, trachea, air sacs, liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and caecal tonsils, while signals from other organs mostly were observed after 24 h. More organs had FISH signals in NIS birds than in IS birds and at higher frequency per organ. Many organs were positive by FISH even 14 days post infection, and it is suggested that these organs may be likely places for long-term carriage of P. multocida following infection. The present study has demonstrated the spread of P. multocida in different tissues in chickens and distribution of lesions associated with chronic fowl cholera, and pointed to a decrease of pathology in IS birds. Since dexamethasone mostly affects heterophils, the study suggests that these cells play a role in the development of lesions associated with chronic fowl cholera in chickens.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Mites of the family Phytoseiidae Berlese from Kenya (acari: Mesostigmata).". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. E.M. El-Banhawy & M. Knapp; 2011. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
KIOGORA DRMWORIAJOHN. "Mungai DN, Thuita T, Muthee A, Muchemi G, Mworia JK, Oduori G and J. Kimani. 2011. Environmental,social and economic assessment of the fencing of the Aberdare Conservation Area.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. Intech Open Access Publishers; 2011. Abstract
This book addresses a wide array of issues in botany through a series of chapters. The chapters have been contributed by leading botanists from South America, Africa, Europe and
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "Munyaneza, O., Ndayisaba, C., Wali, U.G., Mulungu, M.M. D., and Dulo, O. S., 2011. Integrated Flood and Drought Management for Sustainable Development in the Kagera River Basin.". In: Nile Water Science and Engineering Journal, 4(1): 60-70. Nile Water Science and Engineering Journal; 2011.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ, MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Muthee J K, Mbaria J M, Thaiyah A G, Karanja D N and Gakuya D W (2011). Clinical, Haematological, Biochemical and Pathological Manifestations of Sub-acute Toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in calves. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in A.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Muthee J. K., Gakuya D.W., Mbaria, J. M., Kareru P. G., Mulei C. N., Njonge F.K., (2011). Ethnobotanical Study of Antihelmintic and other Medicinal plants traditionally used in Loitoktok District of Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 135(1):15-21.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
KIOGORA DRMWORIAJOHN. "Mworia JK, Wambua J.K., Omari, J. K., and J.I. Kinyamario. 2011. Patterns of seed dispersal and establishment of the invader Prosopis juliflora in the upper floodplain of Tana river, Kenya. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 28(1):35-41.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. Intech Open Access Publishers; 2011. Abstract
This book addresses a wide array of issues in botany through a series of chapters. The chapters have been contributed by leading botanists from South America, Africa, Europe and
KIOGORA DRMWORIAJOHN. "Mworia JK. 2011. Invasive plant species and biomass production in Savannas. IN: Biomass and Remote Sensing of Biomass. Islam Atazadeh (ed). Intech Open Access Publishers. ISBN 978-953-307-490-0.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. Intech Open Access Publishers; 2011. Abstract
This book addresses a wide array of issues in botany through a series of chapters. The chapters have been contributed by leading botanists from South America, Africa, Europe and
MBALUKA DRMUNYAOTITUS. "Mycosis fungoides presenting at eight years of age East African Medical Journal 2011(In press).". In: Journal. Archives of Dermatology; 2011. Abstract
The chapter discusses common both infectious and non infectious skin diseases in the tropical environment in a medicine text book: Medicine: Non-communicable Diseases in Adults; which widely explores common medical diseases in the tropical setting. The chapter begins with the outline, glossary of terms and introduction to the structure and function of the skin. Skin infections are discussed under bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infestations at the end of the section.The section on Allergic or immunological disorders discusses eczema in its diversity, urticaria and adverse cutaneous drug reactions.The last section discusses acne vulgaris and the papulosquamous disorders.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Ngugi M Piero, Murugi N Joan, Kibiti M Cromwell, Ngeranwa J Joseph, Njue M Wilson, Maina Daniel, Gathumbi K Peter and Njagi N Eliud Hypoglycemic Activity of Some Kenyan Plants Traditionally used to Manage Diabetes Mellitus in Eastern Province.". In: Piero et al. J Diabetes Metab 2011, 2:8. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2011. Abstract
In this study five aqueous extracts; Bidens pilosa, Strychnos henningsii, Aspilia pluriseta, Catha edulis and Erythrina abyssinica were screened for anti-diabetic activity and their in vivo safety evaluated. The anti-diabetic activity was assessed by intraperitoneally injecting varying doses of aqueous extracts of the five plants into alloxanised mice. Toxicity was determined by injecting normal mice with 450mg of the plant extract / kg body weight and observing the effects of the extracts on histology of various organs. All the extracts showed hypoglycaemic activity. At high doses, some plants proved to be highly toxic, mildly toxic and others were safe. This study has established that the five bioactive plants can be safely used in the management of diabetes.
OGUTU MRJOSEPHONYANGO. "Ogutu J. O (2011), ICT Integration in Secondary Education. The case of Nepad e-schools project in Kenya.". In: BSc. Dissertation University of Nairobi. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2011. Abstract
800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Information and communication technologies (ICT) have become common place entities in all aspects of life. Across the past twenty years the use of ICT has fundamentally changed the practices and procedures of nearly all forms of endeavour within business and governance. Within education, ICT has begun to have a presence but the impact has not been as extensive as in other fields.   In this study, the researcher sought to find out how the use of ICT in education lends itself to more student-centered learning settings. The study seeks to determine the various impacts of ICT on contemporary secondary education in Kenya as well as potential challenges.   The study was conducted through survey method. The researcher sought permission from the Ministry of Education in Kenya to collect research data from the sampled schools since all of them were public secondary schools. The researcher constructed questionnaires which were used to collect data from various respondents in the sampled Nepad e-schools in Kenya. The researcher used three categories of respondents in each school namely; the administrators, the teachers and the students. The completed questionnaires were then coded, entered into the computer using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) and then analysed.   The study revealed that both students and teachers have developed a positive attitude towards the use ICTs and related accessories in the teaching/learning process. This was reflected by the frequency of use of the facilities and the interest as indicated by the respondents. The study also found out that the schools under study were already using educational management software for various processes undertaken in the schools.  The study also revealed some challenges faced by the schools. Notable challenges included lack of funding to support the purchase of the technology to improve access, lack of training among teachers to adopt ICT as teaching tools and lack suitable e-content for various subjects.
OGUTU MRJOSEPHONYANGO. "Ogutu, J.O. (2010) & Waluvengo E (2011), Towards Enterprise Architecture for Road Transport Administration in Kenya.". In: A paper presented at The 1st International Conference on Emerging and Future Information Communication Technologies (ICEFICT 2011) Conference on Convergence, Connectivity and Collaboration,11th . Kenya Methodist University; 2011.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Onget KW, Ogeng.". In: Ann. Afr. Surg. J Morph Sci; 2011. Abstract
Unilateral variations in the formation of the median nerve, with the presence of the third head of the biceps brachii entrapping the nerve are very rare. These variations were observed on the right side, of a 30 year old male cadaver during routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The median nerve was formed by the union of three contributions; two from the lateral cord and one from the medial cord. An additional head of the biceps brachii looped over the formed median nerve. On the left side the median nerve was formed classically by single contributions from the medial and the lateral cords. These variations are clinically important because symptoms of high median nerve compression arising from similar formations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "Oscar Mayunzu, D. Shitanda, F. Okalebo and L. Simiyu. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant properties of Extracts of Mondia whytei roots. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (X): XX-XX, 2010. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (x): xx-xx, 2010 ISBN 16.". In: Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (x): xx-xx, 2010. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: Aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts of Mondia whytei (M. whytei) root barks were screened for their inhibitory effects on some fungal and bacterial strains. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC25923), Escherichia coli (E. coli) 0157:H7 (PSSCMI 0032), Bacillus subtillus, Candida albicans and Asparagus niger were used as test organisms. The water extract lacked significant activity against all organisms except Staphylococcus. aureus where the water extract exhibited the highest activity. However, the ethanol extract had significant activity against Candida albicans and Asperigillus niger with minimuminhibitory values of 58.59 and 14.65 μg/ml respectively. Methanol had high Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of less than 14.65 and 14.7 μg/ml for Asperigillus niger and E. coli respectively. From the results it was concluded that activity varied with the solvent used. Contrary to previous reports, the plant seems to lack significant antibacterial activity except against E. coli. The popularity of a herbal recipe is not always a measure for its potency. However, M. whytei had antifungal activity since the ethanol and methanol extracts showed significant activity against the tested strains of fungi. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was also evaluated using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. M. whytei exhibited substantial inhibition of the DPPH activity with EC50 of 413 mg/l for the crude extracts. The results suggest that M. whytei has significant antioxidant activity as demonstrated by the DPPH assay. This antioxidant activity of the crude extracts can be attributed to the presence of 2-Hydroxy-4-Methoxybenzaldehyde that is a known antioxidant in the root extracts.  Key words: Aqueous, ethanol extract, methanol extract
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "An overview of rabbit conditions presented to the Small Animal Clinic, University of Nairobi (2011). Aleri, J.W., Abuom, T.O., Kitaa, J.M., Kipyegon, A.N and Mulei, C.M.". In: 45th Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Kisumu 2011. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Paron P., Vargas Rojas R. and Omuto C.T. 2011. Integrated landform mapping: methodology and application for digital soil mapping in Somalia. IAG/AIG REGIONAL CONFERENCE 2011, .". In: IAG/AIG REGIONAL CONFERENCE. International Association of Geomorphologists; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Soil occurs in nature in groups with unique response characteristics to its forming factors. These characteristics should ideally be represented as a family of curves in the models for producing soil maps. However, the current approaches for producing soil maps use a single model which either blocks/controls the grouping effects or do not statistically recognize the natural landscape groupings. This study tested mixed-effects modelling technique for ingenious recognition of soil groupings and consequent improvement of the accuracy of the resultant soil maps. Mixed-effects modelling is a form of regression analysis for simultaneous modelling of the average landscape characteristics and individual groups within the landscape. It can model a family of curves and potentially remove inadequacies inherent in the current models for soil mapping. Its potential in regression kriging of continuous and categorical soil attributes has been shown in this paper, where it produced about 60% accuracy with holdout validation. Compared to the current application of a single model in regression kriging, mixed-effects modelling produced about five times improvement of the mapping accuracy. It is anticipated that its adoption will contribute to improved soil mapping
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Participatory Planning in Kenya.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. Centre for Law and Research International (CLARION); 2011. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
AKUON MRPETERODERO. "Path reduction factor modelling for terrestrial links based on rain cell growth,IEEE.Africon,Zambia, 2011,.". In: IEEE. IEEE; 2011. Abstract
Suggested prediction for Rain attenuation in Terrestrial links based on growth modelling of the rain cell is validated from measurements.
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch) Sorok and Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill to adult Phlebotomus duboscqi (Neveu-Lemaire) in the laboratory.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Philip M. Ngumbi 1,2, Lucy W. Irungu2, Paul N. Ndegwa2 & Nguya K. Maniania3 1Kenya Medical Research; 2011.
KAVITI DRLILIANKATUNGE. "Perspectives in Bantu Grammar-The Case of Kikamba. VDM-Verlag Dr. Muller, Gmblt & Co, Saabrucken, Germany.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. VDM-Verlag Dr. Muller, Gmblt & Co, Saabrucken, Germany.; 2011.
MANDELA DRIDENYAPAMELA. "Physician Training in HIV/AIDS Care Services.". In: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ISBN: 978-8443-9889-2. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2011.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Pokhariyal,G. & Hassanali, J.Regression and Simulation models for Human and Baboon Brain Parameters. Int. J. Morphol., 29(3):971-977, 2011.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. international Journal of Morphology; 2011. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
Njihia JM. "Policy and Socio-Economic Contexts for IT Based Public Sector Reform in Postcolonial Developing Countries: The Contrived vs. the Actual." In: Papadopoulos T, Kanellis P, eds. Public Sector Reform Using Information Technologies: Transforming Policy into Practice . IGI Global; 2011:. Abstract
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ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Promoting Animal and Human Welfare in Disasters: The Role of Veterinary Professionals (2011). Aleri, J.W and Mogoa, E.M.". In: 45th Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Kisumu 2011. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
WAMBUGU DRSTANLEYNDIRITU, MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER, WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL, IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS, GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "PUBLICATIONS 1. SN Wambugu, PM. Mathiu, DW. Gakuya, TI. Kanui, JD. Kabasa, SG. Kiama. Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 137, (2011) 945.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
WAMBUGU DRSTANLEYNDIRITU, MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER, WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL, IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS, GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "PUBLICATIONS 1. SN Wambugu, PM. Mathiu, DW. Gakuya, TI. Kanui, JD. Kabasa, SG. Kiama. Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 137, (2011) 945.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
WAMBUGU DRSTANLEYNDIRITU, MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER, WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL, IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS, GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "PUBLICATIONS 1. SN Wambugu, PM. Mathiu, DW. Gakuya, TI. Kanui, JD. Kabasa, SG. Kiama. Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 137, (2011) 945.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Rabies and Population Control of Stray Dogs and Cats in Nairobi Slums. WVS-CSD Initiative (2011). Muraya, J., Aleri, J.W. Mutembei, H.M and Mulei, C.M.". In: Rabies Workshop 26th September,2011 held in Machokas. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Risk factors for body injuries and poor welfare in cattle within smallholder units in periurban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2011). Aleri, J.W., Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mogoa, E.M and Mulei, C.M.". In: 45th Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Kisumu 2011. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
J MROKELLOJULIUS, J MROKELLOJULIUS. "The role of collective action in overcoming the challenges of European food safety standards: The case of Kenya.". In: Agricultural Science Research Journal. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "The role of ICT-based market information services in spatial food market integration: The case of Malawi Agricultural Commodity Exchange.". In: International Journal of ICT Research and Development in Africa. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Sabuni Z A, Mbuthia P G, Maingi N, Nyaga P N, Njagi L W, Bebora L C and Michieka J N. 2011. Prevalence of haemoparasites infection in indigenous chicken in Eastern Province of Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development23(11)2011. http://www.lrrd.org/.". In: Livestock research for Rural development. Livestock research for Rural Development; 2011. Abstract
Indigenous chickens constitute over 81% of poultry in Kenya and produce 71% of eggs and poultry meat. Ecto- and haemoparasites limit production of these birds in the rural areas. However, there exists scanty information on these parasites infection in indigenous chicken. This study was conducted to determine and document the type and prevalence of haemoparasites affecting different ages and sex groups of free range indigenous chicken from two agro ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower Midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District in Eastern Province, Kenya. Of the 144 birds examined, 79.2% were infected with haemoparasites, with 62.3% single and 37.7% mixed haemoparasitic infections. Plasmodium gallinaceum was the most prevalent haemoparasite (53.5%) followed by Leucocytozoon schoutedeni (52.1%) and Hemoproteus spp., (3.5%). Grower birds had a prevalence of 83.3% for haemoparasites compared to 81.3% of adults, and 72.9% of chicks (p> 0.05). Male birds had 83.3% prevalence, while female birds had 75.0% (p> 0.05). LH1 was found to have a slightly high prevalence of 81.9% compared to LM5, 76.4% (p> 0.05). Hemoproteus spp were isolated in chickens from LH1 but not from LM5. This study has documented a high prevalence of haemoparasites, hence further studies to determine the impact of infection on the health and productivity of these birds, and evaluation of cost benefit of various control strategies need to be undertaken.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Samuel N. Gatiti, M. Muchiri, Elisha T. O. Opiyo, William Okello-Odongo(2011). A Decision Support Systems tool for Forest Biodiversity, Conservation and Climate Change: A Case Study of Grevillea robusta Tree in Kenya.". In: In International Conference on Trocpical Forest Resources, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST), Kenya. June 6-9, 2011. Accepted, yet to be presented. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2011.
KIRITI DRNG'ANG'ATABITHAWAGITHI. "Socioeconomic Determinants of Family Size in Nyeri District of Rural Kenya.". In: Regional Development Studies, Vol. 14, pp. 29-44. UNCRD; 2011.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Stimulating smallholder investment in sustainable land management: Overcoming market, policy and institutional challenges.". In: Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Structure and Important Recommendations of the Fink Report: An African Perspective.". In: Bk 1,2,3 and 4 Published by Longhorn Publishers. University of Bradford; 2011.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Subramanian, S., H.R. Pappu, R. Birithia, O. Shem, J. Muthomi, P. Sseruwagi, R.D. Narla. 2011. Diversity and distribution of Iris yellow spot virus infecting onion in Eastern Africa. 4th Conference of the International Working Group on Legume and Vegetabl.". In: 4th Conference of the International Working Group on Legume and Vegetable Viruses (IWGLVV), May 17-20, 2011 - Antequera, M. International Working Group on Legume and Vegetable Viruses (IWGLVV); 2011.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Tick-borne diseases a threat in the kennels (2011). Aleri, J.W. and Muiruri, M.N.". In: Kennel club Annual Newsletter March 2011. Kennel club; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Topography of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in relation to the thyroid artery, Zuckerkandl tubercle, and Berry ligament in Kenyans.". In: Int. J. Morphol. Clin Anatomy.; 2011. Abstract
Injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is an important but avoidable complication of thyroidectomy. This complication may be avoided by the identification of the nerve facilitated by important landmarks found along its course. The setting for this work is the Human Anatomy Laboratory of the University of Nairobi. The aim of this work is to determine the topographic relationship of the RLN with the inferior thyroid artery (ITA), the tubercle of Zuckerkandl (TZ), and the ligament of Berry (LB) in a Kenyan population. The relationship between the nerve and the above landmarks was determined during dissection of 146 right and left thyroid lobes. One right side of the neck had a nonrecurrent nerve. Of the specimens where relationship was determined, the nerve was anterior to the ITA in 37% of cases and posterior in 51.4%. In relation to the LB, 45.3% were superficial (dorsolateral). The TZ was clearly delineated in 86 of the 146 specimens. No nerve traversed the tubercle. The RLN exhibited variations similar to those in other populations. The TZ when present was a reliable landmark to the nerve.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Urban consumers.". In: International Journal of Business and Social Science. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
ONGETI DRKEVINWANGWE, HASSAN PROFSAIDI, A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Variant origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Wiley; 2011. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "Wanyama P. Juma, Hoseah M. Akala, Fredrick L. Eyase, Lois L. Muiva, Matthias Heydenreich, Faith A. Okalebo, Martin Peter, Douglas Walsh, Mabel Imbuga, Abiy Yenesew. Terpurinflavone: an antiplasmodial flavone from the stem of Tephrosia purpurea. Phytochemi.". In: Manuscript number PHYTOL-D-00140R1. Phytochemistry Letters; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} 1. Introduction Tephrosia Pers (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) is a large tropical and sub-tropical genus estimated to contain about three hundred species (Waterman and Khalid, 1980; Abou-Douh et al., 2005) out of which thirty species are found in Kenya (Tarus et al., 2002). The extracts of some Tephrosia species have shown various biological activities including antiplasmodial (Muiva et al., 2009), antibacterial (Abou-Douh et al., 2005) anticancer (Santram et al., 2006) and insecticidal activities (Delfel et al., 1970). The taxon T. purpurea is among the most widely used Tephrosia species in traditional medicine (Damre et al., 2003). Various biological activities including antibacterial (Hegazy et al., 2009; Chinniah et al., 2009), antidiabetic and antioxidant (Pavana et al., 2009), immunomodulatory (Damre et al., 2003), anti-inflammatory (Damre et al., 2003) and cancer chemopreventive activities (Chang et al., 2000) have been reported for extracts and pure compounds from this plant. T. purpurea. is rich in prenylated flavonoids including flavones (Hegazy et al., 2009; Pelter et al., 1981), flavanones (Pelter et al., 1981; Gupta et al., 1980), chalcones (Chang et al., 2000; Pelter et al., 1981) and rotenoids (Ahmad et al., 1999). In the search for compounds with antiplasmodial activity from Kenyan plants, the stem of T. purpurea has been investigated. This report is on the isolation and characterization of a new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone (1), with antiplasmodial activity along with three known flavonoids. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The stem extract of Tephrosia purpurea showed antiplasmodial activity against the D6 (chloroquinesensitive) and W2 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 10.47  2.22 mg/ml and 12.06 2.54 mg/ml, respectively. A new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone, along with the known compounds lanceolatin A, -semiglabrin and lanceolatin B have been isolated from this extract. The new compound, terpurinflavone, showed the highest antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 3.12  0.28 mM (D6) and 6.26  2.66 mM (W2). The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Welfare of Dairy Cattle in the Smallholder (Zero-grazing) Production Systems of Nairobi and its Environs (2011). Aleri, J.W.". In: Faculty of veterinary medicine 8th Biennal scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual Scientific conference 25 . University of Nairobi Thesis; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "What is the appropriate age range of individuals to be included in a survey to estimate the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis?". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2011.
2010
E.E.; E, N.; M, P.; K, Githigia S.M., R. O. "Prevalence of Porcine Cysticercosis and Risk Factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in Homa Bay District, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi Biennial Scientific Conference. Na1robi, Kenya; 2010.2010-prevalence_of_porcine_cysticercosis_and_risk_factors_in_homa_bay_kenya.pdf
Musyoka SM, Wayumba GO, Mwathane I. Development of a proto-type land information management system for the peri-urban areas in Nairobi: Case study of Kitengela area. Nairobi: Institution of Surveyors of Kenya; 2010.
Wambui P, Rodrigues A, Opiyo E. "Licence Plate Recognition System: Localization for Kenya.". In: ICCIR. Kampala Uganda; 2010.
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Extraction of Resistances in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated from Obliquely Sputtered TiO2 Films,.". In: Opto-Electronics Devices: Their potential for Sustainable Development, conference held at the Department of Physics, University of Nairobi. DEPT OF PHYSICS, UON: Elsevier; 2010. Abstract

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Kisipan ML, Makanya AN, Oduor-Okelo D, Onyango DW. "The epididymis of rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens): Structure, adaptations and role in sperm maturation and storage.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibitions. Nairobi: Kisipan, M.L., Makanya, A.N., Oduor-Okelo, D. and Onyango, DW; 2010. Abstract

Sengis are testicondid endemic african mammals that constitute the order Macroscelidae. The epididymides of five male rufous sengis (Elephantulus rufescens) were studied both macroscopically and microscopically to describe the structure and possible features or adaptations making it a suitable site for sperm maturation and storage in testicondas. The epididymis had three distinct topographic regions; the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. The caput and cauda epididymis were placed further apart; the former occuring as a longitudinal mass on dorsolateral border of the tesis while the latter occurred as a pear-shaped mass placed laterally between the rectum and the pelvic urethra, the two being connected by a slender corpus epiddidymis. The epithelium comprised of principal and basal cells with the former exhibiting numerous secretory granules and apical blebing in the caput. In the cauda, principal cells had numerous vacuoles and its lumen was densely packed with spermatozoa and occasional masses that appeaed to engulf spermatozoa. This study demonstrates that the pricipal cells of the caput of sengi produces materials either through merocrine or apocrine secretion, the latter being shown by apical blebs that are shed off as epididymosomes, which in turn transfers epididymis-secreted proteins to the plasma membrane of spermatozoa. Additionally, the study has shown that the cauda epididymis remarkably descends to a site probably cooler than the core body temperature for optimal sperm storage, and the numerous vacuoles indicating its involvement in fluid reabsortion and phagocytosis of residual bodies and damaged spermazoa.

Owiti L. "Gender Based Violence in Relation to Power and Resources.". In: YWCA and CFC Seminar. Limuru; 2010.
Odhiambo JA, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Ethnomedicial knowledge in traditional management of human ailments in Lake Victoria Basin,.". In: 51st annual Meeting of the Society for Economic Botany, Veracruz, Mexico. Vera Cruz, Mexico: J.A. Odhiambo, .W. Lukhoba*, S.F. Dossaji; 2010. Abstract

Though the majority of inhabitants in the Kenya rely on ethnomedicinal plant species to manage a wide range of human ailments, much the indigenous knowledge largely remains undocumented. An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document the plant species used medicinally in the Lake Victoria Basin. Data was collected by interviewing the herbalists from the region. A total of thirty four plant species distributed in twenty one botanical families were identified. The plant family with highest number of plants used for medicine was Compositae, followed by Leguminosae then Labiatae. The herbals were prepared mainly as concoctions and decoctions and were majorly administered orally and dermally to treat ailments such as typhoid, malaria, and chest and skin related complications. A rich knowledge of medicinal plants was recognized and phytochemical and bioactivity analyses of these herbal plants are recommended to determine their safety and efficacy.

Wainaina G, Michael M. "‘NEW’ STRATEGIES FOR FINANCING EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN AFRICA.". In: EDUCATION FOR ALL HIGH LEVEL PANEL MEETING. Addis Ababa; 2010.
K. MJ, O. KDB, A. OH. "A Hybrid MOM/FDTD Formulation for EMC/EMI Problems Of Metallic Enclosures with Apertures.". In: KSEEE-JSAEM 2010 International Conference. MMUCK, Nairobi: International Journal of Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE); 2010. Abstract

A HYBRID MOM/FDTD FORMULATION FOR EMC/EMI PROBLEMS OF METALLIC ENCLOSURES WITH APERTURES

Josiah K. Makiche1 Dominic B. O. Konditi2, Heywood A. Ouma3
jkmakiche@yahoo.co.uk konditi_dom@yahoo.co.uk houma@ieee.org

1Department of Telecommunication and Information Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. 2Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University College of Kenya. 3Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Nairobi

Abstract—In this work a hybrid Method-of-Moments/Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (MoM/FDTD) formulation for the analysis of a metallic enclosure with an aperture is developed. The equivalence principle is used to divide the problem into two regions, region 1 and region 2, each of which is treated separately. The induced aperture magnetic currents are obtained via a moments method solution of the mixed potential integral equation using the generalized network formulation and triangular patch modeling. The computed magnetic current is directly incorporated into FDTD formulations as a source to determine the fields in the interior of the enclosure (region 2). The formulations are implemented in a computer code and used to analyze a typical problem of a rectangular enclosure with an aperture. The results are validated using data available in literature.
Keywords: Shielding effectiveness, metallic enclosures, method of moments, finite difference time domain, EMI/EMC.

WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Electrochemical Characterization of TiO2 Blocking Layers Prepared by Reactive DC Magteron Sputtering.". In: African School on Nanoscience for solar Energy Conversion, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. AKAKI CAMPUS, ADDIS ABABA: Elsevier; 2010. Abstract

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WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Land Policy Development and Land Conflicts/Clashes in Kenya: Is there Light at the end of the Tunnel.". In: 10th AFRES Conference. Naivasha, Kenya; 2010.
Mulwa J, Barongo J, Fairhead D, Mariita N, Patel J. "Integrated Geophysical Study of Lake Bogoria Basin, Kenya: Implications for Geothermal Energy Prospecting.". In: Proceedings: World Geothermal Congress 2010. Bali, Indonesia: World Geothermal Congress; 2010. Abstract

The Lake Bogoria basin, here in referred to as the study area, is located in the greater Baringo-Bogoria basin (BBB), about 100 km to the north of Menengai geothermal prospect on the floor of Kenya Rift Valley (KRV). It is bound by latitudes 0o 00’ and 0o 30’N and longitudes 35o45’E and 36o15’E within the rift graben. The study area is characterized by geothermal surface manifestations which include hot springs, spouting geysers, fumaroles/steam jets and mud pools. The area is overlain by Miocene lavas lavas, mainly basalts and phonolites, and Pliocene to recent sediments and pyroclastics such as tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, superficial deposits, volcanic soils, alluvium and lacustrine silts. The terrain is characterized by extensive faulting forming numerous N-S ridges and fault scarps.
Gravity and magnetotelluric (MT) surveys were undertaken in the area to determine the heat source, characterize the geothermal reservoir, and evaluate the geothermal resource potential of the basin.
Gravity survey results indicate Bouguer anomaly having an amplitude of ~40 mGals aligned in a north-South direction and interpreted to be due to a series of dyke injections and hence the heat source in the basin. The interpretation of Bouguer anomaly has been constrained by using previous seismic results. The MT survey results show three distinct layers in the basin. The first layer, overlain by high resistivity thin layers, is ~3 km thick and has resistivities ranging between 4-30 -m. This layer is interpreted to be due to a combination of saline sediments and circulation of high temperature geothermal fluids. The second layer is ~10 km thick and resistivity values range between 85-2500 -m. This layer is interpreted to be fractured basement metamorphic rocks hosting a steam reservoir where circulating fluids are heated by underlying dyke injections. The substratum is characterized by resistivities ranging between 0.5-47 -m and is interpreted as hot dyke injections which are the heat sources for this geothermal prospect. The magnetotelluric results in this study are consistent with results of previous microseismic study in Lake Bogoria basin by Young et al. (1991).
On the basis of gravity and MT results, the heat source in Lake Bogoria basin is due to cooling dyke injections occurring at depths of ~6 – 12 km in the subsurface. Gravity method however favours depths of ~3 – 6 km. The geothermal reservoir is probably two-phase and is attributed to condensation of high temperature steam from the underlying fractured basement metamorphic rocks.

"Applying Earl’s KM Model in IK Management.". In: Proceedings of International Conference on Information Management and Evaluation (ICIME). University of Cape Town; 2010.
Omwenga M. "Bridging the North-South Divide in Sustainable Urbanization: The Picture of Nairobi, Kenya. .". In: ISOCARP NETWORK EVENT, World Urban Forum (WUF) 5 . Rio De Janeiro, Brazil; 2010.
mwaura F, Kimani M, Nyandega IA. State of Kenya Population 2009: Population Dynamics and Population Change: Implications for the Realization of the MDGs and the Goals of Vision 2030. Nairobi: National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development; 2010.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "The Impacts of poor Governance on Land Development Applications processes: The Case of City of Nairobi.". In: 46th ISOCARP Congress on sustainable City, developing World. Nairobi; 2010.
Irungu DM, Michael M. "EFFECTS OF TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE.". In: ORSEA CONFERENCE. KAMPALA; 2010.
Muindi F. "THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRADE UNION LEADERSHIP AND THE FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA) . Nairobi; 2010. Abstractthe_effectiveness_of_trade_union_leadership_and_the_factors_influencing_the_leadership_effectiveness.pdf

Without effective leadership, the process of creating an environment that is positive for fostering Relationships and conducive to effective production would falter and the organization would suffer loss, either monetary, personnel, or production. This study on the leadership effectiveness in the Kenya union of sugar plantation and allied workers (KUSPAW) aimed at determining the effectiveness of Trade Union leadership and determining the factors influencing the leadership effectiveness. A descriptive survey research design was used. Stratified sampling using the proportionate allocation method was used to determine the size of each stratum (national board members, branch officials and shop stewards). A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. The data was analyzed descriptively using the distribution (frequency), central tendency (Mean and mode) and dispersion (range, variance and standard deviation).The results revealed that the KUSPAW leadership’s ‘laissez-faire’ and ‘Management by exception: passive’ had acceptable scores of 0.5 and 0.6 respectively against a benchmark of 0-1. The leadership also has an acceptable score in contingent reward (2.9) measured against a 2-3 validated benchmark. The two leadership styles that did not meet the expectations are ‘Management by exception: active’ and
transformational leadership with scores of 2.4 and 2.9 measured against benchmarks of 1-2 and 3.0-3.75
respectively. The outcomes ratings (3.0) also failed to attain the benchmark in excess of 3.5. The study concludes that the KUSPAW leadership is relatively ineffective and recommends that the whole leadership is taken through a leadership course, albeit refresher for those with the training.
Keywords: leadership, leadership effectiveness, trade unions

"Gunga SO", "Nzuki PK". "Teaching Practice Benchmarking Methodology: The Way to Teacher Education Professionalism in Kenya.". In: Teaching Practice Symposium. Tangaza College, Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Benchmarking in Teaching Practice (TP) is the process of identification of "best practice" in relation to quality of teachers produced. It involves assessment of the processes by which teachers are trained and posted to various institutions for Internship. The objective of benchmarking in TP is to understand and evaluate the current position of the organization of teacher education process in relation to "best practice", and to identify areas and possible means of performance improvement.
The purpose of this paper was to assess how Kenyan teacher education institutions in general and university of Nairobi in particular could position themselves compared to teacher education institutions globally, in the professional management of TP. The paper proposes a benchmarking methodology which the authors believe will be appropriate for professional teaching attachment and to which the various teacher education institutions in Kenya could adhere.
Key words:
Benchmarking, professionalism, Cooperating Teachers, supervision, placement

Khasakhala" "A, Palamuleni" "M. "Utilization of Maternal Health Care Services in Lesotho and Malawi.". In: 2010 7. Population of South Africa (PASA) annual conference. DBSA, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2010.
Owiti L. "Women and Culture: Harmful Cultural Practices.". In: ACK Ladies Conference. Nairobi; 2010.
Mukelabai, N. O. Bwibo M(E& R. " Growth monitoring and promotion during early childhood. .". In: Primary health care manual for medical students and other health workers (3rd edition). UNICEF; 2010.
GK G, JW A, Mbuthia P G, CM M. "). Causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya." Trop. Anim. Health. Prod.. 2010;42:1643-1647 .
Nguta, CM, WO O, Onyari, Onyiego. "). Levels of Selected Heavy Metals & Fluoride in water around Fluorspar Factory in Kerio Valley, Kenya." Kenya J Sci Tech Inn. . 2010;1:12-22.
D.C W, E.M O, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Inwani I, Benki-Nugent S, G J-S. "1. Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 infected children on antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a prospective cohort." BCM Pediatr. 2010:10-33.predictors_of_mortality_in_hiv-1infected_children.pdf
Akunga ND, Keraka M, Anyango SO. 2Burden of Childhood Diarrhea from Water sanitation and hygiene: The case of Nairobi City, Kenya. . Bonn: Verlag Dr. Muller (VDM). ISBN978-3-639-27847-7 .; 2010.
Bark CM, Morrison CS SRABJKKNHMRDMJBMRNN-. "Acceptability of treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in newly HIV-infected young women in Uganda. ." nt J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010 Dec;14(12):1647-9. . 2010. Abstract

Abstract

We studied the acceptability of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in newly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected Ugandan women. Women were followed in an out-patient clinic where they received HIV care including IPT. Of 52 women who were purified protein derivative-positive, 48 were eligible for IPT and 39 (81%) completed therapy. This completion rate was higher than reported in similar observational studies.

Mukelabai, N. O. Bwibo M(E)& R. "Accidents and Poisoning. In Kenya .". In: Accidents and Poisoning. In Kenya . UNICEF; 2010.
Migowa AN, Gatinu B, RW. N. "Adherence to oral rehydration therapy among in-patient children aged 1-59 months with some or no dehydration. ." J Trop Pediatr. 2010 Apr;56(2):103-7. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmp059. Epub 2009 Jul 14.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

To determine adherence to oral rehydration solution (ORS) among in-patients aged 1-59 months suffering from gastroenteritis and having some dehydration (SD) or no dehydration (ND) in two rural hospitals in Kenya.
METHODS:

Children aged 1-59 months suffering from acute gastroenteritis with (SD) or (ND) were enrolled into the study, examined and medical records reviewed. On the second and third day of follow up, children were re-examined to ascertain hydration status and care-takers interviewed.
RESULTS:

Ninety-nine children were enrolled. Forty-five (75%) of the 60 children with SD received a correct prescription for ORS but only 12 (20%) received the correct amount. Among the 39 children with ND, 23 (59%) received a correct prescription for ORS, however only 16 (41%) received the correct amount. On the 3rd day, 9 (15%) of the 60 children with SD at baseline and 2 (5%) of the 39 with ND were classified as having SD.
CONCLUSION:

Four in five children with SD and 6 in 10 children with ND fail to receive the correct amounts of ORS.

C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI, Maina S, Olima W. "Adopting a new eco-ethical philosophy of living; the diminishing options for Nairobi and humanity." Africa Habitat . 2010;Review 4 . Abstract

Burning refuse, especially plastics and other hazardous waste that affect air quality has been a common practice. Authorities point to a well balanced environmental past. During those good old days, people used to be able to throw garbage away. And garbage actually went "away." As they pose, Where is "away" now? "Away" is here. "Away" is someone's back yard. There is no place to go from here. We now see that we inhabit a smaller and smaller planet. "Away" has become very close indeed. Based on preliminary findings of a continuing research, and having used case study approaches to isolate pertinent issues, secondary data obtained through stratified random sampling points to unsustainable livelihoods. This papers objective was to highlight this problem from an eco-ethical perspective. The effect of lack of eco-ethics is numerous. From the very cradle of evolution, nature has been propagating to man in subtle ways the message 'use but don't abuse'. The ancient Bible has a message: After God created the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve, He took the two of them around and told them 'See the world I created, it is all for you, don't spoil it because no one will be there to restore it', (Genesis 2:15). This is probably the first and strongest statement, based upon which Humankind later developed ideas of nature and ecological ethics. Data reveals that humanity and designers, the case of this study, has ignored their responsibility to nurture their environment. This paper concludes that mankind has got a responsibility to future generations in the process of their current development endeavours.

Mutua FM, Zaki AF. "Analyses of Annual Droughts in Kenya Using an Objective Annual Rainfall Drought Index." Journal of Met and Related Sciences. 2010;4:21-23.
Odhimabo JA, Siboe GM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antifungal activity of crude extracts of Gladiolus dalenii Van Geel (Iridaceae)." African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative medicine. 7 (1): 53-58, 2010. 2010;7(1):53-58. Abstractajtcam_publication.pdfWebsite

 
Bulb extracts of Gladiolus dalenii reportedly used in the treatment of fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in the Lake Victoria region were tested for antifungal activity using the disc diffusion assay technique. Commercially used antifungal drugs, Ketaconazole and Griseofulvin (Cosmos Pharmaceuticals) were used as standards. Dichloromethane (CH2CL2)/Methanol (MeOH) in the ratio 1:1. Soluble extracts showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. Direct bioautography on silica gel Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and appropriate spraying agents were used to identify the active component in the extract. The activities of both the extracts were higher than that of Griseofulvin. CH2CL2 soluble extract in addition showed ability to delay sporulation in A.niger. The active group of compounds in the extracts was identified as alkaloids, which offer immense potential for development of new and valuable pharmaceutical products.
Key words: G. dalenii, Aspergillus niger, Antifungal activity

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Antimicrobial and antiparasitic abietane diterpenoids from the roots of Clerodendrum eriophyllum." Natural Products Communication. 2010;5(6):853-858. AbstractWebsite

Machumi F, Samoylenko V, Yenesew A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Wiggers FT, Jacob MR, Tekwani BL, Khan SI, Walker LA, Muhammad I.; Nat Prod Commun. 2010 5(6), pp. 853-8.

Chromatographic separation of the roots of a Kenyan medicinal plant, Clerodendrum eriophyllum, led to the isolation of ten abietane diterpenoids (1-10), one of which (1) was isolated for the first time from a natural source. Using spectroscopic data, the structure of 1 was determined to be 12-hydroxy-8,12-abietadiene-3,11,14-trione. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that the stereochemistry of compounds 1, 3, and 6-8 belongs to the normal series of abietane diterpenes, which confirmed the absolute stereochemistry of the isolated compounds. Compounds 1-10 were evaluated for their in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, antifungal and antibacterial activities. Compounds 3 and 7 exhibited potent antifungal activity (IC50/MIC 0.58/1.25 and 0.96/2.5 microg/mL, respectively) against C. neoformans, whereas 3, 6 and 7 showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus with IC50/MIC values between 1.33-1.75/2.5-5 and 0.96-1.56/2.5 microg/mL, respectively. In addition, compounds 3 and 9 exhibited potent antileishmanial activity (IC50 0.08 and 0.20 microg/mL, respectively) against L. donovani, while 3 and 7 displayed weak antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, but 9 was inactive.

E.N. PN. "Antiretroviral therapy in a core transmission group of Kenyan female sex workers is not associated with increased sexual risk taking.". In: Future Medicinal Chemistry. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) prolongs life and reduces infectiousness, in some contexts it has been associated with increased sexual risk taking. We compared self-reported condom use, client numbers, and STI incidence in HIV-infected Kenyan female sex workers (FSW) before and after starting ART (n=62), as well in control FSWs not starting ART (n=40). Sexual behaviour with casual clients did not change after ART initiation; condom use increased and STI incidence decreased in both cases and controls, likely due to successful cohort-wide HIV prevention efforts. ART provision was not associated with increases in unsafe sex in this core transmission group.

ADUDA JO. "THE APPLICABILITY OF CONSTANT DIVIDEND MODEL An Empirical Test of Applicability of the Model by Companies Listed At the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2010. Abstractthe_applicability_of_the_constant_dividend_model_for_companies_listed_at_the_nairobi_stock_exchange.pdf

The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.

Boon CJPM, Visser NL, Kemoli AM, van Amerongen WE. "ART class II restoration loss in primary molars: re-restoration or not." Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2010;11(5):228-231. Abstract

AIM: The purpose of this study was to find an answer as to what to do with Atraumatic restorations (ART) failures:
re-restore or leave the preparation further unfilled?
STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional study.
METHODS: In 2006 of 804 children in Kenya each had one proximal cavity treated using the ART approach. Out of the original group 192 children, who had lost their restorations but still had the treated molars in situ, were selected for further study in 2008. The length of time that the restorations had been in situ was known while the colour, hardness and the extent of infected dentine was then evaluated and documented. STATISTICS: Analysis of the data obtained was conducted using SPSS 16.0. Chi Square tests were performed with the variables of hardness, colour and infected dentine, and a 5% confidence interval was used. The Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient was also calculated.
RESULTS: The results showed that 66% of the molars that had lost restorations had hard dentine, 78% of the preparations showed dark dentine and 50.7% appeared to have no infected dentine. These percentages increased with the increase in the survival time of the restorations.
CONCLUSIONS: It is not always necessary to re-restore primary molars after ART restoration loss. Further research is necessary to confirm these findings.

K'AKUMU OA. "Asserting the nature of man as zoon politikon.". In: City. Taylor and Francis; 2010. Abstract

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

J. K. Lelon1*, I. O. Jumba2, J. K. Keter2, Chemuku W, Oduor2 FDO. "Assessment of physical properties of gum arabic from Acacia Senegal varieties in Baringo District, Kenya." African Journal of Plant Science . 2010;Vol. 4(4),(ISSN 1996-0824 © 2010 Academic Journals):pp. 95-98. Abstract

A study was conducted to assess the physical properties of gum arabic obtained from two Acacia Senegal varieties (var.Senegal and Mar.kerensis). in Marigat division, Baringo district. Gum arabic samples from the experimental sites at Solit, Kapkun, Kimorok and Maoi were collected, dried and analysed to establish their physical characteristics. Moisture content in gum arabic obtained from variety kerensls in Kimorok and Maoi (17.5 ± 1.00 and 15.4 ± 0.50%) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of variety Senegal in Solit and Kapkun (15.0 ± 0.50 and 14.9 ± 1.80%), while internal energy (33.4 and 33.76%) were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those of variety Senegal found in Kapkun and Solit (33.0 and 32.96%), respectively. Ash content in gum arabic from variety Senegal in Solit and Kapkun (2.94 and 3.16%) was higher (P < 0.05) than those of variety kerensis found in Kimorok and Maoi (2.88 and 2.72%). In Kapkun, volatile matter in gum arabic from variety Senegal (64.2%) was higher (P < 0.05) than the quantities of variety kerensis found in Kimorok, Solit and Maoi (63.8, 63.7 and 63.6%), respectively. Moisture content in gum arabic from variety Senegal in Solit and Kapkun (15.0 ± 0.40 and 14.9 ± 1.80%) fell within international specifications (13 to 15%), while variety kerensis in Kimorok and Maoi (17.5 and 15.4%) fell outside the specifications. Moisture, ash and volatile matter contents in gum arabic from A. Senegal variety Senegal were 14.9, 3.16 and 64.24%, while A. Senegal variety kerensis had 15.2, 2.88 and 63.8%, respectively. Moisture content in gum arabic from A. Senegal variety Senegal fell within international specifications while A. Senegal variety kerensis fell outside the specifications. Ash, volatile matter and internal energy contents in gum arabic from A. Senegal variety kerensis and variety Senegal fell within the specifications. The gum arabic from A. Senegal variety Senegal in Solit and Kapkun was of better quality than that of A. Senegal variety kerensis in Kimorok and Maoi.

Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Kabira JN. "Characteristics of fresh (ware) potato traders in Nairobi and Nakuru towns, Kenya.". In: Contribution of agriculture to achieving MDGs. Nairobi: IeCAB2010-eBook; 2010.fresh_potato_traders_characteristics.pdf
ABONG&#39; MRGEORGEOOKO. "Characteristics of the industry, constraints in processing, and marketing of potato crisps in Kenya." Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 2010;8(1):936-943. AbstractWebsite

There has been an increase in the number of potato crisps processors in Kenya in the last few decades. However, the characteristics of these firms are not clearly known. This study was designed to characterize the potato crisps processing industry in Kenya in terms of varieties used, pre-processing handling practices and constraints encountered. The potato crisps industry was surveyed between December 2009 and February 2010 using a structured questionnaire. Using labels of a total of 24 brands of potato crisps found selling in 80 supermarkets and kiosks in Nairobi, the processors were identified, contacted, visited and interviewed. Together 23 processors were identified and these had processing plants in Nairobi and Nakuru. The information collected included size of firm, range of products, constraints in processing crisps, marketing of the product and the variety of potatoes processed. The number of employees in the processing industries ranged from 2 to 250; 61 % of the processing firms had 5 or less employees, 22 % had 6-10 employees and only 4 % had 100 or more employees. In addition to potato crisps, 60 % of the firms also processed peanuts, 30 % processed chevda and potato sticks, 26 % processed pop-corns, 13 % processed banana crisps, 9 % processed cassava crisps and 4 % also processed arrow root crisps, spices, peas and herbs. About 4 % identified the main constraints as lack of proper equipment and market, 64 % complained of lack of potatoes and their poor quality while 43 % indicated lack of finances to increase volume of production. As pertains to produce sales, 83 % of the processors sell their products directly to supermarkets, 4 % through wholesalers and 13 % directly to individuals and shops. Dutch Robyjn was the potato cultivar of choice for many processors and other cultivars were used in processing during periods of scarcity of   cv. Dutch Robyjn. A large number of processors (70 %) stored their raw potatoes for relatively short periods of time ranging from 2 days to 3 weeks. A few (30 %) processing firms, stored potatoes for a month or longer. The potato crisps processing industry in Kenya is largely dominated by small scale processors who process crisps only as one of a diversity of other products. The industry is faced with several constraints including raw potato price fluctuations, scarcity and poor quality of potatoes, lack of facilities, skills and information on raw potato storage. The industry relies heavily on one variety that is not always available for all the processors. This information is important for potato breeders and postharvest technologists to avail sufficient suitable potato cultivars for crisping

MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Characteristics of the smallholder free-range pig production system in western Kenya John M. Kagira & Paul W. N. Kanyari & Ndicho Maingi & Samuel M. Githigia & J. C. Ng." Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:865. 2010;42:865-873. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Free-range pig farming is common amongst the small-scale farmers in western Kenya. In order to determine the characteristics of this type of production system, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey on farm characteristics and management was collected from 182 farmers in Busia District. The mean farm size was one acre, while the mean number of pigs per farm was 3.6. Pigs were mainly kept as a source of income (98%) and majority were of cross breed variety (64%). The production systems included farrow to weaner (12%), porker to finisher (36%), and mixed (46%). Sixty five percent (65%) of the pigs were tethered and housing was not provided in 61% of the farms. Most of the feeds were sourced locally. Lack of castration and delayed weaning of pigs was observed on 49% and 30% of the farms, respectively. The main production constraints included pig diseases (81%) and high cost or lack of feed (81%). Haematopinus suis infestations and worm infections were considered to be the most important diseases by 71% and 55% of the farmers, respectively. Farmers had moderate knowledge on parasitic disease diagnosis with 31% and 62% not having a history of either deworming or spraying pigs with acaricides, respectively. Marketing constraints were common amongst the farmers and included poor prices and inadequate market information. In conclusion, the production system was characterized as low-input with an income objective. Future research and development approaches should focus on the integration of free-range farmers into the country's market chains through access to extension services.

Muchiri J. The Child Narrator: George Lamming’s In the Castle of My Skin. Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag; 2010.
Mukelabai, N. O. Bwibo M(E)& R. "Child Nutrition.". In: Primary health care manual for medical students and other health workers (3rd edition). UNICEF; 2010.
Cockburn J, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Child Welfare in Developing Countries: An Introduction. Chapter 1 in Cockburn J. and J. Kabubo-Mariara (Eds.).ISBN 978-1-4419-6337-6.". In: Child Welfare in Developing countries. New York: Springer/PEP/IDRC; 2010.
OTIENO MROWUOCHESOLOMON. The Church in the Struggle for Democracy in Kenya. MvuleAfrica Publishers, Nairobi; 2010.Website
John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Farquhar C, Ruth Nduati, and Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha GJ-S. "Cofactors for HIV-1 Incidence during Pregnancy and Postpartum Period." Curr HIV Res. 2010 October ; 8(7): 510–514.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
Objectives—To estimate HIV-1 incidence and cofactors for HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy
and postpartum.
Design—Retrospective study among women who were HIV seronegative during pregnancy.
Methods—Mothers accompanying their infants for routine 6-week immunizations at 6 maternal
child health clinics in Nairobi and Western Kenya were tested for HIV-1 after completing a
questionnaire that included assessment of sociodemographics, obstetric history and HIV-1 risk
perception.
Results—Of 2,135 mothers who had tested HIV-1 seronegative antenatally, 2,035 (95.3%)
accepted HIV-1 re-testing at 6 weeks postpartum. Of these, 53 (2.6%) were HIV-1 seropositive
yielding an estimated HIV-1 incidence of 6.8 (95% CI: 5.1-8.8) per 100 woman-years). Mothers
who seroconverted were more likely to be employed (45.3% vs 29.0%, p=0.01), married (96.2 vs
86.6%, p=0.04) and from a higher HIV-1 prevalence region (60.4% in Western Kenya vs 28.8% in
Nairobi, p<0.001). Among married women, those in polygamous relationship were significantly
more likely to seroconvert (19.6% vs 6.7%, p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, region and
employment independently predicted seroconversion.
Conclusions—Repeat HIV-1 testing in early postpartum was highly acceptable and resulted in
detection of substantial HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy and postpartum period. Within
prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission programs strategic approaches to prevent
maternal HIV-1 acquisition during pregnancy are urgently needed.

C.O.N. K. "College student’s views about purported male chauvinism." The Fountain. . 2010;Journal of Education(University of Nairobi).
OLIECH JS. "Combination drug treatment of beingn prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).". In: The Annals of African Surgery. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 2010. Abstract

Combination use of alpha-adrenergic blockers (tamsulocin or alfuzocin) and 5 alpha iso-enzyme 1&2 inhibitor (dutasteride) in symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the best first optional mode of treatment giving good results with minimal treatment  adverse effects especially for those at risk for surgical intervention and those who are still sexually active. 

KAVOI M. BONIFACE ET AL. "Comparative functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in the domestic dog and sheep." Annals of Anatomy. 2010;192:329-337. AbstractWebsite

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Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.

Karara MW. "Comparative tolerability and efficacy of stavudine 30 mg versus stavudine 40 mg in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy in Kenya." Journal of AIDS and HIV Research. 2010;2(2):024-031. AbstractWebsite

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This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of stavudine at the two dose levels in patients attending HIV Comprehensive Care Centre, in the largest public hospital in Kenya. Data on CD4 cell counts, drug adverse events and opportunistic infections were collected retrospectively from the records of 810 adult patients distributed in three study groups: patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 40 mg BD stavudine; patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine; and patients weighing < 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine. Fewer stavudine related adverse effects were seen in patients weighing ≥ 60 kg treated with 30 mg stavudine compared to those who received 40 mg stavudine in the same weight category (4.2 % vs 16.7 %, p < 0.001). Patients weighing < 60 kg were more likely to experience drug toxicity than those ≥ 60 kg when given 30 mg stavudine (12.8% vs 4.2 %, p<0.001). Occurrence of any adverse drug reactions was also significantly associated with age greater than 45 years (HR = 2.16, CI:1.41-3.31, p<0.001), co-morbidities (HR = 2.16, CI:1.06-4.38, p < 0.001), treatment with isoniazid (HR = 2.07, CI:1.09-3.96, p<0.001) and severe (WHO stage IV) immunosuppression (HR=1.45,CI:0.86-2.45, p<0.001). The onset of drug related toxicities, for all study arms, was principally in the first year of commencing therapy, for example 76 % of all cases of peripheral neuropathy were diagnosed within 12 months of treatment. The study demonstrated similar immunologic outcomes in the treatment groups given either 30 or 40 mg stavudine, with median CD4 cell counts after 12 months of treatment more than doubling for patients in all the study cohorts. The findings support the use of combination antiretroviral therapy regimens containing low dose stavudine in Kenya.
Key words
Low-dose stavudine, combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV, stavudine tolerability

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Comparative tolerability and efficacy of stavudine 30 mg versus stavudine 40 mg in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy in Kenya.". In: ournal of AIDS and HIV Research Vol. 2(2) pp. 024-031. Monicah Wanjiru Karara, Faith Apolot Okalebo, Margaret Ng; 2010. Abstract

Stavudine- containing regimens are currently the most widely used first-line anti-HIV treatment option in Kenya. This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of stavudine at two dose levels in patients attending a HIV Comprehensive Care Centre in Kenya. Data were collected retrospectively from the records of 810 adult patients. Fewer stavudine related adverse effects were seen in patients 60 kg treated with 30 mg stavudine compared to those who received 40 mg (4.2 vs 16.7%, p <0.001). Patients < 60 kg were more likely to experience drug toxicity than those 60 kg when given 30 mg stavudine (12.8 vs 4.2%, p < 0.001). Occurrence of any adverse drug reaction was significantly associated with severe immunosuppression (HR =1.45, Cl: 0.86 - 2.45, p < 0.001), co-morbidities (HR = 2.16, Cl: 1.06 - 4.38, p < 0.001) and treatment with isoniazid (HR = 2.07, Cl: 1.09 - 3.96, p < 0.001). The onset of drug related toxicities was principally in the first year of commencing therapy. Similar immunologic outcomes were demonstrated across all the treatment groups with median CD4 cell counts after 12 months of treatment more than doubling for patients in all the study cohorts. The findings support the use of combination antiretroviral therapy regimens containing low dose stavudine in Kenya. Key words: Low -dose stavudine, combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV, stavudine tolerability.

Osanjo L, Amollo L. "Design Policy and Promotion Map." SEE Bulletin. 2010;3 (Issue 3 - May 2010):8.
Chege K, Wagacha P, Pauw GD, Muchemi L, Ng'ang'a W, Ngure K, Mutiga J. Developing an Open source Spell-checker for G˜ık˜uy˜u. Valletta, Malta: European Language Resources Association- ELRA; 2010.gikuyu_spellchecker.pdf
Dharani N, Onyari JM, Kinyamario JI, Maina, Mavuti. "Distribution of Cd and Zn levels in Soils and Acacia xanthophloea Benth. From Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya." Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2010;85(3):318-323.
Wagacha JM, Steiner U, Dehne H-W, Zuehlke S, Spiteller M, Muthomi J, Oerke E-C. "Diversity in Mycotoxins and fungal species infecting wheat in Nakuru District, Kenya." Journal of Phytopathology. 2010;157:527-535.Website
Schröder H. "Do high-context cultures prefer implicatures?". In: Relevance Studies in Poland. Exploring translation and communication problems. Warsaw : Warsaw University Press.; 2010.
Eyvazi J, Irannejad H, Kianmehr MH, Esmaeili M, Akbari QA, Onwonga RN. "The effect of Pellet fertilizer application on Wheat Yield and its Components." International Research Journal of Plant Science. 2010;1(6):163-171.eyvazi_et_al2010_the_effect_of_pellet_fertilizer_application_on_wheat_yield.pdf
Fonta WM, Ichoku HE, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "The Effect of Protest Zeros on Estimates of Willingness to Pay in Healthcare Contingent Valuation Analysis." Applied Health Economics and Health Policy. 2010;8(4):225-37.
I.M. M, PE EKWOM, G OYOO, E A. "Ekwom PE, Oyoo G, Amayo E and Muriithi IM. Prevalence and Characteristics of Articular Manifestations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. EAMJ. 2010;87:408-414.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. EAMJ; 2010. Abstract

Background: Articular manifestations have been reported in HIV infection with a prevalence ranging from 2.5 to 68%.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence, types and characteristics of articular manifestations in the anti-retroviral treatment naive HIV infected patients.

Design: Cross sectional descriptive study.

Setting: Comprehensive care clinic (HIV outpatient clinic) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) from October 2007 to March 2008.

Subjects: One hundread and ninety three patients; 135 females and 58 males, aged between 19 to 65 years with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who were naive to anti - retroviral drug therapy.

Main outcome measure: Presence of articular manifestations that included HIV associated arthritis, HIV associated spondyloarthropathies, HIV associated arthralgia, painful articular syndrome and avascular necrosis.

Results: Thirty three of these 193 patients had articular manifestation with a prevalence of 17.1 %. The type prevalence was; HIV associated arthralgia, 15.6%; undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, 1 % and HIV associated arthritis; 0.5%. Their mean age was 36± 9 years, range 23-63 years; majority were female, male to female ratio of 1: 2.3 and the majority were in World health organization (WHO) clinical staging of HIV infection, class II and III with a mean CD4 cell count of 330 cells/mm3. Seventeen (51.5%) of the
patients with articular disease had oligo - articular presentation, 10(30.3%) mono-articular while 6(18.2%) had poly - articular presentation. The mean duration of joint pains was 53.3 days (range of 2-365 days). Six (18.2%) of these 33 patients missed work, home making activities or school due to the articular disease.

Conclusion: Articular manifestations are common in HIV infection with a prevalence of 17.1 %. HIV associated arthralgia was the most common manifestation. Majority of these patients were female, male to female ratio of 1: 2.3. The mean age of these patients was 36 years with a mean CD4 cell count of 330 cells/mm3 with 18.2 % of them missing school or work.

E.N. PN. "ENTERING SEX WORK IN THE INFORMAL URBAN SETTLEMENT OF KIBERA, NAIROBI, KENYA.". In: Future Medicinal Chemistry. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Female sex work has long been recognized as an important factor in the urban sub-Saharan Africa HIV/AIDS pandemic, and in some cities remains a driving force for HIV transmission. However, despite a long history of epidemiological studies, there are still gaps in our knowledge of the social epidemiology of African female sex work. For example, the basic question of why some women enter into sex work, while others in the same socio-economic environment never do, remains under researched. We investigated this question for two samples of same-aged women, one of whom is currently practicing commercial sex, and another who has never done so. Both come from the informal urban settlement of Kibera, located in Nairobi, Kenya. Inclusion of another sample of women who can serve as comparisons to female sex workers is a notable feature of our research design, and one missing from many ecological and intervention studies. Using respondent driven sampling, we collected socio-economic and sexual behavioural data for a total for 320 women, evenly divided between female sex workers and Kibera women working in other occupations (e.g. hair-dressing, tailoring, hotel workers and food servers) from all ten Kibera communities to test the hypothesis that past and present family ties and structure are important predictors of entry into sex work. Results of univariate and multivariate analyses testing this hypothesis are discussed with respect to the African cultural practice of child fostering and future interventions.

Osanjo L. "Entertainment on Wheels: Matatu mania." Design Magazine, SA. 2010;2(Issue No. 15):284-287.
DM K, A S, A O, A Y. "Environmental effects of selected chemical and physical geothermometers at Olkaria Geothrmal power plant." Journal of Sustainable Development. 2010;3(6):14-25. Abstractscan0015.pdfWebsite

21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..

Kimani MM, Kiiru JN, Matu MM, Chokwe T, Saidi H. "Evaluation of POSSUM and P-POSSUM as predictors of mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing laparotomy at a referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." Annals of African Surgery. 2010;5:28-32. AbstractWebsite

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Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.

Abong' GO, Okoth MW, J.K I, J.N K. "Evaluation of selected Kenyan potato cultivars for processing into potato crisps." Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1(5): 886-893. 2010;1(5):886-893.potato_for_crisps_abstract_pdf.pdfWebsite
KEIYORO PETERNJENGA. Factors influencing integration of ICT in teaching and learning. Germany: VDM; 2010.
Ogeng'o JA, Mwachaka PM, Bundi PK. "Factors Influencing Research Activity among Medical Students at the University of Nairobi." Annals of African Surgery. 2010;6:18-21. Abstractfactors_influencing_research_activity_among_medical_studdent.pdfWebsite

Background: Accurate evaluation of low back pain is essential for its rational management. The extent of use of clinical and imaging findings in identificationof prolapsed intervertebral disk varies between centers. In Kenya, thediagnostic procedure is obscure.Objective: To assess the evaluation of low back pain patients for prolapsed intervertebral disk at a Kenyatta National Hospital, a teaching and referralhospital in Kenya.Study Design: A retrospective chart studyPatients and Methods: Historical, physical and imaging findings of patients who presented with low back pain and subsequently diagnosed with prolapsed inter-vertebral disk between Jan 1997 and December 2007 were evaluated.Results: Of the six hundred and three patients (267 males, 336 females) whowere evaluated, risk factors were recorded in 39.5% patients, 35.3%patients had sciatica while straight leg raising test was performed in52.2% patients. Investigations performed in these patients included plainroentograms (38.5%), CT scan (9.1%) and MRI (44.1%).Conclusion: The evaluation of low back pain for prolapsed inter-vertebral disk was incomplete. History of sciatica, SLRT, crossed SLRT and MRI use arerecommended for routine evaluation of low back pain for PID.

Kiarie GW, ABINYA NO, JOSHI MD, LULE GN, Muthuma GZ. "Familial Clustering of Cancer in Two Tertiary Care Hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya." East Afri Med Journal. 2010;87(1):9-13.Website
MUTUKU AK, KIMANI M, M.MAGADI. Fertility in Kenya: Analysis of birth intervals in Kenya. Saarbrucken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller; 2010.book.doc
B M, Olubayo F, Narla R, Songa J, Amata R, Kyamanywa S, Ateka EM. "First record of spiraling whitefly in coastal Kenya: emergence, host range, distribution and association with cassava brown streak virus disease." Int. J. Agric. Biol. 2010;12:411-415.
Magutu PO, MBECHE IM, NYAMWANGE SO. "Formulation and Implementation Of Operation Strategies Used In Solid Waste Management: Case Study Of City Council Of Nairobi.". In: Journal of African Research in Business & Technology. IBIMA Publishing; 2010. Abstract

be serious

MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. GAKUU C.M. (2010), Distance Learning in Higher Education: An African Perspective. VDM Verlag Dr. M.; 2010. Abstractphd_book-_4.pdfWebsite

ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.

MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Gelaw Y, Kollmann M, Irungu NM, Ilako DR. The Influence of Central Corneal Thickness on Intraocular Pressure Measured by Goldmann Applanation Tonometry Among Selected Ethiopian Communities. J Glaucoma. 2010 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print].". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010. Abstract

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BACKGROUND: Estimates of intraocular pressure (IOP) are influenced directly by the central corneal thickness (CCT). We assume and apply a single value for CCT (520 mum) in applanation tonometry estimates, although there is compelling evidence that CCT varies between individuals.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of CCT and other factors on IOP among Ethiopians.
METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 sampled individuals from June to July 2006. The CCT was measured using OcuScan(R) RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and readings of IOP were made with Goldmann applanation tonometer. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and S-Plus 2000 of statistical packages.
RESULTS: Out of 300 individuals, 184 (61.3%) were males. The mean age was 42.57 years (SD+/-16.71), mean IOP 13.39 mm Hg (SD+/-2.81), and mean CCT 518.68 mum (SD+/-32.92). There was statistically significant relationship between CCT and IOP (r=0.199, P<0.001) and a borderline statistically significant detectable change of CCT with age (r=0.012

Molua EL, Benhin J, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Ouedraogo M, El-Marsafawy S. "Global Climate Change and Vulnerability of African Agriculture: Implications for Resilience and Sustained Productive Capacity." Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture. 2010;49(3):183-211.Website
Nyasani PJ. Guide to Philosophy Series 6 - Legal Philosophy Jurispudence.. Nairobi: Consolata Institute of Philosophy Press; 2010.
Gatumu JC. "Head teachers’ tasks in the implementation of preschool curriculum in Kenya public preschools." Ife PsychologIA: An International Journal of Psychology in Africa. 2010;18(1):12-32.
Kagira, J.M., Oluoch, G., Waititu, K.I., Mulei, I., Maingi N, Ngotho M. "High efficacy of combined albendazole and ivermectin treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes in vervet monkeys and baboons." Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science. 2010;37(4):1-7.2010._high_efficaccy_of_combination_anthelmintic_treatment__in_monkeys_and_baboons.pdf
In K. Mukelabai, N. O. Bwibo M(E)& R. "HIV infection and AIDS in children.". In: , Primary health care manual for medical students and other health workers (3rd . UNICEF; 2010.
RW. N. "HIV prevention--a public health priority. ." East Afr Med J. 2010 Mar;87(3):89-90. No abstract available. PMID: 23057303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] . 2010.
Trauth MH, Maslin MA, Deino A, Junginger A, Lesoloyia M, EO O, Olago DO, Olaka L, Strecker MR. "Human evolution in a variable environment: The amplifier lakes of Eastern Africa.". 2010.
"I.O. Kibwage.Essential oils Composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. from Kenya and their inhibitory effects on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticilliodes. Innovative Food Sciences and Emerging Technologies. 11:410-414.". 2010. Abstract

This work investigated the constiw6nts and the efficacy against Fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin production of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. from
different locations in Kenya.
The oil of leaves and flowering tops of 0. basilicum from Sagan a contained mainly Iinalool (95%). The flowering tops and leaves from Yatta contained mainly camphor (32.6 and 3 I.0%, respectively) and
linalool (28.2 and 29.3, respectively). Eugenol was the main constituent in the oil of O. gratissimum leaves from both Sagana (95.5%) and Yarta (70.1 %). The oil ofthe flowering tops had significantly less
eugenol. The main component of the oil of flowering tops from Yalta was Z-~-ocim~ne (34.1 %). Oil from both species had some antifungal activity. The oils of 0. basilicum and 0. gratissimum from
different locations showed chemical variation, antifungal activity, free radical scavenging capacity and antimycotoxicogenic property. These properties are attributed to the phenolic compound eugenol.

JUMA MROMOLLOPETER. "ICT Relevance to the remote lake region." P Juma; 2010. Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Farquhar C, Overbaugh J, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Harris J, Bosire R, G. J-S. "Illness during pregnancy and bacterial vaginosis are associated with in-utero HIV-1 transmission." AIDS. 2010 Jan 2;24(1):153-5. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832326d8.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
HIV-1 transmission in utero accounts for 20-30% of vertical transmission events in breast-feeding populations. In a prospective study of 463 HIV-1-infected mothers and infants, illness during pregnancy was associated with 2.6-fold increased risk of in-utero HIV-1 transmission [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.8] and bacterial vaginosis with a three-fold increase (95% CI 1.0-7.0) after adjusting for maternal HIV-1 viral load. Interventions targeting these novel risk factors could lead to more effective prevention of transmission during pregnancy.

PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "IN VITRO EFFECTS OF WARBURGIA UGANDENSIS, PSIADIA PUNCTULATA AND CHASMANTHERA DEPENDENS ON LEISHMANIA MAJOR PROMASTIGOTES.". In: Afr. J. Trad. CAM 7 (3): 264-275. Edward K. Githinji, Lucy W. Irungu, Willy K. Tonui, Geoffrey M. Rukunga, Charles Mutai, Charles N. M; 2010. Abstract

Plant extracts from Warburgia ugandensis Sprague (Family: Canellaceae), Psiadia punctulata Vatke (Family: Compositae) and Chasmanthera dependens Hoschst (Family: Menispermaceae) were tested for activity on Leishmania major promastigotes (Strain IDU/KE/83 = NLB-144) and infected macrophages in vitro. Plants were collected from Baringo district, dried, extracted, weighed and tested for antileishmanial activity. Serial dilutions of the crude extracts were assayed for their activity against Leishmania major in cell free cultures and in infected macrophages in vitro. Inhibitory concentrations and levels of cytotoxicity were determined. Warburgia ugandensis, Psiadia punctulata and Chasmanthera dependens had an IC(50) of 1.114 mg/ml, 2.216 mg/ml and 4.648 mg/ml, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the drugs on BALB/c peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant as compared to the highly toxic drug of choice Pentostam(®). The supernatants from control and Leishmania infected macrophages were analyzed for their nitrite contents by Griess reaction and nitrite absorbance measured at 540 nm. Warburgia ugandensis (stem bark water extract), Chasmanthera dependens (stem bark water extract) and Psiadia punctulata (stem bark methanol extract) produced 112.3%, 94% and 88.5% more nitric oxide than the untreated infected macrophages respectively. Plant crude extracts had significant (p<0.05) anti-leishmanial and immunomodulative effects but insignificant cytotoxic effects at 1mg/ml concentration. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis of the differences between mean values obtained from the experimental group compared to the controls was done by students't test. ANOVA was used to determine the differences between the various treatment groups. The analysis program Probit was used to determine IC(50)s.

Inyega JO, THOMSON NORMANF, BUTLER MALCOLMB, Inyega HN. "In-service teachers classroom practices and experiences following professional development: A Kenya multi-site analysis." The Fountain Journal of Educational Research. 2010;IV(1):1-21. Abstract

This paper examines multi-site cases of in-service teachers' classroom practices and experiences about chemistry unit lesson planning and implementation following the Strengthening of Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education (SMASSE) professional development programs in Kenya. A descriptive comparison was made of chemistry district in-service educators in two districts in four different settings (boys' boarding, girls' boarding, mixed boarding, and mixed day schools). The study found that participants prepared student-centred lesson activities, improvised teaching/learning materials, and conducted small-scale experiments in areas involving dangerous reactions. They enhanced their lesson planning and teaching skills in the areas of the periodic table, the "mole concept," electrochemistry and organic chemistry (the satisfiers or benefits from the In-service education). Participants were dissatisfied because of increased school workloads and not being compensated for implementing district in-service education programs during the 5-year project duration. Implementation of inquiry-based student activities and improvisations in chemistry was hindered by national examinations which do not contain items from such areas.

"Njiraine D", "Ocholla DN ", " Onyancha B". "Indigenous knowledge research in Kenya and South Africa: an informetrics study. ." African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (Indilinga).. 2010;9(2):194-210.
J. Nissfolk, K. Fredin, Simiyu J, Haeggmann L, Hagfeldt A, Boschloo G. "Interpretation of Small-modulation photocurrent transients in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells- A Film Thickness Study." Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry . 2010;646(1):91-99.
Magadi M, Agwanda A. "Investigating the association between HIV/AIDS and Recent Fertility Patterns in Kenya." Social Science and Medicine . 2010;71:335-344.
M.OGUTU. "An investigation into the effect of management factors on performance of micro, small and medium enterprises in Kenya. .". In: International Journal of Business and Management, Vol.5 No 11. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2010. Abstract

Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers

Hendler A, Mulli TK, Hughes FJ, Perrett D, Bombardieri M, Y Houri-Haddad, Weiss EI, Nissim A. "Involvement of autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis." Journal of Dental Research. 2010;89(12):1389-94.
Rayya. "Kikojozi.". In: Mizungu ya Manabii na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers; 2010.
Jonnalagadda S, Barbara Lohman Payne, Elizabeth Brown, Dalton Wamalwa, Elizabeth Maleche Obimbo, Maxwel Majiwa, Carey. "Latent Tuberculosis Detection by Interferon g Release Assay during Pregnancy Predicts Active Tuberculosis and Mortality in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Infected Women and Their Children." Journal of infectious diseases. 2010. Abstractlatent_tb_detection_by_interferon.pdf

Background. We evaluated the prognostic usefulness of interferon g release assays (IGRAs) for active tuberculosis
and mortality in Kenyan human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected women and their infants.
Methods. Prevalence and correlates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis–specific T-SPOT.TB IGRA positivity were
determined during pregnancy in a historical cohort of HIV-1–infected women. Hazard ratios, adjusted for baseline
maternal CD4 cell count (aHRCD4), were calculated for associations between IGRA positivity and risk of active
tuberculosis and mortality over 2-year postpartum follow-up among women and their infants.
Results. Of 333 women tested, 52 (15.6%) had indeterminate IGRA results. Of the remaining 281 women,
120 (42.7%) had positive IGRA results, which were associated with a 4.5-fold increased risk of active tuberculosis
(aHRCD4, 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–18.0; Pp.030). For immunosuppressed women (CD4 cell count,
!250 cells/mL), positive IGRA results were associated with increased risk of maternal mortality (aHRCD4, 3.5; 95%
CI, 1.02–12.1; ), maternal active tuberculosis or mortality (aHRCD4Pp.045 , 5.2; 95% CI, 1.7–15.6; Pp.004), and
infant active tuberculosis or mortality overall (aHRCD4, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.0–8.9; Pp.05) and among HIV-1–exposed
uninfected infants (aHRCD4, 7.3; 95% CI, 1.6–33.5; Pp.01).
Conclusions. Positive IGRA results for HIV-1–infected pregnant women were associated with postpartum
active tuberculosis and mortality among mothers and their infants.

Jonnalagadda S, Lohman Payne B, Brown E, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Maleche Obimbo E, Majiwa M, Ng'ayo M, Otieno P, Mbori-Ngacha D, John-Stewart. "Latent tuberculosis detection by interferon γ release assay during pregnancy predicts active tuberculosis and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected women and their children." J Infect Dis. 2010 Dec 15;202(12):1826-35. doi: 10.1086/657411. Epub 2010 Nov 10.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
We evaluated the prognostic usefulness of interferon γ release assays (IGRAs) for active tuberculosis and mortality in Kenyan human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women and their infants.
METHODS:
Prevalence and correlates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T-SPOT.TB IGRA positivity were determined during pregnancy in a historical cohort of HIV-1-infected women. Hazard ratios, adjusted for baseline maternal CD4 cell count (aHR(CD4)), were calculated for associations between IGRA positivity and risk of active tuberculosis and mortality over 2-year postpartum follow-up among women and their infants.
RESULTS:
Of 333 women tested, 52 (15.6%) had indeterminate IGRA results. Of the remaining 281 women, 120 (42.7%) had positive IGRA results, which were associated with a 4.5-fold increased risk of active tuberculosis (aHR(CD4), 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-18.0; P = .030). For immunosuppressed women (CD4 cell count, <250 cells/μL), positive IGRA results were associated with increased risk of maternal mortality (aHR(CD4), 3.5; 95% CI, 1.02-12.1;), maternal active tuberculosis or mortality (aHR(CD4), 5.2; 95% CI, 1.7-15.6; P = .004), and infant active tuberculosis or mortality overall (aHR(CD4), 3.0; 95% CI, 1.0-8.9; P = .05) and among HIV-1-exposed uninfected infants (aHR(CD4), 7.3; 95% CI, 1.6-33.5; P = .01).
CONCLUSIONS:
Positive IGRA results for HIV-1-infected pregnant women were associated with postpartum active tuberculosis and mortality among mothers and their infants.

WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Life Begins at Forty, Even for ISK:." Land and Property Digest. Special Issue No 9 (2010).
MBURU STEPHENNGANGA. "Longhorn ICT for Teacher Training Colleges (manuscript).". In: European Journal of Pharmaceutical sciences. Longhorn; 2010.
NZUVE SNM. Management of Human Resources: A Kenyan Perspective, Revised Edition. Nairobi: Basic Modern Management Consultants; 2010.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin (2010). Pastoral Regimes for Scarce Water Management in Drylands - the Boran of Kenya. A paper presented at a Workshop on ``Land Grab." HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.

K'AKUMU OA, JONES B, BLYTH A. "The market environment for artisanal dimension stone in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Habitat International, 34(1): 96-104. Elsevier; 2010. Abstract

This paper reports on a study involving the market environment for artisanal dimension stone in Nairobi, Kenya. Taking the point of view of exchange relationships within a market systems framework it maps out economic interactions involving actors in this market such as suppliers of raw materials, producers, marketers and users of artisanal dimension stone. This strategy enabled the study to understand the enabling environment for the production and use of artisanal dimension stone that is characterized by the following factors: a rising population that sustains the demand for the built environment products, a vibrant construction market, building regulations that favour the use of stone, availability of cheap and abundant unskilled labour and low standards of stone finish involved, availability of natural rock, a regulatory system that can compromise, lack of support by government institutions and an informal system of transaction that is non-compliant with conventional requirements such as labour and environmental laws but ensures ease of entry into the market environment. Such understanding brings potential for rectifying the negative perceptions about this market environment through policy development and change. Keywords: Artisans; Dimension stone; Exchange relationships; Market environment; Micro-enterprise; Nairobi; Kenya; Artisanal and small scale mining

ADUDA JO. "MARKET REACTION TO STOCK SPLITS Empirical Evidence from the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2010.market_reaction_to_stock_split.pdf
AOSA E. "'Marketing and Strategy'.". In: Marketing Review. Nairobi: Kisipan, M.L.; 2010. Abstract

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Mackelprang RD, Carrington M, G J-S, Lohman-Payne B, Richardson BA, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Gao X, Majiwa M, Mbori-Ngacha D, C. F. "Maternal human leukocyte antigen A*2301 is associated with increased mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. ." J Infect Dis. 2010 Oct 15;202(8):1273-7. doi: 10.1086/656318. 10. . 2010. Abstract

Abstract
We examined associations between maternal human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and vertical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission in a perinatal cohort of 277 HIV-infected women in Nairobi. HLA class I genes were amplified by using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes, and analyses were performed using logistic regression. Maternal HLA-A*2301 was associated with increased transmission risk before and after adjusting for maternal viral load (unadjusted: odds ratio [OR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-7.27; P = .005; Pcorr = 0.04; adjusted: OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.26-7.51; P =.01; Pcorr is not significant). That maternal HLA-A*2301 was associated with transmission independent of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels suggests that HLA may alter infectivity through mechanisms other than influencing HIV-1 load.

Rayya. "Mifereji ya Machozi.". In: Wali wa Ndevu na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Vide Mua; 2010.
Simiyu J, Buregeya A. ""Misuse of Kiswahili noun class markers in Kenya", The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics, Vol. 1, pp. 48-70." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2010;1(1):48-70. AbstractWebsite

"

Buregeya A, Ochoki B. "Misuse of prepositions in Kenyan English: Further evidence of the difficulty in choosing the "right" preposition." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2010;2(1):71-85. Abstract

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